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Enzymes /nzamz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts.

Enzymes accelerate chemical


reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme
converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic
processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain
life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of
enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up,
recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological
catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic'
properties.[2][3]
Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes
are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes'
specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes)
are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These
enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.g. different KM values), or different regulatory
properties. The existence of isozymes permits the fine-tuning of metabolism to meet the particular
needs of a given tissue or developmental stage (for example lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)).
In biochemistry, isozymes (or isoenzymes) are isoforms (closely related variants) of enzymes. In
many cases, they are coded for by homologous genes that have diverged over time. Although,
strictly speaking, allozymesrepresent enzymes from different alleles of the same gene, and
isozymes represent enzymes from different genes that process or catalyse the same reaction, the
two words are usually used interchangeably.

What are the different types of enzymes?


These six types of enzymes are as
follows: oxidoreductases, transferases,hydrolases, lyases, isomerases,
and ligases. Hydrolases are the most common type, followed by oxioreductases
and transferases. They account for over half of the known enzymes

Therapeutic enzymes: Enzymes are sometimes used as medicines to replace enzyme


deficiencies in patients like is the use of blood clotting factors to treat haemoplilia, or
the opposite where proteases are used to degrade fibrin; to prevent the formation of
dangerous blood clots

What is the use of enzymes?


Uses of enzymes

enzyme use
protease used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods
used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break down - digest -
lipase
the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances
How do we use enzymes in our everyday life?
Enzymes have everyday uses including food production, medical testing and biological
washing powders. Enzymes can be immobilised in gel beads or on reagent sticks.
Biological washing powders contain enzymes to digest insoluble stains, producing
soluble products that wash out of clothes more easily.

What is the role of enzymes in the body?


Enzymes are biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly speed up the
rate of virtually all of the chemical reactions that take place within cells. They are vital
for life and serve a wide range of important functions in the body, such as aiding in
digestion and metabolism.
What is the importance of enzymes in the human body?
Enzymes are proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in your body.
Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep you alive.
Some enzymes, like the ones in your gut, break down large molecules into smaller
ones.
What is the use of enzymes in the human body?
For example, enzymes called pepsin and trypsin digest dietary proteins. Another
hydrolase called lipase is secreted by your pancreas and helps break down dietary fats.
The enzyme amylase stimulates the digestion of dietary starch
What is an enzyme and what is its function?
Function and structure. Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions.
They speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower
activation energy. Like all catalysts, enzymes take part in the reaction - that is how they
provide an alternative reaction pathway.

Isoenzymes and their Diagnostic Importance


Isoenzymes:

Also called isozymes


Are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction
Arise through gene duplication
Differ in their physical and chemical properties, Km and Vmax values, optimum pH, substrate affinity, etc.

Source Isoenzymes and their Diagnostic Importance | MEDCHROME


Enzymes
Function and structure
Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions. They speed up reactions by providing an
alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy.

how enzymes work

For two molecules to react they must collide with one another. They must collide in the right direction
(orientation) and with sufficient energy. Sufficient energy means that between them they have enough
energy to overcome the energy barrier to reaction. This is called the activation energy.