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Educational Psychology important notes

Theories about human learning can be


grouped into four broad "perspectives".
These are

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Behaviorism - focus on observable behavior

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Cognitive - learning as purely a mental/ neurological process

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Humanistic - emotions and affect play a role in learning
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Social - humans learn best in group activities
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The development of these theories over many decades is a fascinating story. Some theories
developed as a negative reaction to earlier ones. Others built upon foundational theories, looking at
specific contexts for learning, or taking them to a more sophisticated level.
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There is also information here about general theories of learning, memory, and instructional
methodology.
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Read brief descriptions of these four general perspectives here:

Learning Theories: Four Perspectives


Within each "perspective" listed below, there may be more than one cluster of theories. Click on the
name of the theorist to go to the page with biographical information and a description of the key
elements of his/her theory.

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Educational Psychology important notes

1. Behaviorist Perspective

Classical Conditioning:

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Stimulus/Response

Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Classical Conditioning Theory

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Behaviorism: Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement
John B. Watson 1878-1958 Behaviorism fre
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Edward L. Thorndike 1874-1949 Connectivism

Edwin Guthrie 1886-1959 Contiguity Theory


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B. F. Skinner 1904-1990 Operant Conditioning

William Kaye Estes 1919 - Stimulus Sampling Theory


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Neo-behaviorism: Stimulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables;


Purposive Behavior
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Edward C. Tolman 1886-1959 Sign Theory & Latent Learning

Clark Hull 1884-1952 Drive Reduction Theory

Keneth W. Spence 1907-1967 Discrimination Learning

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Educational Psychology important notes

2. Cognitive Perspective: Learning as a


Mental Process

Gestalt Learning Theory: Perception, Decision making, Attention, Memory, & Problem

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Solving

Max Wertheimer 1880 -1943 Gestalt Learning Theory Kurt Lewin 1890 - 1947 Field
Theoretical Approach Wolfgang Kohler 1887 - 1967 Insight Learning Kurt Koffka 1887 -

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1941 Gestalt Theory Leon Festinger 1919 - 1989 Cognitive Dissonance

Information Processing and Computer Models

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D.O. Hebb 1904 - 1985 Neurophysiologic Theory George A Miller 1920 - Information Processing
Theory Allen Newell 1927 - 1992 General Problem Solver Craik & Lockhart Levels of Processing Allan
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Paivio 1941 - Dual Coding Theory David E. Rumelhart 1942 - Interactive Activation with Competition

Constructivism: Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator


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David Ausubel 1918 - 2008 Subsumption Theory Jerome Bruner 1915 - Constructivism Jean Piaget
1896 - 1990 Genetic Epistemology Jean Lave Situated Cognition Chris Argyris 1923 - Double Loop
Learning Rand J. Spiro Cognitive Flexibility David Kolb Learning Styles John Flavell Metacognition
Roger Schank Script Theory
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Psychoanalytic: The role of the


Unconscious Mind in Learning
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Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning

3. Humanistic Perspective: Emotions


and Affect Play a Role in Learning

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Educational Psychology important notes

Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 Humanistic Theory of Learning

Carl Rogers 1902-1987 Experiential Learning

Jack Mezirow Transformational Learning

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4. Social Learning Perspective: Learning
as a group process

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Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism Albert Bandura 1925 - Observational Learning John
Seely Brown Cognitive Apprenticeship

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5. General Theories of Memory &
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Intelligence J. R. Anderson ACT* J.P. Guilford Structure of Intellect Howard Gardner


Multiple Intelligences Robert Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
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