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1/9/2018

Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

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Industrial Automation and Control Interview
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 S Bharadwaj Reddy
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What is derating factor?
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I am
The factor by which the ratings of component parts are reduced to provide additional safety margins in critical applications or
when the parts are subjected to extreme environmental conditions for which their normal ratings do not apply.
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What do mean by interconnection system?
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upd
The electrical and mechanical interconnection of any one or all of the six levels of interconnections generally common to
electronic equipment. The six levels of interconnections are: intramodule, module to motherboard, intramotherboard,
motherboard to back panel, backpanel wiring and input/output.
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Dirk
What is manual control in industrial automation?
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any
Control in which a direct or indirect human manipulation of the nal controlling element is carried out. In the process industry,
this is generally done via a standardized signal. Can also be de ned as direction of a computer by means of manually operated
switches.
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What is automatic control system?
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A control system which operates without human intervention. It is subdivided into a controlling system and controlled system.
Inst
What do you mean by automatic zero-and full-scale calibration?
Zero and sensitivity stabilization by servos for comparison of demodulated zero-and full-scale signals with zero and full-scale
references.
What are pneumatic system?
Inst
A system which makes use of air for operating control valves and actuators (cylinders,motors).
What is a natural function generator?
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Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

An analog device or a speci c program based on some physical law, such as one used with a digital computer to solve a particular

  • di erential equation.

What is negative acknowledgement, NAK?

Lan Sel
Lan
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In binary synchronous communications, a line control character sent by a receiving terminal to indicate that an error was encountered in the previous block and that the receiving terminal is ready to accept another transmission of the erroneous block.

What do you mean by the term ripple?

Periodic deviations around an average measured or supplied value, occuring at frequencies which may be related to that of the mains supply or of some other de nite source, such as chopper. Ripple is determined under speci ed conditions.

What is rise time?

For a step response, the time interval between the instant when the output signal, starting from zero, reaches a small speci ed percentage (for instance 10%) of the nal steady-state value, and the instant when it reaches for the rst time a speci ed large percentage (for instance 90%) of the same steady-state value.

What is a thyristor converter ?

An operative unit comprising one or more thyristor sections together with converter transformers, essential switching devices, and other auxiliaries, if any of these items exist. System control equipments are optionally included.

What is time constant ?

The time constant T is the time required to complete 63.2% of the total rise or decay of the output of a rst-order linear system, initiated by a step or an impulse to the input.

What does the term asynchronous means?

A mode of operation in which an operation is started by a signal before the operation on which this operation depends is completed. When referring to hardware devices, it is the method in which each character is sent with its own synchronizing information. The hardware operations are scheduled by “ready” and “done” signals rather than by time intervals. This implies that a second operation can begin before the rst operation is completed.

What is time division multiple access?

TDMA An advanced networking method used to communicate over satellites. It is a digital transmission technique. All signals are converted to digital bit streams. These bits are combined into a single stream for transmission, then separated at the receive station into separate bit streams and decoded to obtain the original message signals.

What is ATE (automatic test equipment)?

control software Software used during execution of a test program which controls the no testing operations of the ATE. This software is used to execute a test procedure but does not contain any of the stimuli or measurement parameters used in the testing of the Unit Under Test (UUT). Where test software and control software are combined in one inseparable program, that program will be treated as test software not control software.

DCS is a distributed control system?

The term Distributed Control System generally referred to as DCS. It is a process control and process monitoring via a link of communication network consisting of multi-level computer systems (servers and clients), communication technologies like Field Bus, 4C technology (CRT) for trend monitoring and the most important process control (via PID and di erent controllers), the The basic idea is to decentralized the control and centralized operation and management at di erent levels, exible and convenient con gurations are integral parts of DCS.

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1/9/2018

Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

What is the the concept of statistical process control? Statistical process control (SPC) is the application
What is the the concept of statistical process control?
Statistical process control (SPC) is the application of statistical techniques to evaluate and monitor the various stages of the
process and to establish and maintain the process at acceptable and stable level to ensure that products and services meet the
requirements of a Quality Control . It is part of the process control from the content is mainly two aspects: First, the use of the
stability of the control chart analysis and process calculations capability index to analyze the stability of the process to check the
ability of system to meet the technical requirements and quality of the process is evaluated.
What are control Charts?
They are used to monitor the state of the process, measurements, diagnosis and for improvement of the current and future state
of the process.
Statistical Process Control commonly use these nine control chart types:
The histogram : That is based on the interval column chart based on performance characteristics of the frequency distribution
charts, visually shows the distribution of the data.
Pareto chart : That is also known as the Pareto diagram, it is a tool to display the impact of the various projects to be marked from
most crucial to nominal orders. Distinguish between primary, secondary impact on product quality, the general problem, and to
identify the main factors a ecting the quality of products, identify opportunities for improvement of the quality.
Scatter plot : These are the variables which re ect the distribution of points that are used to discover and display the type and
extent of the relationship between the two sets of data, or to con rm the expected relationship via diagram tool.
Process Capability Index : That graph shows the analysis of process capability to meet quality standards, the degree of process
speci cations.
Frequency analysis : That forms a concept table showing the distribution variables measured at di erent levels.
Descriptive statistics analysis : That states to the average, maximum, minimum, range, variance, to understand some general
characteristics of the process.
Close correlation analysis :That is the relationship between the study variables, and the assumed variables randomly changed
and in misplaced priorities.
Regression analysis : That is the most important one it shows the relationship between di erent analysis variables.
What do you mean by term Expert Systems?
Expert system is an intelligent computer software system whose interior contains a large number of a certain level of experts in
the eld of knowledge and experience and ability to utilize human expert knowledge and problem-solving methods to deal with
the problems of practical eld. That is we can say the expert system is a system program which has a lot of expertise and
experience that’s why it is called expert system and it is the special application of arti cial intelligence technology and computer
technology, according to one or more experts in a certain knowledge of eld and experience, reasoning and judgment and ability
to simulate a human expert software program for decision making process, in order to resolve problems of eld it may also
require human experts to deal with the complex issues. In short expert system is a simulation of human experts to solve eld
problems.
What are the di erent types of Expert Systems?
According to the knowledge based partitioning this technology can be divided into these types:
1.
Logic-based expert systems
2.
Rule-based expert system
3.
Expert system based on semantic networks
4.
Frame-based expert system.
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While partitioning according to tasks performed are: Interpreted Expert Systems: That performs analysis of symbolic data
While partitioning according to tasks performed are:
Interpreted Expert Systems: That performs analysis of symbolic data also it can be used to elaborate the practical signi cance of
these data.
The predicted type Expert Systems: That performs analysis on object’s past and present behavior to infer the objects of the
future from evolution of the analysis results.
Diagnostic Expert System: It performs analysis according to the input information to nd the faults and defects of the under
observation object.
Debug type Expert System: It given the failure to process itself for exclusion of program.
Maintenance-type Expert System: That analysis specify and implement the plan to correct certain types of fault.
Planning type Expert System: That tool plan the action drawn up according to a given target.
Design Expert System: In accordance with the given requirements that type form the desired scheme and pattern.
The Guardianship type Expert System: That is a complete real-time monitoring of all tasks.
Control type Expert System: That is responsible for completing the implementation of the control tasks.
Education type Expert System: That is a combination of diagnostic and debugging type Expert System which is used for teaching
and training.
What are Three types of expert system development tools?Skeleton Type Expert System:
It is the basis for the successful expert system application, removing the speci c content of knowledge retention and the shell
reasoning of knowledge representation and a special tool to enhance knowledge acquisition subsystem functionality.
Universal Type Expert System: That is a knowledge representation via language, such tools provide a more generic con guration
and this type of language corresponds to the reasoning facts. The user can enter production in the form of knowledge and facts,
such as OPS-5 production system-oriented language which is equipped with a forward reasoning for process which rely on
internal reasoning mechanism for the solution to the problem.
Toolbox type Expert System: That type is in middle of general and special development tools. It provides the framework for the
several expert systems components (such as reasoning frame, blackboard framework, etc.), and each frame is composed of
several modules. Description added according to the needs of designers and system automatically generate the expert system for
process with certain areas targeted. Example of such development tools are AGE, ZDEST-1
What is Arti cial Intelligence?
Arti cial Intelligence (AI) language is adapted for the eld of arti cial intelligence and knowledge engineering, symbolic processing
and logical reasoning ability combined in computer program. That computer program can be used to solve numerical/non-
numerical calculation, intelligent knowledge processing, reasoning, planning, decision-making, such as a variety of complex issues.
The typical AI language are LISP, Prolog, Smalltalk, C + +, etc.
What are the basic components of Arti cial Intelligence?
The basic components are:
Knowledge representation technology
Knowledge, reasoning techniques
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Fuzzy logic

1/9/2018

Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

Neural network technology Genetic algorithms Expert systems Machine learning Swarm intelligence What is model reference control?
Neural network technology
Genetic algorithms
Expert systems
Machine learning
Swarm intelligence
What is model reference control?
The basic idea of adaptive control lies in control system design, a constantly measurements of the states of the controlled object,
performance and parameters, thus nds out the master of the current health of the system which can have positive e ects on
system state. Analyze the current state of system performance indicators and expectation indicators so as to make decisions
based on the comparison results and to change the structure and parameters of the controller and to change state variables
according to the laws of the adaptive control action to ensure that the system is running in optimal state.
Generally speaking, the adaptive control system is coupled with feedback control systems with basic control loop and adaptive
mechanism is also constituted. It has three functions:
(1) Real time identi cation.
(2) The decision-making control.
(3) Real Time correction
What is a PLC?
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller ) is a control device which uses memory that can be programmed for its permanently stored
program, that is used for the implementation of logical, sequential control, timing, counting and arithmetic operations such as
user-oriented instruction and digital or analog input / output control of various types of machinery or production processes.
What is the working principle of PLC?
When programmable logic controller is put into operation, the course of their work are generally divided into three :
1.Input sample stage
2.User program execution stage
3.Output refresh stage
What is the input stage execution of PLC?
In the input sampling stage, the programmable logic controller sequentially scan/reads the status of all inputs and data and they
are stored in the corresponding cell in the I/O memory area.
What is user program execution stage?
Programmable logic controllers are always followed by a top-down order to scan the user program (ladder/FBD). Scanning each
ladder by the contact form on the left of the control line and process the rst left and right line and execution continued the rst
after the other and according to the result of logic operation it refresh the status of the corresponding logic bit of the coil in the
system RAM storage area.
What is the output refresh stage of PLC?
After the end of the scan and execution of user program, programmable logic controllers starts the output refresh stage. During
this period, the CPU status and data in accordance with the I/O from memory area refresh all of the output latch circuit.
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At present, what are the three levels of industrial automation ?

1/9/2018

Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

1.Classical control theory 2.Modern control theory 3.Intelligent control theory Give some example of intelligent control? Typical
1.Classical control theory
2.Modern control theory
3.Intelligent control theory
Give some example of intelligent control?
Typical examples of intelligent control the fuzzy logic that is considered as the automatic control systems it uses arti cial intelligent
and neural networks comparatively for automatic control.
Give some examples of automatic control systems?
Basically automatic control system can be divided into two types
1.open-loop control system
2.closed-loop control system
What are the integral components of control systems?
A control system includes a controller (PID, PI, P), sensors, transmitters, actuators, input and output interfaces. The output of the
controller output sends signals to actuator which controls the required dynamics of system according to set points.
Do we use the same sensors on every control system theory?
No, di erent control systems requires di erent sensors, transmitters, actuators. For example, in a pressure control system we use
pressure sensor for calculation of pressure. Electric heating control system uses temperature sensor.
What is the smart regulator function (intelligent regulator) of PID controller?
Major companies that are developing PID controllers have the feature of self-tuning of parameters this technology is called the
smart regulator function or intelligent regulator. This type of PID controller adjust parameters automatically through intelligent
adjustment or self-tuning adaptive algorithm to achieve optimized system dynamics.
How PID(Proportional Integral Di erential controller) is linked with PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) and DCS(Distributed
Control System)?
PID controller generates gain for actuator for the optimized values of pressure, temperature, ow, levels etc by its comprehensive
Proportional gain, integral time and deferential time which are converted to electric signal and sent to PLC for communication of
PLC, PID, Actuator, DCS(Distributed Control System) operator who just set the set points of system dynamics.
What is an open-loop control system?
Open-loop control system can be referred as the output of system has no e ect on the output of the controller. In this type of
control system controller gain is usually very high.
What is the closed-loop control system?
Closed-loop control systems a type of system in which output of system is sent (feed) back to controller to a ect the output of the
controller.
What do you mean by positive and negative feedback system?
If output of system is added to controller then we can say it is a positive feedback, if output of system is subtracted from controller
then it is called negative feedback system.
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Industrial Automation and Control Interview Questions Instrumentation Tools

Give some example of negative feedback system? We can say a person is a closed-loop control
Give some example of negative feedback system?
We can say a person is a closed-loop control system with negative feedback, the eye is the sensor which sends signals to the brain
and brain acts as controller, what we see is sent to brain as negative feedback, the human brain system performs constant
correction to nally make the correct action. If no eyes (Sensor) there will be no feedback loop, system at this stage could be
assumed as an open-loop control system. Another interesting example is the automatic washing machine which continuously
check the clothes are washed or not (via a sensor output) when it sees clothes are washed properly it cut o power automatically
that example is also a closed-loop control system.
What is the step response of a system?
Step response is the output of system when step input (step function) is applied to the system, .
What do you mean by steady-state error (O set error)?
The steady-state error refers as in steady state response of the system, the di erence between the desired output (Set point) and
the actual output (Process Value).
De ne Stability of system?
A bounded input to the system generates the bounded output is referred to as stable system, that deals with the system poles, if
all poles of the system lies at negative half plane then it is BIBO(Bounded Input Bounded Output System), however if some (Not all)
poles of system lies at axis of plane system can be considered as marginally stable.
What is cascade ampli er?
A multiple-stage ampli er in which the output of each stage is connected to the input of the next stage.
What do you mean by cascade control?
Control in which the output variable of a controller is the reference variable of another controller(s).
What is command in Control Systems?
Command is an operative order which initiates a movement or a function. The order may be:1. direct input to the machine in
coded form;
2.
results from a logical interaction of instructions from an outside source with conditions sensed
by the machine;
3.
outputs derived from the computing or comparing function.
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