Chapter 5:
Mission Analysis

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 1

Orbit Selection

Orbital Motion

Co-Planar Orbit Transfers

Impact on Spacecraft

Astronautics - Chapter 5 - Mission Analysis Dr. S.J.I. Walker 2

Walker 3 Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits d) GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit): .Mission Analysis Dr. near-polar: .Observatories Astronautics .6 RE  Orbital period ~ 24 hr  S/C appears stationary .Mission Analysis Dr.Communications . S.J.Field/particle explorers .Shuttle .Earth observation .Equatorial. Walker 4 .Communications Astronautics .J.Chapter 5 .Chapter 5 . circular orbit of radius 6. S.Parking orbit b) LEO.Orbit Selection Commonly Used Orbits a) LEO (Low Earth Orbit).Space stations .Earth observation c) HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit): .I. near equatorial: .I.Observatories .

Examples: 1) Provision of global environmental monitoring at high resolution  LEO polar 2) Provision of global communications .using large fixed ground stations  GEO . HEO and GEO.Chapter 5 .Mission Analysis Dr.I. Walker 5 Orbit Selection Orbit Trade-off for Orbiting Observatory P/l Sys.J. Duration) Uninterrupted source observation    Sky viewing efficiency    Radiation exposure   Ease of orbit acquisition   In-orbit servicing   Choice of orbit derived by trade-off of p/l and system issues. Orbit Favoured Parameter LEO HEO GEO Observation mode operation    (Ground comms.using small. S. mobile terminals  LEO polar 3) Provision of high resolution astronomical imaging (orbiting observatory) There are such S/C in LEO. Astronautics . Walker 6 .I.J.Chapter 5 .Orbit Selection Orbit selection is dominated by the mission objectives (payload requirements and (to a lesser extent) by system requirements). S. Astronautics . Orbit selection in each case is driven by p/l operation and system issues.Mission Analysis Dr.

S.Chapter 5 .J.Mission Analysis Dr. direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law (called the force-mass- acceleration method) 2. Astronautics .J. Walker 7 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1. Walker 8 . solution by impulse and momentum methods.Chapter 5 . The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.Mission Analysis Dr.Orbital Motion Forms of Analysis There are 3 general approaches to the solution of kinematics problems: 1.I.I. S. (1609) Astronautics . use of work and energy principles 3. Each can be applied to translational or rotational motion.

(1609) Astronautics .I. S.Orbital Motion Elliptical orbit locations ‘Apogee’ ‘Perigee’ Astronautics .J.Chapter 5 .I.J.Mission Analysis Dr. The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Walker 9 Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 2. S. Walker 10 .Mission Analysis Dr.Chapter 5 .

The square of the period of the planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.Chapter 5 .I. S.J. Walker 11 .Orbital Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 3. (1619) Astronautics .Mission Analysis Dr.