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ContingencyTheoriesofLeadership(cont.

)
PathGoalModel
Statesthattheleadersjobistoassisthisorher
followersinattainingtheirgoalsandtoprovidedirection
orsupporttoensurethattheirgoalsarecompatible
withthoseoftheorganization.
Dependingonthesituation,leadersassumedifferent
leadershipstylesatdifferenttimes:
Directiveleader.
Supportiveleader.
Participativeleader.
Achievementorientedleader.
PathGoalModel
Pathgoaltheory(cont.)
Path-goal theory proposes two situational or contingency
variables that moderate the leadership behavior-outcome
relationship: those in the environment that are outside the
control of the follower (factors including task structure,
formal authority system, and the work group) and those
that are part of the personal characteristics of the follower
(including locus of control, experience, and perceived
ability).
ContemporaryViews
of
Leadership
ContemporaryViewsofLeadership

TransactionalLeadership
Leaderswhoguideormotivatetheirfollowersin
thedirectionofestablishedgoalsbyclarifyingrole
andtaskrequirements.
TransformationalLeadership
Leaderswhoinspirefollowerstoexceedtheirown
selfinterestsforthegoodoftheorganizationby
clarifyingroleandtaskrequirements.
4.Transforma onalLeadership
Thetransformationalleaderissomeonewith
theabilitytochangeanorganizationalculture
bycreatinganewvisionfortheorganization.
Whereasthetransactionaltheoriesof
leadershipapplytoleadershipfunctionsand
behaviourwithinanexistingorganization
culture,transformationalleadershipisabout
leadershiptochangeaculture.
ContemporaryViewsofLeadership(cont)
CharismaticLeadership
Anexcited,selfconfidentleaderwhose
personalityandactionsinfluencepeopletoactin
certainways.
Characteristicsofcharismaticleaders:
Haveavision.
Areabletoarticulate(clear) thevision.
Arewillingtotakeriskstoachievethevision.
Aresensitivetotheenvironmentandfollowerneeds.
Exhibit(display) behaviorsthatareoutoftheordinary.
CharismaticLeadership
Charismaticleadershiptheory
Followersmakeattributionsofheroicor
extraordinaryleadershipabilitieswhenthey
observecertainbehaviors.
Peopleworkingforcharismaticleadersare
motivatedtoexertextraworkeffortand,because
theylikeandrespecttheirleaders,express
greatersatisfaction.
Charismaleadershipappearstobemost
appropriatewhenthefollowers taskhasa
principlescomponentorwhentheenvironment
involvesahighdegreeofstressanduncertainty.
ContemporaryViewsofLeadership(cont)
VisionaryLeadership
Aleaderwhocreatesandarticulatesarealistic,
credible,andattractivevisionofthefuturethat
improvesuponthepresentsituation.
Visionaryleadershavetheabilityto:
Explainthevisiontoothers.
communicatethevisionnotjustverballybut
throughbehavior.
Extendorapplythevisiontodifferentleadership
contexts.
ContemporaryViewsofLeadership(cont)
TeamLeadershipCharacteristics:
Havingacceptancetoshareinformation.
Beingabletotrustothersandtogiveupauthority.
Understandingwhentointervene(getinvolved)
TeamLeadersJob
Managingtheteamsexternalboundary.
Facilitatingtheteamprocess;includescoaching,
facilitating,handlingproblems,reviewingteamand
individualperformance,training,andcommunication.
TeamLeadershipRoles
Whentousethesuitable
leadershipstyle
Leadership Styles
Autocratic(Authoritarian).
Bureaucratic.
Democratic.
Coercive.
Transactional.
Transformational.
LaissezFaire.
Autocratic (Authoritarian)
Manager retainspower(classicalapproach).

Manager hasdecisionmakingauthority.

Manager doesnotconsultemployeesforinput.

Subordinates expectedtoobeyorderswithout
explanations.

Motivationprovidedthroughstructuredrewards
andpunishments.
Whentouse Autocratic
New,untrainedemployees.
Employeesaremotivated.
Employeesdonotrespondtoanyother
leadershipstyle.
Highvolumeproductionneeds.
Limitedtimefordecisionmaking.
Managerspowerischallengedbyan
employee.
Whoare Autocratic Leaders?
Bureaucratic
Managermanagesbythebook.

Everythingmustbedoneaccordingto
procedureorpolicy.

Ifitisntcoveredbythebook,themanager
referstothenextlevelabovehimorher.
Whentouse Bureaucratic

Performingroutinetasks.

Needforstandards/procedures.

Useofdangerousordelicateequipment.

Safetyorsecuritytrainingbeingconducted.

Tasksthatrequiretreatmentnotes.
Whoare
Bureaucratic Leaders?
Democratic
Oftenreferredtoasparticipativestyle.
Keepsemployeesinformed.
Sharesdecisionmakingandproblemsolving
responsibilities.
Coach whohasthefinalsay,but
Gathersinformationfromstaffmembersbefore
makingdecisions.
Democratic (cont.)
Helpemployeesevaluatetheirown
performance.
Allowsemployeestoestablishgoals.
Encouragesemployeestogrowonthejoband
bepromoted.
Recognizesandencouragesachievement.
Canproducehighqualityandhighquantity
workforlongperiodsoftime.
Whentouse Democratic

Tokeepemployeesinformed.
Toencourageemployeestoshareindecision
makingandproblemsolving.
Toprovideopportunitiesforemployeestodevelopa
highsenseofpersonalgrowthandjobsatisfaction.
Complexproblemsthatrequirealotsofinput.
Toencourageteambuildingandparticipation.
Whoare
Democratic Leaders?
Theearoftheleadermust
ringwiththevoicesofthe
people.

Woodrow Wilson
Coercive
Powerfromapersonsauthoritytopunish.

Mostevidenttypesofpoweraleaderhas.

Goodleadersusecoercivepoweronlyasalast
optionintodayssophisticatedandcomplex
workplace.
WhentouseCoercive

Tomeetveryshorttermgoals.

Whenleftwithnootherchoice.

Intimesofcrisis.
Whoare
Coercive Leaders?
Transactional
Motivatefollowersbyappealingtotheirownself
interest

Motivatebytheexchange process.
EX:businessownersexchangestatusandwagesforthework
effortoftheemployee.

Focusesontheaccomplishmentoftasks&good
workerrelationshipsinexchangefordesirable
rewards.

Encourageleadertoadapttheirstyleandbehaviorto
meetexpectationsoffollowers
Whentouse Transactional

Leaderwantstobeincontrol.
Whentherearefuturedeadlinesthat
mustbemet.
Relationshipisshortterm.
AResultoftheLeadership
WeKnew...

We made workers into robots; we


made them into machines
...Now,wewantthemtobecomea
differentkindofperson:tocomeup
withnewideas.

JackSmith,CEO,GeneralMotors
Transformational
Charismaticandvisionary.
Inspirefollowerstoexceedtheirselfinterestforthe
organization.
requesttofollowers'principlesandvalues.
Inspirefollowerstothinkaboutproblemsinnewor
differentways.
Commonstrategiesusedtoinfluencefollowers
includevisionandframing
Research indicates that transformational leadership is more
strongly correlated with lower turnover rates, higher
productivity, and higher employee satisfaction.
Transformational (cont.)
spearsfeelingsofconfidence,admirationand
commitment.
Stimulatesfollowersintellectually,affecting
themtodevelopnewwaystothinkabout
problems.
Usescontingentrewardstopositivelyreinforce
desirableperformances.
Flexibleandinnovative.
When to use
Transformational
Whenleaderswantmemberstobeanactive
partoftheorganizationandhaveownership
toit.
Whenleadersarebuildingasenseofpurpose.
Whentheorganizationhasalongtermplan.
Whenpeopleneedtobemotivated.
"(He) possessed the gift of
silence."

(Comment by President John Adams about


George Washington)
Laissez-Faire
Alsoknownasthehandsoff style.
Littleornodirection.
Givesfollowersasmuchfreedomaspossible.
Allauthorityorpowerisgiventothefollowers.
Followersmustdeterminegoals,makedecisions,
andresolveproblemsontheirown.
Whentouse
Laissez-Faire
Employeesarehighlyskilled,experienced,and
educated.
Employeeshavepleasureintheirworkandthe
drivetodoitsuccessfullyontheirown.
Outsideexperts,suchasstaffspecialistsor
consultantsarebeingused.
Employeesaretrustworthyandexperienced.
OtherReferencedTheories
Theory X and Theory Y
TheoryXandTheoryYeachrepresentdifferent
waysinwhichleadersviewemployees.

TheoryX isthetraditionalviewofdirectionand
controlbymanagers.

TheoryY istheviewthatindividualand
organizationalgoalscanbeintegrated.
Management/
Leader

Tight control, lots


of rules, no
freedom

Staff/
Followers
Staff/
Followers

Lots of freedom,
creativity & responsibility

Management/
Leader
Selecting a Style
Somepeoplearemotivatedbyreward.
Somepeoplearemotivatedby
punishment.
Socialsystemsworkbestwithachainof
command.
Whenpeoplehaveagreedtodoajob,a
partofthedealisthattheygiveup
authoritytotheirleader.
TooMuchLeadership
Micromanagement
Thistermhasemergedinthelast
decadetodescribesituationsin
whichleaderssupervisetooclosely
anddonotdelegate.Refusingto
allowsubordinatestohaveanyreal
authorityorresponsibilityso
subordinateswillnotbeeffective
managers.
TooMuchLeadership
Micromanagement(cont.)
Whenthisoccursthepersonaland
professionalgrowthofsubordinatesisstifled.
Micromanagementcandriveemployeesto
extremestressandevenviolence.Itdoesnot
makeanincompetentemployeemore
competent;itonlydamagesinterpersonal
relationshipsanddistractsmanagersfrom
developmentofoveralllongtermstrategyfor
theunitandfortheorganization.
Overmanagement

Avariationofmicromanagementisover
management,whentherearetoomany
managersforthetask.
Managersstruggletofindnewrolesfor
themselvesandwaystoretaintheirlongterm
standingsourcesofauthority.
MoralLeadership
Aleadershouldnotjustbeexpectedtobean
expediteroforganizationalresourcestomeet
agoal,butshouldalsobeabletokeepthe
workforceinvoluntaryacceptanceofmoral
codesandvaluesthroughtherespectand
trustgeneratedviacharismaticandreferent
power.