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UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP-

CALAMBA CAMPUS
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ELECTIVE 1- RADIO FREQUENCY DESIGN
PROJECT

TITLE:

DIFFERENT LAWS RELATED TO THE


PRACTICE OF ECE PROFESSION

Submitted by:
Calopez, Rochelle Anne J.
BS Electronics Engineering/V

October 10, 2017


Submitted to:
Engr. Maureen R. Moral
Instructor

RATING

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REPUBLIC ACT
A. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 5734 - The Electronics And Communications Engineering
Act Of The Philippines
Approve by Year
Enacted, without Executive Approval, June 21, 1969

B. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9292 Electronics Engineering Law of 2004


An act providing for a more responsive and comprehensive regulation for the registration,
licensing and pr205
205actice of professional electronics engineers, electronics engineers and electronics
technicians, repealing republic act no. 5734, otherwise known as the "Electronics And
Communications Engineering Act Of The Philippines", and for other purposes
Approve by Year
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo April 17, 2004

C. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8792 Electronic Commerce Act Of 2000


An act providing for the recognition and use of electronic commercial and non-commercial
transactions and documents, penalties for unlawful use thereof and for other purposes.
Approve by Year
Joseph Ejercito Estrada June 14, 2000

D. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3846 The Radio Laws of the Philippines


An act providing for the regulation of radio stations and radio communications in the
Philippine islands, and for other purposes

E. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7925 Public Telecommunications Policy Act of the


Philippines.
An act to promote and govern the development of Philippine telecommunications and the
delivery of public telecommunications services.
Approve by Year
Joseph Ejercito Estrada March 1, 1995

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EXECUTIVE ORDER
A. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 196 s. 1987
Approve by Year
Corazon C. Aquino June 17, 1987

MALACAANG
MANILA

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 196

VESTING THE JURISDICTION, CONTROL AND REGULATION OVER THE PHILIPPINE


COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE CORPORATION WITH THE NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
COMMISSION

WHEREAS, current developments stress the need to supervise and regulate the activities of all satellite
terminal stations with satellite facilities for delivery to common carriers; and

WHEREAS, the Philippine Communications Satellite Corporation is one corporation with such satellite
facilities;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, CORAZON C. AQUINO, President of Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the
powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order:

SECTION 1. The Philippine Communications Satellite Corporation is hereby placed under the jurisdiction,
control and regulation of the National Telecommunications Commission, including all its facilities and
services, and the fixing of rates.

SECTION 2. All laws, orders, rules and regulations inconsistent with this Executive Order are hereby
repealed or modified accordingly.

SECTION 3. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

Done in the City of Manila, this 17th day of June, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and eighty-
seven.

(Sgd.) CORAZON C. AQUINO


President of the Philippines

By the President:

(Sgd.) JOKER P. ARROYO


Executive Secretary

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B. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 109 s. 1993
Approve by Year
Fidel V. Ramos September 18, 2003

MALACAANG
MANILA

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 109

POLICY TO IMPROVE THE PROVISION OF LOCAL EXCHANGE CARRIER SERVICE

WHEREAS, local exchange service is fundamental to the goal of providing universal access to basic and
other telecommunications services;

WHEREAS, during the development phase, cost-based pricing of services such as national and
international long distance and other telecommunications services may be employed to generate funds
which my then be used to subsidize the local exchange service;

WHEREAS, while the telecommunications sector as a whole is profitable, the profits mainly come from the
toll services particularly from the international long distance service; and

WHEREAS, there is a need to promulgate new policy directives to meet the targets of Government through
the National Telecommunications Development Plan (NTDP) of the Department of Transportation and
Communications (DOTC), specifically: (1) to ensure the orderly development of the telecommunications
sector through the provision of service to all areas of the country, (2) to satisfy the unserviced demand for
telephones and (3) to provide healthy competition among authorized service providers.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the
powers vested in me by law do hereby order:

Section 1. Definition of Terms. The following definitions shall apply within the context of this policy:

(a) Basic Telecommunications Service - refers to local exchange residence and business telephone
service and telegraph service without additional features;

(b) Cost-based pricing - refers to a system of pricing in which the actual cost of providing service
establishes the basic charge to which a fixed mark-up is added to collect a standard charge to all
users without discrimination;

(c) Local Exchange Carrier Service - refers to a telecommunications service, primarily but not
limited to voice-to-voice service, within a contiguous geographic area furnished to individual

Subscribers under a common local exchange rate schedule;

(d) Value-based pricing - also known as value of service pricing refers to a system of pricing where
cost of .service establishes the minimum charge and a variable mark-up is added to collect revenue
from those who value .the service more highly; and

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(e) Universal Access - refers to the availability of reliable and affordable telecommunications
service in both urban and rural areas of the country.

Section 2 Objective. The objective of this policy is to improve the provision of local exchange service in
unserved and underserved areas as defined by the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC), thus
promoting universal access to basic telecommunications service.

Section 3. General Policy. The Government shall pursue the policy of democratization in the ownership and
operation of telecommunication facilities and services.

Section 4. Cross-Subsidy. Until universal access to basic telecommunications service is achieved, and such
service is priced to reflect actual costs, local exchange service- shall continue to be cross-subsidized by
other telecommunications services within the same company.

Section 5. Service- Packaging. Authorized international gateway operators shall be required to provide local
exchange service in unserved and underserved areas, including Metro Manila, within three (3) years from
the grant of an authority from the NTC, under the following guidelines:

(a) Authorized gateway operators shall provide a minimum of three hundred (300) local exchange
lines per international switch termination;

(b) At least one (1) rural exchange line shall be provided for every ten (10) urban local exchange
lines installed;

(c) The establishment of Public Calling Offices at the rural barangay level shall be given an
appropriate credit by the NTC towards the obligation to provide local exchange service.

The above figures are derived from the following factors: number of exchange lines, number of
international switch-terminations, traffic, grade of service and demand;

(d) No permit for an international gateway facility shall be granted an applicant unless there is a
clear showing that it can establish the necessary foreign correspondenceships; and

(e) Carriers already providing local exchange service in accordance with Section (a) , (b) and (c)
shall be authorized to operate aninternationall gateway subject to applicable laws.

Section 6. Subsidiary. The subsidiaries of a public telecommunication carrier operating an authorized


international gateway shall not be allowed to operate another gateway in accordance with Executive Order
No. 59 (1993).

For this purpose, a telecommunications company shall be considered as a subsidiary if any or all of the
following conditions exists:

(a) The two companies share the services of key operating and management personnel;

(b) The shareholdings of one company, together with the shareholdings of its stockholders, in the
other company aggregate more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding capital stock of the letter
company; or

(c) One company and its stockholders have a combined exposure in the other company in the form
of loans, advances, or asset-lease equivalent to more than fifty percent (50%) of the capital
accounts of the other company.

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Section 7. Cellular Mobile Telephone System. Authorized international gateway operator may also be
authorized to provide Cellular Mobile Telephone System (CMTS) service and other non-basic
telecommunications service which are possible source of subsidy for local exchange carrier service.

Section 8. Non-Basic Services. Authorized providers of other non-basic telecommunications service which
are possible sources of subsidy shall be required to provide local exchange carrier service in accordance
with guidelines, rules and regulations prescribed by the NTC.

Section 9. Duration of Services. The obligation to provide local exchange carrier service shall remain in
force for as long as the service providers described in Sections 5, 7 and 8 hold their authorizations to
provide their respective non-basic services.

Section 10. Other Requirements. The foregoing provisions shall be without prejudice to the other
requirements for the grant of franchises and Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity.

Section 11. Interconnection Requirement. All telecommunications service networks shall be interconnected
in a non-discriminatory manner in accordance with Executive order No. 59 (1993) and its implementing
guidelines.

Section 12. Financial Reporting Requirements. The internal subsidy flows shall be made explicit in the
financial reporting system of the telecommunications service providers.

Section 13. Policy Implementation. The NTC is hereby directed to promulgate the guidelines, rules and
regulations to implement this Executive Order within (30) thirty days from the effective date of this Executive
Order.

Section 14. Violations. Any violation of the Executive Order shall be subject to the same penalties provided
for in Section 13 of Executive Order No. 59 (1993).

Section 15. Transitory Provisions. Existing telecommunicationsservicee providers described in Section 5,


7 and 8 shall have a period of five (5) years to comply with the above requirements to provide local
exchange service.

Section 16. Pending Applications. Telecommunications service providers with existing and pending
applications for International Gateway Facility, Cellular Mobile System (CMTS) and other Value Added
Services (VAS) providers need not revise their applications with the NTC. However, upon issuance of the
Provisional Authority of CPCN, as the case may be, they shall be given a period of three (3) months within
which to submit and file the necessary applications for local exchange service in accordance with the
provisions hereof.

Section 17. Repealing Clause. All executive orders, administrative orders and other Executive issuance
inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed, modified or amended accord.

Section 18. Effectivity. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

DONE in the City of Manila, this 12th day of July in the year of the Lord, Nineteen Hundred and Ninety-
Three.

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C. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 436
Approve by Year
Fidel V. Ramos September 9, 1997

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 436 September 9, 1997

PRESCRIBING POLICY GUIDELINES TO GOVERN THE OPERATIONS OF CABLE TELEVISION IN


THE PHILIPPINES

WHEREAS, the State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building;

WHEREAS, the Filipino people must be given wider access to more sources of news, information,
education, sports events and entertainment programs other than those provided for by mass media and
afforded television programs to attain a well informed, well-versed and culturally refined citizenry and
enhance their socio-economic growth;

WHEREAS, cable television (CATV) systems could support or supplement the services provided by
television broadcast facilities, local and overseas, as the national information highway to the countryside;

WHEREAS, because a large part of the country is still not covered by cable television services, there is an
urgent need to maximize the development of the cable television industry and to provide incentives and
afford protection to investments therein;

WHEREAS, professionalism and self-regulation among existing operators, through a nationally recognized
cable television operators' association, have enhanced the growth of the cable television industry and must
therefore be maintained along with minimal reasonable government regulations;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the
powers vested in me by law, do hereby adopt the following guidelines for the cable television (CATV)
industry:

Section 1. The operation of cable television systems, as a subscriber service undertaking with a unique
technology, shall be maintained separate and distinct from telecommunications or broadcast television.

Section 2. The regulation and supervision of the cable television industry in the Philippines shall remain
vested solely with the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC).

Section 3. Only persons, associations, partnerships, corporations or cooperatives granted a Provisional


Authority or Certificate of Authority by the Commission may install, operate and maintain a cable television
system or render cable television service within a service area.

Cable television service may carry advertisements and other similar paid segments for which the cable
television operator may charge and collect reasonable fees; Provided, that no cable television operator
shall infringe on broadcast television markets by inserting advertisements in the programs it carries or
retransmits without the consent of the program provider concerned.

Section 4. Local exchange operators and/or broadcasters, as well as operators of direct broadcast satellite
service, multi-point distribution service, television receive-only satellite program distribution service and
other systems of providers of video programming utilizing whatever technology, shall not operate cable
television systems or any form of service involving the delivery television programs and signals, by wire or

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cable or through the airwaves and other wireless video signal transmission systems without specific
permits, licenses and/or authority to operate a cable television system as provided hereunder and under
applicable laws and rules and regulations, which permits, licenses and/or authority shall be issued in
accordance with the provisions of this Executive Order.

Section 5. The Commission may grant an applicant an authority to operate a cable television system within
the same franchise area covered by any Provisional Authority or Certificate of Authority issued by the
Commission two (2) years earlier only upon the determination by the Commission that -

a) the prior cable television operator has not, without sufficient justification, substantially complied
with the terms and condition of his authorization;

b) the cable television service currently provided by the operator to its subscriber is grossly
inadequate; and

c) the grant of the authority to the applicant will not result in ruinous competition detrimental to the
existing operator and incompatible with the investment policies under this Executive Order.

Section 6. A cable television operator may, with prior approval from the Commission, lease or sub-lease
any excess capacity of its cable television system to a third party.

Section 7. Receipt and distribution encoded satellite program signals shall be limited to the written authority
granted by the satellite programmer.

Section 8. The Commission is hereby directed to ensure the proper implementation of this Executive Order,
adopt rules and regulations for the purpose and, after due notice and hearing, impose the appropriate
penalties in case of violation of any of the provisions hereof and the applicable rules and regulations,
including administrative fines, penalties and sanctions as may be allowed or prescribed by existing laws.

Section 9. All executive orders, administrative orders and other issuances inconsistent herewith are hereby
repealed, modified or amended accordingly.

Section 10. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately upon approval hereof.

DONE in the City of Manila, this 9th day of September, in the year of Our Lord, Nineteen Hundred and
Ninety-Seven.

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D. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 468
Approve by Year
Fidel V. Ramos February 23, 1998

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 468 February 23, 1998

PROVIDING FOR THE CREATION OF A NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE PROMOTION OF


ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE COUNTRY

WHEREAS, electronic commerce, which shall revolutionize trade in both goods and services, shall be
a universal phenomenon due to the emerging Global Information Infrastructure;

WHEREAS, the State recognizes that there is a need to be abreast with international developments
on electronic commerce to further enhance the competitiveness of local industries;

WHEREAS, there is a great potential for the country to participate in the worldwide electronic
commerce, through the Internet and collaboration between the private and government sectors;

WHEREAS, there is a need for a coordinating body to enhance government and private sector
partnership in the promotion and development of electronic commerce in the country;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the power vested
in me by law, do hereby order:

Section 1. Electronic Commerce Promotion Council - There is hereby created a National Council to
serve as the a coordinating body for the promotion of the development of electronic commerce in the
country, herein referred to as the Council.

Section 2. Composition - The Council shall be composed of the following:

Department of Trade and Industry Chairman

Private Sector Representative Co-Chairman

Department of Transportation and Communication Member

Department of Science and Technology Member

National Economic and Development Authority Member

Four (4) Private Sector Representatives Member

The Council Chairman shall designate the Private Sector Representatives, including the Co-Chairman,
for a term of not more than two (2) years.

Section 3. Functions - The Council shall have the following duties and functions:

a. Formulate, in coordination with the concerned agencies and private sector, a National
Program and Strategy (NPS) for the Promotion of Electronic Commerce in the Country. The

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NPS for Electronic Commerce shall be made consistent with the National Information
Technology Plan for the 21st Century;

b. Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the above NPS;

c. Recommend policies and programs which may further enhance the development of
electronic commerce in the country;

d. Provide forums and mechanisms in addressing issues and concerns affecting the electronic
commerce industry;

e. Perform such other functions as may be assigned by the President.

Section 4. Secretariat - The Chairman shall establish a Secretariat to provide technical and
administrative support to the Council. It shall be composed of representatives from the private and
government sectors and shall be based at the DTI. Whenever necessary, the Council may also create
appropriate Committees to assist in the discharge of the Council's functions.

Section 5. Meetings - The Council shall meet at least once a month to discuss matters pertinent to the
development of electronic commerce in the country.

Section 6. Funding - DTI shall provide from its 1998 budget a total amount of P5 million for the
operational budget of the Council during its initial year. Budgetary requirements for the succeeding
years shall be sourced from the contributions of the private sector and concerned agencies as may be
agreed upon by the Council.

Section 7. Repeal Clause - All other executive issuances, rules and regulations or parts thereof which
are inconsistent with the provisions of this Executive Order are hereby repealed, amended or modified
accordingly.

This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

DONE in the City of Manila, this 23rd day of February, in the year of Our Lord, Nineteen Hundred and
Ninety-Eight.

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E. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 467
Approve by Year
Fidel V. Ramos March 17, 1998

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 467 March 17, 1998

PROVIDING FOR A NATIONAL POLICY ON THE OPERATION AND USE OF INTERNATIONAL


SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS IN THE COUNTRY

WHEREAS, the State, recognizing the vital role of communications in nation building, is committed to
promote the establishment of communications structures responsive to information technology of the
country;

WHEREAS, the provision of modern, efficient, and adequate satellite telecommunications facilities and
services will promote the pole vaulting strategy of the government to lunch the country as a
telecommunications hub in the Asia-Pacific region by the 21st century;

WHEREAS, there is a need to broaden the access by authorized entities to international satellite systems
and services and thereby, accelerate the attainment of the development thrusts for the local
telecommunications sector;

NOW, THEREFORE, I FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the
powers vested in me by law, do hereby order the adoption as a national policy, of the following policy
guidance in the operation and use of satellite communications in the country.

Section 1. Policy Guidance. The following guidance and regulations shall govern the operation and use of
the following satellite telecommunications facilities and services in the country:

a. Access to International Fixed Satellite Systems. Enfranchised telecommunications entities duly


authorized by the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) to provide international
telecommunications services shall be allowed direct access to all international fixed satellite
systems. Broadcast service providers may also be allowed to directly access international fixed
satellite systems subject to NTC rules, regulations and authorizations.

b. Access to International Mobile Satellite Systems. Direct access to international mobile satellite
services shall be allowed for maritime, aeronautical and land mobile uses, subject to NTC rules
and regulations. For this purpose, the DOTC/NTC shall recognize the authorization and/or
certification of foreign-registered mobile units designed to access international mobile satellite
systems, provided they are consistent with said NTC rules and regulations.

c. Use of Satellite Newsgathering (SNG) Earth Stations. The government shall take a permissive
approach on the use and operation of SNG earth stations owned or operated by foreign news
media organizations, for a limited period of time as defined by NTC. Foreign news media
organizations wanting to bring SNG earth stations into the country shall secure a special NTC
permit.

d. Operation and Use of Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite (GMPCS). The
government shall allow the operation and use of GMPCS to contribute to the attainment of universal
access, subject to NTC rules and regulations. In this connection, GMPCS systems shall be required
to interconnect with existing terrestrial systems in a non-discriminatory manner in accordance with

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the provisions of Executive Order No. 59 (Guidelines for Compulsory Interconnection of Authorized
Public Telecommunications Carriers) and its Implementing Guidelines.

e. Provision of Direct to Home TV Services. The government shall allow the reception of Direct to
Home TV signals from content providers utilizing international satellite systems, provided the video
programs thereto are authorized by appropriate government agency(ies). Equipment for the
reception of Direct to Home TV signals shall be provided by duly authorized entities. Moreover,
uplink centers for transmission or retransmission in the Philippines, subject to existing laws and
procedures formulated by the NTC.

Section 2. Policy of Terms. The NTC, in coordination with the concerned agencies and sectors, shall
formulate and adopt, not later than forty-five days from the effectivity of this order, the necessary
implementing rules and regulations for the implementation of the above policy guidance, including the
monitoring system for their implementation.

Section 3. Definition of Terms. For the purpose of this Order and in the implementation of the above policy
guidance, the following definitions shall apply:

a. Direct Access - any one of a number of measures permitting direct dealings between authorized
entities and international satellite system providers at specified levels as defined by the NTC.

b. Direct Home (DTH) TV - a broadcasting system wherein television programs are transmitted
directly to home/user receivers via satellite, thus making the reception cover not only individual(s)
in their homes but other places as well.

c. Fixed Satellite Service - a radio communications service between earth stations at given points,
when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be specific point or any fixed points
within specified areas.

d. Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite - a satellite system providing


telecommunications services directly to end-users anywhere in the globe form a constellation of
satellites.

e. Mobile Satellite Service - a radio communications service between mobile earth stations and one
or more space stations, or between space stations used by this service, or between mobile earth
stations by means of one or more space stations.

f. Satellite Newsgathering - the use of either transportable, "Fixed Satellite Services" earth stations
or "Mobile Satellite Service" earth stations to provide temporary communications services for news
media organizations covering news events such as summits, conferences or disasters.

Section 4. Policy Review. The DOTC, in consultation with the concerned agencies and sectors, shall
regularly review the responsiveness of the above policy, shall regularly review the responsiveness of the
above policy guidance and based on this, submit policy recommendations to the office of the President.

Section 5. Repealing Clause. All executive orders, administrative orders and other executive issuance's
inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed, modified or amended accordingly.

Section 6. Effectivity. This Order shall take effect immediately.

DONE in the City of Manila, this 17th day of March in the year of our Lord, Nineteen Hundred and ninety-
eight.

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F. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 205
Approve by Year
Corazon C. Aquino June 30, 1987

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 205 June 30, 1987

REGULATING THE OPERATION OF CABLE ANTENNA TELEVISION (CATV) SYSTEMS IN THE


PHILIPPINES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

WHEREAS, for the protection of the public and the promotion of the general welfare, the State may by law
regulate the operation of Cable Antenna Television (CATV) systems;

WHEREAS, when the public interest so requires, monopolies in commercial mass media shall be regulated
or prohibited;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, CORAZON C. AQUINO, President of the Philippines, do hereby order;

Sec. 1. The operation of Cable Antenna Television (CATV) system in the Philippines shall be open to all
citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or associations wholly-owned and managed by
such citizens under a Certificate of Authority granted by the National Telecommunications Commission,
hereinafter referred to as the Commission.

Sec. 2. A Certificate of Authority to operate Cable Antenna Television (CATV) system shall be granted by
the Commission on a non-exclusive basis and for a period not to exceed fifteen (15) years, renewable for
another similar period: Provided, That such certificate shall be subject to the limitation that the authority to
operate shall not infringe on the television and broadcast markets.

Sec. 3. Subject to the limitations and procedures prescribed by law, the grantee is hereby authorized to
exercise the right of eminent domain for the efficient maintenance and operation of Cable Antenna
Television (CATV) system.

Sec. 4. A special right is hereby reserved to the President of the Philippines, in times of war, rebellion,
public peril or other national emergency and/or when public safety requires, to cause the closure of any
grantee's Cable antenna Television (CATV) system or to authorize the use or possession thereof by the
government without compensation.

Sec. 5. The grantee shall pay the income tax levied under Title II of the National Internal Revenue Code,
as amended, and a franchise tax equivalent to three per centum (3%) of all gross receipts from business
transacted under the Certificate of Authority.

Sec. 6. The National Telecommunications Commission is hereby authorized to issue the necessary rules
and regulations to implement this Executive Order.

Sec. 7. Presidential Decree No. 1512 dated June 11, 1978 and all laws, orders, issuances and rules and
regulations or parts thereof inconsistent with this Executive Order are hereby repealed or modified
accordingly.

Sec. 8. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

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Done in the City of Manila, this 30th day of June, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and eighty-
seven.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE
A. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 576
Approve by Year
Ferdinand E. Marcos November 9, 1974

ABOLISHING THE MEDIA ADVISORY COUNCIL AND THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS FOR MASS
MEDIA, AND AUTHORIZING THE ORGANIZATIONAL OF REGULATORY COUNCILS FOR PRINT
MEDIA AND FOR BRAODCAST MEDIA.

WHEREAS, certain conditions existed in the country at the time of the promulgation of Proclamation No.
1081 which had, necessitated temporary government control and supervision of mass media;
WHEREAS, since the abolition of the Mass Media Council and the creation in its stead of the Media
Advisory Council, the various sectors of mass media have shown capability for self-regulation and internal
discipline within their ranks and have demonstrated responsibility for maintaining standards for professional
conduct and excellence.
WHEREAS, the prevailing national situation has become appropriate for taking a further step towards
removal of government participation in policy determination and news disseminating activities of mass
media.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the
Constitution, do hereby decree:

SECTION 1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to allow mass media to operate without
government intervention or supervision in policy determination and news dissemination activities. For the
accomplishment of this purposes, the Media Advisory Council created under Presidential Decree No. 191
and the Bureau of Standards for Mass Media authorized to be created under Letter of Implementation No.
12 dated November 1, 1972, are hereby abolished.

SECTION 2. For purposes of this Decree, a mass media shall be divided into two groups: Print Media and
Broadcast Media. Print Media includes all newspapers, periodicals, magazines, journals, and publications
and all advertising therein and billboards, neon signs and the like. And Broadcast Media includes radio
and radio and television broadcasting in all their aspects and all other cinematographic or radio promotions
and advertising. The Print-Media Group and the Braodcast Media group are hereby authorized to organize
and determine the composition of a body or council within each group which shall be responsible for

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instituting and formulating systems of self-regulation and internal discipline within its own ranks.

SECTION 3. Each regulatory council or body shall be responsible for the elevation of the ethics and the
standards of excellence of mass media in all its phases within each group. Towards this end, each council
or body is hereby authorized to adopt policies, formulate guidelines, fix standards and promulgation rules
and regulations for the operation, and discipline of all mass media under its Supervision and to administer
and enforce the same. Such policies, standards, guidelines, and rules and regulations shall be in conformity
with the provisions of existing laws, especially those on national security.

SECTION 4. No mass media activity shall be undertaken by any person or entity in the Philippines without
first being registered with the regulatory council or body concerned which shall issue certificates of
registration to all applicants quantified under its respective rules or regulations; Provided;,
That each council shall have the authority to suspend or cancel such certificates of registration for such
cause or causes as may be provided in the rules and the existence of which each council or body shall
have duly determined; Provided, further: That no certificate of registration shall be granted in any manner
or under any condition to any of those engaged in mass media which were in September 1972, ordered
closed and/or sequestered upon promulgation of Proclamation No. 1081, by order of the President or the
Secretary of National Defense.

SECTION 5. All existing permits for the operation of mass media on the date this decree takes effect shall
continue to be valid unless otherwise suspended or withdrawn for cause by the council or body concerned.

SECTION 6. All government agencies are hereby enjoined to extend their utmost assistance and
cooperation to the councils.

SECTION 7. All laws, decrees, rules and regulations, or any part thereof, which are inconsistent with this
decree are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.

SECTION 8. this decree shall take effect immediately.


Done in the City of Manila, this 9th day of November, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-
four.

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B. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 576-A
Approve by Year
Ferdinand E. Marcos November 11, 1974

REGULATING THE OWNERSHIP AND OPERATION OF RADIO AND TELEVISION STATIONS AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

WHEREAS, the President of the Philippines is empowered under the Constitution to review and approve
franchises for public utilities;
WHEREAS, it has been observed that some public utilities, especially radio and television stations, have a
tendency toward monopoly in ownership and operation to such an extent that a region or section of the
country may be covered by any number of such broadcast stations, all or most of which are owned, operated
or managed by one person or corporation;
WHEREAS, radio is the chief vehicle of the dissemination of information, being the source as surveys have
shown of 86 percent of all information for the public and television is becoming similarly pervasive;
WHEREAS, the deep penetration that radio and television thus make into the public consciousness gives,
them the responsibility of assisting the government to promote and safeguard the public welfare;
WHEREAS, on account of the limited number of frequencies available for broadcasting in the Philippines,
it is necessary to regulate the ownership and operation of radio and television stations and provide
measures that would enhance quality and viability in broadcasting and help serve the public interest;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers
vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree:

SECTION 1. No radio or television channel may obtain a franchise unless it has sufficient capital on the
basis of equity for its operation for at least one year, including purchase of equipment.

SECTION 2. Every radio station or television channel shall allocate at least two hours a day as a program
or programs rendering public service, during such broadcast hours as are normally regarded in the industry
as prime time for a particular type of program and its appropriate audience. Public service refers to news,
educational, and cultural presentations and other programs informing the people of advances in science,
industry, farming, and technology; of policies and important undertakings in government designed to
promote or safeguard the public welfare; of matters related to the physical, intellectual and moral
development of the young; or of traditions, values and activities which constitute the cultural heritage of the
nation.

SECTION 3. No person or corporation may own, operate, or manage more than one radio or television

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station in one municipality or city; nor more than five AM and five FM radio station; nor more than five
television channels in the entire country, and no radio or television station shall be utilized by any single-
interest group to disseminate information or otherwise influence the public or the government to serve or
support the ends of such group.

SECTION 4. Any person or corporation which owns more than the number of radio or television stations
authorized in the preceding section shall divest itself of the excess stations or channels.. any excess station
shall be sold through the Bureau to Telecommunications.
The divestiture provided herein shall be made not later than December 31, 1981. Thereafter, a person or
corporation shall make such divestiture within one year from the discovery of the offense.

SECTION 5. Failure to divest as provided in the foregoing section shall, in addition to the penalties provided
in Section 6, subject the person or corporation guilty of such failure to cancellation of the franchise of every
excess station and to confiscation of the station and its facilities without compensation.

SECTION 6. All franchises, grants, licenses, permits, certificates or other forms of authority to operate radio
or television broadcasting systems shall terminate on December 31, 1981. Thereafter, irrespective of any
franchise, grants, license, permit, certificate or other forms of authority to operate granted by any office,
agency or person, no radio or television station shall be authorized to operated without the authority of the
Board of Communications and the Secretary of Public Works and Communications or their successors who
have the right and authority to assign to qualified parties frequencies, channels or other means of identifying
broadcasting systems; Provided, however, that any conflict over, or disagreement with a decision of the
aforementioned authorities may be appealed finally to the Office of the President within fifteen days from
the date the decision is received by the party in interest.

SECTION 7. Any person who violates this Decree shall be punishable by imprisonment for a period ranging
from five months to six years and the payment of a fine of P1,000.00 to P10,000.00, or both such
imprisonment and fine, at the discretion of the court.
If the violation is committed by an association, partnership or corporation, the penalty shall be imposed on
the officers or employees thereof who were responsible for or who committed the violation.

SECTION 8. This Decree shall take effect immediately. Done in the city of Manila, this 11th day of
November, in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-four.

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