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Inverted Pendulum: A system with innumerable applications

School of Mathematical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,

54124

Abstract

The inverted pendulum is one of the fundamental problems in the theory of systems and control, due to

its theoretical value, along with its practical applications. The first step in this work is to determine the

equations of motion for the inverted pendulum, using the Euler-Lagrange equations. The next step is to

find a linearized model that approximates the original nonlinear systems behavior around the

equilibrium located on the upright vertical position. The behavior of the linearized system is simulated

using Matlab. The final step is the computation of an optimal control law for the linearized system,

using the Linear Quadratic Regulator method.

1. Introduction

Automatic control is a branch of mathematics and engineering that studies the

behavior of systems, both natural and artificial, and the manipulation of

certain parameters in order to force the system to have a desired behavior.

Control systems are found everywhere in the world around us; in nature,

everyday life and industry. Some very common examples include the human

body that performs a series of functions, both conscious and unconscious,

throughout its interactions with its surroundings. Another example is driving

a car, where the control is applied through the driver who is the one affecting

the systems inputs, which are the speed and direction, aiming for a safe drive.

Also, in every industrial facility each part of the production line functions

under the supervision of digital controllers that ensure that each engine works

properly according to specific control and design specifications [5].

One of the fundamental engineering problems is the inverted pendulum

[1,2,4,6-8,12,15]. For the inverted pendulum problem shown in Figure 1 the

goal is to determine a control law, that is a suitable input, such that the cart

stabilizes the rod in the upright vertical position. The next goal, after

balancing the rod, is to render the cart able to move while keeping the rod in

the upright vertical position. The importance of this system arises both from

its theoretical and practical applications.

The theoretical value of the inverted pendulum comes from the fact that it

is a nonlinear system, meaning that its equations of motion are nonlinear

differential equations. This makes the computation of an appropriate control

law a difficult task. Furthermore, the model can be simplified, under certain

circumstances, into a linear system around the equilibrium located on the

upright vertical position, making it is possible to apply linear system methods

in order to balance it. This flexibility makes this system a great example for

teaching and studying both linear and nonlinear courses, since many different

theories and methods can be presented through it.

The numerous practical applications of the inverted pendulum make its

study even more interesting and important. In robotics, balancing systems are

developed using inverted pendulums. These find application in transport

machines that need to balance objects, in systems that support walking for

patients, in robots that are used in domestic and industrial use and in object

transport using drones [7]. Even large scale constructions such as buildings

are modeled as inverted pendulums [1]. Finally, one of the most famous

applications of the inverted pendulum that is commercially available is the

Segway [4,6].

The above applications along with many more render the inverted

pendulum a system of great importance for engineers. This is the main reason

why the inverted pendulum is chosen frequently for testing new control

methods [2-4,8,9,12,13]. There exist a great number of methods used in

controlling the inverted pendulum. These methods include optimal control,

PID control, fuzzy control, control through neural networks, bang-bang

control, predictive control or even hybrid methods that are combinations of

the methods stated above. In addition, since the construction of such a model

in a university laboratory is relatively easy and cheap, many universities

afford the necessary equipment for testing the above methods in real time,

making it easier for students to engage in the problem. Overall, it can be seen

that the inverted pendulum systems is a problem that is highly applicable in

everyday applications.

The rest of this work is structured as follows. In Section 2, the equations

of motion for the inverted pendulum are presented. In Section 3 the system is

linearized around the equilibrium located on the upright vertical position. In

Section 4, Matlab is used to obtain simulations for the systems behavior. In

Section 5 some extensions that arise from this problem are discussed and

Section 6 concludes this paper.

Consider the system consisting of a cart with a rod placed on its center as

shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The inverted pendulum.

This system consists of two bodies, the cart of mass 0 and the rod of mass

1 and length 1 . We denote by 0 the distance of the carts center from the

wall located on the left, by 1 the angle of deviation of the rod from the

vertical axis and by the force applied on the cart. Moreover, denote by the

moment of inertia of the rod with respect to its center of mass, located in the

middle of the rod. The gravitational constant is denoted by . Finally, we

make the assumption that there is no friction between the cart and the floor or

the cart and the rod.

Our goal is to determine the equations that describe the systems motion.

The method to obtain these equations is not unique. In this paper the equations

of motion are obtained using Lagrange Equations [3,8,9,13]. Define the

Lagrangian function as the difference of the systems kinetic and potential

energy. The systems kinetic energy equals the sum of the kinetic energy

for each of the systems two bodies, the cart and the rod. The systems

potential energy is the sum of the potential energy of the cart and the rod.

The level of the cart is considered the zero potential energy level for the

system. Hence:

= (1)

Denoting by 0 , 0 , and 1 , 1 the kinetic and potential energy of the cart and

the rod respectively, we obtain

= (0 + 1 ) (0 + 1 ). (2)

Applying the basic laws of physics leads to the formulas for the kinetic

and potential energy for each of the systems bodies as follows:

1

0 = 2 0 0 ; 0 = 0 (3)

2 2

1 1

1 = 1 [(0 + 1 cos(1 )) + ( 1 sin(1 )) ] + 1

2 2 2 2

1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2

= 1 [0 + 2 0 1 cos(1 ) + ( ) 1 2 (1 ) + ( ) 1 2 (1 )] + 1

2 2 2 2 2

1 2 2 2 1 2

= 1 [0 + 2 0 1 cos 1 + ( ) 1 ] + 1

( )

2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2

1 = 1 0 + 1 0 1 cos(1 ) + [1 + ] 1 (4)

2 2 2 2

1 = 1 (1 ) (5)

2

Substituting the above into the Lagrangian (2) gives:

1 2

= 2 (0 + 1 )0 + 1 2 0 1 cos(1 )+

2

(6)

1

+ 2 [1 2 + ] 1 + 1 2 (1 )

Define the vector = [ 0 ] and the matrix = [ ]. Then the Lagrange

1 0

equations can be written as:

( ) = (7)

Calculating the partial derivatives using the chain rule gives:

=0

0

= (0 + 1 )0 + 1 1 (1 )

0 2

2

( ) = (0 + 1 )0 + 1 1 (1 ) 1 1 (1 )

0 2 2

= 1 0 1 (1 ) 1 (1 )

1 2 2

2

= 1 0 (1 ) + [1 ( ) + ] 1

1 2 2

2

( ) = 1 0 (1 ) 1 0 1 sin(0 ) + [1 ( ) + ] 1

1 2 2 2

Substituting these quantities in (7) leads to:

2 (8)

= (0 + 1 )0 + 1 1 (1 ) 1 1 (1 )

2 2

2

0 = 1 0 (1 ) [1 ( ) + ] 1 + 1 (1 ) (9)

2 2 2

Equations (8) and (9) describe the systems motion. For the sake of simplicity,

these equations can be written in matrix form using the column vector

defined above. Thus, (8)-(9) can be written equivalently as

() + ( , ) + () = (10)

where the matrices (), ( , ), () and () are time varying and

0 + 1 1 cos(1 )

2

() = , (, ) = [0 1 2 1 cos(1 )]

2

1 cos(1 ) 1 ( ) + 0 0

[ 2 2 ]

(11)

0

1

() = ( ), =[ ]

1 sin(1 ) 0

2

and the moment of inertia equals to = 1 2112, see [3]. Observe that the

system is strongly nonlinear since there exist products of different states and

states appear as arguments of trigonometric functions. This makes the system

hard to control.

Observe now that the matrix () is invertible for every , since its

determinant is always positive for all . Indeed, the determinant is

2 2

(()) = 1 2 ( ) [1 cos 2 (1 )] + (0 + 1 ) + 0 1 ( ) > 0

2 2

The next goal, after finding the equations of motion, is to define an

equivalent system that consists of first order differential equations. Such

systems are called state space models. Define the column vector

= [

] = [0 1 0 1 ] (12)

Using the model description (1) and multiplying from the left by the inverse

of (), equation (10) is written as

0 2 0 0

= [ ] + [ 1 ] + [ 1 ] (13)

0 1

In (13) the matrices are denoted only by name without mentioning the

variables on which they depend. This was made for the sake of brevity, but

the dependence of each matrix form the variables still holds as before.

3. Linearization

The equilibrium points of a dynamical system described by = () are

defined as the points 0 for which the derivative is equal to zero, that is

(0 ) = 0. So we are looking for points for which the states of the system do

not change. Equilibrium points are classified as stable or unstable, depending

on how the system behaves when it starts from 0 or is close to 0 . The

inverted pendulum system has two equilibria, one stable and one unstable and

their difference is easy to understand.

The first equilibrium is the point of complete rest, where the pendulum is

lowered down, on an angle 1 = 180. This is an asymptotically stable

equilibrium, because starting from any initial condition, the rod will always

return to its resting lowered down state. If for example we were to knock the

pendulum rod with our hands, the system will return to rest after a small

oscillation. Consequently, no input is required from any outside source to

drive the system to this equilibrium. On the other hand, the second

equilibrium corresponds to the upright vertical position, with an angle 1 =

0. At this point, the pendulum is balanced, but the smallest disturbance will

cause it to diverge from this state, oscillate and end up resting at the lowered

position. Therefore, for the second equilibrium point, it is clear that there is a

need to apply a constant control law in order to maintain the pendulum in the

upright position.

The system can be linearized around its upright equilibrium. This means

that it is possible to obtain a simplified linear version of the system that

describes its behavior around this point. Thus, we can work with this

simplified version in order to design a control law, which when applied to the

system, will be able to keep it balanced on the upright position. For the

nonlinear system described by = (, ), the upright equilibrium is the

point

= [0 1 0 1 ] = [0 0 0 0] (14)

For small deviations from this point, the angle 1 is very small, so we can

2

make the approximations sin(1 ) = 1 , cos(1 ) = 1 and 1 = 0, see [13].

Under these approximations the system becomes

0 + 1 1 0 0

2

[ ] + [ ] =

2 0 1

1 1 ( ) + 2

2 2

= 1 + 1

Or equivalently in state space form

= + (15)

where

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

2 1 2 4I + 2 1

= 0 2 + 4I( + ) 0 0 , = 2 + 4I( + )

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

21 (0 + 1 ) 21

0 2 0 0

[ 0 1 + 4I(0 + 1 ) ] [ 2 0 1 + 4I(0 + 1 )]

This system is linear and the matrices A and B are time invariant.

4. Simulation

It is easy to simulate the above linear model in Matlab, a programming

software with a wide range of functions created for simulating control

systems [5,10,11]. In the code provided below, we define the linearized

system (15) as a state space system, where the output and states are the same,

() = (). Subsequently, using the linear quadratic regulator method, we

determine a feedback control law of the form () = (), that maintains

the pendulum in the upright position. This LQR method is based on

minimizing the cost function

() = () () + () () (16)

0

weight matrices respectively (usually diagonal), that are used to assign cost

in the states for which we have the strictest requirements. In our example,

since we do not want the cart to move far away on the x-axis and because we

do not want large deviations of the rod from its equilibrium (because this will

lead to a loss of linearity), we will choose larger values for the corresponding

entries of the matrix . The entries of corresponding to the cart velocity

and the angular velocity are set to zero, since we assume they do not pose any

limitations for this particular example. As initial conditions we choose the

position and velocity of the cart to be zero, a 5 angle for the rod and an

angular velocity of 5 . Simulation results can be seen on Figure 2. We

can see that for different values of the matrix the solution of the system is

significantly different. Putting a higher cost on the rod displacement, we

obtain smaller oscillations and the system returns to the equilibrium faster.

% Linear model for inverted pendulum

m0=1.5; m1=0.5; L =0.5; I=m1*L^2/12;g=10;

D0=[m0+m1, m1*L/2; m1*L/2, m1*(L/2)^2+I];

H=[1;0];

A=[zeros(2),eye(2);0,g*L^2*m1^2/(L^2*m0*m1+4*I*(m0+m1)),0,0;0

,-2*g*L*m1*(m0+m1)/(L^2*m0*m1+4*I*(m0+m1)),0,0];

B=[0;0;(4*I+L^2*m1)/(L^2*m0*m1+4*I*(m0+m1));-

(2*L*m1)/(L^2*m0*m1+4*I*(m0+m1))];

C=eye(4);

pend=ss(A,B,C,0) % the pendulum state space system

R=1; Q=diag([1,20,0,0]); %different values can be chosen

k=lqr(pend,Q,R); % compute the feedback law u=-K*x

pendnew=ss(A-B*k,B,C,0) % define the new system

[y,t,x]= initial(pendnew,[0;deg2rad(5);0;deg2rad(5)],10);

y(:,2)=rad2deg(y(:,2)); %transform from rad to degrees.

y(:,4)=rad2deg(y(:,4));

for i=1:4

subplot(2,2,i)

plot(t,y(:,i))

end

Figure 2: LQR in the linearized model with matrices Q=diag[1,2,0,0] and Q=diag[1,20,0,0].

5. Model variations

There are many variations of the inverted pendulum model that arise from

different applications and each one is of special interest. Their modeling

follows similar steps with the ones presented above. Nonetheless, in each

case additional parameters or constraints are added that must be taken into

account. Some variations are given in Figure 3.

Notable examples include the double inverted pendulum, used in modeling

human balance [12, 14-17]. In this model, on the end point of the first rod, a

second one is placed and again the aim is the balance of the system. A

specialized version of this model is when the joints between the 1st rod and

the cart and the 1st and 2nd rods can be locked to a fixed angle, allowing for

the system to have multiple equilibria, as seen in Figure 4. This is useful in

modeling the human foot in a study to construct applications for gait support

[14-17]. Another interesting example is a system where two rods are mounted

on the same cart on two different points. A similar problem is the study of all

the above systems for the case when the cart is on an inclined surface. Lastly,

another special case is the rotational inverted pendulum. In this case the

pendulum is placed on a rotating base.

In all of the above examples, it is possible for the states of the system to

be subjected to constraints. For example, the cart may have limited space to

move, or the rod may not be allowed to fall below a specific level. In each

case, these constraints impose radical changes in the computation of the

optimal solution.

Figure 4: Gait system.

6. Conclusions

In conclusion, it is clear that the inverted pendulum is a system with many

variations that render it a fundamental control problem. Apart from its

variations, its analysis and control can be studied using a plethora of different

techniques, as mentioned in the introduction. The system can be controlled

using various optimization techniques. Predictive control techniques can be

applied, which aim at determining a series of future control actions that will

balance the system. Adaptive control techniques can also be used. Such

methods are useful when certain parameters of the system change during its

simulation. Such methods are used for example when the cart goes through a

different terrain and the friction coefficient changes or when an object is

suddenly placed on the end of the rod, changing its center of gravity. Overall,

the inverted pendulum is a system that helps engineers test the efficacy of

new control methods and for that matter it works as a bridge between

theoretical approaches and their application to real life problems.

References

[1] Anh, N. D., Matsuhisa, H., Viet, L. D., & Yasuda, M. (2007).

Vibration control of an inverted pendulum type structure by

passive massspring-pendulum dynamic vibration

absorber. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 307(1), 187-201.

[2] Anderson, C. W. (1989). Learning to control an inverted pendulum

using neural networks. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 9(3), 31-37.

[3] Bogdanov, A. (2004). Optimal control of a double inverted pendulum

on a cart. CSEE, OGI School of Science and Engineering, OHSU, Tech.

Rep. CSE-04-006.

[4] Boubaker, O. (2013). The inverted pendulum benchmark in nonlinear

control theory: a survey. International Journal of Advanced Robotic

Systems, 10.

[5] Dorf, R. C., & Bishop, R. H. (2011). Modern control systems (12th Ed).

Pearson.

[6] Grasser, F., D'arrigo, A., Colombi, S., & Rufer, A. C. (2002). JOE: a

mobile, inverted pendulum. IEEE Transactions on industrial

electronics, 49(1), 107-114.

[7] Hehn, M., & D'Andrea, R. (2011, May). A flying inverted pendulum.

In Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011 IEEE International

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[8] Jadlovsk, S., & Sarnovsk, J. (2013). Modelling of classical and rotary

inverted pendulum systemsa generalized approach. Journal of

Electrical Engineering, 64(1), 12-19.

[9] Jadlovsk, S., & Sarnovsk, J. (2012, January). Classical double

inverted pendulumA complex overview of a system. In Applied

Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI), 2012 IEEE 10th

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[10] Moysis, L., Azar, A. T., Kafetzis, I., Tsiaousis, M., & Charalampidis,

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[11] Moysis, L., Tsiaousis, M., Charalampidis, N., Eliadou, M., &

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with Matlab. Retrieved from http://users.auth.gr/lazarosm/ .

[12] Pathak, K., Franch, J., & Agrawal, S. K. (2005). Velocity and position

control of a wheeled inverted pendulum by partial feedback

linearization. IEEE Transactions on robotics, 21(3), 505-513.

[13] Qian, Q., Dongmei, D., Feng, L., & Yongchuan, T. (2011, August).

Stabilization of the double inverted pendulum based on discrete-time

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[14] Sasagawa, S., Shinya, M., & Nakazawa, K. (2014). Interjoint dynamic

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