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Angela Merkel - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.


Angela Merkel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angela Dorothea Merkel (/ˈæŋɡələ ˈmɜːrkəl/; German:
[aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛʶkl̩ ];[a] née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a
Angela Merkel
German politician and the Chancellor of Germany since 2005.
She has also been the leader of the centre-right Christian
Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000. Merkel has been
widely described as the de facto leader of the European
Union, and the leader of the Free World.[7]

Merkel was born in Hamburg and moved to East Germany as
an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a
pastorate in Perleberg. She obtained a doctorate in quantum
chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until
1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions
of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the
first democratically elected East German Government headed
by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German
reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag Angela Merkel in July 2010
for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been
Chancellor of Germany
reelected ever since. As the protégée of Chancellor Helmut
Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Incumbent
Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, and became Assumed office
the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature 22 November 2005
Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994. After her party lost
President Horst Köhler
the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-
Christian Wulff
General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female
leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal Joachim Gauck
that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble. Frank-Walter
Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed
Vice Chancellor Franz Müntefering
Germany's first female Chancellor at the head of a grand
coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, the
Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic
Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the Guido Westerwelle
CDU obtained the largest share of the vote and Merkel was Philipp Rösler
able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Sigmar Gabriel
Party (FDP).[8] At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU Preceded by Gerhard Schröder
won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a
Leader of the Christian Democratic
second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of
its representation in the Bundestag.[9] In the 2017 federal
election the CDU again became the largest party; Merkel is Incumbent
expected to form a Jamaica coalition with the FDP and the Assumed office
Alliance 90/The Greens.[10] 10 April 2000

In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and Deputy Volker Bouffier
played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon Ursula von der Leyen
and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent Julia Klöckner

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Angela Merkel - Wikipedia

priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic Armin Laschet
relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the Thomas Strobl
financial crisis at the European and international level, and
General Secretary Ruprecht Polenz
she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy,
health care reform, problems concerning future energy Laurenz Meyer
development and more recently her government's approach to Ronald Pofalla
the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Hermann Gröhe
Chancellorship.[11] On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the Peter Tauber
longest-serving incumbent head of government in the Preceded by Wolfgang Schäuble
European Union and she is currently the senior G7 leader.
Chair of the CDU/CSU Parliamentary
In office
Contents 22 September 2002 – 18 September 2005

1 Background and early life Deputy Horst Seehofer
2 Early political career Ronald Pofalla
2.1 Leader of the opposition Preceded by Friedrich Merz
2.1.1 2005 national election Succeeded by Volker Kauder
3 Chancellor of Germany
General Secretary of the Christian
3.1 Domestic policy
3.1.1 Immigration Democratic Union
3.1.2 Refugee and migration policy In office
3.2 Foreign policy 7 November 1998 – 10 April 2000
3.3 Eurozone crisis Leader Wolfgang Schäuble
3.4 Social expenditure
Preceded by Peter Hintze
3.5 Cabinets
3.6 Approval ratings Succeeded by Ruprecht Polenz
3.7 International status Federal Minister for the Environment,
4 Personal life Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
4.1 Religion
In office
4.2 Ancestry
17 November 1994 – 26 October 1998
5 Honours and awards
5.1 Honours Chancellor Helmut Kohl
5.1.1 National honours Preceded by Klaus Töpfer
5.1.2 Foreign honours Succeeded by Jürgen Trittin
5.2 Honorary degrees
5.3 Awards Federal Minister for Women and Youth
6 Comparisons In office
7 Controversies 18 January 1991 – 17 November 1994
8 In the arts and media Chancellor Helmut Kohl
9 See also
Preceded by Ursula Lehr
10 Notes
11 References Succeeded by Claudia Nolte
12 Further reading Member of the Bundestag
13 External links

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and his wife Herlind (née Jentzsch). a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg. her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow Signature (a quarter of Perleberg in Brandenburg). was a German policeman Kasner of Polish ethnicity. when Angela was just three months old. West Germany. Poland). In 1954.[15] He married Hamburg.[21] Merkel's paternal (1977–1982) grandfather was originally Catholic but the entire family Joachim Sauer (1998– converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her present) father. the daughter of Horst Kasner Vorpommern- (1926–2011. In her childhood and youth. the official youth movement sponsored by the ruling Socialist Unity Party. which was then in East Germany.[22] Like most young people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). however. at the Academy of Merkel and Lothar de Maizière. but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education. and her sister Irene Kasner. her brother Marcus Kasner. born in In office 1928 in Danzig (now Gdańsk. a German from Berlin. Merkel has stated that she was secretary for culture. Merkel was a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ). Germany) 1930 they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel has mentioned her Polish Christian Democratic heritage on several occasions. she was confirmed. Her paternal Born Angela Dorothea grandfather.[12][13] a Lutheran pastor and a Greifswald I native of Berlin.Angela Merkel . she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. and Gertrud Alma née Awakening Drange. 1990 Sciences. [17] who later studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg Alma mater Leipzig University and Hamburg. a physicist. in Constituency Vorpommern-Rügen – Hamburg. West Merkel's grandmother Margarethe. Merkel Nordvorpommern – was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi". In (now Hamburg. which involved 3 of 25 9/28/2017.Wikipedia https://en. and Germany relocated to her hometown where he worked in the Background and early life Assumed office 22 September 2013 Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954. Ludwik Kaźmierczak. She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe.[25] Later. né Kaźmierczak). (1989–1990) Poland) Emil Drange.[23][24] Membership was nominally voluntary. who had taken part in Poland's struggle for 17 July 1954 independence in the early 20th century. She has two younger siblings. a teacher of English 18 January 1991 – 22 September 2013 and Latin. 3:04 PM .[14] Personal details Merkel is of German and Polish descent. The family moved to Templin and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km (56 mi) north of East Berlin. but her Polish roots became Union better known as a result of a 2013 biography. derived Rügen from her last name Kasner. an Constituency Stralsund – occupational therapist. which was common in East Germany.[16][17][18][19] Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Political party Democratic Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch. Instead.[20] (1990–present) Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration Spouse(s) Ulrich Merkel from West Germany to East Germany.wikipedia.

serving as Minister for Women and Youth under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. with backing of the local leadership of the SED party.Wikipedia https://en. rer. which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification. Although she did not participate in the crowd celebrations the night the wall came down. Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU.[27] Merkel was educated at the University of Leipzig.Angela Merkel .[26] At school. and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig. the GDR's secret police. the project was allowed to proceed. becoming the first female leader of a 4 of 25 9/28/2017. which gave her greater political visibility and a platform from which to build her political career. and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr.[32][29] In April 1990. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU — including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader.[35] She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble.[34] which is in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen.wikipedia. one month later Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement. she was almost immediately appointed to the activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet authors.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986. She has won re-election for this constituency at the six federal elections since. she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl"). she learned to speak Russian fluently.[31] Early political career The fall of the Berlin Wall served as the catalyst for Merkel's political career. where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978.[32] Following the first (and only) multi-party election of the East German state. Wolfgang Schäuble — Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei. a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. using the excuse that she could not keep secrets well enough to be an effective spy.[22][25] While a student. and was elected to the Bundestag for the constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen.[33] Merkel had impressed de Maiziere with her adept dealing with journalists questioning the role of a party leader.[35] a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister. as a secret informant for police. joining the new party Democratic Awakening. the first since reunification.[29] Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. the Democratic Awakening merged with the East German CDU.[37] Leader of the opposition After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election. Merkel declined. she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière.[35][36] In 1994. After her first election.[30] she worked as a researcher and published several papers. she was promoted to becoming Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety. Merkel stood for election at the 1990 federal election. 3:04 PM . breaking the long- standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. As a condition for getting the job.[28] Near the end of her studies at the University of Leipzig. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999. Merkel sought an assistant professorship at an engineering school. however. nat. Merkel was told she would need to agree to report on her colleagues to the Stasi. Wolfgang Schnur.

[41] Merkel argued that Germany should phase out nuclear power less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned. has deep Catholic roots.[46] This was compounded by 5 of 25 9/28/2017. she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union. as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead. Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany. she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber. Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader.[45] She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof.[43] 2005 national election On 30 May 2005. She advocated German labour law changes.[39] He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. invasion of Iraq. to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder. Her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls. socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany. In the spring of 2003.wikipedia.Wikipedia https://en. again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and polls indicated that many Germans wanted to see her become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. and its Bavarian sister party. Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. However.[38] Her election surprised many observers.S. However. as Minister of Finance. was eased out to make way Merkel with Vladimir Putin. specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. the CSU.[44] Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany. Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag.Angela Merkel . Merkel came out in favour of the U. in addition to her role as CDU Leader. In doing so.[40] Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda for Germany's economic and social system. and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU). She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive. Friedrich Merz. confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. while the CDU is a male-dominated. 2002 for Merkel.[42] Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. After Stoiber's defeat in German party on 10 April 2000. the CDU/CSU campaign suffered[44] when Merkel. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform. a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert. because companies could not easily control labour costs when business is slow. defying strong public opposition. who had held the post prior to the 2002 election. 3:04 PM .

and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.wikipedia. and that it was this issue on which her government would be judged. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT.[9] Domestic policy Immigration In October 2010. Merkel was still favored to win a decisive victory based on opinion polls.[48] On the eve of the election.2% (CDU 27.[49][50] However. but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. with the CDU/CSU winning 35. Merkel stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment.[55] stating that: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it" does 6 of 25 9/28/2017.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34. Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%). but formed another grand coalition with the SPD due to the FDP's failure to obtain the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament. social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax. some of which differed from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. she remained considerably less popular than Schröder.[53] When announcing the coalition agreement.[49] The result was so close.Angela Merkel . Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals. the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.[50] Chancellor of Germany On 22 November 2005.[49] A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship.[51] Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005.8%/CSU 7. 3:04 PM .[54] Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats.Wikipedia https://en. and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag.[35][49] Neither the SPD- Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners. the Free Democratic Party.[52] Merkel with President Donald Trump.[49] On 18 September 2005. In the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU parties emerged as winners. Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed".org/wiki/Angela_Merkel Merkel's proposal to increase VAT[47] to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. 2017 Reports at the time indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies. after three weeks of negotiations. Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD.2%. both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory.

in March. rose significantly and Merkel pledged to give general refuge to Syrians in Germany fleeing from the civil war. The same year. having been present at a record eleven summits as of 2016.[66] In recognition of the importance of China to the German Merkel with Russian President Vladimir economy.[61] Merkel enjoyed good relations with former U. Merkel meets with Argentine President Mauricio Macri in Berlin in 2016.Wikipedia https://en. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials. Refugee and migration policy In the wake of the 2015 European migrant crisis. Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here. Presidents George W. She hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit.[63] On 25 September 2007. Russia. She signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. This has added to a growing debate within Germany[58] on the levels of immigration. by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to Putin in Sochi. including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.[64] In 2006 Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy. particularly Syria. One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic not work[56] and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind.[68] 7 of 25 9/28/2017.[62] Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.S. with the absence of Stephen Harper.[59] subsequently discontinuing the enforcement of EU regulations for asylum seekers.[67] In 2015.[65] Merkel favors the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union. Bush and Barack Obama. May 2017 China since assuming office in 2005. Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20 meeting since the very first in 2008. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor.wikipedia. the number of people coming from African nations as well as from the Middle East. its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society. that is what defines us. but she received little support from others in Berlin. but stated in December 2012 that its implementation depends on reforms in Ukraine."[57] She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values.Angela Merkel . China's President Xi Jinping visited Germany.[60] Foreign policy Merkel's foreign policy has focused on strengthening European cooperation and international trade agreements. 3:04 PM .

wikipedia. including Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.[73] Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full. at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek's Road to Serfdom from her handbag. Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits.[76] 8 of 25 9/28/2017. She went on to say that Europe could only maintain its prosperity by being innovative and measuring itself against the best. with The Economist saying that: If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic. after all. two days later.. It can be boiled down to three statistics. On 4 October 2008. Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk and Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi. with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit In June 2017. the Hannover.S.[70] Merkel. Merkel criticized the draft of new U. 2013.[76] adding that: She produces graphs of unit labour costs . so too is her plan for implementing it.[73] Social expenditure Angela Merkel at the 2012 congress of the European People's Party (EPP) At the World Economic Forum in Davos. but that it accounted for almost 50% of global social expenditure. The following day. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population. it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation. she said that Europe had only 7% of the global population and produced only 25% of the global GDP.[69] Eurozone crisis Following major falls in worldwide stock markets Merkel with Barack Obama in in September 2008. Germany. following the Irish 2008 Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts.[71] Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending.[75] The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis. The three figures are 7%. a Saturday.Angela Merkel . sanctions against Russia that target EU–Russia energy projects. April 2016 German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries. it cannot continue to be so generous. a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. a move she strongly criticised. 25% and 50%.Wikipedia https://en.[74] Since then. which was agreed on 6 October. this comparison has become a central element in major speeches..[72] However. on 6 October 2008. 3:04 PM .

and her approval rating reached an all- time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014. Der Spiegel reported that Merkel had "evidently decided to run again in 2017".[85] Half of Germans did not want her to serve a fourth term in office compared to 42% in favor. and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005. Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as party chairman. according to a poll taken in October 2016. Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany.[87] According to another poll taken in November 2016. her approval rating had been found to have risen again. 3:04 PM . the lowest since 2011.Angela Merkel .[84] According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016) The Financial Times commented: Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness.[86] However.[78] of the coalition agreement for the 18th election period of the In 2013. The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013. Ostensibly responding to this. which he did in November.[77][b] Cabinets The first cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005. the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. with their preferred coalition partner. Edmund Stoiber (CSU).[81] An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%. resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was Angela Merkel at the signing sworn in on 28 October 2009. CSU.[82] However. 9 of 25 9/28/2017.Wikipedia https://en. Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German Bundestag. Separate conferences of the CDU.[88] According to a poll carried out just days after the 2016 Berlin Attack. she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor).[83] Merkel's approval rating dropped to 54% in October 2015. At the beginning of August 2015. achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957.[79] However. who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology. 54% of Germans were found to be satisfied with work of Merkel as Chancellor. announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. On 31 October 2005. December 2013 history. the CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949. during the European migrant crisis. she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population. 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancellor candidature of Merkel in 2017. the FDP.[80] Approval ratings Midway through her second term. after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD.

The EKBO is a church of the Prussian Union. 15% Linder (FDP). The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. 39% Seehofer (CSU). Joachim [106][107] Sauer.[103] became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998.[97] Following the election of Donald Trump to the U. Merkel has twice been named the world's second most powerful person following Vladimir Putin by Forbes magazine. who has largely remained out of the media spotlight.wikipedia. Merkel was described by The New York Times as "the Liberal West's Last Defender."[99][100] Former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton described Merkel in 2017 as "the most important leader in the free world. Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia (German: Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz – EKBO).Wikipedia https://en. 2009 Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995. 32% Schulz (SPD).e. 20% Wagenknecht (Left party)."[98] since 2016 she has been described by numerous commentators as the "leader of the free world. attend games of the national team in her official capacity. Merkel was named the most Biden.Angela Merkel . Michelle Obama. They first met in 1981. Putin claims he did not mean to scare in which it was asked which political leader(s) Germans trust to solve their country's problems.[90][91][92][93][94][95] On 26 March 2014. "I understand why he has to do this – to prove he's a man. Personal life In 1977 at the age of 23. in a move reminiscent of Germany's first chancellor. 25% Özdemir (Greens).S. the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman.[89] International status Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor.[102] Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer. Vladimir Putin. Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel and took his surname. [96] In May 2016.[109] Before the 2004 merger 10 of 25 9/28/2017. brought in his pet Labrador during a press conference in 2007. 56% named Merkel.[105] She is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to Barack Obama. with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Merkel with Petro Poroshenko and Joe Free World". 7 February 2015 powerful woman in the world for a record tenth time by Forbes. 35% Gabriel (SPD). . 3:04 PM . Merkel."[101] She is currently the senior G7 leader. In December 2015. and her husband. both Reformed and Lutheran) church body under the umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD).[104] She has no children. and just 10% for Petry (AfD). but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage. Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year."[108] Religion Angela Merkel is a Lutheran member of the Evangelical Church in Berlin. though Merkel later observed. He's afraid of his own weakness.. presidency in November 2016. Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union.. a United Protestant (i.

Bartłomiej Kaźmierczak (1828–?) 9. We as Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs. Angela Dorothea Merkel née Kasner (born 1954)."[110] She also publicly declared that Germany suffers not Merkel speaking at the 2011 from "too much Islam" but "too little Christianity". she belonged to the former.Angela Merkel .org/wiki/Angela_Merkel of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Church in Silesian Upper Lusatia (both also being a part of the EKD). Apolonia Bielejewicz (1826–1903) 2. In 2012.Wikipedia https://en. Ludwik Wojciechowski 4. Anna Kaźmierczak (1867–1943) 19. 3:04 PM . Margarethe Pörschke 1. school administrator and senator in the Free City of Danzig 26. policeman 18. I believe in God and religion is also my constant companion. teacher. Horst Kasner né Kaźmierczak (1926–2011). and has been for the whole of my life. Merkel said. Johann Christoph Jentzsch 12.[111] German Evangelical Church Assembly in Dresden.wikipedia. Anna Marie Hanke 6. Caroline Wilhelmine Ehrenberg 11 of 25 9/28/2017. possibly Josef Wojciechowski 8. regarding her faith: "I am a member of the evangelical church. landowner (Gutsbesitzer) 25. Ancestry Ancestors of Angela Merkel 16. Friedrich Wilhelm Jentzsch. Chancellor of Germany 24. Lutheran pastor 5. Wilhelmine Pauline Minna Wilde 27. Ludwig Marian Kasner né Kaźmierczak (1896–1959). Friedrich Carl Wilde 13. Willi Jentzsch (1886–1936).

master miller in Unruhstadt 14.wikipedia. Emma Wachs (1871–1935) Honours and awards Honours National honours Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Emil Drange (1866–1913). Carl Gottfried Drange.[127][128][129] On 23 May 2013. Herlind Jentzsch (1928–) 28.Wikipedia https://en. Emilie Juliane Günther 7. she was awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig 3. Special Class[112] Foreign honours Austria: Grand Cross of the Order of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria. she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University 12 of 25 9/28/2017. Gertrud Alma Drange 15. Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. city clerk of Elbing 29.Angela Merkel . 3:04 PM . Special Class[113] Bulgaria: Grand Cross of the Order of the Balkan Mountains[114][115][116] Israel: Recipient of the President's Medal[117] Italy: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic[118] Lithuania: Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Vytautas the Great[119][120] Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit[121] Peru: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru Portugal: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Infante Henry Saudi Arabia: Grand Officer of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud United States of America: Presidential Medal of Freedom[c][122][123] Honorary degrees In 2007.[125] University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008[126] and Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca.[124] In June 2008. Romania on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.

She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity. she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa jointly by the Ghent University and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. W. India: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013) In December 2015.C. Michael Blumenthal. she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit. and 2016. she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014 On 28 November 2012. 3:04 PM . 2007. she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. 2015. 2008. Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady".[131] Awards India: Recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding[132] In 2006. the Leo Baeck Institute. the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009. In January 2017. she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Comenius University in Bratislava. 2011.[139] On 31 May 2011. and even "The Iron Frau.Angela Merkel .Wikipedia https://en. 2013." all alluding to Thatcher. In November 2013. 2012. from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum[142] Comparisons As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist. She received the award for International understanding. Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. she was named Time magazine's Person of the Year. Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.[140] Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012. Germany.[130] In May 2017. "Iron Girl".org/wiki/Angela_Merkel Nijmegen. 2009. the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D. who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany. she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Bern. awarded Angela Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal.[135] Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006. 2014.[137] On 16 June 2010.S. she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged.[136] New Statesman named Angela Merkel in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.[138] On 21 September 2010. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.[133][134] In March 2008. she received the Elie Wiesel Award.[141] For the Year 2017. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin. a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry.wikipedia. she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin. The medal was presented by former U. In November 2014. whose nickname was "The Iron Lady" (Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University in 13 of 25 9/28/2017. In September 2015. Merkel was awarded the title of Doctrix Honoris Causa by the University of Helsinki.

[150] At the same time she condemned a planned By opening Germany's borders to burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida. business or history. According to her personal statements. 3:04 PM . who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy.[157] The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"). Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA. which was critical of the Muslim immigration. and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades". which was founded in 2013.[159] In July 2013.[143] Later in her tenure.[158] The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany. Sarrazin's approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.[144] She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor". She studied physics. Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother")."[156] Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.Angela Merkel .S. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin. said by Der Spiegel to refer to an idealised mother figure from the 1950s and 1960s. in reference to Otto von Bismarck. among other professions. the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West[147]). [151] The refugees fleeing Middle East. and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. Merkel is also the first born after World War II.wikipedia.[148] Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far. Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar. both Donald Trump and Business Insider writer Josh Barro have described Merkel as being similar to Hillary chemistry). President Barack Obama in 14 of 25 9/28/2017. as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable. and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War.[160][161] During a visit of U.[146] Conservative leaders meet at congress of European People's Party in 2012 In addition to being the first female German chancellor. was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The Europe. her predecessors studied law. many Central Council of Muslims in Germany [152][153] and the Left critics have blamed Merkel for Party [154] (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party [d][155] encouraging the mass migration into criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis.[145] Stateside. Controversies Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover[149] to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard.Wikipedia https://en. Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. The wording was criticised as undemocratic.

wikipedia. According to Merkel.[174][175][176] 15 of 25 9/28/2017. stand against one. also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence. accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble. 2014) and "Tervuren" (2016).org/wiki/Angela_Merkel Berlin. "Tervuren") by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde: "Bruges" (Edinburgh Festival. The parliamentary Germany's BND has covertly monitored group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of European firms and officials at the Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question request of the NSA. and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. the sister party of Merkel's CDU. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voices dissatisfaction with Merkel. Merkel criticised American efforts to renege on earlier commitments on climate change. Horst Seehofer. criticised Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East: "We're now in a state of mind without rules. She reiterated the U.[162][163] Merkel compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. (German: Das Internet ist Neuland für uns alle.”[172] In the arts and media Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up the Europeans Trilogy ("Bruges". and she would seek to have talks.[164] In July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two. June 2013 agreement between the two countries. 3:04 PM . "Here we have the situation where six members. the discussions were difficult and marred by dissent. without system and without order because of a German decision. she has been parodied by Kate McKinnon since 2013. Bavarian State Premier and leader of CSU."[169] Seehofer attacked Merkel policies in sharp language. Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all". threatened to sue the government in the high court. or even seven if you want to add the EU.S.Angela Merkel . In response Susan Rice pledged that the USA will desist from spying on her personally.[171] At the conclusion of the May 2017 Group of Seven's leaders in Sicily.[168] In October 2015.[165] why so many violent people refer to the Quran.[173] On the American sketch-comedy Saturday Night Live. remained Germany's most important ally.Wikipedia https://en.) This statement led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.[170] Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.[166] Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015[167] induced criticism within her party. A character named Merkel. Berlin. "Antwerp". but said there would not be a no-espionage Protestors rally against NSA's mass surveillance.

see Tausch. or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors d. Wells. b. J. Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it". Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in Der Welt.oecd.2139/ssrn. (2008). doi:10. Collins English Dictionary. 2.The Unexpected. Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency) (4 September 2015). Tausch also claims that the data reveal the successful social Keynesianism of the Anglo-Saxon overseas democracies. Most probably. she said.[178] See also Willkommenskultur Notes a. which are in stark contrast to the savings agenda in the framework of the European "fiscal pact".org/wiki/Angela_Merkel On the British sketch-comedy Tracey Ullman's Show. Arno. said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. The Duden Pronunciation Dictionary[5] lists [ˈaŋɡela] and [aŋˈɡeːla]. among them the major other Western democracies. ˈɑːŋ-/. in a paper published by the Social Science Research Network in New York has contended that a re-analysis of the Merkel hypothesis about the distribution of global social expenditure based on 169 countries for which we have recent ILO Social Protection data and World Bank GNI data in real purchasing power reveals that the 27 EU countries with complete data spend only 33% of global world social protection expenditures. Merkel prefers the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable[6] ([aŋˈɡeːla] with a long /eː/). a documentary film Angela Merkel . C. while the 13 non-EU-OECD members.Wikipedia https://en. According to her biographer. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. the author claims."[155] References 1. comedian Tracey Ullman has parodied Merkel to international acclaim with German media dubbing her impersonation as the best spoof of Merkel in the world. The English pronunciation of her first name is /ˈæŋɡələ. a story about her unexpected rise to power from an East German physicist to the most powerful woman in the world. Merkel's 50% ratio is the product of a mere. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that.htm>.[177] In 2016. Der Anteil Europas Und Die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World.2656113 c. Pearson Education Limited.[1][2] In German. was produced by Broadview TV and MDR in collaboration with Arte and Das Erste. 16 of 25 9/28/2017. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons. The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United Merkel . simple projection of data for the OECD-member countries onto the world level <http://www. the BRICS 18% and the Rest of the World 9% of global social protection expenditures. 3:04 PM . "Merkel".[3][4] There are different ways to pronounce the name Angela in German. it serves to heat up the debate. spend 40% of global social protection expenditures. and that of her last name /ˈmɜːrkəl/. The economist Arno Tausch from Corvinus University in Budapest. her last name is pronounced [ˈmɛʶkl̩ ]. world peace.

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Edition Körber- ISBN 978-3-492-05581-9. Retrieved from "https://en. a non-profit organization. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. "The Quiet German". München. George (1 December 2014). Hamburg 2013. External links Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany Merkel's personal website (in German) Merkel on her party's website Appearances on C-SPAN Angela Merkel on IMDb Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.php?title=Angela_Merkel&oldid=802769440" This page was last edited on 28 September 2017. Inc. at 10:36.Angela Merkel .wikipedia. 25 of 25 9/28/2017. By using this site.Wikipedia https://en. The New Yorker: 46–63.wikipedia. The New York Times. 3:04 PM . die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. ISBN 978-3-89684-097-4. Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time Packer. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike ISBN 978-3-446-24620-1. additional terms may apply.. Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel. 2014. Hanser.