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UNIT II

GEOGRAPHY

CLASS X

PREPARED BY

NARAYANAN MANNANDI
THE INDIAN SCHOOL, BAHRAIN
www.isbsocialnotes.weebly.com

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CHAPTER- 1 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT

1. What are resources? What are its characteristics?


Every thing available in our environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs if it is
technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable, is termed
as resource. [Or Resources are the means available for the development of a country.
These are the natural or human made materials, which help to create goods or provide
services].
Its characteristics are the following:
a) It has utility: Resources can be used to make a variety of goods and services.
It satisfies human wants.
b) They are normally available in limited quantity: Most of the resources are scarce.
They are exhaustible. We have to use it wisely.
c) Cant be used as it is: Most of the resources are in crude form. We have to put
effort on it to get utility or maximum satisfaction.
d) It should be technologically accessible.
2. Examine the interdependent relationship among nature ,technology and
institutions in the economic development. [ in the resource transformation]
a) Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to
accelerate economic development.
b) They transform material available in our environment in to resources by using
technology and institution and use them.

3. Name the essential component of resources. What is its role in the resource
transformation?
Human beings are the essential components of resources. Human beings interact with
nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate economic development.
They transform materials available in our environment into resources by using
technology and institution and use them.
4. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources.
a) Biotic resources have or had living characteristics whereas abiotic resources are
composed of non living things.
b) Biotic resources are normally obtained from the biosphere where as abiotic
resources obtained from the lithosphere.
c) Examples of biotic resources are human beings, flora, fauna, fisheries, livestock,
coal and petroleum.
d) Examples of abiotic resources are rocks, metals, minerals etc.
5. Distinguish between renewable and non renewable resources.
a) Renewable resources are those resources, which can be regenerated in a given
period of time whereas non renewable resources cannot be re generated.
b) Renewable resources are abundant and replenishable where as non renewable
resources are scarce and non replenishable.
c) Renewable resources are non exhaustible whereas non renewable resources are
exhaustible.
d) Solar and wind energy, water, forests and wild life are examples of renewable
resource and minerals and fossil fuels are examples of non renewable resources.

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6. How are resources classified on the basis of origin?
a) Biotic resources b) Abiotic resources ( Explain points)

7. How are resources classified based on exhaustibility?


a) Renewable resources b) Non renewable resources ( Explain points)

8. How are resources classified based on ownership?


a) Individual resources: These are privately owned resources. Village people own land
and cattle whereas urban people own plots, flats or other property. Plantation, pasture
lands, ponds, water in the wells are individual resources.
b) Community owned resources:
These are resources accessible to all the members of the community. Grazing grounds,
burial grounds, village ponds, public parks, play grounds, picnic spots etc are
community owned resources.
c) National Resources:
All the minerals, water resources, forests, wild life, all the resources with in the
political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast belong to
national resources. Roads canals, railways and properties of public character belong to
national resources.
d) International resources:
The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles, beyond the Exclusive Economic
Zone belong to international resources. No individual or country can claim it. There are
international institutions to regulate these resources.

9. How are resources classified based on the status of development?


a) Potential resources:
Resources, which are found in a region, but have not been utilized, are potential
resources. These resources will be widely used shortly. Wind and solar energy
potential in Rajasthan and Gujarat have not been developed and exploited properly
so far.
b) Developed resources:
These are the resources surveyed; quality and quantity have been measured and have
been determined for utilization.
c) Stock Resources:
Resources in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but do
not have the appropriate technology to have access come under this category. We
havent so far developed the technology to make inflammable gases like hydrogen
and oxygen on a large scale from water . So it is considered a stock.
d) Reserve resources:
These are the subdivision of stock resources and can be put into use by applying the
existing technology but their use has not yet been started. These can be used to meet
our future requirements.

10. What is meant by Exclusive Economic Zone?


a) The UN Convention of the Law of the Sea, 1982, allowed coastal nations to claim a
territorial sea of up to 12 nautical miles.

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b) It also allowed jurisdiction over resources, control over fishing right, scientific
research, and environmental protection in a zone up to 200 nautical miles (370.4 km)
offshore. It is known as Exclusive Economic Zone. Beyond this zone, seabed mineral
development will be regulated by an international body.

11. What are the major problems developed out of exploiting resources
indiscriminately? ( State any to effects of indiscriminate exploitation of resources.)

a) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.


b) Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn divided the society in to rich
and poor.
c) It has led to ecological crisis such as global warming, ozone layer depletion,
environmental pollution and land degradation.

12. What is sustainable development?


The development that takes care the needs of the present generation with out
compromising the needs of future generations is termed as sustainable development. It
emphasizes on prevention of pollution and avoidance of wastages. The development that
takes place with out damaging the environment is termed as sustainable development.

13. What is resource planning? Why is it essential? ( Explain any three reasons
responsible for making resource planning in India. )
i) Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization of resources.
ii) An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of
life and global peace.
iii) If the present trend of resources depletion by a few individuals and countries continues,
the future of the planet is in danger. There fore resource planning is essential for
sustainable existence of all forms of life. Or
Since the resources are limited and unevenly distributed, effective and efficient
planning is necessary.
iv) Resource planning includes conservation of resources too. We have to exploit
resources in such a way that future generation will not suffer.
Resource planning is essential to prevent environmental pollution and to avoid
wastages in the exploitation of resources.

14. Examine the diversity in the availability of resources in India. Give examples. Or
Why is a balanced resource planning essential in India? ( Why is it necessary for
a balanced resource planning at the national ,state, regional and local levels?)
a) There are regions in India which are rich in certain type of resources but are deficient in
some other resources. There are some regions in India which can be considered self
sufficient in terms of availability of resources and there are some other regions which
have acute shortage of some vital resources.
b) The states of Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal
deposits.
c) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural
developments.

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d) Rajasthan has a lot of solar and wind energy potential but lacks in water resources.
e) The cold area of Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage but is deficient in water,
infrastructure and minerals.

15. What are the processes ( stages) involved in the resource planning?
i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country: This
involves surveying, mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation, and
measurement of resources.
ii) Evolving a planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutional
setup for implementing resource development plans.
iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

16. Mere availability of resources will not bring economic development. Give
reasons.
i) Along with the availability of resources corresponding changes in technology and
institutions are required for economic development.
ii) There are many regions in India that are rich in resources but are economically
backward like Bihar and UP. Some other areas have poor resources but they are
economically developed like Kerala.
iii) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing
countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their
supremacy over the colonies.

17. What was Gandhijis opinion about conservation (or over exploitation) of
resources?
i) Gandhiji said, There is enough resources in this world to satisfy every bodys need
and there is no resources to satisfy the greed of one person.
ii) He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern
technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.
iii) He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by
the masses.
18. Why is it important to use the available land with careful planning?
i) We live on land , perform all economic activities on land and use it for variety of
purposes.
ii) Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation,
wild life, human life, transport and communication systems.
iii) 95% of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land
iv) Land available is limited in quantity compared to the size of the population and
hence it requires careful planning.
19. Assess the land in India under important relief features.
i.Plains: About 43 % of the land is plain which provides facilities for agriculture and
industry.
ii.Mountains: It accounts for 30 % of the land and ensure perennial flow of some rivers,
provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
iii.Plateau: About 27 % of the land is plateau. It possesses rich reserves of minerals fossil
fuels and forests.

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20. Give two reasons why we are not able to utilize the total geographical area of India.
i) The land use reporting for most of the north- eastern states except Assam has not
been done fully.
ii) Some areas of Jammu & Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have not been
surveyed.
21. What is the land utilization pattern in India?
Total area of land in India is 3.28 million sq.km., but only 93 % is available for use.
i)The Net sown area in India is 46.24 % in 2008-09.
ii) The Forest share in the land use pattern is 22.78% in 2008-09
iii) Area under non agricultural use is 5.57 % in 2008-09
iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land is 3.38 % only.
v) Culturable Waste land is 4.17% in 2008-09.
vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land is 4.76 % in 2008-09. Fallow
other than current fallow is 3.37.
22. What are the most satisfying features of the land use pattern in India?
a) About 54 % of the total land area is under cultivation in India. It is the highest
percentage in the world.
b) Land under the forests has increased from 18.11% in 1960-61 to 22.78% in
2008-09 (Any One)
c) Culturable Waste land has reduced from 6.23% in 1960-61 to 4.17 % in 2008-09.
23. What is land degradation? Explain any three causes for land degradation.
Land degradation is the process of losing the fertility and productivity of land and
turning it unfit for proper use. It is otherwise lowering the quality of land. Deforestation,
careless management of forests, overgrazing by animals, soil erosion, surface mining and
industrial effluents cause land degradation.
At present there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India .28 % of it
belongs to forest degraded area, 56 % water eroded area, 10 % wind eroded area and the
rest 6% is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
24. State two natural and human activities that lead to land degradation.
a. Natural : Soil erosion, land slides, torrential rain
b. Human : Mining and industry. (Explain all)

25. How does surface mining and industry lead to land degradation?
a. The mining sites are abandoned after excavation is completed.
b. Processed soil or waste materials are dumped unscientifically causing the land used
and the land nearby unfit for any use.
c. The mineral processing, like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite
and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amount of dust and releases in
the atmosphere. It settles down in the surrounding areas, affecting infiltration of
water and crop cultivation.
d. The industrial effluents released to the air cause acid rain and air and water get
polluted.

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26. How is man responsible for degradation of land?
a) Cutting of trees (deforestation).
b) Unscientific disposal of industrial wastes.
c) Unscientific industrial processing.
d) Construction of houses and buildings. (Explain)

27. What measures can be adopted for preventing land degradation?


a. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes, preparation of shelterbelts
for plants and control over grazing of animals are some methods of controlling land
degradation in arid areas.
b. Moisture conservation and weed control in agricultural lands, regularization of
grazing and proper management of wasteland and control of mining activities are
the methods for semi arid areas.
c. Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can
reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.

28. What are soils? How are they formed? Or ( Describe the factors that contribute
to the formation and fertility to the soil.)
i.Loose and fragmented uppermost layer of the earths crust, which is useful for plants, is
called soil. It is the basic resources of agriculture.
ii.It consists of both organic and inorganic substances.
iii.Soils are formed by the disintegration and decomposition of rocks under the process of
weathering and erosion. Climate determines the rate of weathering and the type of
vegetation. Time provide maturity to soils.
iv. The factors that contribute the formation and fertility of soil are rocks, climate, plants
and animals, local topography, chemical and organic changes which takes place in the
soil and long period of time.
29. Describe the characteristics of alluvial soil. (What type of soil is found in the river
deltas of the eastern coasts? Give three main features of this type of soil. Or Which
is the most widely spread and important soil in India? )
a) Alluvial soil is confined to northern plain, coastal strips, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
It is the most widely spread and important soil in India.
b) It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. (Physical property)
c) As we move inlands to wards the valley soil particles appear some what bigger
in size. In the upper reaches of the river valley the soil are coarse. Such soils are
common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.
d) Alluvial soil as a whole are very fertile Mostly these soil contain adequate proportion of
potash , phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy,
wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. (Chemical property)
e) Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment
and irrigation.
f) Alluvial soil is divided into Bhangar and Khadar according to their age. ( Continue..)

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30. Differentiate between Bhangar and Khadar.
i)The Bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
ii.Bhangar is older alluvium and is found away from rivers and Khadar is new alluvium
found closer to the rivers.
iii.Bhangar is clayey and dark while Khadar is sandy and light in colour.
iv.Bhangar is less fertile compared to Khadar. Khadar is renewed frequently in the flood
plain.

31. What are the characteristics of Black soil? ( Regur soil )


a) It is good for cultivation of cotton and also known as cotton soil.
c) It is rich in potash, calcium carbonate, magnesium and lime and poor in
phosphoric content.
d) It has the ability to retain moisture.
e) On drying these soil develops large and deep cracks and becomes sticky when wet.
f) Climatic condition along with the parent rock material is the important factors for
the formation of black soil.
g) This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap spread over northwest Deccan plateau
and is made up of lava flows.

32. Describe the major features of Red soil. Where is it found?


a. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern
and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
b. It is red in colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
c. Red soils are highly porous and fertile and they are fine grained and deep.
d. It is deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter and nitrogen and rich in potash.
e. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
33. What are Laterite soils? What are its features?
a. Laterite soils are intensely leached soils of the monsoon climate.
b. The humus content of this soil is low because most of the micro organisms
particularly the decomposers like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature.
It has low value for crop production.
c. They are red in colour with high content of iron oxide. It is poor in nitrogen and
lime and has high contents of acidity.
d. It doesnt have the ability to retain moisture. It is composed of little clay and much
gravel of red sand stones.
e. These soils develop in areas of high temperature and heavy rainfall. They occur in
Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and part of Assam and Meghalaya.
(Why are laterite soil less fertile? Ans points a b c d above)
34. Describe the characteristics of forest (mountain) soil.
a. These are the soils found in the mountainous region of India like Meghalaya,
Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
b. These soils are characterized by deposition of organic materials derived from
vegetative cover.

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c. These are heterogeneous in nature and vary from place to place.
d. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
e. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas these soils experience denudation and
are acidic with low humus content.

35. What are arid (desert) soils?


a. These are the soils found in the arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
b. These sands are partly of local origin and partly have been blown from the Indus
Valley. In some areas, the soil contains high percentage of soluble salt.
c. It is sandy, coarse and porous and poor in organic matter.
d. These soils can be used for cultivation with irrigation facilities.

36. What is meant by soil erosion? How is it caused?


Removal of soil from one place to another by some natural agent is called soil erosion. It
is the process of taking away or washing away of soil cover by wind or water flow. Soil
erosion is caused by deforestation, heavy rains and running water, overgrazing, winds and
slope of the land.

37. What are ravines? Where is it found?


Ravines are bad land, turned unsuitable for cultivation by soil erosion. If the outer cover
of the soil is removed by wind or water, bad Lands are formed. In the Chambal basin such
lands are called ravines.
38. What is sheet erosion and contour ploughing?
a) When water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope, top soil is washed away. It
is known as sheet erosion.
b) Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing. It is a method of
controlling soil erosion.
39. Suggest a few measures for controlling soil erosion.
a) Contour ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing,
which reduces the flow of water. (hilly areas)
b) Terrace farming: It restricts soil erosion in hilly areas.
c) Strip Cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow
between the crops.
d) Shelter belts and planting thorny bushes: : Planting lines of trees reduce wind force and
stream flow. Planting of thorny bushes help stabilize sand dunes in the desert areas.

40. Explain the six major land use categories of our country along with the changes
that have occurred recently.
Total area of land in India is 3.28 million sq.km., but only 93 % is available for use.
i) Net sown area : In 1960-61 its share was 45.26% which has increased to 46.24% in
2008-09.
ii) Forest : Its share was 18.11% in 1960-61 and it has increased to 22.78 % in 2008-09.
It has increased due to massive afforestation and government policies.
iii) Area under non agricultural use: Its share in 1960-61 was 4.95% and it has increased to
5.57% in 2008-09.

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iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land: Its share in 1960-61 was 4.47% and it is reduced to
3.38 % in 2008-09. This shows tremendous pressure of livestock population on
agricultural land.
v) Culturable Waste: Its share was 6.23% in 1960-61 which has reduced to 4.17% in 2008-09.
The reduction in this category is mainly due to its conversion into net sown area.
vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land was 3.73% in 1960-61, which has
been increased to 4.76 % in 2008-09. Fallow other than current fallow has decreased
from 3.50 to 3.37.

41. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
i) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing
countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their
supremacy over the colonies.
ii) Technical development led to mechanization and over exploitation of resources.
Economic development led to invention of modern machineries which accelerated over
exploitation of resources.
iii) Economic development increases the standard of living of the people. It helps them to
enjoy a number of facilities and use more resources.

42. Prove by giving examples that the pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one
state to another.
Net sown area in Punjab and Haryana is over 80 % and in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram,
Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands it is less than 10 %

43. What is the importance of resources? Why is it necessary to conserve them?


Resources are vital for any developmental activity. Economic development of a country is
depended on the availability of resources.
Resources are in limited quantity. Most of them are non renewable. Irrational consumption
and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems.
To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important. It helps
in the sustainable development. It helps to conserve the resource for the future generation. It
also helps in avoiding wastages and preventing pollution.
Additional Questions:
01. Draw a neat diagram showing the soil profile.02. On what grounds are soils classified?
i. Soils are classified based on colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical
properties.
03. What is the main purpose of resources? ( to satisfy basic needs of mankind)
04. Which mineral is mined in the Indian Ocean? (Manganese nodules)

05. What is the ill effect of accumulation of resources in few hands?


(The society will be divided in to rich and poor)

06. What was the aim of Rio de Janeiro Summit?(Achieve global sustainable development)
07. Name four ecological crisis: global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
pollution and land degradation.

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08. What were the two aims of first earth summit?
(Environmental protection and economic development)

09. Name two river valleys in South India where black soil is found.
( Godavari valley and Krishna valley)

10. What do you mean by Deccan trap? It is the plateau formed by deposition of Basalt lava.

11. Why are yellow soils yellow in colour? (Due to the presence of iron in hydrated form)

12. Despite enormous potential solar power is not developed in Rajasthan and
Gujarat. Why ? ( Due to lack of technology and demand)

13. When and where was the first international earth submit held?
It was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in 1992

14. What is meant by Agenda 21?


i) It was the declaration signed by the world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development, which took place at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in 1992.
ii) It was an agenda to combat environmental damage , poverty, diseases through global
cooperation on common interests mutual needs and shared responsibilities in the 21st C.
ii) One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw
its own local Agenda 21.
iii)
15. Name any two books that advocate resource conservation.
Small is beautiful written by Schumacher and Our Common future

16. Name any two types of piedmont plains where alluvial soil is found.
Duars, Chos and Terai. ( any two)

17. Whom did Gandhiji make responsible for depletion of resources at the global level?
Explain any two reasons.

18. Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state


boundaries. Justify the statement.

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Chapter 2 Excluded
Chapter 3 WATER RESOURCES
1. How does water become a renewable resource? Explain.
Fresh water is obtained from surface water and ground water. It is continuously renewed
and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves in the hydrological cycle and
ensures that water is a renewable resource.

2. How does water threaten human welfare? Or Why is it necessary to conserve water
resources? Give reasons.
a) Scarcity of water: Due to high population, increasing urbanization and rising standard of
living, there is a growing scarcity of water felt all over India.
b) Use of degraded water: In many areas, people are forced to drink and use polluted water
which causes various water borne diseases.
c) Lowering the water table: Increased use of tube wells in recent years has lowered the
water table and has caused depletion of underground water resources.
d) Inadequate supply of water for irrigation; Two third of the cropped area in India is still
rainfed , which is uncertain and irregular which affects agriculture.

3. What are the causes of growing water scarcity in India?


i. Variation in the annual rainfall: The rainfall in India is unequally distributed. The desert
areas of Rajasthan receive less than 20 cm of annual rainfall and hence is drought prone.
ii. Rapidly growing population: A large population needs more water not only for domestic
use but also for production of more food.
iii. Over exploitation of water resources: For more food production, water resources are over
exploited which leads to its scarcity.
iv. Industrialization and urbanization: Industries require a lot of water for processing and as
a cleaning agent. Much of the energy for industrial use is obtained from hydro electricity.
Urbanization changes the life style of people and demand for water increases. It leads to
water scarcity.

4. What are the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water scarcity in India?
i. Quantitative aspects: A large part of India is facing the problem of shortage of fresh
water. Variation in the annual rainfall makes these areas drought prone. Rising
population, makes the situation worse.
ii. Qualitative aspects: A number of villages and cities in India are facing the problem of
dirty drinking water. Water in these areas is polluted due to domestic and industrial
wastes, chemicals, pesticides, and fertilizers.

5. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the dams as the temples of modern India?
Dams would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid
industrialization and growth of the urban economy. Therefore, Jawaharlal Nehru
proclaimed the dams as the temples of modern India.

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6. Why are dams now referred as multipurpose projects?
Dams are now used for number of purposes at a time. They are
a) Flood control b ) Irrigation c) Navigation d ) Electricity
e) Soil conservation and preservation of wildlife through afforestation
f) Tourism or recreation (F.I.N.E.S.T. ) Hence they are called multipurpose projects.
(Explain points)

7. Why do the dams in India come under great scrutiny and opposition? ( What are the
arguments against large dams?)
i. Regulating and damming of river water affect their natural flow causing poor sediment
flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoirs, resulting in rockier
streambeds and poorer habitat for the rivers aquatic life.
ii. Dams prevent the migration and spawning of aquatic fauna.
iii. Construction of dams leads to submergence of land and vegetation leading to its
decomposition over a period of time.
iv. It leads to loss of livelihood to many tribal and village people and find it difficult to
rehabilitate them.
v. Dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the
same water. In Gujarat the Sabarmati-basin farmers agitated against the higher priority
given to water supply in urban areas particularly during drought.
vi. Inter-state dispute also becoming common over sharing the cost and benefit of multi
purpose river valley projects. (Give example)
8. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi purpose river valley projects.
( Explain the two answers above)
9. What is meant by rainwater harvesting? Mention a few traditional techniques of rain water
harvesting. What value do you derive from this?
i. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing
rainwater.
ii. Roof top rainwater harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water
particularly in Rajasthan.
iii. In the flood plain of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their
fields.
iv. In arid and semi arid regions of Rajasthan agricultural fields were converted into rain fed
storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.
v. The value that derive from this is conservation of water. Even ancient people were
bothered about conservation of water resources.

10. Discuss how rainwater harvesting is carried out in semi arid regions of Rajasthan.
i Almost all the houses in these regions had traditional underground tank or tankas for
storing drinking water. (What are Tankas? How are they useful for storing water?)
ii The tankas could be as large as a big room.
iii The tankas were part of the well-developed roof top rainwater harvesting system and were
built inside the main house or courtyard. They were connected to the slopping roofs of the
houses through a pipe.

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iv The rainwater, falling on the roof would travel down through the pipe and is stored in the
underground tanks.
11. Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being
carried out to conserve and store water.
i Today in western Rajasthan the practice of roof top rainwater harvesting is declined due to
availability of ample supply of water from the Rajasthan canal.
ii In Gendathur, a remote village in Mysore, nearly 200 houses have installed roof top rain
water harvesting system.
iii In Tamil Nadu, the roof top rainwater harvesting structure is made compulsory to all
houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.
iv In some areas, the ground water is recharged through hand pumps or using abandoned
wells.
12. Name any two social movements against multi purpose river valley projects.
i. Narmada Bachao Andolan ii. Tehri Dam Andolan These resistance movements are started
against large scale displacement of local communities.

13. Who are the people benefited by multi purpose river valley projects?
i. Land owners and large farmers. ii. Industrialists and a few urban centres.

14. How does river valley projects transform social landscape? Give an example.
i. River valley projects increase the social gap between the richer landlords and land less poor.
ii. It creates conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water
resources.
iii. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the
higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

15. What is the Krishna Godavari dispute raised by the Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
Governments?
It is regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra Government for a
multi purpose project. This would reduce down stream flow in their states with adverse
consequences for agriculture and industry.

16. Prove by giving examples that river valley projects fail to achieve the purpose for which
they were built.
i. The dams were constructed to control floods but it has triggered floods due to sedimentation in the
reservoir and due to dam failure. Release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated the
flood situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 2006.
ii. Multi purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases and pollution resulting
from excessive use of water.

17. What is the ecological consequence of irrigation and changing of cropping pattern?
Salinization of soils.

18. Name two structures built to harvest water in hilly areas. Guls, Kuls.

19. Name two water harvesting system in Rajasthan. Khadins- and Johads.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 13 -
20. What is meant by hydraulic cycle? Movement of water in different forms from ocean to
atmosphere and from atmosphere to ocean.

21. Define the term matkas.


These are the earthen pots used by Rajasthan women for collecting and storing water.

22. What is bamboo drip irrigation? Mention any two features of it.
It is an indigenous method of tapping of stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes to irrigate
plantations.
i) This is a 200 years old system of irrigation mostly practiced in Meghalaya.
ii) This method saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants
iii) It drips 20 to 30 drops of water per minutes at the root of a plant.

22. Why did the Sabarmati basin farmers agitate and almost cause a riot in Gujarat?
It was over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas.
22. Describe the procedure of roof top rainwater harvesting.

23. Water scarcity in most cases is caused by over exploitation, excessive use and unequal access
to water among different social groups. Explain the meaning of the statement with the help
of examples.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 14 -
CHAPTER- 4 AGRICULTURE

1. India is an agricultural country. ' Comment. Or Why is agricultural development a


precondition for our national prosperity? Or What is the importance of agriculture in India?

1) India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-third of its population depends directly on


agriculture for its livelihood.
2) Agriculture is the mainstay of India's economy. It accounts for 18 % of the Gross
Domestic Production in 2010-11.
3) Agriculture provides 10 % of our total exports and a source of fodder for animals.
4) Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population is 52 per cent in 2009-10.

2. Define the term agriculture.


The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words 'ager' meaning land and 'cultur' meaning
cultivation. Agriculture thus means land cultivation. However, it includes animal husbandry,
forestry, horticulture and pisiculture.

3. State any two reasons for the change in the methods of cultivation.
i. Change in the physical environment
ii. Change in the technological know-how
iii. Change in the socio cultural practices. (Explain)

4. Differentiate between net sown area and gross cropped area.


1) The total land cultivated in a year is called net sown area. The net sown area and the land in the
net sown area cultivated more than once together make gross cultivated area.
2) The net sown area in India at the present is 143 million hectares. It is about 46.6 % of the
total geographical area.

5. Mention in brief, the various limitations from which the Indian agriculture suffers
presently. (Drawback of Indian agriculture)

I. Agriculture is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country. The


growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation.
II. Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our
government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector
particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization.
III. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. Moreover,
reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture
in the country.
IV. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the
employment in agriculture.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 15 -
6. What is primitive subsistence farming? Why do majority of Indian farmers follow it?

i. Subsistence farming is the cultivation of crops for domestic use and not for sale. It is
practiced in small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, digging sticks and
family labour.
ii. This type of farming depends on monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other
environmental conditions to the crops grown.
iii. Majority of Indian farmers practise subsistence farming because they have scattered land
holdings and they use only primitive tools.
iv. They are poor farmers and they can't use fertilizers and machinery. Facilities like electricity
and irrigation are not available to them.

7. Name any two local names of primitive subsistence farming.


i. It is Jhumming in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
ii. In Manipur it is Pamlou.
iii. It is Dipa in Bastar districts of Chattisgarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

8. What is shifting agriculture? What are its features?


a) Shifting agriculture is the old type of agriculture. In this system, forestland is cleared to
cultivate. Crops are grown for two or three years. When the fertility is reduced the farmers
move to another area to cultivate by clearing forests again. It allows the land to replenish the
fertility of the soil through natural processes.
b) Dry paddy, maize, and vegetables are grown in this farming. The per- hectare yield is low. It
is, other wise known as slash and burn agriculture.
Features:
a) It is a subsistence type of agriculture.
c) The rotation of field is practiced.
d) Simple implements are used.
e) Per capita or the per-hectare production is low.
f) It is practiced in the region of low density of population

9. What is intensive subsistence farming? Why do the farmers follow this type of farming?
i. It is a type of farming practiced in the areas of high population pressure on land. It is a
labour intensive farming, where high dozes of bio-chemical inputs and irrigation are used
for obtaining high production.
ii. The farmers follow this type because their holding of land is very small due to continuous
family partition and the right of inheritance and the absence of alternative sources of
livelihood.

10. What is commercial farming? What are its characteristics?


It is the type of farming practised mainly for sale. So they produce more than what they
require for domestic consumption. Plantation agriculture is an example of commercial
farming. Its characteristics are the following:
i. Modern inputs like High Yielding Varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and
pesticides are used.
ii. The yield per hectare or productivity is very high.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 16 -
iii. It is a mechanized farming system in which modern machinery is used.
iv. Irrigation facilities are available to this farming technique.

11. What are the features of plantation agriculture?


Plantation agriculture is bush or tree farming. The British introduced it in the 19th Century. Its
features are the following:
1) It is a single crop farming in a large area. It includes tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut,
apples, grapes, oranges etc.
2) It is a capital-intensive agriculture and requires good managerial ability.
3) It requires technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizes, irrigation and
transport facilities.
4) It is normally developed in hilly areas of northeastern India, Nilgiri, Aanamalai and
Cardamom hills.
5) Since the production is on large quantity processing factory also is built with in or close
to it.
6) All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries and has an interface of
agriculture and industry.

12. What are the factors that play an important role in the development of plantations?
i. A well-developed network of transport and communication system is an important factor since
the plantation agriculture is market-oriented.
ii. Processing industries with in the estate and the technical know-how play an important role in
its development.

13. Which are the different crop seasons in India?


i. Kharif Crop season: The ' Kharif ' season starts with the onset of monsoon and continues till the
beginning of winter i.e. from June July to September -October. Crops like rice, maize, millet,
cotton, groundnut, moong, urad etc. are grown in Kharif season.
ii. Rabi Crop Season: Rabi season starts in winter from October to December and harvested in
summer from April to June. Crops such as wheat, barley, grain, linseed (flax seed), rapeseed
(Canola- Canadian Oil with Low Acid) and mustard seeds are grown in rabi season.
iii. Zaid season: It is a crop season between Rabi and Kharif seasons practised during the end of
summer in March to May. Crops like watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and fodder
crops are grown during this period.

14. State any two reasons for the success of rabi crops in wheat producing areas.
i. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones helps the
growth of these crops.
ii. The success of Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of
Rajasthan helped a lot in the growth of rabi crops.

15. Why is the extension of green revolution necessary in India?


( Growing population and declining trend of food production- for food security- For making use
of abundant natural gas to manufacture fertilizers- to have a favourable land use pattern and to
increase the net sown area) .(Explain points)

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 17 -
16. Name an important staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced. Or Describe
the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of rice. Name the major
areas of rice production. Or What are the features of rice cultivation in India?

Rice is the most important staple crop in India. India is the second largest producer of rice after
China. It is a tropical plant. It requires high temperature and high humidity for its successful
growth. The mean monthly temperature of above 25C, with minor variations during, sowing,
growing and harvesting seasons, is ideal for its cultivation.
It grows well in areas above 100 cm of rainfall. In the areas of less rainfall, it is grown with the
help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the
deltaic regions. The most important rice producing areas are Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu ( BUPAT)

17. Into how many heads can we group the varieties of crops conveniently?
(Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre crops, beverage crops and cash crops. (Give examples.)

18. Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of wheat. Name the
major areas of wheat production.
Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in India. It is a rabi crop.
The ideal temperature at the time of sowing wheat is 10 to 15 C and at the time of harvest, it is 20
to 25 C.
The crop grows well in areas where rainfall is 50 to 75 cm. It requires well-drained fertile lands.
This crop requires cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It grows well
in two wheat growing zones in India viz. the Ganga Satluj plains in the north-west and the black
soil region in the Deccan.
The major areas of wheat cultivation is Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Bihar.(PHURB)

19. What are millets? Why are millets a very important food crop in India?
a) Millets are the third most important food crops in India, after rice and wheat.
Jowar, bajra and ragi are some of the important millets grown in India. They have high
nutritional value. Ragi is rich in iron, calcium and other micro nutrients.
b) Jowar is produced in many states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
and Madhya Pradesh.
c) Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajra. It is also produced in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Gujarat and Haryana.
d) Ragi is produced mainly in the drier parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
e) Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food of India. So millets are important to support the
food requirements.

20. State the importance of ragi crop in India.


i. It belongs to the millet group. Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food for India. Therefore,
millets are important to support the food requirements.
ii. Ragi has a high nutritional value. Ragi is rich in iron, calcium and other micronutrients.
iii. It is a crop of dry region and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils.
iv. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 18 -
21. Describe the characteristics of maize and its cultivation.
(a) Maize is a coarse grain and used as both food and fodder.
(b) It is grown under varied soil and climatic conditions.
(c) It grows well in areas of 50 to 100cm of rain and in areas of less rain it is grown under
irrigation.
(d) It grows well under temperature between 21 and 27C and grows well in old alluvial soil.
(e) It requires well-drained fertile soil.
(f) It is cultivated mainly as a kharif crop.
(g) Major maize producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and
Andhra Pradesh(KUMBA)
22. Describe the importance of pulses as a food crop and its cultivation. State any two important
pulses and mention the states producing it.
(a) Pulses are the major sources of protein in a vegetarian diet.
(b) These are grown all over the country except the areas of heavy rainfall.
(c) Pulses like Tur, Arhar and Urad are kharif crops and Moong and Masur, Peas and Gram
are rabi crops.
(d) Plants of pulses help in restoring fertility of the soil and hence they are grown in rotation
with other crops.
(e) Two important pulses are Gram and Tur. Gram is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
and Rajasthan(MUR) and Tur is produced in Maharashtra, UttarPradesh, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh(MUKAM).

23. What is the importance of oil seeds in India? Describe any one and its distribution.
(a) Oil seeds are used to make vegetable oil, which is an important item of Indian food.
(b) Oil cake, the residue after oil is extracted from the seeds, is an important cattle feed.
(c) India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world.
The major oil seeds are the following:
(a) Groundnut: It accounts for about half of the major oil seeds produced in the country.
It is a kharif crop.Its major producers are Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra.(TG.KAM). Gujarat is the largest producer of Groundnut after A.P.
The other oil seeds are Sesamum,(Gingelly- thil in Hindi- Ellenna in Malayalam) castor seed
( Avanak in Malayalam), Rapeseed (Canola) and Mustard seed and Linseed(flax):

24. Name an important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its
growth.
Tea is an important beverage crop in India. India is the third largest producer of Tea after China
and Turkey.
(1) Tea cultivation in India is a classic example of plantation agriculture. It is a tropical as well
as a sub-tropical plant.
(2)Tea grows well in deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
(3) It requires warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
(4) It is a labour intensive crop and requires cheap and skilled labour.
(5)The ideal temperature for its growth is 20 to 30C and annual rainfall of 150 to 300 cm.
(6) High humidity is good for the rapid development of tender leaves.
Major tea producing states are Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 19 -
25. What is the importance of rubber production as a cash crop?
(1) Rubber is produced from the latex of a number of different species of rubber tree.
(2) It is used for manufacture of a number of industrial products like tyres and tubes.
(3)India is the fifth major rubber producing country in the world.
(4) About 97% of the countrys demand for natural rubber is met from domestic production.
(5) The tree requires moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200cm. and temperature
above 25C.
(6) Kerala produces about nine-tenth of the total production of rubber. The other rubber producing
states are Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Assam and Tripura.
( Write the temperature and rainfall conditions required for rubber cultivation. Explain point 5)
26. Which are the important fibre crops in India. Mention the major producing areas of any two
crops.
i) Cotton, Jute, Silk and Wool are the important fibre crops of India. Cotton is grown in tropical
and sub-tropical areas.
ii) It requires at least 210 frost-free days. It is grown well in black and alluvial soils.
iii) It requires 6 to 8 months to mature and it is a kharif crop. It requires a lot of cheap and efficient
labour at the time of plucking of cotton balls. At the time of harvest, the weather should be fine
to maintain the luster of cotton.
iv) The main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and
Maharashtra.
a) Jute is a crop of hot and humid climate. The crop takes 8 to 10 months to mature.
b) The fibre is obtained from the retting of the plant.
c) It is used in making bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts.
d) It is produced in Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, and Meghalaya.

27. How have the technological and institutional reforms been able to improve the conditions of
Indian agriculture? Explain with suitable examples.
Technological Reforms.
a) Modern machineries are used in agriculture for ploughing, sowing, harvesting and thrashing.
b) Indian farmers have started to use chemical fertilizers on a large scale.
c) High Yielding Varieties and early maturing quality seeds have been introduced to increase the
agricultural production.
d) Irrigation facilities have improved with the constructions of canals and the introduction of
motor pumps, drip irrigation and use of sprinklers.
Institutional Reforms. ( Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the
Government in the interest of farmers.
a) The govt. abolished the Zamindari system to protect the interest of the farmers.
b) The Govt. encouraged the consolidation of smallholdings of land to make them more
profitable.
c) The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers in new and improved
techniques of cultivation.
d) The crop insurance against drought, flood, fire, cyclone and diseases was another set up to
protect the farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation.
e) Easy availability of capital or investment, through a well-knit network of rural banking like
Grammen banks was introduced.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 20 -
f) Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T.V. and radios to take precautionary
measures.
g) Minimum support price for various crops is introduced to remove uncertainty of
prices and sales.
h) Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are
some other measures taken.

28. Point out the initiative taken by the Government to ensure the increase in the agricultural
production.
i. The Government of India started a number of agricultural reforms to improve Indian
agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green revolution based on the use of package
technology and the White Revolution were some of the strategies adopted.
ii. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Universities, Veterinary services,
Horticulture Department, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather
forecast were given priority to modernize agriculture and to improve it.
iii. Comprehensive land development programmes, which included the institutional and
technological reforms, were introduced in 1980s and 1990s.
iv. ( add relevant points from answer 27 )

29. The land under cultivation has been reduced day by day. What are its consequences?
i. It affects the food security in India. There will be acute shortage of food grains in India since
the population is increasing.
ii. A major part of our foreign exchange will have to be spent for importing food grains.
iii. Majority of the population in India will have to find alternate occupation since agricultural
activity is declining.
iv. It affects the dependent cattle population in India and even affects the ecological balance.
30. Explain any four features of the comprehensive land development programmes
initiated in our country during 1980s and 1990s.
i. Comprehensive land development programmes, which included the institutional and
technological reforms, were introduced in 1980s and 1990s.
ii. The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers with new and improved
techniques of cultivation.
iii. The crop insurance against drought, flood, fire, cyclone and diseases was another schemes to
protect the farmers against crop failures.
iv. Easy availability of capital or investment through a well-knit network of rural banking like
Grammen banks were introduced.
v. Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T.V. and radios to make precautionary
measures and to get the farmers acquainted with modern techniques of farming.
vi. Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are
some other measures taken.
vii. The government also announced minimum support price for important crops to check the
exploitation of farmers by speculators and intermediaries. (any four)

31. Name a commercial crop of Punjab and Haryana, which is a subsistence crop in Odisha.
Ans: Rice

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 21 -
32. Name any two types of paddy grown in Assam, West Bengal and Odisha.
Ans: Aus, Aman and Boro.

33. Name the inputs in commercial farming.


(HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, irrigation, modern technology)

34. What are the challenges faced by India farmers today?


i. Today Indian Farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our
government is going ahead with reduction in public investment in agriculture sector
particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization.
ii. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
iii. More over reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to
agriculture in the country.
iv. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the
employment in agriculture.

35. Why is the declining share of agriculture in the GDP a matter of serious concern?
Because any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the
economy having wider implications for society.
36. Wheat and rice farming in India are fairly different from each other. Justify the
statement.

NM ISB GEOGRAPHY - 22 -