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In these notes, we will learn the basic of averages, median and mode. To begin with, first

please note that Arithmatic mean, average, or simply the mean have same definition, meaning

these are different words for same concept.

Definition:

Arithmatic mean, or the average of a certain set of N numbers is simply equal to the sum of

those numbers divided by N.i.e

Average of N numbers =

And that is all. So, to find average of 4 numbers, we will first add (+) all the four numbers, and

then divide the result by 4. This will be equal to their Mean, Arithmatic mean or Average.

numbers is somewhat Central or Middle Value of all the numbers. In other words, it lies in

the centre of the set of numbers. See the example below to understand:

Q:1

Q.1 If the average of 5,6,7 and w is 8. What is the value of w?

A. 8

B. 12

C. 14

D. 16

E. 24

Solution:

As we studied above, just apply formula of average and put average = 8, As there are 4

numbers (5,6,7 and w), so N=4 here.

Average of N numbers =

8=

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Move 4 to left side: 8x4 = 5+6+7+w

OR: 32=18+w

OR: 32-18 = w

Here Average should be 8, but all the 3 numbers given are 5,6 and 7 which are smaller than 8,

so to make the middle value equal to 8, the fourth number (.i.e w) should be much greater

than 8. To cover the effect of 3 numbers, it should be like 14 or 16. So, just looking at options,

you must know that option A can never be the answer. Similarly E is just too big.

Q:2

Q.2 The average of five numbers is 54. If three of the numbers are 26, 28 and 30,

then what is the average of other two?

A. 91

B. 93

C. 54

D. 186

Solution:

Before solving, just think, if first 3 numbers are 26,28 and 30, then what should be the last two

to make overall average equal to 54. As average is central value of a data set, therefore, the last

numbers (or their average) should be much higher than 54 to balance these smaller numbers.

Looking at options, I guess answer is option A or B. Option C is impossible, option D is just

too big.

Now apply formula of average on all the five numbers, letting last two unknown numbers are

M and N.

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Average of N numbers =

54 =

OR: 270=84+M+N

OR: M+N=270-84=186

= 93 (Option B)

Remember: Answer what is being asked in the question and NOT what do you think should

have been asked!!

Here what was asked was AVERAGE of last two numbers, NOT SUM of last two numbers. If

you just find M+N=186, and mark answer (D) (=186), it would be foolishly wrong. So, tip is to

read the question carefully before solving, and just estimate the answer in your head before

calculations like we did here.

Q:3

Q.3 Ahmad took 5 Chemistry tests during the semester and average of his test scores

was 85. If his average after first three tests was 83, what was the average of his

fourth and fifth test?

A. 83

B. 85

C. 87

D. 88

E. 90

Solution:

Before solving, just think, if the total average of 5 tests is 85, and average of first three tests is

83, then the average of last two tests must be greater than 85 so that NET average of 5 tests

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becomes equal to 85. Moreover, as first 3 tests average is 2 less than final average (85-83=2),

the average of last two tests should be greater than 85 even more than 2!! Because there are 3

tests on 83, and here are only two tests to Balance those 3 tests, so their average should be

even greater. So, answers A, B and C are impossible (Got it??). Answer must be D or E.

So, Total score of 5 tests = 85 x 5 = 425. [Average = Sum/5 - Sum = Average x 5]

Similarly, Score of first 3 tests = 83 x 3 = 249.

So, score of last 2 tests = score of total 5 tests Score of first 3 tests;

= 425 249 = 176.

So, average of last 2 tests = Score of last 2 tests / 2 = 176/2 = 88 (D).

Q:4

Q.4 If x + y = 6, y + z = 7 and z + x = 9. What is the average of x, y and z?

A. 11/3

B. 11/2

C. 22/3

D. 11

E. 22

Solution:

Average of x, y and z =

Remember: When you are given two equations in a questions, add (+) them or subtract (-)

them. When there are three equations, just add (+) them !! You will MOST PROBABLY get your

required answer!!

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Dividing by 2:

Or: x + y + z = 11,

As we have to find (x+y+z)/3, so divide whole equation by 3 to get Average = 11/3 (A). Here

once again, if you had stopped at x+y+z=11 and marked answer = D, that would be wrong.

First carefully understand what is being asked!!

Q:5

Q.5 On Thursday, 20 of the 25 students took a Chemistry test and their average was

80. On Friday, the other 5 students took the test and their average was 90. What was

the average of entire class?

Solution:

Before solving, just think, if the average of 20 students is 80 and remaining 5 students is 90.

The overall average must be between 80 and 90. Next, as more students are towards 80 (Only 5

students are towards 90), so average is more close to 80 than 90.i.e answer must be something

between 80 and 85.

Now solving, for for first 20 students:

So, Total score of 20 students = 80 x 20 = 1600. [Average = Sum/20 - Sum = Average x 20]

And, Score of other 5 students = 90 x 5 = 450.

So, Total Score =1600+450 = 2050. .

So, Net average of whole (entire) class = 2050/25 = 410/5 = 82. (ANS).

Q:6

Q.6 What is the average of all positive integers from 1 to 100?

A. 49

B. 49.5

C. 50

D. 50.5

E. 51

Solution:

Average of 100 numbers = ;

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Now we can NOT add all numbers manually, so please remember the following formula to

find sum of n numbers in an Arithematic Sequence:

a1 + an]

Where:

S = Sum of N numbers.

N = Number of terms. (Here N = 100)

a1 = First term of sequence (Here a1 = 1)

an = Last term of sequence (Here an = 100).

So,

Sum = S = 100/2 x (1+100) = 50 x (101).

Or, Average = S/100 = 50/100 x 101 = 101/2 = 50.5 (D).

Median:

When a set of numbers is arranged in an order .i.e either Ascending order (from smallest

number to largest number) or Descending order (from largest number to smallest number), the

Middle number is called Median.

1. When total numbers in a data set are odd, then the data will have only 1 middle value

which will be its median. e.g for the following data set:

11,13,15,17,21,29,36.

There are total 7 numbers (hence odd), and all numbers are already arranged in

ascending order, so middle value is the median of this data which is 17. It is at the

centre of the data from either end.

2. When total numbers in a data set are even, then the data will have 2 middle values.

Median will then be equal to average of these two middle values. e.g for the following

data set:

11,13,15,17,21,29,36,39,40,45.

There are total 10 numbers (hence even), and all numbers are already arranged in

ascending order, so there are two middle values which are 21 and 29. They are at the

centre from both ends. So, Median of data set= (21+29)/2 = 50/2 = 25

findng median, meaning you CAN NOT find median from an un-arranged data set.

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Mode:

The value which repeats most frequently in a data set is called MODE. So, mode is a value

which comes greatest number of times in a data set.

11,13,11,17,21,13,25,13,25,36.

13 is repeated more than any other value (3 times), so mode = 13.

2. When two values repeat equal number of times, then the data will have 2 modes. e.g for

the following data set:

11,13,11,17,21,13,25,13,25,36,11

Both 11 and 13 are repeated 3 times, so data has 2 modes, 11 and 13.

Q:7

Q.7 During a ten day period, Azhar received following number of phone calls each

day, 2,3,9,3,5,7,7,10,6,7. What is the average of median and mode of this data?

A. 6

B. 6.25

C. 6.5

D. 6.75

E. 7

Solution:

Average of Median and Mode = (Median + Mode) / 2.

1. Median:

First arrange data in ascending order:

2,3,3,5,6,7,7,7,9,10.

As total values are even (.i.e.10), so median is average of two middle values which are

6 and 7. So median = (6+7)/2 = 6.5.

2. Mode:

In given data, 7 repeats more than any other value (3 times), so Mode = 7.

Finally: Ans = (Median + Mode) /2 = (6.5+7)/2 = 13.5/5 = 6.75 (D).

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EXERCISES

Q.1 What is the average of three interior angles of a triangle?

[HINT: From geometry, sum of interior angles of a triangle = S = 180 degree, so average = S/3 = 60 0]

ANS=600.

A. 0.75

B. 10.5

C. 12

D. 27

ANS=D

Point. For this, just write the number without decimal point and divide by number with

Zeros equal to number of digits AFTER decimal point. Then do cutting before

multiplication.e.g:

4.25 = 425/100 = 85/20 = 17/4

A. 4

B. 6

C. 12

D. 0

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[HINT: Average = S/n - 6 = (3+5+10+S)/ 4 - 6x4 = 24 = 18+S -S=24-18 =6]

ANS=B

A. 359

B. 39+319+329

C. 357

D. 311+321+331

310-1+320-1+330-1= 39+319+329. For details on exponents and power rules, plz see the notes

Exponents. ]

ANS=B

A. 7/2

B. 7

C. 7/4

D. 4/7

[HINT: Average of x and y = (x+y)/2; first divide whole given equation by 20 to get: x+y = 70/20 =

7/2, but we have to find (x+y)/2 , {not x+y}, so just divide whole equation by 2 again to get (x+y)/2 =

7/2 2 = 7/2x1/4 = 7/4]

ANS=C

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A. X4 24

B. X+8

C. X4 + 3x +24

D. X + 24

(3x+24)/3 = 3x/3 + 24/3 = x+8]

ANS=B

[HINT: Just like question#5, divide whole equation by 10, a+b = 35/10 = 7/2, now divide by 2,

Average = (a+b)/2 = 7/4 = 1.75.]

ANS=7/4 or 1.75

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

]

ANS=E.

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A. 215

B. 25+210

C. 29 +219

D. 229

E. 30

210-1+220-1= 29+219. For details on exponents and power rules, plz see the notes Exponents.]

ANS=C

Q. 10:

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[HINT: Average = S/n, These are total 8 angles (a,b,c,d,e,f,g and h), so n = 8. From geometry, angles

around a complete circle is 360 degree, so a+b+c+d = 360 and also e+f+g+h = 360, So, average =

(a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h) / 8 = (360+360)/8 = 720/8 = 90]

ANS=C

Q. 11 Kashifs average score on first 4 tests is 80. What score should he get on fifth test to

make his overall average of five tests equal to 84?

A. 82

B. 84

C. 92

D. 96

E. 100

[HINT: To balance 4 tests on lower side of 84, answer must be much higher than 88. i.e Total score of

5 tests = 84x5 = 420. Score in first 4 tests = 80x4=320, so fifth tests score = 420-320=100]

ANS=E

Q. 12 Kashifs average score on first 4 tests is 80. If total score on each test is 100, then

what minimum score can he get on fifth test and still have a chance to make his average of

7 tests equal to 85?

A. 60

B. 70

C. 75

D. 80

E. 85

[HINT: Score in first 4 tests = 80x4 = 320, now to make average of 7 tests equal to 85, total score in

7 tests = 85x7 = 595. So, score in 5th + 6th+ 7th test (last 3 tests) = 595-320 = 275. Now if he wants

to score minimum (LEAST) on fifth test, he must get maximum on sixth and seventh test, i.e he should

get 100 marks each in 6th and 7th test, so MINIMUM score in 5th test = 275 100 100 = 75]

ANS=C

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A. 50

B. 50.5

C. 49.5

D. 51

E. 100

[HINT: By arithmetic sum formula: S = n/2 x (2+100) = n/2 x (102) = nx51. So, average = Sum/n =

S/n = (nx51)/n = 51. n=50 here, but as you see, question can be solved even without the value of n]

ANS=D

Q. 14 Eight students in a class get 60% marks, 3 students get 75%, 2 get 80% and 7 get

45% in a test. What are the average marks of whole class?

A. 49%

B. 29%

C. 51%

D. 59%

students = n = 8+3+2+7=20, So, average = Sum/n = 1180%/20 = 118%/2 = 59% ]

ANS=D

Q. 15 Salman is paid R rupees per hour for first 8 hours of job daily. For every hour after

the first 8 hours, he is paid S rupees per hour. If he works 12 hours in a daily, what is his

average hourly income of the day?

A.

B.

C.

D.

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[HINT: Total hours = 12, for first 8 hours, income = 8R and for last 4 hours, income = 4S, so total

income of 12 hours = (8R+4S), so average income = (8R+4S)/12 = (2R+S)/3 ]

ANS=D

Q. 16 Asim had an average of 60 on first 4 math tests. After taking fifth test, his average

dropped to 58. What was his fifth test score?

A. 32

B. 40

C. 48

D. 50

[HINT: 4 tests score = 60x4=240. Total 5 tests score = 58x5=290. So, fifth test score = 290-240=50]

ANS=D

[HINT: Remember a formula from geometry, for a polygon (any closed figure) of N sides:

x 1800

For example, for a triangle, N=3, so sum of interior angles = (3-2)x180 = 1800. Now a pentagon has 5

sides, so Sum of interior angles = (5-2)x1800 = 3x1800, so average = S/5 = 3x180/5 = 3x36 = 1080]

ANS=108 degrees

10,70,20,40,70,90. What is the average of M and m?

A. 50

B. 55

C. 60

D. 62.5

E. 65

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[HINT: Median = M: First arrange data in an order: 10,20,40,70,70,90. Total values are 6 (even), so

there are 2 middle values which are 40 and 70, so M = (40+70)/2 = 110/2 = 55. Mode = m = 70

which repeats 2 times, so Average of M and m = (M+m)/2 = (55+70)/2 = 125/2=62.5 (D)]

ANS=D

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