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Construction of Surfaces

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Sports & Fields

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Common forms of sports areas

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The most usual forms of external artificial sports areas include:

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 Small informal play areas with mini sports features
 Small multi use games areas (often referred to as MUGAs)

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 Specialist courts for tennis or netball
 Larger format pitches that can be used for training for hockey,

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football and / or rugby
 Competition pitches for hockey, football or rugby

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 Cricket wickets (match and practice)

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 Athletics training facilities
 Flat green bowls facilities.

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Outdoor sports surfaces

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Natural and Artificial

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A natural surface is one formed by the suitable preparation of
natural areas of land (such as grass).

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An artificial surface is one constructed with a variety of man-made
materials (such as timber boards, synthetic products or bituminous
products).

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Within each of these groupings, there are many sub-categories of

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surfaces which are used for a multitude of different sports.

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Typical construction

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A Sports surfacing system is generally made up from a number of
layers (top down):

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 Surface layer e.g. carpet, polymeric material
 Shock absorbing layer often termed shock pad

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 A stable and carefully regulated base layer on which the synthetic
surfacing is supported e.g.

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a) Porous macadam - a hot-rolled blend of aggregate and stiff
bitumen binder
b) Compacted sand

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c) Specialized mineral particulate materials
d) In-situ formed concrete (occasionally used for bowling green
and cricket wicket bases)

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Typical construction

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 Crushed broken stone sub-base
layer - normally a compacted

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graded aggregate

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 Geo-synthetic layer (to prevent the
migration of particles between

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layers)

 Consolidated subsoil (or compacted

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fill), often the natural soil found on

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site or a stabilized formation.
Drainage is normally installed within
the subsoil.

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A designer has to consider the
following factors:

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Topography
Access

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Site drainage

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Electrical supply
Water supply

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Trees

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Underlying soil conditions
Biodiversity issues

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Among the most commonly played
sports on multi-sports games areas are:

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 Tennis

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 Mini tennis

 Netball / basketball

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 Five-a-side football

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Classification of surfaces

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Court games are sports played primarily on hard surfaces rather on turf.

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Field sports include any activities played preferably on soft (turf) surfaces.
Adequate surface and sub surface drainage is very important. The type of
turf used should be sturdy.

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Tracks should be constructed of materials that will create a uniform, smooth,
safe and comfortable running surface.

Grading Requirements

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Longitudinal slopes for tracks, runways and landing area for field events
should not exceed a maximum of 0.1 percent

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Cross slopes should be no more than 1 percent
Classification of surfaces

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Type 1

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Open textured porous macadam areas used for ball rebound sports
where tennis is the priority and sports such as mini-tennis, netball,
and basketball are secondary users.

Type 2

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Polymeric surface over macadam base areas used for recreational

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football, basketball and general sports . Due to their greater shock
absorbency and lower surface friction, these areas are not
recommended for tennis or netball.

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Classification of surfaces

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Type 3

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Artificial grass areas with a shock pad and either heavily doused
with water before play or filled or dressed with sand or rubber

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crumbs.

These areas are used for sports such as hockey, football, lacrosse,

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and training for activities such as athletics, rugby.

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Construction of Surfaces

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Parking Areas

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General

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The parking lot design objective is to maximize the total number of
parking spaces in the space available with the following

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considerations:

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The parking layout should provide continuous flow of traffic through
the lot.

to buildings.

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The design should allow safe movement of pedestrians from parking

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The design should allow for appropriate landscaping of the parking
areas without conflicting with site lighting.

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PARKING LOT AISLE WIDTHS

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Curbs

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All new parking lots should
be constructed with

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perimeter curbs wherever
feasible. These curbs should

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be constructed of reinforced
concrete and should be
either monolithic or lay down

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depending upon the location

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and function of the curb. See
Figure 9.2.8 for an example
of a 6 monolithic concrete

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curb with gutter.
PAVEMENT SYSTEM

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Rigid pavements
main categories

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Pavements for vehicular use are generally divided into two

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Flexible pavements

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Construction Practices

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Drainage
Drainage problems are frequently a major cause of parking area

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pavement failures.

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Parking area surfaces should have a minimum slope of 2 percent

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Construction of Surfaces

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Tree pits & Tree surroundings

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Tree Guards

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 They prevent soil compaction around the main roots and provide a
protective zone that is clearly demarked

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 Secondly the surface treatment can serve as a water catchment
area and be reinforced by irrigation pipes built into the planting pit

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 Thirdly the infill paving can be loose shingle, preforated blocks or
loose setts all of which they permit growth and allow for root
spread

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Tree pits for new planting

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The pits need to be dug at least 225mm deeper than the root ball to
improve the site drainage and filled with 150mm depth of gravel

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Tree pits in artificial conditions

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Precast concrete pits are used for car park where the tree pits serve
as division to the surface car park and the street level

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Tree grids are provided as galvanized steel frame in filled with
perforated blocks

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Tree Guard materials

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