Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

Communications . S.Observatories Astronautics . Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): .Chapter 5 .Communications Astronautics .Shuttle .Mission Analysis Dr.J.Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit).I. Walker 4 .Space stations .Earth observation .Equatorial.6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary .Parking orbit b) LEO. near-polar: .Chapter 5 . near equatorial: . circular orbit of radius 6.Mission Analysis Dr.Observatories .Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): . S.I.J.Field/particle explorers .

using large fixed ground stations  GEO . Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues. HEO and GEO.Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 .I. Walker 6 . S. Astronautics .Chapter 5 .J. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues.using small. Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys. mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO. Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications .Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements). Astronautics .I. Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms.Mission Analysis Dr.J. S.

Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion.Mission Analysis Dr.Mission Analysis Dr.J.Chapter 5 .I. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. S. use of work and energy principles 3. direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2. Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.Chapter 5 . (1609) Astronautics . S.J. Astronautics . solution by impulse and momentum methods.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.I. Walker 8 .

Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics . The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.I.Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 . Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2. S.Chapter 5 .Mission Analysis Dr. (1609) Astronautics .J. Walker 10 .I. S.J.

The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun. (1619) Astronautics .Chapter 5 . Walker 11 . S.I.Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3.Mission Analysis Dr.J.

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