Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

Space stations .Communications Astronautics .Equatorial. Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): . S.Shuttle .6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary .J. Walker 4 .I.Communications .Chapter 5 .I.Field/particle explorers .Chapter 5 . circular orbit of radius 6.Observatories .J.Parking orbit b) LEO.Earth observation . S.Mission Analysis Dr.Observatories Astronautics . near-polar: .Mission Analysis Dr. near equatorial: .Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit).Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): .

Astronautics .using small. Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys. HEO and GEO.J.I. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues.J.Chapter 5 .Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements). Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications .Mission Analysis Dr. S.I.using large fixed ground stations  GEO . S. Astronautics . mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO. Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms. Walker 6 .Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 . Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues.

(1609) Astronautics .Mission Analysis Dr. Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.Chapter 5 . direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2. Astronautics .I.Mission Analysis Dr. S. Walker 8 .I.J.J. S. solution by impulse and momentum methods. Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. use of work and energy principles 3.Chapter 5 .

Mission Analysis Dr. The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.Chapter 5 .I. Walker 10 .Chapter 5 . Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2.Mission Analysis Dr.Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics . S.I. S. (1609) Astronautics .J.J.

The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.J. (1619) Astronautics . S. Walker 11 .Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3.I.Chapter 5 .Mission Analysis Dr.

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