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Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

Chapter 5 .Parking orbit b) LEO.Field/particle explorers .Space stations .Observatories . Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): .J.I.Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit). near equatorial: .Mission Analysis Dr.Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): .Mission Analysis Dr.Communications .Shuttle . S.J.Observatories Astronautics .Communications Astronautics . near-polar: .6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary .I.Equatorial.Chapter 5 . S. Walker 4 .Earth observation . circular orbit of radius 6.

S.J.J. mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO.Chapter 5 .Chapter 5 . Walker 6 .I.using large fixed ground stations  GEO . Astronautics . Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues.Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements).using small. Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications . Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys.I.Mission Analysis Dr. HEO and GEO.Mission Analysis Dr. S. Astronautics . Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms.

I.I.J. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. use of work and energy principles 3. (1609) Astronautics . S.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.Chapter 5 .J. solution by impulse and momentum methods. S. Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 . Walker 8 . Astronautics . Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion.Mission Analysis Dr. direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2.

(1609) Astronautics .I.I.Mission Analysis Dr. Walker 10 .Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics .Chapter 5 . Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2.J. S. The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.J.Chapter 5 . S.Mission Analysis Dr.

The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun. Walker 11 .Chapter 5 .I.J. S. (1619) Astronautics .Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3.Mission Analysis Dr.