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1.

ABSTRACT

Acetic acid, CH3COOH is an organic compound that is in form of colourless solution and
classified as a weak acid. The aim of this experiment is to determine the morality of a solution
and to study the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized
sodium hydroxide solution. By performing titration process, the concentration of acetic acid in
vinegar can be determined by calculating both molarity ad percent by mass of acetic acid in
vinegar itself. The experiment is divided into two parts, first part is standardizing the NaOH
solution and the second part is proceeded with the determining the molarity of a solution and
the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. In this experiment, approximately morality of
1M NaOH solution was already prepared by lab assistant. This NaOH solution is then titrated
with potassium hydrogen phthalate or KHP solution which has been prepared by diluting 1.5g
of KHP granules in 30mL of distilled water. This experiment is then proceeded to the second
part of the experiment which standardized NaOH solution is titrated with the 10mL vinegar
that has been diluted with 100mL of distilled water. Titration for part 1 were repeated twice so
that more accurate result can be determined. From equivalence point, volume of NaOH to
neutralized vinegar solution can be determined. By undergo a few steps of calculation, the
percent by mass of acetic acid is calculated.

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2. INTRODUCTION

Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A concentrated


solution contains relatively large quantity of solute in a given amount of solvent, while dilute
solution contains relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. Vinegar is common
household item containing acetic acid as well as some other chemicals. This experiment is
designed to determine molar concentration of acetic acid in a sample of vinegar by titrating it
with a standard solution of NaOH.

CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) (Equation 1-1)

Expressing solution concentration:

Molarity is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution.


Molarity (M) = (Equation 1-2)

Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution.


Percent solute = 100% (Equation 1-3)

Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. Percent volume of acetic acid in vinegar is between
range of 5% to 20%. Both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in a vinegar solution can
be determine by performing a titration. A titration is a process in which small increments of a
solution of known concentration are added to a specific volume of a solution of unknown
concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is attained and equivalence point is
reached. The equivalence point is reached when the added quantity of one reactant is the exact
amount necessary for stoichiometry reaction with another reactant. By adding NaOH, which is
basic solution, to the acetic acid, which is and acidic solution, a neutralization will occur.

Before the experiment begins, solution of sodium hydroxide that will be used need to be
standardised first to determine its concentration. This is done by titrating sodium hydroxide
solution with stable acidic compound of high purity which can be accurately prepared to be
known a concentration. In this experiment, we will use potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP)
for this purpose.

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3. OBJECTIVES

a) To determine accurately the morality of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic
acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized strong base sodium hydroxide
solution.

4. THEORY

Acid-Base titrations are usually used to find the amount of a known acidic or basic substance
through acid base reactions. The analyte is the solution with an unknown molarity. The reagent
is the solution with a known molarity that will react with analyte. In the titration process, a
burette is used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of solution of known concentration
(Figure 1.1a). A typical burette has the smallest calibration unit of 0.1mL (Figure 1.1b),
therefore volume dispense from the burette tip should can be estimated to the nearest 0.01mL.

Figure 1.1: a) Depicts a typical 50-mL burette. b) Indicates smallest calibration unit,
0.1mL on a typical 50 mL burette.

In this experiment, the equivalence point occurs when the moles of acid in the solution equals
to the moles of base added in the titration. For example, the stoichiometric amount of 1 mole
of the strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of the weak
acid, acetic acid (CH3CO2H) as indicated in equation.

CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) (Equation 1-4)

The sudden change in pH of the solution shows that the titration has reached the equivalence
point. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion

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concentration is written as [H3O+]. pH is defined as the negative of the logarithm of the
hydrogen ion concentration.

pH = -log [H3O+] (Equation 1-5)

pH (potential of Hydrogen) scale is a method to measure an acidity or alkalinity of water


soluble substances. A pH number have a scale form 1 until 14 with 7 as a neutral (middle)
point. Values below 7 indicates acidity with values 1 is most acidic. While values above 7
indicates alkalinity with values 14 is most alkaline. It is a logarithm scale in which two adjacent
values increase or decrease by a factor of 10.

In this experiment, titration is initiated by measuring an initial pH of an acidic solution to be


recorded. The pH value might be between (3-5). Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a basic solution
will be added incrementally to the acid solution, thus some of the hydrogen ions will be
neutralized. When the hydrogen ions concentration is decreases, the pH value of the solution
will gradually increase. After a few intervals of sodium hydroxide added in the acidic solution,
most of the H3O+ will be neutralized and the next drop of NaOH added will cause a sudden
sharp increase of pH reading. The volume of based required to completely neutralized the acid
is determine at the equivalence point of titration. A plot of the pH (as the vertical axis) against
the volume of titrant would produce a sloping curve that particularly steep around the
equivalence point. This experiment will be done after there is no drastic changes of pH value
and pH value recorded is maintain.

Figure 1.2: shows example of acid-base titration of CH3COOH titrated with NaOH
curve graph.

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5. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

1M NaOH solution, 1.5g of KHP, 10mL of vinegar, distilled water, 50mL burette, 500mL
beaker, 250mL conical flask, 10mL volumetric pipette, burette stand, stirrer, weighing
balance and pH meter.

6. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

6.1 Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

a) 250mL of approximately 1M NaOH were prepared in the beaker and filled in the burette.

b) An empty 250ml beaker have been weighed to the nearest 0.001g. Weight have been
recorded. Then 1.5g of KHP have been added in the beaker.

c) Beaker with KHP inside have been weighted again to the nearest 0.001g. Mass of KHP have
been recorded by the differences in previous data.

d) Then, 30mL of distilled water were added to the beaker filled with KHP. The solution was
stirred until KHP dissolved completely.

e) This solution then was titrated with NaOH with 1mL addition each and pH data was
recorded.

f) Steps a to e then were repeated to perform a second trial to standardize the NaOH solution.

g) All data were recorded. Graph pH versus NaOH was plotted then volume of NaOH required
to neutralize KHP solution in each titration were determined.

h) Molarity and average molarity of NaOH for titraton 1 and 2 have been calculated.

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6.2 Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar

a) 10mL of vinegar were transferred to a clean, dry 250mL beaker using a 10mL volumetric
pipette. 100mL of distilled water were added to the vinegar solution to cover pH electrode tip.

b) Titration were conducted by adding 1mL each of NaOH to the solution. pH data were
recorded.

c) Steps a and b then were repeated to perform a second trial for this experiment.

d) Graph pH vs volume of NaOH were plotted. Volume of NaOH required to neutralize vinegar
solution has been determined and data were recorded.

e) Molarity and average molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2 has been
calculated.

f) Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2 has been calculated.

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7. RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS

7.1 Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

7.1-1 Volume of NaOH to neutralize the KHP solution.

Titration 1 Trial Titration 2 Trial


Mass of beaker (g) 101.669 101.670
Mass of beaker + KHP (g) 103.180 103.170
Mass of KHP (g) 1.511 1.500
Volume of NaOH to neutralize the 10.6 10.5
KHP solution (mL)

7.1-2 Data of Titration Trial 1 and Titration Trial 2.

Volume of NaOH (mL) pH reading


Trial 1 Trial 2
0 3.92 3.93
1 4.11 4.14
2 4.32 4.32
3 4.72 4.77
4 4.85 4.90
5 4.95 5.06
6 5.15 5.22
7 5.32 5.41
8 5.53 5.59
9 5.87 5.83
10 6.60 6.96
11 12.07 12.05
12 12.31 12.21
13 12.34 12.32
14 12.44 12.41
15 12.47 12.46

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KHP titrated with NaOH Trial 1
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10
pH reading

6
10.6mL NaOH at
4 the equivalence
2
point

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Graph shows data plotted for KHP titrated with NaOH Trial 1

KHP titrated with NaOH Trial 2


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12

10
pH reading

6 10.5mL NaOH at
4
the equivalence
point
2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Graph shows data plotted for KHP titrated with NaOH Trial 2

7.1-3 Molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration 1 and 2.

Calculations for Trial 1


- Calculate moles of KHP used in the titration.
1 KHC8H4O4
1.511g KHC8H4O4 x = 0.007399mol KHC8H4O4
204.2 KHC8H4O4

-Moles of NaOH required to neutralizing moles of KHP


1
0.007399mol KHC8H4O4 x = 0.007399mol NaOH
1 KHC8H4O4

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-Molarity of NaOH solution
1
10.6mL NaOH x = 0.0106L NaOH
1000

0.007399
Molarity = = = 0.6980M NaOH
0.0106

Calculations for Trial 2


- Calculate moles of KHP used in the titration.
1 KHC8H4O4
1.500g KHC8H4O4 x = 0.007346mol KHC8H4O4
204.2 KHC8H4O4

-Moles of NaOH required to neutralizing moles of KHP


1
0.007346mol KHC8H4O4 x = 0.007346mol NaOH
1 KHC8H4O4

-Molarity of NaOH solution


1
10.5mL NaOH x = 0.0105L NaOH
1000

0.007346
Molarity = = = 0.6996M NaOH
0.0105

7.1-4 Average molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration 1 and 2.

Molarity for Trial 1 = 0.6980M NaOH, Molarity for Trial 2 = 0.6996M NaOH
0.6980M+ 0.6996M
= 0.6988M NaOH
2

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7.2 Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar
7.2-1 Volume of NaOH required to neutralize vinegar.
Titration 1 Trial Titration 2 Trial
Volume of NaOH required 17.55 17.60
to neutralize vinegar (mL)

7.2-2 Data of Titration Trial 1 and Titration Trial 2


Volume of NaOH (mL) pH reading
Trial 1 Trial 2
0 2.28 2.39
1 2.90 2.99
2 3.24 3.28
3 3.47 3.50
4 3.66 3.69
5 3.79 3.82
6 3.91 3.99
7 4.04 4.06
8 4.15 4.16
9 4.26 4.28
10 4.38 4.39
11 4.48 4.48
12 4.60 4.58
13 4.73 4.72
14 4.90 4.87
15 5.07 5.03
16 5.32 5.27
17 5.68 5.65
18 9.62 9.85
19 11.42 11.39
20 11.75 11.70
21 11.86 11.88

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Vinegar titrated with NaOH Trial 1
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10
pH reading

4
17.55mL NaOH at the
2 equivalence point
0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Graph shows data plotted for Vinegar titrated with NaOH Trial 1

Vinegar titrated with NaOH Trial 2


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10
pH reading

4
17.60mL NaOH at the
2 equivalence point

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Graph shows data plotted for Vinegar titrated with NaOH Trial 2

7.2-3 Molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2.

Calculation for Trial 1


- Moles of NaOH reacted
1
17.55mL NaOH x = 0.01755L NaOH
1000
0.6988
0.01755L NaOH x = 0.01227mol NaOH
1

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- Moles of CH3COOH neutralized by moles of NaOH
1 3
0.01227mol NaOH x = 0.01227mol CH3COOH
1

- Molarity of the CH3COOH solution


1
10mL CH3COOH x = 0.010L CH3COOH
1000
3 0.01227 3
Molarity = = = 1.227M CH3COOH
0.010

Calculations for Trial 2


- Moles of NaOH reacted
1
17.60mL NaOH x = 0.01760L NaOH
1000
0.6988
0.01760L NaOH x = 0.01230mol NaOH
1

- Moles of CH3COOH neutralized by moles of NaOH


1 3
0.01230mol NaOH x = 0.01230mol CH3COOH
1

- Molarity of the CH3COOH solution


1
10mL CH3COOH x = 0.010L CH3COOH
1000
3 0.01230 3
Molarity = = = 1.230M CH3COOH
0.010

7.2-4 Average molarity of acetic acid for each titration.

Molarity for Trial 1 = 1.227M CH3COOH, Molarity for Trial 2 = 1.230M CH3COOH
1.227M+ 1.230M
= 1.2285M CH3COOH
2

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7.2-5 Percent % of mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2.

Calculations for Trial 1


- Mass of acetic acid in the solution
1
10mL CH3COOH x = 0.01L CH3COOH solution
1
1.227 3 60.05 3
0.01L CH3COOH x x = 0.7368g CH3COOH
1 1 3

Calculations for Trial 2


- Mass of acetic acid in the solution
1
10mL CH3COOH x = 0.01L CH3COOH solution
1
1.230 3 60.05 3
0.01L CH3COOH x x = 0.7386g CH3COOH
1 1 3

- Mass of acetic acid solution


1 3
10mL CH3COOH solution x = 10.00g CH3COOH
1 3

- Percent % by mass of acetic acid in solution


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Percent mass of CH3COOH = x 100%
3
0.7368 3
For Trial 1 = x 100% = 7.368% CH3COOH
10.00 3
0.7386 3
For Trial 2 = x 100% = 7.386% CH3COOH
10.00 3

7.2-6 Average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar.

Percent by mass for Trial 1 = 7.368% CH3COOH, Percent by mass for Trial 2 = 7.386%
CH3COOH
7.368%+7.386%
= 7.377% CH3COOH
2

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8. DISCUSSION

My hypothesis stated in introduction part to determined concentration of acetic acid in vinegar


by combining a known concentration of alkali to an acid seems to be a best way to determine
acid concentration in the solution. By using titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide
solution, the molarity, and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar has been determined. In
the first part of the experiment in which to standardized sodium hydroxide solution, a primary
standard acid solution is initially prepared. Sodium hydroxide is used as base and KHP is used
as primary acid. Next, pH meter is used to measure the pH of the solution. In order to record
the accurate pH, it is necessary to keep the pH meter immersed in the solution.

The results show in every 10mL of vinegar solution contains average 0.7377g CH3COOH acid
approximately and have 7.377% of mass percent each. Adding 100mL of distilled water to
10mL vinegar solution did not change the mole number of acid, just to dilute and to cover pH
meter electrode tip. Logically, the results will not be 100% accurate because inaccurately
measurement could easily have been made without professional equipment in way to determine
the molarity of the sodium hydroxide.

Besides that, the way to determine the equivalence point in every graph also not really 100%
accurate. The equivalence point might be slightly greater than 7 because if titration occurs
between weak acid and strong base, the solution produced is weakly alkaline. The product
which is CH3COONa will dissociates to produce conjugate base and reacts with water to
produce hydroxide ions (H+). Thus, the equivalence point will not always be 7 for some
reactions. It will be higher or lower than 7 instead. End point for all of this experiment also
hard to determine because there is no indicator used such as phenolphthalein, but can be known
as vertical section of the curve.

The significance of percent by mass and molarity of solution in this experiment tells whether
the solution either diluted or concentrated solution. Hence, we know the acetic acid in vinegar
is diluted solution due to its percent by mass and molarity is relatively small.

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9. CONCLUSION

In this experiment, I have conducted a series of an experiment to determine the concentration


of acetic acid in vinegar solution, as my hypothesis stated at introduction section. This
experiment done by titration process, that is work successfully and the only things preventing
perfect results was a lack of experience and lack of professional equipment and substances.

10. RECOMMENDATIONS

There are some recommendations for this experiment. First the pH meter that we used must to
be calibrated first in order to get more accurate reading during immersed in solution. Then, we
must aware there is no bubble in the burette tip since NaOH is filled inside. Parallax error must
be avoided when the reading is taken at the burette measuring scale. To get more accurate and
precise data, the series of trial must be repeated at least twice or thrice. Indicator such as
phenolphthalein also can be suggested to indicate an end point in each experiment.

11. REFERENCES

Source: Internet and Lab Manual

1. Lab Manual, Lab 1, Determination of the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar


from Miss Christina Vargis, UiTM Student Portal.
2. Basic of Titration from
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Lab_Techniques/Titration
3. Titration Points from https://www.tutorhunt.com/resource/13709/
4. Acid-Base Titrations from
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Lab_Techniques/Titration/Aci
d-Base_Titrations

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12. APPENDICES

Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4


Figure 1.3 shows the apparatus used in this experiment. Figure 1.4 shows Mettler
Toledo type pH meter used in this experiment to measure pH reading.

Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6


Figure 1.5 shows the procedure of transferring NaOH solution to the burette. Figure 1.6
shows the process of measuring pH reading by immersed pH meter electrode tip to the
solution.

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