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Load Factor Examples

A 100 MW generating station delivers


100 MW for 2 hours
50 MW for 6 hours
Shut down for the remaining day
It is also shut down for maintenance for 45 days/year
Calculate the annual load factor?
Total energy produced = {(100 x 2) + (50 x 6)} x 320
= 160000 MWh
Max. demand = 100 x 24 x 320 = 768000 MWh
Load Factor = 160000/768000 = 0.208 = 20.8% 1
Load Factor Examples
One of the simplest
methods to improve the
load factor is to shave the
peaks
Shaving means shifting
some of the load at peak
times to non-peak times

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Demand Factor
Demand Factor = Max. Demand/Connected Load
Demand Factor is less than 1
Knowing Demand Factor is vital in determining the capacity
of the plant equipment
A household has total connect load = 10000 W
Maximum demand of house hold = 4500 W
Demand Factor = 4500/10000 = 0.45
Feeder cable required to supply load to household from
power utility company should be of 4500 W

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Demand Factor
A household has ten, 100 W bulbs
What is the total connected load of light bulbs?
Total connect load of light bulbs = 1000 W
Only six bulbs are turned on at any time, what is the
Maximum Demand?
Maximum demand of household = 600 W
What is the Demand Factor?
Demand Factor = 600/1000 = 0.6
Feeder cable required to supply light bulb load to
household should be of 600 W
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Use of Demand Factor
Feeder conductors should have sufficient Ampere
Capacity to carry the load
The Ampere Capacity does not always be equal to the
total of all loads on connected branch-circuits
Demand factor must be applied to each individual load,
with particular attention to electric motors, which are
very rarely operated at full load

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Use of Demand Factor
As per National Electrical Code (NEC) demand factor may
be applied to the total load
The demand factor permits a feeder ampearcity to be less
than 100 percent of all the branch-circuit loads connected
to it
Demand factor can be applied to calculate the size of the
sub-main which is feeding a Sub panel or a fixed load like
a motor etc
If the panel have total load of 250 kVA , considering a
Demand factor of 0.8, we can size the feeder cable for
250 x 0.8= 200 kVA
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Use of Demand Factor
Demand factors for buildings typically range between
0.50 and 0.80 of the connected load
In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated
on an average at 0.75 for motors
For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals
1

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Demand Factor
Demand Factor For Industrial Load
Text Book of Design of Elect. Installation- Jain
Electrical Load Demand Factor
1 No of Motor 1
Up to 10 Nos of Motor 0.75
Up to 20 Nos of Motor 0.65
Up to 30 Nos of Motor 0.6
Up to 40 Nos of Motor 0.5
Up to 50 Nos of Motor 0.4

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Demand Factor
Demand Factor
Text Book of Design of Elect. Installation- Jain
Utility Demand Factor
Office ,School 0.4
Hospital 0.5
Air Port, Bank, Shops, 0.6
Restaurant, Factory, 0.7
Work Shop, Factory (24Hr Shift) 0.8
Arc Furnace 0.9
Compressor 0.5
Hand tools 0.4
Inductance Furnace 0.8

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Demand Factor
Demand Factor
Text Book of Principal of Power System-V.K.Mehta
Utility Demand Factor
Residence Load (<0.25 KW) 1
Residence Load (<0.5 KW) 0.6
Residence Load (>0.1 KW) 0.5
Restaurant 0.7
Theatre 0.6
Hotel 0.5
School 0.55
Small Industry 0.6
Store 0.7
Motor Load (up to 10HP) 0.75
Motor Load (10HP to 20HP) 0.65
Motor Load (20HP to 100HP) 0.55
Motor Load (Above 100HP) 0.50
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Demand Factor Demand Factor
Saudi Electricity Company Distribution Standard
Utility Demand Factor
Residential 0.6
Commercial 0.7
Flats 0.7
Hotel 0.75
Mall 0.7
Restaurant 0.7
Office 0.7
School 0.8
Common Area in building 0.8
Public Facility 0.75
Street Light 0.9
Indoor Parking 0.8
Outdoor Parking 0.9
Park / Garden 0.8
Hospital 0.8
Workshops 0.6
Ware House 0.7
Farms 0.9
Fuel Station 0.7
Factories 0.9 11
Demand Factor and Load Factor
Introduction to Power Requirement for Building J. Paul Guyer,
Utility Demand Factor (%) Load Factor (%)
Communications buildings 60-65 70-75
Telephone exchange building 55-70 20-25
Air passenger terminal building 65-80 28-32
Aircraft fire and rescue station 25-35 13-17
Aircraft line operations building 65-80 24-28
Academic instruction building 40-60 22-26
Applied instruction building 35-65 24-28
Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory 70-80 22-28
Materials Laboratory 30-35 27-32
Physics Laboratory 70-80 22-28
Electrical and electronics laboratory 20-30 3-7
Cold storage warehouse 70-75 20-25
General warehouse 75-80 23-28
Controlled humidity warehouse 60-65 33-38
Hazardous/flammable storehouse 75-80 20-25
Disposal, salvage, scrap building 35-40 25-20 12
Demand Factor and Load Factor
Introduction to Power Requirement for Building J. Paul Guyer,
Utility Demand Factor (%) Load Factor (%)
Hospital 38-42 45-50
Laboratory 32-37 20-25
K-6 schools 75-80 10-15
7-12 schools 65-70 12-17
Churches 65-70 5-25
Post Office 75-80 20-25
Retail store 65-70 25-32
Bank 75-80 20-25
Supermarket 55-60 25-30
Restaurant 45-75 15-25
Auto repair shop 40-60 15-20
Hobby shop, art/crafts 30-40 25-30

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Demand Factor and Load Factor
Introduction to Power Requirement for Building J. Paul Guyer,
Utility Demand Factor (%) Load Factor (%)
Bowling alley 70-75 10-15
Gymnasium 70-75 20-45
Skating rink 70-75 10-15
Indoor swimming pool 55-60 25-50
Theatres 45-55 8-13
Library 75-80 30-35
Golf clubhouse 75-80 15-20
Museum 75-80 30-35

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Diversity Factor
Sum of individual Max demands
Diversity Factor =
Max.demand on Power Station
A power station supplies load to various types of consumers
whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the
same time
The maximum demand on the power station is always
less than the sum of individual maximum demands of the
consumers
Diversity factor will always be greater than 1
Greater the diversity factor, lesser is the cost of generation
of power

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Diversity Factor Example 1
Two primary feeders supplied by
a transformer
One of the feeders supplies an
industrial load
The other one feeds residential
loads
Determine the Diversity Factor
of the load connected to the
transformer

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Diversity Factor Example 1
Total max. demand
= 2000 + 2000
= 4000 kW
Max. Demand on
transformer
= 3000 kW
Diversity Factor
= 4000/3000 = 1.33

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Diversity Factor Example 2
Diversity Factor is used for main feeders supplying a
number of secondary feeders
Feeder supplies five users with the following load
conditions
On Monday user 1 reaches max. demand of 100 A
On Tuesday user 2 reaches max. demand of 95 A
On Wednesday user 3 reaches max. demand of 85 A
On Thursday user 4 reaches max. demand of 75 A
On Friday user 5 reaches max. demand of 65 A

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Diversity Factor Example 2
Feeders max. demand is 250 A
Sum of total demands = (100 + 95 + 85 + 75 + 65) = 420
Diversity Factor = 420/250 = 1.68

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Diversity Factor Example 3
Calculate the size of a main feeder from substation
switchgear that is supplying five feeders with connected
loads of 400, 350, 300, 250 and 200 kilovolt-amperes
(kVA) with demand factors of 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75
percent respectively. Use a diversity factor of 1.5

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Diversity Factor Example 3
Calculate demand for each feeder
400 kVA 95% = 380 kVA
350 kVA 90% = 315 kVA
300 kVA 85% = 255 kVA
250 kVA 80% = 200 kVA
200 kVA 75% = 150 kVA
The sum of the individual demands is equal to 1,300 kVA
Feeder size = 1300/1.5 = 866.67 kVA

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Diversity Factor Example 4
Use the data
given in load
curve to
determine the
diversity factor
of primary
feeder

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Diversity Factor Example 4
Sum of max. individual demands ?
= 2300 kW
100 kW street lighting load
1000 kW residential load
1200 kW industrial load
Max primary feeder load ?
= 1800 kW
Diversity Factor = 2300/1800 = 1.27

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Use of Diversity Factor
The Diversity Factor is applied to each group of loads (e.g.
being supplied from a distribution or sub-distribution
board)
Diversity factor is used to estimate the load of a particular
node in the system, the total load required for a facility or
to size the Transformer
Diversity factors have been developed for main feeders
supplying a number of feeders, and typically 1.2 to 1.3 for
Residence Consumer and 1.1 to 1.2 for Commercial Load,
1.50 to 2.00 for power and lighting loads

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Use of Diversity Factor
Note: Reciprocal of the above ratio (will be less than 1)
also is used in some other countries (Coincidence Factor)
Diversity factor is mostly used for distribution feeder size
and transformer as well as to determine the maximum
peak load
The residential load has the highest diversity factor
Industrial loads have low diversity factors usually of 1.4
Street light practically unity and other loads vary between
these limits

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Diversity Factor in Distribution
Network
(Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers by Fink and Beaty)

Elements of System Residential Commercial General Power Large Industrial


Between individual
2.00 1.46 1.45
users
Between transformers 1.30 1.30 1.35 1.05
Between feeders 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.05
Between substations 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
From users to
2.00 1.46 1.44
transformers
From users to feeder 2.60 1.90 1.95 1.15

From users to substation 3.00 2.18 2.24 1.32

From users to
3.29 2.40 2.46 1.45
generating station
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Diversity Factor in Distribution
Diversity Factor for Apartment block
Network Apartment
2 To 4
Diversity Factor in % (ks)
1
Coincidence Factor % (ks) 5To 19 0.78
10To 14 0.63
15To 19 0.53
20To 24 0.49
25To 29 0.46
30 To 34 0.44
35 To 39 0.42
40To 40 0.41
50 To Above 0.40
Diversity Factor as per IEC 60439
Circuits Function Diversity Factor in % (ks)
Lighting 90%
Heating and air conditioning 80%
Socket-outlets 70%
Lifts and catering hoist
For the most powerful motor 100%
For the second most powerful motor 75%
For all motors 80% 27
Diversity Factor in Distribution
Diversity Factor for Apartment block
Network Apartment
2 To 4
Diversity Factor in % (ks)
1
Diversity Factor as per IEC 60439
5To 19 0.78
Circuits Function Diversity
10To 14 Factor in % (ks)0.63
Lighting 15To 19 90% 0.53
Heating and air conditioning 20To 24 80% 0.49
Socket-outlets 25To 29 70% 0.46
Lifts and catering hoist 30 To 34 0.44
For the most powerful motor 35 To 39 100% 0.42
For the second most powerful motor 40To 40 75% 0.41
For all motors 50 To Above 80% 0.40

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Classroom Group Assignment 01
Topic: Calculation of Demand and Diversity Factor
Wednesday, 23rd August 2017

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