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Fire Fighting Systems

Types of Fire Fighting Syst on a Vessel:


1. Fire Main Syst:
Sea-water hydrants (all vessels)
Foam (included in fire main for Tanker)
Emergency Fire Pumps
2. Fixed Fire Fighting (Local FiFi):
Sprinkles (accommodation)
Foam (ER, Separator, Boiler room) Oil
CO2 (ER, ECR, Wheelhouse) electricals
High Pressure Water-mist (ER, Separator, ME, AE)
3. Portable Fire Extinguishing
CO2, Foam, Powder / Dry Foam

X = min 2 units or each 10 m walking distance


Ref: ABS rules 2005
y = sufficient number to enable foam to be directed to each firing eqpmnt

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Fixed Fire Extinguishing Syst (ref: BKI table 12.1)

Cargo Ships > 500 BRT or all Passenger


Spaces and Areas to be protected
Ships
Eng room Spaces of oil-fired boilers, oil
CO2 or Foam or Pressure Water-mist
fired plants, FO preparation syst
Spaces for Internal Comb Engnot used > 375 kW
for propulsion CO2 or Foam or Pressure Water-mist
Unattended Mach Spaces containing > 375 kW
Steam Engines CO2 or Foam or Pressure Water-mist
Eqpmnts with high risk in Machinery -
Spaces (e.g FO separators, Boilers, Additional Local fire extinguishing units
Oil syst with press > 15 bar)
Exh gas fired thermal oil heaters Pressure water-mist system
Paint store & other flamable liquid store CO2 or Dry Powder or Pressure Water-mist
Galley, Exhaust duct CO2 or other equivalent extinguishing syst
Scavenge trunks of 2-stroke engines CO2 or other equivalent extinguishing syst

FIRE MAIN SYST Components

1. Sea chest (inlet)


2. Main Pipes
3. Fire Main Pump (pompa PMK)
4. Branch Pipes
5. Hydrants, incl Hose, Nozzle (on
E/R, Main Deck, and Accmdtn
Decks)
6. Lines to Shore Connection &
Emergency Fire Pumps

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FIRE MAIN PIPES
Material: Steel Galvanized Pipe (SGP) refering to
BKI vol V (rules for material) sect 4. (or other
Classification Society with related section)
Pipe thickness: M category, or D if passing through
cargo hold or f.o tank (table 11.5 BKI vol III sect
11, s.w.lines).
Pipe joints: butt-weld or flens (table 11.11 and
11.12 BKI vol III sect 11).
Lay-out of pipes:
Main Pipes: from sea-chest to deck
Branch Pipes: @ hydrants on deck and accommodation
Shall be fitted with Intl Shore Connctn (for
shore- supply) with dimension ref to Class
standard
Provided with Lines to Emergency Fire Pumps with
a stop valve in between to lines

DIMENSION OF FIRE MAIN PIPE


Din = 0,8 DH
DH = Size of Bilge pipe
DH min = 50 mm
DH max = 130 mm (cargo) 175 mm (pasgr)
Thickness of pipe :
Category M (4,0 ~ 5,0 mm w.r.t. Dout)
Category D (6,3 ~ 8,8 mm w.r.t. Dout)

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Fire Main Pump
Type of Vessel cargo
No of pumps 2 units (>500 GRT) 1 unit (< 500 GRT)
Q of each pump 3,8 * 10-3 d2 H[m3/hr]
minimum 25 m3/hr
For 2 pumps with different Q, one of them min
80% Q
Type of Pumps Centrifugal, electrically driven, self priming
Bilge, Ballast, GS, or Sanitary pumps may be used,
provided that they never used in pumping oily water
Location E/R space (recommended on tank top)
Head of pump Able to supply pressure of: (measured on 2 nozzles
discharging simultaneously)
0,25 N/mm2 (<6000 GRT)
0,27 N/mm2 (>6000 GRT)

P0MPA PMK (hydrant)


Suction: di s/c, Disch: di nozel
Tot Head = Hz + Hp + Hv + tot H_loss
Hz = elevation of hydrant (up-most deck)
Hp = Pnozzle/g
Hv = (V2nozzle V2s/c)/2g
Tot H_loss = Total Head-loss, calculated at
longest line.
Check:
NPSH system = (Hzpump-T)+Hloss (s/c to pump)
NPSH system < NPSH spec ?

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HYDRANT
Location: sw discharged from 2 hoses/nozels shall reach:
Each part of crew access (gangway or accm deck)
Each part of cargo spaces and ro-ro spaces.
ER spaces (each 10m walk-way)
Easily accessible and close to personnel's access
Not possibly covered by any cargo for deck-cargo vessels
Each hydrant shall be fitted with valves
HOSE
Length: max 20m (deck) and max 15m (E/R).
Vessels with GRT >1000 : 1 hose @ 30m (complete with
coupling & nozzle). Or at least 5 units.
Location: Closest possible to hydrant
NOZZLE
Approved dimension: 12mm (accommodtn space) , 16mm,
or 19 mm (E/R space)

EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP


As an alternative fire fighting in the event of fire in the
compartment at which all Fire main pumps cannot be operated.
Location: outside of E/R (focle or S/G room or main deck)
Fixed independently driven centrifugal pump.
Able to supply 2 nozzle with Q > 40% (or min 25 m3/hr).
Independent driver (diesel or other) to be ready to start anytime.
Shall be Capable for 3 hrs continuous operation, and
provided with external FO lines for supplying FO for the next
15 hrs.
Connected to Fire-main lines and to be provided with stop v/v.
Suction head of pump shall be able to supply seawater in
any condition of the vessel.

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PID Fire & Washdeck diagram

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SPRINKLE SYSTEM
HYDROPHORE
To Contain seawater in E/R.
Pressure: > 1,75 bar w.r.t. to height of accommodation deck
Volume: > 2 x Q pump/mnt
On stand by: shall be able to fill in with freshwater
SPRINKLES
Q = 5 lt per m2 covered space (max covered space: 280 m2)
Shall be grouped (each group < 200 springkles)
Material: corrosion-resistant (galvanised steel not allowed)
HYDROPHORE PUMP
Q > 1400 lt/mnt, P pump > P hydrophore (>1,75 bar)
Automatically starts on press drop occurs in hydrophore
Provided with direct sea-suction

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Sprinkle Pump
Suction: s/c, Disch: hhyyddrroopphhoorree
Q > 1400 lt/mnt
Tot Head = Hz + Hp + Hv + tot H-loss
Hz = elevation hydrophore to s/c
Hp = Phydrophore /g
Hv = (V2hydrophore V2s/c)/2g ~ 0
Tot H-loss = Total head loss
Check: NPSH system
= (Hzpompa-T)+Hloss (suction side)
NPSH system < NPSH spec ?

Ref: Ship manual MV Labobar

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CO2 SYSTEM CO2 ALARM
Alarm for E/R crew to leave
CO2 BOTTLES E/R in the event of CO2 is
To contain CO2 in sseevveerraallbbootttlle
ess (no going to be discharged.
of bottles acc to Class approval). Audible from any part in ER,
Shall be stored outside of E/R. (on and shall sound different
deck or SG room) with other alarm incl. fire
Connected to lines for supplying CO2 alarm.
in E/R. CO2 VALVES
CO2 LINES To discharge CO2 in ER in
CCoonnnneeccttiin
ngg CO2 bottles (outside ER the event of fire.
to CO nozzles inside ER) Located at access way to
CO2 Nozzles are placed to Most ER, or other accessible
Possible Firing Eqpmnt in ER (M/E, space for ER crew.
A/E, Boiler, FO Separators, etc) Shall be remotely operated
Equipped with CO2 valves which (using wire-mechanism or
shall be remotely operated. pneumatic)
Working pressure > 10 bar

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FIXED FOAM EXTINGUISHER SYST
Components involved: 3. Foam lines
1. Dry Foam Tank. Foam lines are connected
To store dry foam material to Fire Main lines
Shall be located outside E/R Eductor to be provided in
space discharging foam in Fire
Main Lines
Spec of dry foam material Spec of pipe of Fire Main
refers to IMO Lines applies
2. Mixing Tank / Foam 4. SW pump (using GS &
Generator Fire main pump)
To mix dry foam and SW for GS & Fire pump are used
foam expansion in discharging Foam
Located > 450mm from Spec of pump as applied
PPrrootteecctteedd Area ((EE//RR))
on GS & Fire main pump.
Vol of foam (expanded)
shall be cover the largest 5. Hydrants & nozzles
protected space with 1m Hydrants & Nozzles as on
depth per mnt (high Fire main lines
expansion foam) or 150mm Size of Nozzles max used
(low expansion foam) is 19 mm

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WATER-MIST FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYST
An alternative fixed fire extinguishing instead of
CO2 and Foam
A high pressure (abt 20 30 bar) water-mist to
be sprayed (atomized) to cover firing equipment in
ER
Pumps and control valves shall be located outside
Machinery Space
Components:
FW tank
FW lines onto high press Water-mist pump
Remotely operated valves one of each leading to
potentially firing eqpmnts (ME, AE, FO purifiers,
Incinerators, Boilers, etc).
Control Panel in Eng Control Room (ECR)

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