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What is Information Technology? Different Characteristics of IT.

Information technology - Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical
devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data. The term
information technology was coined by the Harvard Business Review, in order to make a distinction between purpose-built
machines designed to perform a limited scope of functions and general-purpose computing machines that could be
programmed for various tasks. As the IT industry evolved from the mid-20th century, it encompassed transistors and
integrated circuits -- computing capability advanced while device cost and energy consumption fell lower, a cycle that
continues today when new technologies emerge.

Characteristics of IT - For information to be useful to the decision maker, it must have certain characteristics and meet
certain criteria.

Some of the characteristics of Information Technology are discussed as follows:

1. Understandable: Since information is already in a summarized form, it must be understood by the receiver so that he will
interpret it correctly. He must be able to decode any abbreviations, shorthand notations or any other acronyms contained
in the information.

2. Relevant: Information is good only if it is relevant. This means that it should be pertinent and meaningful to the decision
maker and should be in his area of responsibility.

3. Complete: It should contain all the facts that are necessary for the decision maker to satisfactorily solve the problem at
hand using such information. Nothing important should be left out. Although information cannot always be complete, every
reasonable effort should be made to obtain it.

4. Available: Information may be useless if it is not readily accessible in the desired form, when it is needed. Advances in
technology have made information more accessible today than ever before.

5. Reliable: The information should be counted on to be trustworthy. It should be accurate, consistent with facts and
verifiable. Inadequate or incorrect information generally leads to decisions of poor quality. For example, sales figures that
have not been adjusted for returns and refunds are not reliable.

6. Concise: Too much information is a big burden on management and cannot be processed in time and accurately due to
bounded rationality. Bounded rationality determines the limits of the thinking process which cannot sort out and process
large amounts of information. Accordingly, information should be to the point and just enough no more, no less.

7. Timely: Information must be delivered at the right time and the right place to the right person. Premature information
can become obsolete or be forgotten by the time it is actually needed.

8. Cost-effective: The information is not desirable if the solution is more costly than the problem. The cost of gathering data
and processing it into information must be weighed against the benefits derived from using such information.

Application of IT. Fields and areas and importance of IT

Applications - Information Technology plays a vital role in most of our daily activities. With each passing day, newer
applications of IT are being developed which increase our interaction with and dependence on IT-enabled devices.
Information Technology has applications in almost all aspects of our life. Some of the important ones are:

Science and Engineering: Scientific progress in fields like biotechnology is almost entirely dependent on the use of
computers and other microprocessor-controlled devices. Using supercomputers, meteorologists predict future weather by
using a combination of observations of weather conditions from many sources. Computer-aided design (CAD) and
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs have led to improved products in many fields where designs tend to be
very detailed.

Business & Commerce: One of the first and largest applications of computers is keeping and managing business and
financial records. Most large companies keep the employment records of all their workers in large databases that are
managed by computer programs. Similar programs and databases are used in business functions like billing customers;
tracking payments received and payments to be made; and tracking supplies needed and items produced, stored, shipped,
and sold. Almost all the financial transactions in the world are done electronically
Education: With more information getting digitized every day, and the internet making it accessible to anyone across the
world, students are increasingly relying on electronic sources of information rather than physical libraries for their needs.
Instructional methodology has also undergone a sea change with use of images, animations, videos, presentations and e-
learning to complement traditional techniques.

Governance: The concept of e-governance is one of the most novel applications of Information Technology whereby it is
changing the lives of millions across the globe. Computerization of Government activities makes it easier to supervise and
audit, and makes the administration more responsive to the needs of society.

Medicine: Information Technology plays an important role in medicine. For example, a scanner takes a series of pictures of
the body by means of computerized axial tomography (CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Most critical life support
equipment are programmed to respond to changes in the patients status in split-seconds, thereby reducing the response
time and risk of human error.

Entertainment: IT has changed the lifestyle of most people. The convergence of various technologies has created various
options for entertainment like games, streaming music and video, digital television broadcasts, satellite radio, animated
movies etc. which can be accessed with the help of mobile phones, PDAs, notebook computers or on television either with
a cable connection or wirelessly using newer-generation WiFi, CDMA or GPRS technologies.

Fields and areas of IT - Information Technology fields most commonly refer to higher education (HE) disciplines where the
student studies toward a recognized certificate, diploma or degree. Computer Engineering is a specialized Information
Technology field of study. It is a technical domain in which the student learns how to design and develop computer
hardware such as personal computers, laptops, tablets, memory, storage, networking equipment and other computer
hardware components.

Management Information Systems (MIS) is another Higher Education (HE) IT field of study. It offers a non-technical business
degree and teaches students how to manage projects, budgets and people.

Computer Science, as educational field, focuses on software programming and includes areas such as application software,
expert systems, artificial intelligence (AI), web development, embedded coding and robotics.

Computer Information Systems (CIS) offers specialized training and enables CIS graduates to establish themselves in the
workplace as Network Administrators, Systems Administrators, Systems Engineers, Database Administrators, Computing
Security Specialists, and Computer Technicians to name a few.

Information Technology areas of study include Computer Support, Networking, Cybersecurity, Programing and Web
Development.

Importance of IT - The importance of Information Technology in todays world are listed and explained in detail below:

1. Business: Using computers and software, businesses use information technology to ensure that their departments run
smoothly. They use information technology in a number of different departments including human resources, finance,
manufacturing, and security. Using information technology, businesses have the ability to view changes in the global
markets far faster than they usually do.

2. Education: The world of education is changing as the modern world continues to grow. Information technology plays a
key role in students being able to keep their jobs and go to school. Now, most schools offer online classes that can be
accessed on computers or laptops, tablets, and even mobile phones. A busy student at work can easily check in or submit
assignments while on their lunch break. Teachers can learn how to teach with technology with an online class.

3. Finance: Information technology might just working its hardest with internet transactions. As more transactions are
done, the internet requires more networks, more computers, and more security programs to keep its consumers safe.
Without information technology, these purchases would be impossible, and it would be impossible for banks to keep these
purchases secure. Information technology has also made it faster and easier than ever to send or receive money.

4. Healthcare: Improvements in information technology have allowed for great reform in healthcare. Most medical offices
can now send and receive digital medical information from doctors youve had in the past. Changes like this allow costs to
be lowered and increase the amount of time doctors can spend on patients compared to paperwork. Security
improvements with information technology have made it so that your medical information is secure no matter where its
sent.

5. Security: With so many transactions done online and so much information available online, its important to keep all of
that safe. Information technology makes it possible for your online data to stay secure until accessed by the proper
channels. Using passwords and encryption, information technology hides your personal digital data away, and the only way
it can be accessed is by companies who have permission from you.

Importance of IT in government sector in India

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What is Software? Different types of Software.

Software - Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. The
software can be thought of as the variable part of a computer and hardware the invariable part. It is that part of a
computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from
which the system is built. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such
as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be
realistically used on its own

Software can be purchased or acquired as shareware (usually intended for sale after a trial period), liteware (shareware
with some capabilities disabled), freeware (free software but with copyright restrictions), public domain software (free with
no restrictions), and open source (software where the source code is furnished and users agree not to limit the distribution
of improvements). It is often packaged on CD-ROMs and diskettes. Today, much purchased software, shareware, and
freeware is downloaded over the Internet. A new trend is software that is made available for use at another site known as
an application service provider.

Types - There are three types of software:

1.System Software

2.Application Software

3.Utility Software (most of the people include this as a sub-category of application software)

System Software: System software is a collection of one or more programs used to control and coordinate the hardware and
other application software. Generally, the system software may perform the following functions:

> Communicates with hardware devices. Controls and monitors the proper use of various hardware resources like CPU,
memory, peripheral devices like monitor, printer etc.

> Supports the execution and development of other application software.

Few examples of system software are - Operating system, Programming language translators, Communication software,
Compiler and Interpreters, Command line shell etc.

Application Software: Application software is a collection of one or more programs used to solve a specific task. Generally,
software used in banking industry, airline/railway reservation, generation of telephone or electricity bills etc. all fall under
application software. Few examples of application software are - Word processing software, Spreadsheet software,
Database software, Education software, Entertainment software etc.

Utility Software: Utility software is a collection of one or more programs that helps the user in system maintenance tasks
and in performing tasks of routine nature. Utility programs help the users in disk formatting, data compression, data
backup, scanning for viruses etc. Few examples of utility software are - Anti-virus, Registry cleaners, Disk defragmenters,
Data backup utility, Disk cleaners etc.

What is malicious Software? Give examples

Malicious Software - Malicious software, commonly known as malware, is any software that brings harm to a computer
system. It can be in the form of worms, viruses, trojans, spyware, adware and rootkits, etc., which steal protected data,
delete documents or add software not approved by a user. Some forms of malware spy on user Internet traffic. Examples
include spyware and adware. Spyware monitors a users location and if enabled, it can capture sensitive information, e.g.,
credit card numbers, promoting identity theft. Adware also acquires user information, which is shared with advertisers and
then integrated with unwanted, triggered pop-up ads. Worms and viruses behave differently, as they can quickly proliferate
and undermine an entire computer system. They also may perform unsavoury activities from a users computer without the
users knowledge. In the wake of a virus or worm, a computer system can experience significant damage.

Types - Types of Malware (Malicious Software) are as follows:

1. Spyware - Spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their
knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a Spybot or tracking software), Spyware is programming that is
put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested
parties.

2. Virus - A virus is a program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another
program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a
downloaded file, or be present on a diskette or CD.

3. Worm - A worm is a self-replicating virus that does not alter files but duplicates itself. It is common for worms to be
noticed only when their uncontrolled replication consumes system resources, slowing or halting other tasks.

4. Logic bomb - A logic bomb is programming code, inserted surreptitiously or intentionally, that is designed to execute (or
"explode") under circumstances such as the lapse of a certain amount of time or the failure of a program user to respond to
a program command. It is in effect a delayed-action computer virus or Trojan horse.

5. Trapdoor - It is a method of gaining access to some part of a system other than by the normal procedure (e.g. gaining
access without having to supply a password).

6. Trojan (Trojan Horse) - A Trojan horse is a program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently
harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage, such as ruining the
certain area on your hard disk.

7. RATs (Remote Admin Trojans) - RATs are a special form of Trojan Horse that allows remote control over a machine. These
programs are used to steal passwords and other sensitive information. Although they are "invisible", symptoms such as a
slow moving system, CD ports opening and closing and unexplained restarting of your computer may manifest.

8. Rootkits - Rootkits are a set of software tools used by an intruder to gain and maintain access to a computer system
without the user's knowledge. These tools conceal covert running processes, files and system data making them difficult to
detect.

9. Malicious Font - Webpage text that exploits the default method used to de-compress Embedded Open Type Fonts in
Windows based programs including Internet Explorer and Outlook. These malicious fonts are designed to trigger a buffer
overflow which will disable the security on Windows-based PCs.

What is Antivirus Software? Explain the working mechanism of Antivirus Software.

Antivirus Software - Anti-virus software is a program or set of programs that are designed to prevent, search for, detect,
and remove software viruses, and other malicious software like worms, trojans, adware, and more. If and when a virus is
detected, the computer displays a warning asking what action should be done, often giving the options to remove, ignore,
or move the file to the vault.

Working mechanism - Antivirus programs are powerful pieces of software that are essential on Windows computers. It is
an essential part of a multi-layered security strategy, the constant stream of vulnerabilities for browsers, and the Windows
OS itself make antivirus protection important.

On-Access Scanning: Antivirus software runs in the background on the computer, checking every file that is open. This is
generally known as on-access scanning, background scanning, resident scanning, real-time protection etc. depending on
the antivirus program. The antivirus software checks the program first, comparing it to known viruses, worms, and other
types of malware. It also does heuristic checking, checking programs for types of bad behavior that may indicate a new,
unknown virus.

Full System Scans: A full system scan ensures there are no viruses lying dormant on your computer. Most antivirus programs
set up scheduled full system scans, often once a week. This ensures that the latest virus definition files are used to scan
your system for dormant viruses. These full disk scans can also be helpful when repairing a computer. If you want to repair
an already-infected computer, inserting its hard drive in another computer and performing a full-system scan for viruses (if
not doing a complete reinstall of Windows) is useful.

Virus Definitions: The antivirus software relies on virus definitions to detect malware. Thats why it automatically
downloads new, updated definition files once a day or even more often. The definition files contain signatures for viruses
and other malware that have been encountered in the wild. When an antivirus program scans a file and notices that the file
matches a known piece of malware, the antivirus program stops the file from running, putting it into quarantine.
Depending on the antivirus programs settings, the antivirus program may automatically delete the file.

Heuristics: Antivirus programs also employ heuristics. Heuristics allow an antivirus program to identify new or modified
types of malware, even without virus definition files. For example, if an antivirus program notices that a program running
on the system is trying to open every EXE file on the system, infecting it by writing a copy of the original program into it, the
antivirus program can detect this program as a new, unknown type of virus.

False Positives: Because of the large amount of software on the computer, its possible that antivirus programs may
occasionally say a file is a virus when its actually a completely safe file. This is known as a false positive. Occasionally,
antivirus companies even make mistakes such as identifying Windows system files, popular third-party programs, or their
own antivirus program files as viruses. These false positives can damage users systems such mistakes generally end up in
the news, as when Microsoft Security Essentials identified Google Chrome as a virus, AVG damaged 64-bit versions of
Windows 7, or Sophos identified itself as malware.

Detection Rates: Different antivirus programs have different detection rates, which both virus definitions and heuristics are
involved in. Some antivirus companies may have more effective heuristics and release more virus definitions than their
competitors, resulting in a higher detection rate.

What is Software Engineering? Explain SDLC Software Development life cycle. Describe the Waterfall Model.

Software engineering is a field of engineering, for designing and writing programs for computers or other electronic
devices. A software engineer, or programmer, writes software (or changes existing software) and compiles software using
methods that make it better quality.

The engineering field has taken on many new disciplines as our scientific knowledge has grown. The latest discipline is
software engineering. According to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), software engineering means
applying the principles of engineering to the software development field. Software engineering differs from other branches
of engineering in that professionals are building an intangible structure and not a tangible one. Since software is embedded
in the machines used in various industries, though, malfunctioning software can actually have tangible effects. With
software used in everything from medical equipment to airplanes, the end result of faulty software can indeed be loss of
life.

Businesses also employ software engineers to create customized software and address vulnerabilities before they happen.
This makes sense when we think of the complexity of the tasks that the average professional carries out, tasks like holding
meetings in real time with collaborators oceans away.

There are two main branches of software engineering. Applications software engineers create and maintain computer
applications. Systems software engineers analyze technical needs department by department and create or maintain
appropriate systems. Setting up and maintaining intranet systems would fall under their scope.

SDLC - SDLC, Software Development Life Cycle is a process used by software industry to design, develop and test high
quality software. The SDLC aims to produce a high quality software that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches
completion within times and cost estimates.

SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing
how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for
improving the quality of software and the overall development process.

The following figure is a graphical representation of the various stages of a typical SDLC.
A typical Software Development life cycle consists of the following stages:

Stage 1: Planning and Requirement Analysis - Requirement analysis is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC.
It is performed by the senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the sales department, market surveys
and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct
product feasibility study in the economical, operational, and technical areas.

Planning for the quality assurance requirements and identification of the risks associated with the project is also done in
the planning stage. The outcome of the technical feasibility study is to define the various technical approaches that can be
followed to implement the project successfully with minimum risks.

Stage 2: Defining Requirements - Once the requirement analysis is done the next step is to clearly define and document
the product requirements and get them approved from the customer or the market analysts. This is done through .SRS. .
Software Requirement Specification document which consists of all the product requirements to be designed and
developed during the project life cycle.

Stage 3: Designing the product architecture - SRS is the reference for product architects to come out with the best
architecture for the product to be developed. Based on the requirements specified in SRS, usually more than one design
approach for the product architecture is proposed and documented in a DDS - Design Document Specification.

This DDS is reviewed by all the important stakeholders and based on various parameters as risk assessment, product
robustness, design modularity , budget and time constraints , the best design approach is selected for the product.

A design approach clearly defines all the architectural modules of the product along with its communication and data flow
representation with the external and third party modules (if any). The internal design of all the modules of the proposed
architecture should be clearly defined with the minutest of the details in DDS.

Stage 4: Building or Developing the Product - In this stage of SDLC the actual development starts and the product is built.
The programming code is generated as per DDS during this stage. If the design is performed in a detailed and organized
manner, code generation can be accomplished without much hassle.

Developers have to follow the coding guidelines defined by their organization and programming tools like compilers,
interpreters, debuggers etc are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages such as C, C++,
Pascal, Java, and PHP are used for coding. The programming language is chosen with respect to the type of software being
developed.

Stage 5: Testing the Product - This stage is usually a subset of all the stages as in the modern SDLC models, the testing
activities are mostly involved in all the stages of SDLC. However this stage refers to the testing only stage of the product
where products defects are reported, tracked, fixed and retested, until the product reaches the quality standards defined in
the SRS.
Stage 6: Deployment in the Market and Maintenance - Once the product is tested and ready to be deployed it is released
formally in the appropriate market. Sometime product deployment happens in stages as per the organizations. business
strategy. The product may first be released in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment (UAT- User
acceptance testing).

Then based on the feedback, the product may be released as it is or with suggested enhancements in the targeting market
segment. After the product is released in the market, its maintenance is done for the existing customer base.

Waterfall Model - Waterfall model is the simplest model of software development paradigm. It says the all the phases of
SDLC will function one after another in linear manner. That is, when the first phase is finished then only the second phase
will start and so on.

This model assumes that everything is carried out and taken place perfectly as planned in the previous stage and there is no
need to think about the past issues that may arise in the next phase. This model does not work smoothly if there are some
issues left at the previous step. The sequential nature of model does not allow us go back and undo or redo our actions.

This model is best suited when developers already have designed and developed similar software in the past and are aware
of all its domains.

Explain the different types of Data Communication.

Data Communication - The process of transferring data from one location to another is called Data Communication. In this
process, data is transmitted from one location to another by using transmission media. Data communication is said to be
local if communicating devices are in the same building or a similarly restricted geographical area. Data communication
aims at the transfer of data and maintenance of the data during the process but not the actual generation of the
information at the source and receiver.

Data can exist in a variety of forms such as numbers, text, bits and bytes. The Figure is an illustration of a simple data
communication system.

A data communication system may collect data from remote locations through data transmission circuits, and then outputs
processed results to remote locations. There are data communication jargons to contend with such as baud rate, modems,
routers, LAN, WAN, TCP/IP, ISDN, during the selection of communication systems.

Components of Data Communication - The basics components or elements of data communication system are as follows:
1.Message

2.Sender

3.Receiver

4.Medium or Communication Channel

5.Encoder and Decoder

Types - Today's recent data transfer methods include many complex concepts, but we can still break down the process to a
few basic types.

Simplex: A simplex communication system sends a message in only one direction. The message source works as the
transmitter. It sends the message over the data channel to the receiver. The receiver is the destination of the message.
Examples of simplex data communication include radio stations and TV broadcasts. With the simplex channel, there is no
ability by the receiver to respond to the message. For example, a radio station plays a song on your car radio. The data
transferred is the song. You do not have the opportunity to send a message back via your car radio to the station.

Half Duplex: A half-duplex data communication system provides messages in both directions but only allows transfer in one
direction at a time. Once a party begins sending a transmission, the receiver must wait until the signal stops before
responding. If the two data transfers attempt to send at the same time, they both fail. For instance, if you talk on a CB radio,
you press a button and speak. If the receiver attempts to press the button and speak at the same time, neither one of you
hear either message. The system is not capable of sending both ways simultaneously.

Full Duplex: A full duplex is a communication that works both ways at the same time. Essentially, full duplex data
communication is a set of two simplex channels, one works as a forward channel and the other as a reserve channel. The
two channels link together at some point. An example of a full duplex communication system is a landline telephone. When
talking on a telephone, both parties have the ability to speak at the same time. The data, carried both ways through the
telephone line, runs simultaneously.

Serial: Serial communication takes a data communication, breaks it up into small pieces, and sends the message one bit at a
time through a channel. The receiver collects the small bits and reassembles them to compose the original message. Serial
communication is the most common type of communication between electronic devices. One example of serial
communication in action is the data sent from a modem to the service provider.

What is Spreadsheet Software?

A spreadsheet is a sheet of paper that shows accounting or other data in rows and columns; a spreadsheet is also a
computer application program that simulates a physical spreadsheet by capturing, displaying, and manipulating data
arranged in rows and columns. The spreadsheet is one of the most popular uses of the personal computer. Alternatively
referred to as a worksheet, a spreadsheet is a file made of rows and columns that help sort data, arrange data easily, and
calculate numerical data. What makes a spreadsheet software program unique is its ability to calculate values using
mathematical formulas and the data in cells.

In a spreadsheet, spaces that hold items of data are called cells. Each cell is labeled according to its placement (for example,
A1, A2, A3...) and may have an absolute or relative reference to the cells around it. A spreadsheet is generally designed to
hold numerical data and short text strings. Spreadsheets usually provide the ability to portray data relationships graphically.
Spreadsheets generally do not offer the ability to structure and label data items as fully as a database and usually do not
offer the ability to query the database. In general, a spreadsheet is a much simpler program than a database program.

Daniel Bricklin and Bob Frankston created the first spreadsheet application, VisiCalc (for "visible calculator"). Lotus 1-2-3
came next, followed by Microsoft Excel. While Lotus 1-2-3 was the first to introduce cell names and macros, Microsoft Excel
implemented a graphical user interface and the ability to point and click using a mouse. There are many other spreadsheet
applications on the market today; however, Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel continue to be the most popular.

Examples of spreadsheet programs - Today, Microsoft Excel is the most popular and widely used spreadsheet program, but
there are also many alternatives. Below is a list of spreadsheet programs that can be used to create a spreadsheet.

Google Sheets - (Online and free)

iWork Numbers - Apple Office Suite


LibreOffice -> Calc (Free)

Lotus 1-2-3 (Discontinued)

Lotus Symphony - Spreadsheets

Microsoft Excel

OpenOffice -> Calc (Free)

VisiCalc (Discontinued)

Other examples and uses of a spreadsheet - Although spreadsheets are typically used with anything containing numbers,
the uses of a spreadsheet are almost endless. Below are some other popular uses of spreadsheets.

Finance: Spreadsheets are ideal for financial data, such as your checking account information, budgets, transactions, billing,
invoices, receipts, forecasts, and any payment system.

Forms: Form templates can be created to handle inventory, evaluations, performance reviews, quizzes, time sheets, patient
information, and surveys.

School and Grades: Teachers can use spreadsheets to track students, calculate grades, and identify relevant data, such as
high and low scores, missing tests, and students who are struggling.

Lists: Managing a list in a spreadsheet is a great example of data that does not contain numbers, but still can be used in a
spreadsheet. Great examples of spreadsheet lists include telephone, to-do, and grocery lists.

Sports: Spreadsheets can keep track of your favorite player stats or stats on the whole team. With the collected data, you
can also find averages, high scores, and other statistical data. Spreadsheets can even be used to create tournament
brackets.

What is Presentation Software?

Presentation software is a type of computer application that allows the user to present information using text, images,
audio and video content. The information is arranged in a slide show, which can be set to advance frames by clicking a
mouse or to run automatically by timer. The presentation tells a story or supports speech or the presentation of
information.

Presentation software is used in both educational and business settings to allow presenters to keep their audience focused
on the message being delivered by using a format that appeals to different learning styles. There are both free and paid
versions of presentation software available, with both OpenOffice and Microsoft Office containing particularly robust
presentation applications. Presentation software can be divided into business presentation software and general
multimedia authoring software, but most presentation software applications already provide tools that allow users to
create both professional-looking business presentations and general multimedia presentations. Presentation software is
also known as a presentation program.

Presentation software is generally used for creating slideshows that display information. The software has three main
components:

Text editor for inputting and formatting text

Facility for inserting graphics and other multimedia files

Slideshow system for displaying the content

Before the advent of presentation software, presenters commonly used an easel to hold posters that contained illustrations
to support the report or a slide projector to display graphics printed on a transparent plastic film. These methods were
inflexible; for example, changing small things in the printed materials used could result in mismatched graphics or
illustrations, sometimes requiring redoing the entire thing. With presentation software, not only authoring but also
correcting illustrations can be done easily.

The most prominent example of presentation software is Microsoft PowerPoint. Other examples include Apple Keynote,
OpenOffice Impress, Corel Presentations, Adobe Persuasion, Flowboard, Kingsoft Presentation and Prezi.