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over Extended Generalized-K Fading Channels

Jelena A. Anastasov, Student Member, IEEE, Goran T. Djordjevic, Member, IEEE,

and Mihajlo C. Stefanovic, Member, IEEE

Abstract—In this letter, the novel analytical expressions for performance analysis of systems corrupted by interference,

the probability density function, cumulative distribution function over composite GK fading channels, was presented in [3], [6].

and moment generating function of the signal-to-interference In this letter, the interference-limited wireless communica-

ratio are derived for the interference-limited system operating

over the extended generalized-K (EGK) fading channel. Since tion system over composite EGK fading channel is considered.

the EGK distribution can be used for modeling a great variety We derive the novel analytical expressions for the SIR’s proba-

of fading channels, the new derived formulae have high level bility density function (PDF), cumulative distribution function

of generality and can be used for estimating the effects of (CDF) and moment generating function (MGF). In addition,

interference and different composite fading channel conditions we present some numerical examples to illustrate the outage

on system performance. The proposed analytical analysis is com-

plemented by various outage performance results and confirmed probability dependence on the severity and shaping factor

by simulations. of multipath fading and shadowing. The numerical results

obtained based on the analytical approach are confirmed by

Index Terms—Co-channel interference, extended generalized-

K distribution, fading channel, outage probability, shadowing. Monte Carlo simulations.

I. I NTRODUCTION In proposed system, both desired and interfering signal ex-

periences EGK fading. The EGK distributed random envelope

I N performance evaluations of wireless communication

systems, one of the most important concerns is statistical

characterization of signal propagation. During the signal trans-

process is given by [7, eq. (1), (with correcting one typo)]

2ξ βs β mξ 2mξ−1

pX (x) = Γ(ms )Γ(m) ( Ω ) x

mission, many buildings and other ambient objects disturb (1)

the signal in a way of delaying, reflecting, scattering, and × Γei (ms − m ξξs , 0, ( βΩs β )ξ x2ξ , ξξs ),

diffracting signal components [1]. In addition, there are slow where m and ξ represent the severity and shaping factor of

variations of the received signal mean power because of the fading, respectively; while ms and ξs represent the severity

shadowing from various obstacles in the propagation path. and shaping factor of the shadowing, respectively; β = Γ(m+

This composite propagation environment of multipath fading 1/ξ)/Γ(m), βs = Γ(ms+1/ξs )/Γ(ms ), Ω is the average power,

imposed by shadowing phenomena was recently described Γ(.) is the Gamma function [9, eq. (1.1)] and Γei (., ., ., .) is

by K [2] and generalized-K (GK) [3-6] distributions. More the extended incomplete Gamma function [9, eq. (6.2)].

recently, extended generalized-K (EGK) [7] was derived as Using representation of the extended incomplete Gamma

advanced distribution, which includes most of the well-known function through the Fox’s H function [9, eq. (6.22)], the

fading distributions in the literature as its special cases, also desired signal envelope, R, and interfering signal envelope,

containing two previously mentioned distributions [7, Table r, as EGK random variables can be respectively described by

I]. This distribution is suitable for modeling composite fading following PDFs

channels of next-generation wireless systems operating on

2

high frequencies. In [7], Yilmaz and Alouini derived the 2 2,0 β sd β d R −, −

pR (R)= H 1 1

expressions for capacity and bit error probability for some Γ(msd )Γ(md )R 0,2 Ωd (msd , ξsd),(md , ξd)

binary modulations and second order statistics of the system (2)

operating over EGK fading and Gaussian noise. and

In many wireless communication systems the co-channel

2

2 2,0 β sc β c r −, −

interference is a more relevant source of performance im- pr (r)= H 1 1 ,

pairment than front-end Gaussian noise [8]. In that case, Γ(msc )Γ(mc )r 0,2 Ωc (msc , ξsc),(mc , ξc)

the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) is the most effective (3)

performance criterion in performance evaluations. The outage where the previously defined parameters in (1) are indexed

by d for the desired signal and c for interfering one. The

Manuscript received October 31, 2011. The associate editor coordinating Fox’s H function, defined by [10, eq. (1.1.2)], is denoted by

the review of this letter and approving it for publication was P. Cotae.

The authors are with the Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of (a i , Ai )1,p

m,n

Hp,q z , where p, q, m, n are integers such

Nis, Serbia (e-mail: jelena.anastasov@elfak.ni.ac.rs). (bi , Bi )1,q

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of

Serbia under the grants TR-32028 and III-044006. that 0≤m≤q, 0≤n≤p; ai , bj ∈C, where C is the set of complex

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LCOMM.2012.020712.112228 numbers, and Ai , Bj ∈ + = (0, ∞), (i = 1, ..., p; j = 1, ..., q).

1089-7798/12$31.00

c 2012 IEEE

474 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 16, NO. 4, APRIL 2012

(22)] and [9, eq. (6.108)] to represent it through the Meijer’s

G function and forward use [12, eqs. (07.34.03.0001.01)-

(07.34.06.0012.01)] to represent it in a form of more tractable

functions, mostly in a form of hypergeometric functions.

The PDF of SIR, defined as z = R2 /r2 , is given by [13]

∞

√ √

pz (z) = 1/(2 z) rpR (r z)pr (r)dr. (4)

0

∞ −1 2,0 βsd βd r2 z −, −

pz (z) = 2g 0 r H0,2 Ωd (m , 1 ), (m , 1 )

sd ξsd d ξd

−, −

2,0 βsc βc r 2

×H0,2 Ωc (m , 1 ), (m , 1 ) dr,

sc ξsc c ξc

(5) Fig. 1. Outage probability dependence on normalized SIR for different values

of shadowing severity.

with g = 1/(Γ(msd )Γ(md )Γ(msc )Γ(mc )). The integral in (5)

can be solved using [10, eq. (2.1.4)] to transform the second

Fox’s H function and then using [10, eq. (2.8.12)]. After some

III. N UMERICAL R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION

mathematical manipulations, the required PDF is derived in a

form The numerical results, based on previously derived expres-

g 2,2 βsd βd z (1 − msc , ξ1sc ), (1 − mc , ξ1c ) sions, are performed in Mathematica 7, using transform of the

pz (z) = H2,2 , Fox’s H function into the Meijer’s G function [11, p. 531, eq.

z βsc βc S (msd , ξ1sd ), (md , ξ1d )

(22)] integrated in this software package.

(6)

The Monte Carlo simulations are performed in Fortran using

where S = Ωd /Ωc denotes the average SIR.

[7, eq. (1), (with correcting two typos)]

The derived eq. (6) can be simplified to [3, eq. (15)],

as expected, since the EGK distribution contains GK dis- ξs 2ξ1 ξm 2ξ1

Ωs

ms s

Ωm

mm m

tribution (observed in [3]) as a special case. By setting R= Sk2 Xk2 , (9)

ξd = ξc = ξsd = ξsc = 1 in (6), the Fox’s H function is βs

k=1

βm

k=1

simplified into Meijer’s G function using [9, eq. (6.108)]

and forward into regularized hypergeometric function using where Sk and Xk are two sets of independent random

[12, eq. (07.34.03.0871.01)]. After some algebra and using variables with Rayleigh distribution whose average power

the relation [12, eq. (06.18.27.0001.01)], (6) reduces to [3, is equal to one. These Rayleigh distributed variables are

2 2 0.5

eq. (15)], i.e. [6, eq. (17)] in the case of single interference generated according to the relations: Sk = (yk1 + yk2 )

2 2 0.5

environment. and Xk = (wk1 + wk2 ) , where yk1 , yk2 , wk1 and wk2 are

∞ independent Gaussian random variables with zero mean value.

The CDF of instantaneous SIR, Fz (z) = 0 pz (u)du, is

obtained using [10, eqs. (2.8.17), (2.1.9)], in the following Since we are interested for estimating the outage probability,

form the fading samples are assumed to be temporarily uncorrelated.

For each value of the average SIR, the Pout is estimated using

1 1

2,3 βsd βd z (1−msc , ξsc ), (1−mc , ξc ), (1, 1) N = 2 × 109 generated samples. According to [15, p. 691-

Fz (z)=gH3,3 .

βsc βc S (msd , ξ1sd ), (md , ξ1d ), (0, 1) 694] with independence assumption between error events and

(7) their normal distribution, for the Pout of 10−7 , this number

The outage probability, Pout , is defined as the probability of generated samples would produce a 99 percents confidence

that SIR falls below predetermined threshold, λ, Pout (λ) = interval of about (8.1×10−8, 1.2×10−7). In our case, we also

Fz (λ). empirically concluded that this number of simulation runs is

The MGF, defined as Mz (Δ)=E{e−Δz }, where E denotes sufficient for good agreement with analytical results for some

expectation operator, can be derived using [14, eq. (2.19)] in typical system parameters [7].

a form Fig. 1 illustrates that shadowing has considerable influence

on the Pout . To maintain Pout of 10−6 the required value

2,3 βsd βd (1−msc , ξ1sc ), (1−mc, ξ1c ), (1, 1) of S/λ in severe shadowing (ms = 1) environment is 34.8

Mz (Δ)=gH3,2 .

Δβsc βc S (msd , ξ1sd ), (md , ξ1d ) dB, and in the case of light shadowing (ms=5) that value is

(8) 16.5 dB. As ms increases, the Pout becomes less sensitive to

By setting Δ → 0 and using [10, eqs. (2.1.3), (1.1.2)], (8) ms .

becomes Mz (0)=1, as it should be. The MGF can be used Fig 2. illustrates the outage performance improvement with

in evaluating average bit error rate for several modulation shadowing shaping factor increasing. The more the value of

schemes. In addition, the n-th order moments can be derived the fading severity, the less is the effect of shaping factor

from (8) using [10, eq. (2.2.1)]. on outage performance. When shadowing shaping parameter

decreases from 3 to 1, the penalty in S/λ, which should be

ANASTASOV et al.: ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR OUTAGE PROBABILITY OF INTERFERENCE-LIMITED SYSTEMS OVER EXTENDED GENERALIZED-K . . . 475

using N = 2 × 109 simulation runs. The less the value of

Pout , the analytical approach becomes more superior related

to simulations in the sense of time consuming.

IV. C ONCLUSION

This letter has presented an analytical approach for the

outage probability determination of interference-limited sys-

tems over EGK fading channel. To the best of the authors’

knowledge, the derived eqs. (6), (7) and (8) are novel and

can be simplified to some particular cases already reported.

The analytical expressions require less time for calculation

compared with simulations. Numerical results, obtained by

analytical approach and also confirmed by simulations, have

shown the effects of the severity and shaping factor of the

multipath fading and shadowing on the outage probability. The

Fig. 2. Outage probability dependence on normalized SIR for different values

of fading and shadowing shaping factor. expression for the outage probability can be straightforwardly

used for analyzing selection and switch-and-stay combining

diversity receivers, as well as dual-hop cooperative systems.

R EFERENCES

[1] M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading

Channels, 2nd edition. Wiley, 2004.

[2] A. Abdi and M. Kaveh, “K distribution: an appropriate substitute

for Rayleigh-lognormal distribution in fading-shadowing wireless chan-

nels,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 851–852, Sep. 1998.

[3] I. M. Kostic, “Analytical approach to performance analysis for channel

subject to shadowing and fading,” IEE Proc., vol. 152, pp. 821–827,

Dec. 2005.

[4] P. S. Bithas, N. C. Sagias, P. T. Mathiopoulos, G. K. Karagiannidis,

and A. A. Rontogiannis, “On the performance analysis of digital

communications over generalized-K fading channels,” IEEE Commun.

Lett., vol. 5, pp. 353–355, May 2006.

[5] P. M. Shankar, “Statistical models for fading and shadowed fading

channels in wireless systems: a pedagogical perspective,” Wireless

Personal Commun., DOI 10.1007/s11277-010-9938-2, published online

Fig. 3. Required normalized SIR values for different multipath fading 7 Mar. 2010.

severity and outage probability values. [6] I. Trigui, A. Laourine, S. Affes, and A. Stephenne, “Performance

analysis of mobile radio systems over composite fading/shadowing

channels with co-located interference,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,

vol. 8, pp. 3448–3453, July 2009.

paid in order to achieve the Pout of 10−6 , is 3.64 dB in severe [7] F. Yilmaz and M.-S. Alouini, “A new simple model for composite fading

fading (md = 1) and even 11.31 dB in light fading (md = 3). channels: second order statistics and channel capacity,” in Proc. 2010

The analytical expressions derived previously can be ap- Int. Symp. Wireless Commun. Systems, pp. 676–680.

[8] V. A. Aolo and J. Zhang, “On the effects of cochannel interference on

plied in determining the required values of S/λ (denoted by average error rates in Nakagami-fading channels,” IEEE Commun. Lett.,

(S/λ)req ) in order to reach the specified Pout for different vol. 3, pp. 136–138, May 1999.

fading conditions. Fig. 3 presents the dependence of (S/λ)req [9] M. A. Chaudhry and S. M. Zubair, On a Class of Incomplete Gamma

Functions with Applications. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002.

on fading severity for different values of Pout . The lower [10] A. Kilbas and M. Saigo, H-Transforms: Theory and Applications. CRC

the Pout , the (S/λ)req decreases more sharply with md Press LLC, 2004.

increasing. For example, if md increases from 1 to 3, the [11] A. P. Prudnikov, Y. A. Brychkov, and O. I. Marichev, Integral and Series,

Part 3: More Special Functions. Nauka Publisher, 1962 (in Russian).

(S/λ)req decreases for 12.2 dB and 6.2 dB when Pout is [12] The Wolfram Functions Site, 2008. Available:

10−7 and 10−3 , respectively. http:/functions.wolfram.com

On the personal computer with 8 GB RAM and 3.4 GHz [13] C. W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers,

2nd edition. MakMillian, 1991.

Intel i7 processor running Windows 7, the required time for [14] A. M. Mathai, R. K. Saxena, and H. J. Haubold, The H-Function: Theory

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approach, which has been derived in this work, is about 75000

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