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Home Office and Branch

Accounting
Sales Agency vs. Branch

Sales Agency Branch


Does not carry stocks Carries merchandise
Takes orders but w/c may be
approval and purchased from
shipment of items outsider or from HO
done by HO May function as an
Only a working fund is independent business
provided unit.
No separate Has a branch
accounting entity accounting system
Accounting for an Agency
Normal accounting is followed in the books
of home office.
Certain accounts are extended with
Agency.
Accounting for Sales Agency
Cash - Imprest fund
Sales agency income is not tracked separately:
records sales agency sales and expenses in in the
HOs own revenue and expense accounts
If the home office wants to determine the net
income of the sales agency - it must maintain
distinct revenue and expense accounts for the
sales agency in its GL by appending the account
with the agency name

Prepared by: Rona Corda-Prado 4


Inventory Accounting for
Sales Agency in HO books
Perpetual System:
COGS - Sales Agency xxx
Merchandise Inventory xxx

Periodic System:
COGS - Sales Agency
Shipments of Merchandise Sales Agency

Under the periodic system, the Shipments of


Merchandise - Sales Agency is deducted from HOs
COGAFS.
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Inventory Accounting for
Sales Agency in HO books

Fixed Asset Transfers:


Appropriate Asset Account - Sales Agency xxx
Appropriate Asset Account xxx

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Sales Agency: Illustration

Iloilo Fashion House opened a


sales agency in Bacolod. The
revenues and expenses of the
agency are recorded
separately from those of the
home office. Income from
sales and home office
operations are determined
separately at the end of each
accounting period. Assume
that the home office uses the
periodic inventory system.
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Sales Agency: Illustration
Transactions Home Office Books
Working fund of P18,000 is established Working Fund - Bacolod Agency 18,000
Cash 18,000

Shipped merchandise to Bacolod Samples Inventory - Bacolod Agency 3,800


Agency for use as samples - P3,800 Shipments to Agency 3,800

Fill sales orders from Bacolod Agency, Accounts Receivable 162,000


P162,000 Sales - Bacolod Agency 162,000

COGS identified with agency sales, COGS - Bacolod Agency 108,000


P108,000 (periodic system) Shipments to Agency 108,000

Replenishment of working fund with Rent Expense - Bacolod Agency 5,000


agency for the following expenses: Office Supplies Expense - Bacolod Agency 3,000
Rent, P5,000; Office Supplies, Salaries Expense - Bacolod Agency 6,400
P3,000; Salaries, P6,400 Cash 14,400

Close revenue and expense accounts Sales - Bacolod Agency 162,000


of the agency COGS - Bacolod Agency 108,000
Rent Expense - Bacolod Agency 5,000
Office Supplies Expense - Bacolod Agency 3,000
Salaries Expense - Bacolod Agency 6,400
Bacolod Agency Income 39,600
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Branch Accounting
Reciprocal Accounts
Journal entries on the books of Branch
and Home Office
Combined Financial Statements
Reconciliation of Reciprocal Accounts
Accounting System For A
Branch
Branches normally keep a separate and
complete set of accounting records at
each branch.
Branch maintains a complete set of
accounting records consisting of:
Journals
Ledgers
Chart of accounts

Transactions with outside parties are


recorded similar to that of an
independent business enterprise.
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Accounting System For A Branch

Financial statements are prepared by


branch accountant and forwarded to
home office.
The home office usually establish
policy such as
Number and types of ledger accounts
The internal control structure
Form and content of the financial statements
Accounting policies
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Accounting System For
A Branch
Both the home office and the branch must
record transactions with one another
(intraoffice transactions) in their respective
accounting systems
Transactions between the home office and
branch are recorded in intracompany
(reciprocal) accounts
When the books of both branch and home
office are completely updated, the
reciprocal accounts in both books should
have equal but opposite balances and be
eliminated for the preparation of
consolidated financial statements
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Reciprocal Ledger
Accounts Branch Books
Accounting records maintained by a branch
include a Home Office ledger account
This account reflects all activity between the
branch and home office
Home office account is a quasi-ownership
equity account that shows the net investment
by the Home Office in the branch.
Home office is credited for all merchandise,
cash or other assets provided by the home
office (investment from HO);
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Reciprocal Ledger Accounts
Branch Books
Home office is debited for all cash,
merchandise, or other assets sent by the
branch to the home office or the other
branches (drawings by HO).
At the end of an accounting period when the
branch closes its accounting records, the
Income Summary account is closed to the
Home Office account.
Net income increases the credit balance of
the Home Office account; a net loss
decreases (debit) this balance.

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Reciprocal Ledger Accounts
Home Office Books

In the home office accounting records, a


reciprocal ledger account with a title such as
Investment in Branch is maintained.
Investment in Branch is non-current asset
account
Debited for cash merchandise, and services
provided to the branch, and for the net
income reported by the branch (receivable
from branch).
Credited for the cash or other assets received
from the branch, and for net losses reported
by the branch.
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Reciprocal Ledger Accounts
Home Office Books

Thus the Investment in Branch account


reflects the equity method of
accounting.
A separate investment account
generally is maintained by the home
office for each branch.

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Reciprocal Ledger Accounts

Investment in Branch Home Office


(Home Office books) (Branch books)
Asset Asset Asset Asset
transfers to transfers transfers transfers to
branch from branch from branch
branch
Branch profit Branch loss Branch
Branch loss profit

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Illustration
Smaldino opened a new branch called
Mason branch.
Assume that Smaldino Company bills
merchandise to Mason Branch at home office
cost and that Mason Branch maintains
complete accounting records and prepares
financial statements.
Both the home office and the branch use the
perpetual inventory system. Generally,
equipment used at the branch is carried in the
home office records unless specifically stated.
Expenses, such as advertising and insurance,
incurred by the home office on behalf of the
branch, are billed to the branch.
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Illustration
Cash of $1,000 was forwarded by the
home office to Mason Branch.
Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal
Entries Entries
Investment in Mason Cash 1,000
Branch 1,000 Home Office 1,000
Cash 1,000

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Shipment of Merchandise

Three alternative methods.


Billing at home office cost simplest of all.
Billing at a percentage above home office cost.
Billing at the branchs retail selling price.
Transfer of merchandise at cost is recorded
the same way as any other asset transfer.
Freight costs incurred in shipping merchandise
from the HO to a branch become part of the
branch inventory cost.
Shipment of merchandise to a branch does
not constitute a sale because ownership title
has not changed
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Illustration
Merchandise with a home office cost of
$60,000 was shipped by the home office to
Mason Branch.
Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal
Entries Entries
Investment in Mason Inventories 60,000
Branch 60,000 Home Office 60,000
Inventories 60,000

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Inventories
Purchase of branch from outside supplier
Ex. Bacolod Branch purchased P100,000
worth of merchandise from a local supplier, on
account.
Shipments of Merchandise to Branch
Ex. Makati head office shipped merchandise
costing P250,000 to its Davao Branch. These
merchandise were billed at costs and freight
paid by HO amounted to P25,000.
Acquisition of Fixed Assets
Used in Branch

Transactions recorded by a
branch should include all
controllable expenses and
revenue initiated by the branch
If the branch manager has
responsibility over all branch
assets, liabilities, revenue and
expenses, the branch
accounting records should
reflect this responsibility.
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Acquisition of Fixed
Assets Used in Branch
Expenses such as depreciation often are not
subject to control by a branch manager.
Branch plant assets and the related
depreciation ledger accounts are generally
maintained by the home office (would apply
if the problem is silent).
The policy adopted by the company would
depend on where the acquisition of plant
assets are recorded and who does the
actual acquisition.
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Acquisition of Fixed Assets
Used in Branch
If a fixed asset is acquired by the home office
for a branchs usage and the accounting
record for the fixed asset is maintained by the
home office, the accounting treatments are:

Home Office Journal Entries Branch Journal Entries

Fixed Asset Branch No entry


Cash or Liability Account

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Acquisition of Fixed
Assets Used in Branch
If a plant asset is acquired by a branch for its
usage but the accounting record for this plant
asset is maintained by the home office, the
accounting treatments are:

Home Office Journal Branch Journal Entries


Entries
Fixed Asset Branch Home Office
Investment in Branch Cash/Liability Account

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Acquisition of Fixed Assets
Used in Branch

If a fixed asset is acquired by the home office for the


branch and the accounting record for this asset is
maintained by the branch, the accounting treatments
are:

Home Office Journal Branch Journal Entries


Entries
Investment in Branch Fixed Asset Account
Cash/Liability Account Home Office

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Illustration

Equipment was acquired by Mason


Branch for its use and paid $500, to be
carried in the home office accounting
records.
Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal
Entries Entries
Equipment - Mason Home Office 500
Branch 500 Cash 500
Investment in
Mason Branch 500
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Illustration

Credit sales by Mason Branch amounted to $80,000; the


branchs cost of the merchandise sold was $45,000

Home Office Journal Entries Mason Branch Journal Entries

None Accounts
Receivable 80,000
Sales 80,000

Cost of Goods
Sold 45,000
Inventories 45,000
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Illustration

Collections of trade accounts receivable


by Mason Branch amounted to $62,000.

Home Office Mason Branch Journal Entries


Journal Entries
None Cash 62,000
Account Receivable 62,000

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Start-Up Costs

Based on IAS38 Intangible Assets, all


start-up costs, including costs
associated with organizing a branch
or division should be expensed in the
accounting period in which the costs
are incurred.

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Expenses Incurred By Home
Office And Allocated To Branches

Types of expenses allocated by the


home office to the branch:
1. Expenses incurred by the branch but
paid by the home office
2. Expenses incurred by the home office
in behalf of the branch (i.e.
depreciation of branch equipment
carried in HO books)
3. Allocations of expenses incurred by
the home office (i.e. advertising)

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Expenses Incurred By Home
Office And Allocated To
Branches
The home office usually acquires
insurance, pays property and other
taxes, and does advertising that
benefits all branches.
Home Office Journal Branch Journal Entries
Entries
Investment in Branch Expense Account
Expense Account Home Office

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Expenses Incurred By Home Office
And Allocated To Branches

Home office may charge each branch


interest on the capital invested in that
branch
Interest expense recognized by the
branches would be offset by interest
revenue recognized by the home office
Amounts would be netted and would
not be displayed in the combined
income statement

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Illustration

Payments for operating expenses


by Mason Branch totaled $20,000.
Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal Entries
Entries
None Operating
Expenses 20,000
Cash 20,000

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Illustration

Cash of $37,500 was remitted by


Mason Branch to the home office.
Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal
Entries Entries
Cash 37,500 Home Office 37,500
Investment in Cash 37,500
Mason Branch 37,500

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Illustration

Operating expenses incurred by the home


office and charged to Mason Branch
totaled $3,000.

Home Office Journal Mason Branch Journal


Entries Entries
Investment in Mason Operating
Branch 3,000 Expenses 3,000
Operating Home Office 3,000
Expenses 3,000
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Recognition of Branch
Income or Loss
Income for each branch is computed periodically in the
normal manner.
Branch revenue and expense accounts are closed to its
Income Summary in the usual manner.
Income Summary account is closed to the Home Office
account which serves as the capital account in the
branch books.

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Recognition of Branch
Income or Loss

Home Office Journal Branch Journal Entries


Entries
Investment in Branch Income Summary
Branch Income Home Office

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Comprehensive Illustration

Problem 2, page 19.


Separate Financial
Statements
A separate income statement and balance sheet helps
management of the enterprise to review the operating
results and financial position of the branch.
The separate financial statements prepared by branch
will be revised by home office to include reconciling
items (if any) and to show the results of branch
operations after elimination of any intra-company profits
on merchandise shipments.
The branch balance sheet will have Home Office Ledger
Account instead of Ownership Equity Account.

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Separate Financial Statements
for Branch & Home Office
Separate financial statements also
may be prepared for the home office
so that the results of its operations and
its financial position can be
appraised.

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Combined Financial Statements

Combined FS of the home office and the branch are


needed to show the effects of company transactions of
the business entity with outsiders.
HOBA eliminations: Use trial balance working paper
A starting point in preparation of a combined balance
sheet would be the adjusted trial balances of the home
office and of the branch.
Similar accounts are combined to produce a single total
amount for cash, trade accounts receivable and other
assets and liabilities of the enterprise.

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Combined Financial Statements
The reciprocal ledger accounts are
eliminated because they have no
significance when the branch and home
office report as a single entity.
The balance of the Home Office account is
offset against the balance of the Investment
in Branch account;
Shipments to Branch account is eliminated
against the Shipments from Home Office
(periodic).
In addition, any receivables and payables
between the home office and the branch (or
between branches) are eliminated.
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Combined Financial
Statements
Operating results of the enterprise are
shown by an income statement in
which the revenue and expenses of the
branches are combined with
corresponding revenue and expenses
for the home office.
Intra-company profits of losses are
eliminated (in the case of inventory sold
with mark-up).

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Working Paper for
Combined Financial Statements

Any elimination or offsetting the


balances is done only on working
paper. No entry is to be made in the
accounting record of either Home
office or branch because its only
purpose is to facilitate the preparation
of combined financial statements

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Reconciliation of
Reciprocal Ledger Accounts

Balance of the Investment in Branch


ledger account on the accounting
records of the home office may not
agree with the balance of the Home
Office on the branch books
Main reason certain transactions may
have been recorded by one set of books
office but not by the other due to timing
differences (i.e. inventory in transit or
cash remittances in transit); or
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Reconciliation of Reciprocal
Accounts
Reconciling items exist because of bookkeeping and
mechanical errors such as duplication of entries, slides
and transpositions on either set of books.
If the problem is silent, assume that the record in the
originating books is correct.
At the end of each period the reciprocal account
balances must be brought into agreement before
combined financial statements are prepared.

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The End

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