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18-Jan-17

Introduction
EE302 Digital Signal Processing
This course is an introduction to digital signal
processing
We will be associating the knowledge gained
during courses such as linear algebra, and
signals & systems, to analyze, design, and
implement a digital system that can process
data fast enough to meet the desired
specifications

Digital signal processing Why digital signal processing?


Sample- Analog-to- Digital Digital-to- Analog
Digital signal processing is based on Analog
input and Hold Digital Signal Analog Lowpass
Analog
output
Converter Processor Converter Filter
processing of samples
xa(t) x0(t) x [n] y[n] yDA(t) y(t)
Samples are finite-precision numbers that are
processed by a digital signal processor (DSP)
Discrete-time signal processing includes digital
signal processing as a special case In contrast to the above, direct analog processing of an analog signal
is conceptually much simpler since it involves only a single circuit
(processor)

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Digital Signal Processing An Example Analog Pre-Processing An Example


Active antenna
Gain = 30 dB
Noise Figure= 2.5dB
Analog to digital converter
fs = 38.192 MHz
Amplifier(s) 4-bit samples
Amplifier(s)
sign Gain = 50 dB
Gain = 50dB
Noise Figure= 4.0dB
Noise Figure= 4.0dB
mag
RF
Front-End
BPF BPF BPF ADC
clk sync
Frame Sync. Circuitry
Band pass Filter Band pass Filter Band pass Filter
Digital Signal Processor fcenter = 1575.42 MHz fcenter = 1575.42-1527.68 = 47.74 fcenter = 47.74 MHz
MHz 3dB BW 6 MHz
(Acquisition, Tracking, 3dB BW 50 MHz
3dB BW 18 MHz
Navigation)

Sampled Signal
IF = 47.74 -38.192 = 9.548
GPS Receiver MHz
40

Sampling Clock
TCXO
f = 10.00 MHz PLL

Phase locked loop


f = 1527.68 MHz
@ 7dBm

GPS Receiver RF Front-End

DSP Application Example Cellular Phone Advantages of digital signal processing


A digital circuit is
less sensitive to tolerances of component values
It is independent of temperature, aging, and most other external
parameters
Amendable to full integration (very large scale integrated (VLSI)
circuits)
Allows usage of fixed-point and floating point arithmetic to manipulate
samples
Allows to sample and reconstruct an analog signal at different sampling
rates (multirate signal processing)
Applicability of digital processing to very low frequency signals, e.g.,
seismic applications (avoids usage of inductors and capacitors that are
very large in size if analog processing is used)

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Disadvantages of digital signal processing Disadvantages of digital signal processing

Increased system complexity A digital system uses active components (transistors) that are
less reliable and may consume more power than passive
Compromised for efficient processing components (inductors, capacitors and resistors)
Achievable resolution of the A/D converter Current research is focused on manufacturing transistors
decreases with an increase in the sampling rate of with low power consumption
the converter Effects resulting from the algorithms implemented with finite
Use an array of M low sampling rate and high precision arithmetic (finite word length effects)
resolution ADCs, to get an overall M times Such effects can be minimized through proper design and
higher sampling rate (time-interleaved ADCs) implementation

Use 1-bit high sampling rate oversampled ADCs


(Sigma-delta ADCs)

Course Organization Course Ethics


46 Lectures
Marks distribution
Meeting Hours (other than lectures hours) Room
Assignments 15% (5 Assignments) 112
Quiz 10% (5 Quiz) Section B Tuesday 02:00pm 04:00pm
Midterms 25% (Mid I: 10%, Mid II: 15%) Section C Friday 02:00pm 04:00pm
Final 50%
Be punctual and attentive during lectures
Tentative Schedule of Assignments/Quiz (For all sections)
80% attendance is must (No excuses in this regard)
Assignments Quiz
Assignment 1 (26.01.2017) Submission (02.02.2017) Quiz 1 06.02.2017 Zero tolerance against copying in assignments/quiz,
Assignment 2 (08.02.2017) Submission (15.02.2017) Quiz 2 27.02.2017 i.e., the one who provides copy and the one who
Assignment 3 (02.03.2017) Submission (09.03.2017) Quiz 3 13.03.2017 copies will both get zero marks for the copied part
Assignment 4 (15.03.2017) Submission (22.03.2017) Quiz 4 17.04.2017

Assignment 5 (05.04.2017) Submission (12.04.2017) Quiz 5 26.04.2017

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Course contents Part I Part II: Analysis Frequency Domain


Introduction/Basics z-transform
Relating discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) and z-
What is signal processing, history of the topic, transform
application examples. Fourier analysis:
Preliminaries about discrete-time signals & The discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)
systems Convergence issues
Gibbs phenomenon
Euclidean and Hilbert Spaces: Signal processing as
geometry, vectors spaces, bases, approximations. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
Relating DTFT and DFT
Theorems, properties, and applications
Performing efficient computations using DFT

Part II: Design & Implementation Part II: Design & Implementation
Characterizing a linear time-invariant (LTI) system Filter design
using DTFT and z-transform (transfer functions) Designing simple FIR & IIR frequency selective filters
Geometric interpretation of a transfer function
IIR filter design using Impulse invariance & Bilinear
Finite impulse response (FIR) & Infinite impulse transformation
response (IIR) filters
Linear filters FIR filter design using windowing, and Parks-Mclellan
methods
Ideal and realizable filters
Classification of linear filters based on magnitude and phase Digital structures implementation
Allpass, linear-phase, minimum-phase, and maximum-
phase responses FIR filter structures
Stability Issues IIR filter structures
Linear phase filters & their types
Realizing specific frequency selective filters

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Part III: Data Conversion Part IV: Application


Ideal Sampling & Reconstruction
Ideal sampling system In todays world, digital signal processing has
Ideal reconstruction system
Nyquist theorem
many applications in the design of digital
Practical Sampling & Reconstruction communication systems, multimedia signal
Anti-aliasing filters processing such as digital transmission of
Data Converters
Analog-to-digital (ADC) conversion speech, music, image and video, and their
Sample & hold (S/H)
Quantization and related issues manipulation
Digital-to-analog (DAC) conversion
Multirate Signal Processing An introduction A complete digital signal processing system
with system model and working

Recommended Readings
Course slides
Course Book
Sanjit K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A
Computer-Based Approach, 4th Edition, McGraw-
Hill Publishing
Reference Book
Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, and John
R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd
Edition, Pearson Education (Prentice Hall)