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Structural Analysis Examples

Structural Analysis Examples

The intention of this module is to work through some models that illustrate how

to perform certain tasks common to structural analysis problems.

o These examples are more complex than those in the Basic Examples

module, but will remain relatively simple.

o The primary goal is again to focus on the fundamental ingredients for

creating, running, and evaluating a structural model in OpenSees.

scripting and some of the different modeling, loading, and analysis capabilities

of the OpenSees framework

o Many more structural examples are available on the OpenSees website,

either in the Basic Examples page, the Advanced Examples page, or in the

practical examples on the main Examples page.

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Examples

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

H 2

3 4

1 3

1 2

Beams: A = 0.125 m2

Beams: E = 200 GPa

Beams: I = 0.0026 m4

Bay is 3 m wide

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

2D Beam elements: -ndf 3

H 2

3 4

1 3

1 2

Beams: A = 0.125 m2

Beams: E = 200 GPa

Beams: I = 0.0026 m4

Bay is 3 m wide

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

both x and y coords

3 4

1 3

1 2

Beams: A = 0.125 m2

Beams: E = 200 GPa

Beams: I = 0.0026 m4

Bay is 3 m wide

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

H 2

3 4

Need to specify fixity for all 3 DOF 1 3

We have fully fixed the base nodes

1 2

Beams: A = 0.125 m2

Beams: E = 200 GPa

Beams: I = 0.0026 m4

Bay is 3 m wide

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

H 2

3 4

1 3

1 2

Beams: A = 0.125 m2

Beams: E = 200 GPa

Beams: I = 0.0026 m4

Bay is 3 m wide

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

When we are using beam elements,

we need to create a geomTransf

object for each orientation (e.g. all

horizontal beams can use the same

geomTransf object). Then general

usage for this command (in 2D) is:

geomTransf $Type $tag <-jntOffset

$dXi $dYi $dXj $dYj>

where $Type indicates the type of

geometric transformation (more on

that in a bit), the $tag is unique, and

the optional jntOffset argument

allows for the consideration of the

differences in the deformable length

of the element compared to an

actual beam-column.

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.ph

p/Geometric_Transformation_Command

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

In this example we are using the

Linear geomTransf object. This type

of geometric transformation assumes

small displacement theory (i.e. no

geometric nonlinearity is considered)

for each beam orientation in the

model. In our example we have two

vertical beams, and one horizontal,

so two geomTransf are required.

for 2D problems, as there is only one

plane in which rotation can occur

(the third DOF). In 3D we need to

specify some further information,

but we will discuss that later.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

A brief aside: In 3D specifying the

geomTransf object is a bit more

complicated because bending can

occur in more than one plane.

We need to include the orientation

of the local x-z plane for each

geomTransf object

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

how this works.

Consider element 1: a vector that is

parallel to the local x-z plane of this

element is in the negative global

z-direction, so the command is

geomTransf Linear $tag1 0 0 -1

parallel to the local x-z plane of this

element is in the global y-direction,

thus the command for this element is

geomTransf Linear $tag2 0 1 0

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

In this example, we will use the

elasticBeamColumn element. Unlike

the truss element we considered in

earlier examples, this element does

not require a material model. The

material properties are input

arguments in the element creation.

The general usage is:

element elasticBeamColumn $tag $nodeI

$nodeJ $A $E $I $gTransfTag <-mass

$rho> <-cMass>

where $gTransfTag is the tag of the

geomTransf object, the mass option

allows a density $rho to be set, and

the cMass option will create a

consistent mass matrix as opposed to

the default lumped mass matrix.

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.

php/Elastic_Beam_Column_Element

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

H 2

3 4

1 3

1 2

Note how the elements of this frame

have been specified in the model file.

Elements 1 and 3 are vertical, so are

assigned geomTransf 1. Note that for

this to work, the connectivity is

specified from the bottom up.

Element 2 is horizontal, so is assigned

to geomTransf 2.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

100 kN 100 kN

H 2

3 4

1 3

1 2

The 100 kN vertical loads at nodes 3

and 4 are applied using a Constant

timeSeries (exactly what it sounds

like) and the Plain loadPattern that

weve used in previous examples.

Now that there are 3 DOF, we need

to specify 0.0 in the horizontal and

rotational DOF in the load command.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

The rest of the model file is shown

here. We set up the analysis objects

that we want to use, and then apply

a single analysis step with the

loadControl integrator and a load

factor of 1.0.

This step applies the vertical loads to

nodes 3 and 4.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

The lateral loads are applied at nodes

3 and 4 using a Linear timeSeries and

a Plain loadPattern.

Note that the tags for these objects

are not the same as the previous

timeSeries and pattern.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

We will record the displacement at

node 3 in the horizontal direction.

We will also use the element

recorder to obtain information from

the beam elements. The globalForces

recorder argument will print the

elemental shear force, normal force,

and bending moments to the

specified file in the global coordinate

system.

There is also an option localForces

that does the same, but in the local

coordinate systems for each beam.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

The lateral load analysis is performed

using the DisplacementControl

integrator such that in each of the

100 considered steps, the

displacement increment at node 3 in

the horizontal direction (dof 1) will

be 1 mm (0.001 m). After 100 steps,

the end displacement at node 3 will

be 10 cm (0.1 m)

only way to do this, just the way that

is used here.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

The displacement output that we

sent to the file disp.out in the node

recorder looks like this. When using

the DisplacementControl integrator

in a Static analysis, the time (left

column here) is the magnitude of the

force in the specified dof.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

The globalForces output that we sent to the file beam.out looks like this.

It looks complicated but the layout is logical. The first column is the pseudotime.

Then for each element, there are 6 columns of information (N, V, M at each

node), thus there are 19 columns here.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

2

3 4

1 3

1 2

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame Pushover

Lets examine the final row of the beam.disp file, the information that was

recorded when the horizontal displacement of node 3 reached 10 cm.

8358.16

2 16093.6 The recorded data is

7195.21 the internal forces

3 4 and moments in the

1 3 1 global coordinate

system.

7195.21 16093.6

1 2

8358.16

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame P-Delta

Lets make one minor change to our

model file to see how geometric

nonlinearity can be considered.

Recall that we used the Linear

geomTransf, assumes small

displacement theory (i.e. no

geometric nonlinearity is considered)

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame P-Delta

Lets make one minor change to our

model file to see how geometric

nonlinearity can be considered.

Recall that we used the Linear

geomTransf, assumes small

displacement theory (i.e. no

geometric nonlinearity is considered)

geomTransf object, we can now

consider the P-delta effect in our

analysis (i.e. the additional moment

caused by the combination of the

vertical forces (P) and the

displacement of the top of the

columns (delta).

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.

php/PDelta_Transformation

1-Bay, 1-Storey Frame P-Delta

To really see the effect, we need to

increase the final displacement,

increase the vertical forces, or both.

To accentuate the differences, these

results consider 1 m of displacement

with P = 100,000 kN at nodes 3 and 4

Using Section Models for More Realistic

Beam Cross-Sections

Section Models

Most of the time, we will want to consider nonlinear response in our structural

models via material nonlinearities, geometric nonlinearities, or both.

o The elasticBeamColumn element is great for linear elastic materials, but

isnt going to work for nonlinear material modeling.

o It is still useful to consider linear elastic material response when first

developing a model, as it is important to verify that the model is

performing as intended.

allow us to consider different cross-sectional geometries with various layouts of

different materials

o The classic structural example is a reinforced concrete beam. A section

model allows us to consider the differing constitutive response of the

steel and concrete, as well as the geometric layout of the cross-section.

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Section_Command

Elastic Section Models

Its relatively simple to incorporate

an Elastic section into our 2D frame

model. Instead of directly including

the material and cross-sectional

properties into the element as we did

before, they are properties assigned

to the Elastic section, and this section

is then specified in the element

definitions.

The dispBeamColumn element is

shown here, but identical results are

obtained for the forceBeamColumn

element, and both of these match

the elasticBeamColumn element

results exactly.

Elastic Section Models

The advantage of using an Elastic

section and a nonlinear beamColumn

element is that it is a modular

approach. We get the same results as

with the elasticBeamColumn, but

changing to a different section

response is now much simpler.

use the same model but consider a

nonlinear fiber section response, all

we need to do is remove or comment

out the Elastic section, add the lines

necessary to create the new section

model, and assign the new section

object $sTag.

Fiber Section Models

Fiber section models allow us to

consider the cross-sectional response

of the beam and how this affects the

axial-deformation, moment-

curvature, and/or shear-deformation

response of the beam or column

when loaded by external forces.

It is particularly effective for

composite cross-sections such as

those found in reinforced concrete

beams and columns. We can consider

different shapes, different layouts,

and different material responses for

the various constituents.

Fiber Section Models

We will consider the reinforced

concrete cross-section shown here.

The figure at the bottom shows how

the layout of the fiber section model

we will create. The general usage is:

section Fiber $secTag {

fiber <fiber arguments>

patch <patch arguments>

layer <layer arguments>

}

A fiber considers a point entity.

o A single reinforcing bar

A patch considers an areal entity.

o An area or subarea of concrete

A layer considers a line entity.

o A row of reinforcing bars

Fiber Section Models

This example is a bit more

complicated, as we will be

sourcing in some tcl procedures

from other files.

the 1D axial response of the cross-

section to define the unique

moment-curvature relationship for

the beam, thus we use

uniaxialMaterials for the concrete

and steel bodies.

previous examples, but have not

yet looked at the Concrete01

model.

Fiber Section Models

The general usage for the

Concrete01 model is:

uniaxialMaterial Concrete01 $tag

$fpc $epsc $fpcu $epsu

where $fpc = fc, $epsc is the strain

at peak compressive strength,

$fpcu is the residual strength at

large strains (as defined by the

$epsu parameter).

Scott-Park model with considers

zero tensile strength.

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki

/index.php/Concrete01_Material_-

-_Zero_Tensile_Strength

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

We define two Concrete01 objects

to separately consider the

different constitutive response of

the confined core and cover

concrete.

The confined core of the cross-

section is the middle portion that

is confined by the longitudinal and

shear reinforcement.

The cover concrete is the material

between the reinforcing steel and

the outer surfaces of the beam.

This will generally have a lower

peak strength and very minimal

residual strength at large strains (it

is set to zero in this case).

Fiber Section Models

Some definitions for the cross-

sectional geometry are made here

and depth of the beam section,

the cover distance (surface to

outer edge of reinforcement), and

the area of steel for the

considered reinforcing bars (No. 7

bars in this case).

Fiber Section Models

Some definitions for the cross-

sectional geometry are made here

and depth of the beam section,

the cover distance (surface to

outer edge of reinforcement), and

the area of steel for the

considered reinforcing bars (No. 7

bars in this case).

sent to the RCsection2D procedure

along with some information on

how many bars are in each row

and to discretize the concrete

patches in the section.

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

Now that the fiber section model

has been defined for our

reinforced concrete section, we

can perform the moment-

curvature analysis using a

procedure defined in the file

MomentCurvature.tcl. The inputs

for this procedure are:

The section tag for the fiber

section (here it is set to 1)

The axial force on the section $P

The maximum curvature value to

apply to the section, here defined

as the product of the ductility $mu

and the estimated yield curvature

for the section $Ky

The number of iterations to

consider in the analysis

Fiber Section Models

The MomentCurvature procedure

creates the nodes, boundary

conditions, element, recorder,

loadPatterns, and analysis

commands necessary to run the

moment-curvature analysis.

A zeroLengthSection element is

used (nodes 1 and 2 at same

location) and the RC fiber section

tag is input into this element.

The axial load is applied as a

Constant timeSeries

The moment-curvature analysis is

performed using the

DisplacementControl integrator

and the results are saved to a file

for plotting elsewhere.

Fiber Section Models

In the recorded results, the time in the first

column is the bending moment and the curvature

values are in the second column.

Fiber Section Models

just rectangular sections, we can also define

circular sections as would be common in

structural columns, or in pile or drilled shaft

foundations, using the same essential tools.

Fiber Section Models

Fiber Section Models

The section Aggregator can be

used to combine several

uniaxialMaterial objects and one

section object into an aggregate

group in which each is assigned to

a different DOF.

between the responses in the

different DOF.

to add an elastic torsional

response to a beamColumn

element with a fiber section for

the axial/moment response.

Nonlinear Beam-Column Modeling

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

There are essentially two options for modeling structures with nonlinear beam-

column element behaviour.

o A concentrated plasticity approach, where hinges at then ends of the

beam-columns have a elastoplastic response and the remaining length

of the elements have a linear elastic response.

o A distributed plasticity approach, where the elastoplastic response of

the beam-column can spread over the entire length of the element, and

the nonlinear material or section model applied to the element informs

the response a each integration point in the element.

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

Concentrated plasticity approach

elements (or elastic sections), and then placing zero-length

elements at the ends. These zero-length elements are given

a force-displacement response desired for a plastic hinge zone.

The advantages are that this is a relatively simple technique to apply, and that it

works well for capturing interface effects such as bar pullout and shear sliding

The disadvantages are that the the properties of the springs depend on the

geometry and the moment distribution, and that the beams have elastic

behaviour in the interior (no distributed plasticity is possible)

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

We can modify our simple frame

example to consider concentrated

plasticity at the ends of the beams

and columns.

The addition of the hinge elements

will require some new nodes an

boundary conditions.

The new nodes are in the same

locations as the original nodes, as

zeroLength elements will be used.

Multi-point constraints, via the

equalDOF command, are used to

link the new nodes with nodes 3

and 4 in only the translational dof

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki

/index.php/EqualDOF_command

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

We now need to create some

uniaxialMaterial objects that

define the desired hysteretic

response of the hinge elements.

If we want to have different

behaviour for beams and columns,

we will need two materials with

two tags, otherwise one is fine.

There are many options available

for this purpose. The complete list,

with discussion, can be found via

the uniaxialMaterial page at

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.p

hp/UniaxialMaterial_Command

Some of the available uniaxial

materials that could be used for

the hysteretic hinge response.

(list is too big to fit on one screen!)

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

The final changes concern the

elements. We need to change the

connectivity for the beamColumn

elements, which now join the new

interior nodes we have created.

The hinges will be modeled using

zeroLength elements. The general

usage for this command is:

element zeroLength $tag $nodeI

$nodeJ mat $matTag dir $dir

Consider element 4 to illustrate

how this works in our case. We are

linking node 1 to node 13 (these

share the same location). Because

this is a column joint, we apply the

material with the column tag. The

direction is 6 as we are concerned

with rotation about the z-axis.

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

Distributed plasticity approach

beam-column elements that permit the spread of plasticity over the

length of the element. The two corresponding elements are

dispBeamColumn and forceBeamColumn.

o The advantages are that this approach allows yield to occur at any

point along the length of the beam or column. This can be very

important with large distributed loads.

The disadvantages are that the integration weights and points are optimised for

the integration of higher-order polynomials, and do not necessarily reflect

plastic hinge locations or lengths as observed in experiments/reconnaissance.

Also, in comparison to the concentrated plasticity approach, there is some

computational efficiency lost if yield does not occur in the middle portion of the

element.

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

Displacement-Based Element Formulation

element procedures and the principle of virtual displacement.

o Constant axial deformation and a linear curvature field are

enforced over the length of the element. This is exact only for

prismatic linear elastic elements.

o The accuracy of the solution can be improved through mesh

refinement (h-refinement) only.

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

Force-Based Element Formulation

equilibrium solution within the system of the element.

o The principle of virtual forces is used to formulate compatibility

between element and section deformations.

o The accuracy of the solution can be improved through mesh

refinement (h-refinement) OR p-refinement (increasing number of

integration points) in a single element.

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

Displacement-Based vs Force-Based What should I use?

attractive, as increased accuracy can be achieved without the use

of additional nodes and elements (via prefinement).

o The force-based formulation is more computationally intensive

than the displacement-based element. This loss in single-element

efficiency when using the force-based element may be offset by

the ease of use and ability to use a coarser mesh, but may be

impactful for very large models.

o More information on these formulations can be found on the

OpenSees site at:

o http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Discovering_OpenSees_--

_Force-based_Element_vs._Displacement-based_Element

Nonlinear BeamColumn Modeling

BeamWithHinges element a compromise between concentrated

and distributed plasticity

element beamWithHinges $tag $nodeI $nodeJ $sTagI $Li $sTagJ $Lj $E $A $Iz $transfTag

concentrated and distributed plasticity approaches. This element considers

force-based distributed plasticity over specified plastic hinge lengths near the

element ends, and is linear elastic elsewhere.

o There is also a way to do something similar with a forceBeamColumn

element, in which plastic hinges are defined, and distinct nonlinear section

models can be applied to each hinge AND to the interior of the beam.

o http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Beam_With_Hinges_Element

Dynamic MDOF Modeling of Structures

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

One of the most common modeling tasks for structural analysis problems is the

consideration of multi-storey and multi-bay structures subject to earthquake

excitation.

o We can use the fundamental tools we have developed so far to consider

these multiple degree-of-freedom (MDOF) dynamics problems.

running, and evaluating MDOF models in OpenSees.

o These examples will remain relatively simple, but will illustrate how to do

important tasks such as applying ground motions.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The simplest way to model multi-storey/multi-bay structures is to discretize the

frame into a mesh in which the nodes are located at the joints between the

beams and columns, and single elements span the lengths between the nodes.

o We will focus on 2D problems, but the same concepts can be extended

to 3D with relatively little trouble.

o In 2D, the nodes will all have 3 dof (2 translational, 1 rotational)

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

ties the nodes at either end of each

beam together in dof 1 (axial rigidity

assumption)

Nodal masses are applied using the

mass command as opposed to the

optional argument in the node

command.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

command is used to account for the fact

that the columns are 0.8 m wide and the

beams are 0.7 m deep

elasticBeamColumn elements are used

for both beams and columns, and the

appropriate geomTransf objects are

assigned to each type.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The model file we have made for this structure can now be used in several

different types of analysis. We will first consider an eigenvalue analysis to get

the mode shapes and modal periods.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

An eigenvalue analysis is

straightforward to apply in

OpenSees, it doesnt even require

a set of analysis commands.

We will write the eigenvectors

(mode shapes) to file using the

nodal recorder with the eigen n

argument.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

An eigenvalue analysis is

straightforward to apply in

OpenSees, it doesnt even require

a set of analysis commands.

We will write the eigenvectors

(mode shapes) to file using the

nodal recorder with the eigen n

argument.

The eigen command is used to

compute the eigenvalues. Here

they are saved to a tcl list variable

$lambda

Because there is not a proper

analysis in this model (no analyze

command), we need to trigger

the recorders to get the

eigenvectors written to file using

the record command.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The final portion of this tcl file

uses some scripting to compute

the modal periods from the

eigenvalues, print these to the

screen, and then write them to a

file called Periods.txt using the

puts command for more

convenient use in post-processing

activities.

analysis of our 5-storey structure.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

are summarized in the table

above.

We can normalize these

such that the largest value is

1.0 to produce the plot to

the left showing the mode

shapes for the first 5 modes

of this structure.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

We can also perform a dynamic time history analysis of our model structure by

first applying self-weight loads and then applying a ground motion.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

create recorders that collect the output we want,

create the loadPattern and timeSeries for the self-

weight application, call the necessary analysis

commands, and analyze the model.

Here we will record the nodal displacements in all

three dof at all nodes, as well as the beamColumn

element forces (N, V, M) in both the local and

global coordinate systems.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

weight loads. Here we are considering only the

self-weight of the beams, and use the eleLoad

command to apply uniformly distributed loads of

magnitude $wg to all 5 beam elements.

Note that the timeSeries is embedded in the

pattern command instead of explicitly called. In

this format we specify the times {0 1 100000}

where the values {0 1 1} will be applied.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

LoadControl integrator with a load increment of

0.1 and the constraints, algorithm, numberer, and

system shown here.

apply 10 steps such that the load factor is 1.0*$wg.

Due to how we defined the timeSeries, this load

will remain constant for all subsequent load steps.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

we recorder can be used to

construct shear force and/or

bending moment diagrams for

the frame structure.

for our model frame under

gravity loads alone looks

something like this.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The first task completed in

this analysis file is to create a

Rayleigh damping object. The

beamColumn elements do not

consider rate effects, so we

need to specify damping in a

different way. The usage is

rayleigh $aM $bK $bKi $bKc

where $aM is applied to the

mass matrix, $bK is applied to

the current stiffness matrix,

$bKi the initial stiffness, and

$bKc the last committed

stiffness.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The first task completed in

this analysis file is to create a

Rayleigh damping object. The

beamColumn elements do not

consider rate effects, so we

need to specify damping in a

different way. The usage is

rayleigh $aM $bK $bKi $bKc

where $aM is applied to the

mass matrix, $bK is applied to

the current stiffness matrix,

$bKi the initial stiffness, and

$bKc the last committed

stiffness.

Weve set this up such that

there is 5% damping in the

first and third modes.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

The next task is to read in the

ground motion record, create

the timeSeries objects, and

then create the

UniformExcitation object that

will apply the ground motion

to the model.

The file ReadGmRecord.tcl is a

script that reads in a PEER

NGA ground motion file (with

header information), and

extracts the timestep $dt, the

number of steps $nPts, and

creates a file called

groundMotion.dat with the

header information removed

that is passed to the Path

timeSeries.

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

specifying the desired output

through node and element

recorders, creating the

appropriate analysis objects

for our Transient analysis, and

analyzing the model for 10000

steps (there are 9540 in the

record) .

Dynamic MDOF Modeling

Now that the analysis of the model is complete, we can perform post-processing

activities such as plotting various results recorded from our simulation. For

example, the plot below shows the displacement time history in the horizontal

direction at the 5th floor of the structure. We will discuss some post-processing

strategies in a later module.

Thank you!

www.quakecore.nz

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