Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

Chapter 5 . Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): . near-polar: .Space stations .Mission Analysis Dr.Parking orbit b) LEO.Observatories Astronautics .Observatories .Communications . S. near equatorial: .6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary .Mission Analysis Dr. Walker 4 .J.Equatorial. S.I.Shuttle . circular orbit of radius 6.I.Earth observation .J.Field/particle explorers .Communications Astronautics .Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): .Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit).Chapter 5 .

using large fixed ground stations  GEO . Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications . S. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues. S.J. Astronautics .Mission Analysis Dr.Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements).I. mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO. Walker 6 . HEO and GEO. Astronautics . Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms. Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues.I.using small.Chapter 5 .J.Mission Analysis Dr. Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys.Chapter 5 .

Chapter 5 . solution by impulse and momentum methods.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.I.J.Chapter 5 . Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1. use of work and energy principles 3. Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion. direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2.Mission Analysis Dr. (1609) Astronautics . The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Astronautics . S. Walker 8 .J.Mission Analysis Dr.I. S.

J.I. S.Mission Analysis Dr.Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics . Walker 10 . The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.Chapter 5 .J. Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2.Mission Analysis Dr. S.I. (1609) Astronautics .Chapter 5 .

Walker 11 .I.J.Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3. S. (1619) Astronautics . The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.Chapter 5 .Mission Analysis Dr.

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