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org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Õ
ASM Handbook

Volume 13B
Corrosion: Materials
Prepared under the direction of the
ASM International Handbook Committee

Stephen D. Cramer and Bernard S. Covino, Jr., Volume Editors

Charles Moosbrugger, Project Editor


Bonnie R. Sanders, Manager of Production
Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator
Gayle J. Anton, Editorial Assistant
Jill Kinson, Production Editor
Pattie Pace, Production Coordinator
Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant
Scott D. Henry, Senior Product Manager

Editorial Assistance
Elizabeth Marquard
Heather Lampman
Marc Schaefer
Beverly Musgrove
Cindy Karcher
Kathy Dragolich

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002


www.asminternational.org
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Copyright # 2005
by
ASM International1
All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.

First printing, November 2005

This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from
worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems.
Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be
accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is
intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside
of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as
to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of
this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE
EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL,
INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF
SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore,
specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.
Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in
connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or
trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright,
or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.

Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

ASM International

ASM Handbook
Includes bibliographical references and indexes
Contents: v.1. Properties and selection—irons, steels, and high-performance alloys—v.2. Properties and selection—nonferrous alloys and
special-purpose materials—[etc.]—v.21. Composites

1. Metals—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee.
II. Metals Handbook.
TA459.M43 1990 620.10 6 90-115
SAN: 204-7586

ISBN: 0-87170-707-1

ASM International1
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org

Printed in the United States of America

Multiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International.
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Foreword

Enhancing the life of structures and engineered materials, while protecting the environment and public
safety, is one of the paramount technological challenges for our nation and the world. Corrosion-related
problems span a wide spectrum of materials and systems that impact our daily lives, such as aging aircraft,
high-rise structures, railroads, automobiles, ships, pipelines, and many others. According to a study
conducted in 1998, the total direct and indirect cost of corrosion to the United States alone exceeds $550
billion per year. While major technological advances have been made during the last three decades,
numerous new innovations need to be made in the coming years. ASM International is pleased to publish
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials, the second book in a three-volume revision of
the landmark 1987 Metals Handbook, 9th Edition, on corrosion. The information from the 1987 Volume
has been revised, updated, and expanded to address the needs of the members of ASM International
and the technical community for current and comprehensive information on the physical, chemical,
and electrochemical reactions between specific materials and environments. Since the time the 1987
Corrosion volume was published, knowledge of materials and corrosion has grown, which aids the
material selection process. Engineered systems have grown in complexity, however, making the effects of
subtle changes in material performance more significant.
ASM International continues to be indebted to the Editors, Stephen D. Cramer and Bernard S. Covino,
Jr., who had the vision and the drive to undertake the huge effort of updating and revising the 1987
Corrosion volume. ASM Handbook, Volume 13A, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection,
published in 2003, is the cornerstone of their effort. The project will be completed with the publication of
ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, in 2006. The Editors have
brought together experts from across the globe making this an international effort. Contributors to the
corrosion Volumes represent Australia, Belgium, Canada, Crete, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy,
Japan, Korea, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, as well as
the United States. The review, revisions, and technical oversight of the Editors have added greatly to this
body of knowledge.
We thank the authors and reviewers of the 1987 Corrosion volume, which at the time was the largest,
most comprehensive volume on a single topic ever published by ASM. This new edition builds upon that
groundbreaking project. Thanks also go to the members of the ASM Handbook Committee for their
oversight and involvement, and to the ASM editorial and production staff for their tireless efforts.
We are especially grateful to the over 120 authors and reviewers listed in the next several pages. Their
willingness to invest their time and effort and to share their knowledge and experience by writing,
rewriting, and reviewing articles has made this Handbook an outstanding source of information.

Bhakta B. Rath
President
ASM International

Stanley C. Theobald
Managing Director
ASM International

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Policy on Units of Measure

By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified in
the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of that specification might be presented only in inches.
measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the
data in metric units based primarily on Système International d’Unités (SI), standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units
with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented.
units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in
aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use the analysis.
of metric units throughout the world. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/
For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the
presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in par- original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570  F contains
entheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be
and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a given as 855  C; the exact conversion to 854.44  C would not be appro-
suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square priate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise
inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to
per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi=1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg · 103) report the temperature as 961.93  C or 1763.5  F. In some instances
has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in  C and

data are presented in SI units only. F are alternatives rather than conversions.
To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on art- The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several
work. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance,
presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the
grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm3 rather than
bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units kg/m3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume).
appear along the top and right edges. SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units
Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units
group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the
units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are
strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. required to prevent ambiguity.

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Preface

Corrosion, while silent and often subtle, is probably the most significant laws of chemistry and physics, that with sufficient knowledge corrosion is
cause of degradation of society’s structures. Over the past 100 years, efforts predictable, and therefore, within the constraints of design and operating
have been made to estimate the cost of corrosion to the economies of conditions, corrosion can be minimized to provide economic, environ-
various countries. These efforts have been updated to 2004 in this Hand- mental, and safety benefits.
book, and extrapolated to the global economy to provide an estimate of the The first Section, “Corrosion of Ferrous Metals,” examines the corrosion
global cost of corrosion (Ref 1). With a 2004 global Gross Domestic performance of wrought carbon steels, wrought low alloy steels, weath-
Product (GDP) of about $50 trillion United States dollars (USD), the direct ering steels, metallic-coated steels, organic-coated steels, cast irons, cast
cost of corrosion was estimated to be $990 billion (USD) annually, or 2.0 carbon and low alloy steels, wrought stainless steels, and cast stainless
percent of the world GDP (Ref 1). The direct cost is that experienced by steels. These materials include a wide spectrum of end-use products uti-
owners and operators of manufactured equipment and systems and of other lizing steel’s desirable characteristics of lightness, high strength and
man-made objects (Ref 2). The indirect cost of corrosion, representing stiffness, adaptability, ease of prefabrication and mass production,
costs assumed by the end user and the overall economy (Ref 2), was esti- dimensional stability, durability, abrasion resistance, uniform quality, non-
mated to be $940 billion (USD) annually (Ref 1). On this basis, the 2004 combustibility, and ability to be recycled. In today’s worldwide market,
total cost of corrosion to the global economy was estimated to be about $1.9 cost comes into play in the material selection process only after the user’s
trillion (USD) annually, or 3.8 percent of the world GDP. The largest functional requirements, particularly durability, are met. Expectations
contribution to this cost comes from the United States at 31 percent, with for low maintenance and long life, crucial for a favorable life cycle cost
other major contributions being: Japan—6 percent, Russia—6 percent, evaluation, require that long-term durability, including corrosion perfor-
Germany—5 percent, and the UK, Australia, and Belgium—1 percent. mance, can be substantiated through prior experience and test data.
ASM Handbook Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials, is the second The second Section, “Corrosion of Nonferrous Metals and Specialty
volume in a three-volume update, revision, and expansion of Corrosion Products,” addresses the corrosion performance of metals and alloys made
published in 1987 as Volume 13 of the ninth edition Metals Handbook. The from aluminum, beryllium, cobalt, copper, hafnium, lead, magnesium,
first volume—ASM Handbook Volume 13A, Corrosion: Fundamentals, nickel, niobium, precious metals, tantalum, tin, titanium, uranium, zinc,
Testing, and Protection—was published in 2003. Volume 13C, Corrosion: zirconium, and specialty products including brazed and soldered joints,
Environments and Industries, will be published in 2006. The purpose of thermal spray coatings, electroplated hard chromium, clad metals, powder
these three volumes is to present the current state of knowledge of corro- metallurgy materials, amorphous metals, intermetallics, carbides, and
sion, efforts to mitigate corrosion’s effects on society’s structures and metal matrix composites. Numerous nonferrous alloys have extremely
economies, and some perspective on future trends in corrosion prevention desirable physical and mechanical properties and have much higher
and mitigation. Metals remain the primary materials focus of the Hand- resistance to corrosion and oxidation than steels and stainless steels. The
book, but nonmetallic materials occupy a more prominent position, most widely used nonferrous materials are those based on aluminum,
reflecting their wide and effective use to solve problems of corrosion and copper, nickel, and titanium. Powder metallurgy materials, amorphous
their frequent use with metals in complex engineering systems. Wet (or metals, intermetallics, cemented carbides, and metal matrix composites are
aqueous) corrosion remains the primary environmental focus, but dry (or defined less by their compositions than by their microstructures, which
gaseous) corrosion is also addressed, reflecting the increased use of ele- provide physical, mechanical, and corrosion and oxidation resistance
vated or high temperature operations in engineering systems, particularly unlike those of the traditionally processed metals and alloys. In most
energy-related systems where corrosion and oxidation are important structures designed to resist corrosion, joints represent the greatest chal-
considerations. lenge. Coatings and claddings protect vulnerable substrate materials by
As with Volume 13A, Volume 13B recognizes the diverse range of resisting the impact of corrosive or oxidizing media or by acting as sacri-
materials, environments, and industries affected by corrosion, the global ficial anodes.
reach of corrosion practice, and the levels of technical activity and coop- The third Section, “Environmental Performance of Nonmetallic
eration required to produce cost-effective, safe, and environmentally- Materials,” addresses the performance of refractories, ceramics, concrete,
sound solutions to materials problems in chemically aggressive protective coatings, rubber linings, elastomers, and thermosetting resins
environments. As we worked on this project, we marveled at the spread and resin matrix composites in aggressive environments. A significant
of corrosion technology into many engineering technologies and fields of number of engineering materials applications are fulfilled by nonmetallic
human activity. This occurred because the pioneers of corrosion technol- materials. While nonmetallic materials are extensively used in engineering
ogy from the early to mid-20th century, and the organizations they helped systems, they can degrade is with time, sometimes with catastrophic effect.
create, were able to effectively communicate and disseminate their The goal of this section is to indicate the chemical resistance of a variety
knowledge to an ever widening audience through educational, training, and of commonly used nonmetallic materials and provide further references
outreach activities. One quarter of the articles in Volume 13B did not for those seeking more in-depth information on their environmental
appear in the 1987 Handbook. Authors from eight countries contributed to performance. In this regard, testing for chemical and mechanical compat-
Volume 13B. The references for each article are augmented by Selected ibility is usually warranted before nonmetallic materials are placed into a
References to provide access to a wealth of additional information on specific service.
corrosion. The Handbook concludes with the estimate of the “Global Cost of
Volume 13B is organized into three major sections addressing the Corrosion” noted at the beginning of this Preface and a “Gallery of Cor-
materials used in society’s structures and their performance over time. rosion Damage.” Using earlier cost studies as a basis, the 2004 total cost of
These sections recognize that materials are chemicals and respond to the corrosion to the global economy, including both direct and indirect costs,

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

was estimated to be about $1.9 trillion (USD) annually, or 3.8 percent of the These knowledgeable and dedicated individuals generously devoted
world GDP. The “Gallery of Corrosion Damage” contains color photo- considerable time to the preparation of the Handbook. They were joined
graphs of corrosion damage to complement the many black and white in this effort by more than 70 authors who contributed their expertise
examples that accompany individual articles in the three volume series. and creativity in a collaboration to write and revise the articles in the
The Gallery was assembled from photographs taken by experts in their Handbook, and by the many reviewers of these articles. These volun-
practice of corrosion control and prevention in industrial environments. teers built on the contributions of earlier Handbook authors and
The photographs illustrate forms of corrosion and how they appear on reviewers who provided the solid foundation on which the present
inspection in specific environments, with a brief analysis of the corrosion Handbook rests.
problem and discussion of how the problem was corrected. For articles revised from the 1987 edition, the contribution of the pre-
Supporting material at the back of the handbook includes a variety of vious author is acknowledged at the end of the article. This location in no
useful information. A “Periodic Table of the Elements” provides funda- way diminishes their contribution or our gratitude. Those authors respon-
mental information on the elements and gives their organization by group sible for the current revision are named after the title. The variation in the
using three conventions: Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), International amount of revision is broad. The many completely new articles presented
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)-1970, and IUPAC-1988. no challenge for attribution, but assigning fair credit for revised articles was
A concise description of “Crystal Structure” is given. “Density of Metals more problematic. The choice of presenting authors’ names without
and Alloys” gives values for a wide range of metals and alloys. “Reference comment or with the qualifier “Revised by” is solely the responsibility of
Electrodes” provides data on the commonly used reference electrodes the ASM staff.
and “Overpotential” distinguishes overpotential and overvoltage. The We thank ASM International and the ASM staff for the skilled support
“Electrochemical Series” from the CRC Handbook is reproduced giving and valued expertise in the production of this Handbook. In particular, we
standard reduction potentials for a lengthy array of elements. A “Galvanic thank Charles Moosbrugger, Gayle Anton, and Scott Henry for their
Series of Metals and Alloys in Seawater” shows materials by their potential encouragement, tactful diplomacy, and many helpful discussions. We are
with respect to the saturated calomel electrode (SCE) reference electrode. most grateful to the Albany Research Center, U.S. Department of Energy,
The “Compatibility Guide” serves as a reference to metal couples in for the support and flexibility in our assignments that enabled us to parti-
various environments. A “Corrosion Rate Conversion” includes conver- cipate in this project. In particular, we thank Jeffrey A. Hawk and Cynthia
sions in both nomograph and tabular form. The “Metric Conversion Guide” A. Powell for their gracious and generous encouragement throughout the
gives conversion factors for common units and includes SI prefixes. project.
“Abbreviations and Symbols” provides a key to common acronyms,
abbreviations, and symbols used in the Handbook.
Many individuals contributed to Volume 13B. In particular we wish to Stephen D. Cramer
recognize the efforts of the following individuals who provided leadership Bernard S. Covino, Jr.,
in organizing subsections of the Handbook (listed in alphabetical order): U.S. Department of Energy
Albany Research Center
Chairperson Subsection title

Rajan Bhaskaran Global Cost of Corrosion


Arthur Cohen Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys REFERENCES
Bernard Covino, Jr. Corrosion of Specialty Products
Stephen Cramer Corrosion of Carbon and Alloy Steels, Corrosion of Low Melting
Metals and Alloys
1. R. Bhaskaran, N. Palaniswamy, N.S. Rengaswamy, and M. Jaya-
Paul Crook Corrosion of Cobalt and Cobalt-Base Alloys, Corrosion of chandran, “Global Cost of Corrosion—A Historical Review,” in
Nickel-Base Alloys Corrosion: Materials, ASM Handbook 13B, ASM International,
Peter Elliott Gallery of Corrosion Damage Materials Park OH, 2005
John F. Grubb Corrosion of Stainless Steels
Gil Kaufman Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
2. Gerhardus H. Koch, Michiel P.H. Brongers, Neil G. Thompson, Y. Paul
Barbara Shaw Corrosion of Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloys Virmani, and Joe H. Payer, Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in
David C. Silverman Environmental Performance of Non-Metallic Materials the United States, FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administra-
Richard Sutherlin Corrosion of Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys tion, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., March
Gregory Zhang Corrosion of Zinc and Zinc Alloys
2002

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Officers and Trustees of ASM International (2004–2005)


Bhakta B. Rath Stanley C. Theobald William E. Frazier
President and Trustee Secretary and Managing Director Naval Air Systems Command
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory ASM International Richard L. Kennedy
Reza Abbaschian Allvac
Vice President and Trustee Frederick J. Lisy
University of Florida Trustees Orbital Research Incorporated
Robert C. Tucker, Jr. Rodney R. Boyer Frederick Edward Schmidt
Immediate Past President and Trustee Boeing Commercial Airplane Group Engineering Systems Incorporated
The Tucker Group LLC Dianne Chong Richard D. Sisson, Jr.
Paul L. Huber The Boeing Company Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Treasurer Roger J. Fabian Lawrence C. Wagner
Seco/Warwick Corporation Bodycote Thermal Processing Texas Instruments

Members of the ASM Handbook Committee (2004–2005)


Jeffrey A. Hawk Henry E. Fairman (1993–) Alan T. Male (2003–)
(Chair 2005–; Member 1997–) Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants University of Kentucky
U.S. Department of Energy Michael A. Hollis (2003–) William L. Mankins (1989–)
Larry D. Hanke (1994–) Delphi Corporation Metallurgical Services Inc.
(Vice Chair 2005–; Member 1994–) Dennis D. Huffman (1982–) Toby Padfield (2004–)
Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc. The Timken Company (retired) ZF Sachs Automotive of America
David E. Alman (2002–) Kent L. Johnson (1999–) Srikanth Raghunathan (1999–)
U.S. Department of Energy Engineering Systems Inc. Nanomat Inc.
Tim Cheek (2004–) Ann Kelly (2004–) Karl P. Staudhammer (1997–)
International Truck & Engine Corporation Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory
Lichun Leigh Chen (2002–) Donald R. Lesuer (1999–) Kenneth B. Tator (1991–)
Engineered Materials Solutions Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory KTA-Tator Inc.
Craig V. Darragh (1989–) Huimin Liu (1999–) George F. Vander Voort (1997–)
The Timken Company Ford Motor Company Buehler Ltd.

Previous Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee


R.J. Austin J.F. Harper J.L. McCall
(1992–1994) (Member 1984–1985) (1923–1926) (Member 1923–1926) (1982) (Member 1977–1982)
L.B. Case C.H. Herty, Jr. W.J. Merten
(1931–1933) (Member 1927–1933) (1934–1936) (Member 1930–1936) (1927–1930) (Member 1923–1933)
T.D. Cooper D.D. Huffman D.L. Olson
(1984–1986) (Member 1981–1986) (1986–1990) (Member 1982–) (1990–1992) (Member 1982–1988,
C.V. Darragh J.B. Johnson 1989–1992)
(1999–2002) (Member 1989–) (1948–1951) (Member 1944–1951) N.E. Promisel
E.O. Dixon L.J. Korb (1955–1961) (Member 1954–1963)
(1952–1954) (Member 1947–1955) (1983) (Member 1978–1983) G.J. Shubat
R.L. Dowdell R.W.E. Leiter (1973–1975) (Member 1966–1975)
(1938–1939) (Member 1935–1939) (1962–1963) (Member 1955–1958, W.A. Stadtler
Henry E. Fairman 1960–1964) (1969–1972) (Member 1962–1972)
(2002–2004) (Member 1993–) G.V. Luerssen R. Ward
M.M. Gauthier (1943–1947) (Member 1942–1947) (1976–1978) (Member 1972–1978)
(1997–1998) (Member 1990–2000) G.N. Maniar M.G.H. Wells
J.P. Gill (1979–1980) (Member 1974–1980) (1981) (Member 1976–1981)
(1937) (Member 1934–1937) W.L. Mankins D.J. Wright
J.D. Graham (1994–1997) (Member 1989–) (1964–1965) (Member 1959–1967)
(1966–1968) (Member 1961–1970)

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Authors and Contributors

Safaa J. Alhassan James D. Fritz Bert Moniz


International Lead Zinc Research TMR Stainless DuPont
Organization, Inc. Ronald A. Graham Raymond W. Monroe
Jim Alexander ATI Wah Chang, Allegheny Technologies Steel Founders’ Society of America
Consultant John F. Grubb Thomas G. Oakwood
Robert Baboian ATI-Allegheny Ludlum Consultant
RB Corrosion Service Elizabeth J. Opila
Robert J. Hanrahan, Jr.
Brian Baker Los Alamos National Laboratory NASA Glenn Research Center
Special Metals Corporation George Oprea
Warren J. Haws
James P. Bennett Brush Wellman, Inc. University of British Columbia
U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research N. Palaniswamy
L.H. Hihara
Center Central Electrochemical Research Institute
The University of Hawaii at Manoa
R. Bhaskaran William C. Panarese
D.R. Holmes
Central Electrochemical Research Institute Portland Cement Association
ATI Wah Chang, Allegheny Technologies
Malcolm Blair Raul Rebak
Steel Founders’ Society of America Nathan S. Jacobson
NASA Glenn Research Center Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
Arthur Cohen N.S. Rengaswamy
Arthur Cohen & Associates M. Jayachandran
Central Electrochemical Research Institute
H.H. The Rajah’s College
Terry W. Cowley Michel Rigaud
DuPont Allen R. Jones CIREP, École Polytecnique Montreal
Atotech
Paul Crook Mark Rowe
Haynes International, Inc. G. Kaufman Haynes International, Inc.
Kaufman Associates, Ltd.
Jim Crum Ronald W. Schutz
Special Metals Corporation Pradip Khaladkar RMI Titanium Company
DuPont
P.K. Datta John R. Scully
Advanced Materials Research Institute, Dwaine Klarstrom University of Virginia
Northumbria University Haynes International, Inc.
C. Ramadeva Shasty
Terry DeBold Toshiaki Kodama International Steel Group, Inc.
Carpenter Technology Corporation Nakabohtec Corrosion Protection Co., Ltd.
Barbara A. Shaw
Larry DeLashmit Kyei-Sing Kwong Pennsylvania State University
Polycorp, Ltd. U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research David C. Silverman
Center Argentum Solutions, Inc.
Christopher Dellacorte
NASA Glenn Research Center Jay W. Larson James L. Smialek
American Iron and Steel Institute NASA Glenn Research Center
Manish Dighe
Hi TecMetal Group Kang N. Lee Gaylord D. Smith
Cleveland State University Special Metals Corporation
H.L. Du
Advanced Materials Research Institute, Jennifer A. Lillard Thomas C. Spence
Northumbria University Los Alamos National Laboratory Flowserve Corporation
Peter Elliott Ashley Lucente Krishna Srivastava
Corrosion & Materials Consultancy, Inc. University of Virginia Haynes International, Inc.
F.B. Fletcher Steve Matthews Bill Stahl
Mittal Steel USA Haynes International DuPont Performance Elastomers
Lee Flower Tapio Mäntylä Richard C. Sutherlin
Haynes International, Inc. Tampere University of Technology ATI Wah Chang, Allegheny Technologies
Dennis S. Fox Sabrina Meck Hiroyuki Tanabe
NASA Glenn Research Center Haynes International, Inc. Dai Nippon Toryo Company

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ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Kenneth B. Tator Stephen M. Winder Te-Lin Yau


KTA-Tator, Inc. U.K. Software Services Te-Lin Yau Consultancy
Tommy Taylor Ryan C. Wolfe X. Gregory Zhang
DuPont Performance Elastomers Pennsylvania State University Teck Cominco Metals Ltd.
Mikko Uusitalo Jim Wu
Metso Powdermet Oy Deloro Stellite, Inc.

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Reviewers

Robert L. Bratton M. Swyn Hocking Raul Rebak


Nuclear Materials Disposition and Imperial College London U.S. Department of Energy
Engineering Merv Howells Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Juan Bustillos Honeywell Michael Renner
Dow Chemical Dennis Huffman Bayer Technology Services GmbH
Gary Carinci The Timken Company
TMR Stainless Elwin L. Rooy
Russell H. Jones
Tim Cheek Elwin L. Rooy and Associates
U.S. Department of Energy
International Truck & Engine Corporation Pacific Northwest National Laboratory B.J. Sanders
L. Chen Don Kelley BJS and Associates
Engineered Materials Solutions Dow Chemical
Desmond C. Cook Mark Schilling
Old Dominion University Don Kim
William L. Silence
Larry Craigie Dale Kingseed
Donald Snyder
American Composites Manufacturers David Kolman
Association Atotech R&D Worldwide
U.S. Department of Energy
Craig Darragh Los Alamos National Laboratory David L. Sponseller
The Timken Company OMNI Metals Laboratory, Inc.
Roger A. LaBoube
Subodh Das University of Missouri-Rolla Karl P. Staudhammer
Kenneth deSouza Lionel Lemay U.S. Department of Energy
Dofasco, Inc. National Ready-Mixed Concrete Association Los Alamos National Laboratory
John B. Dion William LeVan
BAE Systems Oscar Tavares
Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute Lafarge North America Inc.
David Dombrowski Scott Lillard
Los Alamos National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Michael E. Tavary
Richard W. Drisko Los Alamos National Laboratory Dow Chemical
John DuPont Graham McCartney John Tundermann
Lehigh University University of Nottingham
Elma van der Lingen
Henry E. Fairman Karthik H. Obla
Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants National Ready-Mixed Concrete Association MINTEK
Robert Filipek Toby V. Padfield David J. Willis
AGH University of Science and Technology ZF Sachs Automotive of America BlueScope Steel
John J. Goetz Steven J. Pawel
U.S. Department of Energy Roger Wildt
Thielsch Engineering
Oak Ridge National Laboratory RW Consulting Group
Jeffrey A. Hawk
U.S. Department of Energy Albany G. Louis Powell Gregory Zhang
Research Center Y-12 National Security Complex Teck Cominco

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ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Contents

Corrosion of Ferrous Metals ................................................................ 1 Differences between Prepaint and Postpaint ......................... 41
Part Design Consideration in Coated Steel Sheet ................. 41
Introduction to Corrosion of Ferrous Metals Selection Guideline ............................................................... 42
Jay W. Larson ...................................................................................... 3 Advantages of Prepainted Steels ........................................... 42
Industry Overview ................................................................... 3 Corrosion of Cast Irons
Steel Products and Characteristics .......................................... 3 Thomas C. Spence ............................................................................. 43
Role of Corrosion .................................................................... 3 Basic Metallurgy of Cast Irons ............................................. 43
Influence of Alloying ............................................................. 43
Corrosion of Carbon and Alloy Steels
Influence of Microstructure ................................................... 44
Corrosion of Wrought Carbon Steels
Commercially Available Cast Irons ...................................... 44
Toshiaki Kodama ................................................................................. 5
Forms of Corrosion ............................................................... 45
Atmospheric Corrosion ........................................................... 5
Resistance to Corrosive Environments ................................. 46
Aqueous Corrosion .................................................................. 7
Coatings ................................................................................. 48
Soil Corrosion .......................................................................... 8
Selection of Cast Irons .......................................................... 49
Corrosion in Concrete ............................................................. 9
Corrosion of Cast Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Boiler Service ........................................................................ 10
Raymond W. Monroe ......................................................................... 51
Corrosion of Wrought Low-Alloy Steels
Atmospheric Corrosion ......................................................... 51
Thomas G. Oakwood ......................................................................... 11
Other Environments .............................................................. 53
Corrosive Environments Encountered in the Use of
Alloy Steels ....................................................................... 11
Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy
Steels .................................................................................. 11 Corrosion of Stainless Steels
Corrosion of Low-Alloy Steels in Specific End-Use Corrosion of Wrought Stainless Steels
Environments ..................................................................... 13 John F. Grubb, Terry DeBold, James D. Fritz ................................. 54
Corrosion of Weathering Steels Identification Systems for Stainless Steels ............................ 54
F.B. Fletcher ...................................................................................... 28 Families of Stainless Steels ................................................... 55
Copper-Bearing Steels ........................................................... 28 Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance ..................................... 57
High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels ........................................... 28 Effects of Composition .......................................................... 58
Atmospheric Corrosion Testing ............................................ 28 Effects of Processing, Design, Fabrication, and External
Estimating Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of Treatments ......................................................................... 58
Weathering Steels .............................................................. 29 Forms of Corrosion of Stainless Steels ................................. 62
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance of Weathering Corrosion in Specific Environments ..................................... 63
Steels .................................................................................. 29 Corrosion in Various Applications ........................................ 70
Corrosion Behavior under Different Exposure Corrosion Testing .................................................................. 75
Conditions .......................................................................... 30 Corrosion of Cast Stainless Steels
Case Histories and Design Considerations ........................... 30 Malcolm Blair .................................................................................... 78
Corrosion of Metallic Coated Steels Composition and Microstructure ........................................... 78
C. Ramadeva Shastry ........................................................................ 35 Corrosion Behavior of H-Type Alloys .................................. 79
Zinc-Base Coatings ............................................................... 35 Corrosion Behavior of C-Type Alloys .................................. 81
Aluminum-Base Coatings ..................................................... 37
Zinc-Aluminum Alloy Coatings ............................................ 38
Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Coatings ............................................ 38 Corrosion of Nonferrous Metals and Specialty Products ................ 89
Corrosion of Organic Coated Steels
Hiroyuki Tanabe ................................................................................ 40 Introduction to Corrosion of Nonferrous Metals and Specialty Products
How Paint Films Deter Corrosion ......................................... 40 Paul Crook ......................................................................................... 93
Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by Copper ................................................................................... 93
Organic Coatings ............................................................... 40 Nickel .................................................................................... 93
Design of Steel Structures for Coating ................................. 40 Titanium ................................................................................ 93
Paint Systems for Bridges ..................................................... 41 Aluminum .............................................................................. 94
Prepaint Processing ............................................................... 41 Specialty Products ................................................................. 94

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ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Applications and Fabrication


Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Steve Matthews, Jim Wu .................................................. 170
G. Kaufman ........................................................................................ 95 Hardfacing with the High-Carbon Co-Cr-W
Pitting Corrosion ................................................................... 95 Alloys .............................................................. 171
Solution Potentials ................................................................. 96 Welding of Wrought Cobalt Alloys .................... 172
Effects of Composition and Microstructure on Alloys Resistant to High-Temperature Corrosion
Corrosion ........................................................................... 97 Dwaine Klarstrom ........................................................... 172
Corrosion Ratings of Alloys and Tempers .......................... 101 High-Temperature Corrosion Properties
Galvanic Corrosion and Protection ..................................... 101 Dwaine Klarstrom, Krishna Srivastava .......................... 172
Deposition Corrosion ........................................................... 104 Oxidation ............................................................. 172
Intergranular Corrosion ....................................................... 104 Sulfidation ............................................................ 173
Stress-Corrosion Cracking ................................................... 105 Carburization ....................................................... 173
Effect of Stress-Intensity Factor .......................................... 106 Corrosion by Halogens ........................................ 174
Exfoliation Corrosion .......................................................... 110 Corrosion by Molten Salts ................................... 175
Corrosion Fatigue ................................................................ 111 Applications and Fabrication for High-Temperature Service
Erosion-Corrosion ............................................................... 112 Lee Flower, Steve Matthews ........................................... 175
Atmospheric Corrosion ....................................................... 112 Forming and Annealing ....................................... 175
Filiform Corrosion ............................................................... 114 Welding Characteristics ...................................... 175
Corrosion in Waters ............................................................. 114
Corrosion in Soils ................................................................ 117 Corrosion of Low Melting Metals and Alloys
Resistance of Anodized Aluminum .................................... 118 Corrosion of Tin and Tin Alloys ......................................................... 177
Effects of Nonmetallic Building Materials ......................... 119 Pure Tin ............................................................................... 177
Contact with Foods, Pharmaceuticals, and Soft Solders ......................................................................... 179
Chemicals ........................................................................ 120 Pewter .................................................................................. 181
Care of Aluminum ............................................................... 121 Bearing Alloys ..................................................................... 181
Other Tin Alloys .................................................................. 182
Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys Tin and Tin-Alloy Coatings ................................................ 182
Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys Tinplate ................................................................................ 186
Arthur Cohen ................................................................................... 125 Corrosion Testing of Coatings ............................................ 188
Effects of Alloy Composition ............................................. 125 Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys
Types of Attack ................................................................... 127 Safaa J. Alhassan ............................................................................ 195
Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Specific The Nature of Lead Corrosion ............................................ 195
Environments ................................................................... 131 Corrosion in Water .............................................................. 195
Stress Corrosion Cracking of Copper Alloys in Specific Atmospheric Corrosion ....................................................... 196
Environments ................................................................... 151 Corrosion in Underground Ducts ........................................ 197
Protective Coatings .............................................................. 154 Corrosion in Soil ................................................................. 199
Corrosion Testing ................................................................ 154 Resistance to Chemicals ...................................................... 200
Tin-Lead Solder Alloys ....................................................... 203
Corrosion of Cobalt and Cobalt-Base Alloys
Corrosion of Cobalt and Cobalt-Base Alloys ..................................... 164 Corrosion of Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloys
Alloys Resistant to Aqueous Corrosion Corrosion of Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloys
Paul Crook, Jim Wu ........................................................ 164 Barbara A. Shaw, Ryan C. Wolfe .................................................... 205
High-Carbon Co-Cr-W Alloys ............................ 164 Environmental Factors ........................................................ 206
Low-Carbon Co-Cr-Mo Alloys ........................... 165 Corrosion in Real and Simulated Environments ................. 207
High-Carbon Co-Cr-Mo Alloys .......................... 166 Localized Corrosion Mechanisms ....................................... 211
Low-Carbon Co-Mo-Cr-Si Alloys ...................... 166 Galvanic Corrosion .............................................................. 214
Age-Hardenable Co-Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys ................ 166 Protection of Assemblies ..................................................... 216
Product Forms ..................................................... 166 Protective Coating Systems ................................................. 220
Aqueous Corrosion Properties Inhibitors .............................................................................. 222
Paul Crook ....................................................................... 166 Industry-Proven Protection Systems ................................... 222
Hydrochloric Acid ............................................... 167 Novel Magnesium Alloys with Improved Corrosion
Sulfuric Acid ....................................................... 167 Resistance ........................................................................ 224
Phosphoric Acid .................................................. 167 Corrosion of Bulk Vapor-Deposited Alloys ....................... 225
Hydrofluoric Acid ................................................ 168 Metal-Matrix Composites .................................................... 226
Nitric Acid ........................................................... 168 Corrosion of Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys
Organic Acids ...................................................... 168 Corrosion of Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys
Salts ..................................................................... 168 Paul Crook ....................................................................................... 228
Seawater .............................................................. 169 Introduction to Alloys Resistant to Aqueous Corrosion
Alkalis .................................................................. 169 Paul Crook, Dwaine Klarstrom, Jim Crum .................... 228
Environmental Cracking Commercially Pure Nickel .................................. 228
Paul Crook ....................................................................... 169 Nickel-Copper Alloys .......................................... 229

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ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys ................................ 229 Corrosion of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys


Nickel-Chromium Alloys .................................... 230 Te-Lin Yau, Richard C. Sutherlin .................................................... 300
Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys ................................................. 230 General Characteristics ........................................................ 301
Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys ................................................... 231 Variables Affecting Corrosion ............................................ 302
Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys ................................................... 231 Pitting .................................................................................. 306
Product Forms ..................................................... 231 Crevice Corrosion ................................................................ 307
Aqueous Corrosion Properties Intergranular Corrosion ....................................................... 307
Paul Crook, Sabrina Meck, Jim Crum, Raul Rebak ....... 231 Stress-Corrosion Cracking ................................................... 307
Hydrochloric Acid ............................................... 231 Delayed Hydride Cracking .................................................. 308
Sulfuric Acid ....................................................... 233 Effects of Surface Condition ............................................... 309
Phosphoric Acid .................................................. 234 Galvanic Corrosion .............................................................. 309
Hydrofluoric Acid ................................................ 234 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion ................................. 309
Hydrobromic Acid ............................................... 235 Erosion-Corrosion ............................................................... 310
Nitric Acid ........................................................... 236 Fretting Corrosion ............................................................... 310
Organic Acids ...................................................... 236 Effects of Tin Content in Zirconium ................................... 310
Salts ..................................................................... 236 Corrosive Environments ...................................................... 311
Seawater .............................................................. 237 Effects of Fabrication on Corrosion .................................... 318
Alkalis .................................................................. 238 Protection Measures ............................................................ 319
Environmental Cracking Industrial Applications of Zirconium and Its
Raul Rebak ...................................................................... 238 Alloys .............................................................................. 320
Commercially Pure Nickel .................................. 238 Safety ................................................................................... 322
Nickel-Copper Alloys .......................................... 238 Conclusions ......................................................................... 322
Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys ................................ 239 Corrosion of Niobium and Niobium Alloys
Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys ................................................. 239 Richard C. Sutherlin, Ronald A. Graham ....................................... 325
Ni-Cr, Ni-Cr-Fe, and Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys ................ 240 Niobium Alloys ................................................................... 325
Applications and Fabrication Mechanisms of Corrosion Resistance ................................. 325
Brian Baker, Paul Crook, Lee Flower, Mark Rowe ....... 241 Applications ......................................................................... 333
Petrochemical and Refining ................................ 241 Corrosion of Tantalum and Tantalum Alloys ..................................... 337
Chemical Processing ........................................... 241 Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance ................................... 337
Power Industry ..................................................... 241 Corrosion in Specific Media ................................................ 337
Fabrication ........................................................... 241 Hydrogen Embrittlement, Galvanic Effects, and Cathodic
Alloys Resistant to High-Temperature Corrosion Protection of Tantalum .................................................... 348
Dwaine Klarstrom ........................................................... 243 Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum-Base Alloys ................. 348
High-Temperature Corrosion Properties Corrosion of Hafnium and Hafnium Alloys
D.R. Holmes ..................................................................................... 354
Dwaine Klarstrom, Krishna Srivastava .......................... 244
Production ............................................................................ 354
Oxidation ............................................................. 244
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hafnium ................ 354
Carburization ....................................................... 244
Aqueous Corrosion Testing of Hafnium and Hafnium
Metal Dusting ...................................................... 246
Alloys .............................................................................. 355
Sulfidation ............................................................ 246
Corrosion Resistance of Hafnium ....................................... 356
Corrosion by Halogens ........................................ 247
Applications ......................................................................... 358
Corrosion by Molten Salts ................................... 248
Corrosion of Beryllium and Aluminum-Beryllium Composites
Applications
Warren J. Haws ............................................................................... 360
Brian Baker, Jim Crum, Lee Flower ............................... 248
Health and Safety ................................................................ 360
Petrochemical and Refining ................................ 248
Effects of Impurities and Composite Composition ............. 360
Heating and Heat Treating .................................. 249
Corrosion of Beryllium in Air ............................................. 360
Aircraft Gas Turbines .......................................... 250
Aqueous Corrosion of Beryllium ........................................ 362
Power Industry ..................................................... 250
Stress-Corrosion Cracking ................................................... 363
High-Temperature Corrosion .............................................. 363
In-Process, Handling, and Storage Corrosion Problems
Corrosion of Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and Procedures ................................................................. 363
Corrosion of Titanium and Titanium Alloys Corrosion-Protection Surface Treatments and
Ronald W. Schutz ............................................................................. 252 Coatings ........................................................................... 365
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance ................................... 252 Corrosion of Uranium and Uranium Alloys
Forms of Corrosion and Related Test Methods .................. 253 Jennifer A. Lillard, Robert J. Hanrahan, Jr. .................................. 370
Corrosion in Specific Media ................................................ 260 Aqueous Corrosion .............................................................. 370
Expanding the Corrosion Resistance of Titanium .............. 284 Atmospheric Corrosion ....................................................... 375
Appendix 1: General Corrosion Data for Unalloyed Environmentally Assisted Cracking .................................... 379
Titanium .......................................................................... 286 Protective Coatings and Surface Modification .................... 380
Appendix 2: General Corrosion Data for Titanium Storage of Uranium ............................................................. 381
Alloys .............................................................................. 290 Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations ............ 382

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Corrosion of Precious Metals and Alloys Properties of Clad Metals .................................................... 443
Corrosion of Precious Metals and Alloys Designing with Clad Metals ................................................ 443
Gaylord D. Smith ............................................................................. 385 Designing Clad Metals for Corrosion Control .................... 443
Silver .................................................................................... 385 Corrosion-Resistant Powder Metallurgy Alloys
Gold ..................................................................................... 388 Barbara Shaw .................................................................................. 447
Platinum ............................................................................... 390 Evaluating the Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alloys .......... 447
Palladium ............................................................................. 392 P/M Stainless Steels ............................................................ 454
Rhodium .............................................................................. 395 Influence of Processing Parameters on the Corrosion
Iridium ................................................................................. 396 Resistance of P/M Stainless Steels .................................. 457
Ruthenium ........................................................................... 398 P/M Superalloys .................................................................. 468
Osmium ............................................................................... 399 Corrosion of Amorphous Metals
Anodic Behavior of the Noble Metals ................................ 400 John R. Scully, Ashley Lucente ....................................................... 476
Synthesis of Metallic Glasses .............................................. 476
Corrosion of Zinc and Zinc Alloys Devitrification and Structural Relaxation ........................... 477
Corrosion of Zinc and Zinc Alloys Mechanisms of Corrosion Resistance ................................. 478
X. Gregory Zhang ............................................................................ 402 Corrosion Behavior of Fully Amorphous and Partially
Applications of Zinc ............................................................ 402 Devitrified Metallic Glasses: A Historial Review .......... 478
Corrosion Performance ........................................................ 403 General Corrosion Behavior of All Classes of
Corrosion in Waters, Solutions, Soils and Other Amorphous Alloys ........................................................... 480
Environments ................................................................... 409 Localized Corrosion Behavior of All Classes of
Corrosion Forms .................................................................. 411 Amorphous Alloys ........................................................... 482
Environmental Cracking Behavior ...................................... 485
Corrosion of Specialty Products Conclusion ........................................................................... 486
Corrosion of Brazed and Soldered Joints Corrosion of Intermetallics
Manish Dighe .................................................................................. 418 P.K. Datta, H.L. Du, J.S. Burnell-Gray .......................................... 490
Fundamentals of Corrosion of Joints .................................. 418 High-Temperature Corrosion of Intermetallics ................... 490
Corrosion of Soldered Joints ............................................... 418 Aqueous Corrosion .............................................................. 504
Corrosion of Brazed Joints .................................................. 418 Corrosion of Cemented Carbides ........................................................ 513
Role of Proper Brazing Procedures in Minimizing Effect of Composition on Properties ................................... 514
Corrosion ......................................................................... 420 Applications of Cemented Carbides .................................... 515
Corrosion Resistance of Particular Brazing Alloy Systems 420 Selection of Cemented Carbides for Corrosion
Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection in Atmospheric and Applications ..................................................................... 516
Aqueous Environments Corrosion in Aqueous Media .............................................. 516
Seiji Kuroda, Andrew Sturgeon ....................................................... 422 Oxidation Resistance of Cemented Carbides ...................... 522
Coating Types ...................................................................... 422 Saw Tips and Corrosion ...................................................... 523
Aluminum Coatings and Zinc Coatings .............................. 422 Coating of Cemented Carbides ........................................... 523
Thermal Spray Application Methods for TSA and TSZ Special Surface Treatments ................................................. 524
Coatings ........................................................................... 423 Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites
Field Exposure Tests of TSA and TSZ Coatings ................ 425 L.H. Hihara ..................................................................................... 526
Application History of TSA and TSZ Coatings for Background .......................................................................... 526
Corrosion Prevention ....................................................... 426 Parameters Affecting MMC Corrosion ............................... 526
Dense Barrier Coatings by High-Velocity Spraying Corrosion of MMC Systems ................................................ 531
Processes .......................................................................... 427 Corrosion Protection of MMCs ........................................... 538
The Future Use of Thermal Spray Coatings ....................... 429 Other Concerns .................................................................... 539
Corrosion of Thermal Spray Coatings at High Temperatures
Tapio Mäntylä, Mikko Uusitalo ...................................................... 430 Environmental Performance of Nonmetallic Materials ................ 543
Oxidation ............................................................................. 430
Hot Corrosion ...................................................................... 431 Introduction to Environmental Performance of Nonmetallic
Corrosion-Resistant Coatings in Boilers ............................. 431 Materials
Waste Incinerators ............................................................... 432 David C. Silverman ......................................................................... 545
Erosion-Corrosion in Boilers ............................................... 433 Thermosetting Resins and Resin-Matrix Composites ......... 545
Corrosion of Electroplated Hard Chromium Elastomers ........................................................................... 545
Allen R. Jones .................................................................................. 434 Rubber Linings .................................................................... 545
Corrosion of Chromium Electrodeposits ............................ 434 Protective Coatings .............................................................. 546
Optimizing Corrosion Resistance ........................................ 434 Ceramics and Refractories .................................................. 546
Duplex Coatings .................................................................. 440 Concrete ............................................................................... 546
Corrosion-Resistance Data .................................................. 440 Performance of Refractories in Severe Environments
Applications ......................................................................... 440 James P. Bennett, Kyei-Sing Kwong, George Oprea,
Corrosion of Clad Metals Michel Rigaud, Stephen M. Winder ............................................ 547
Robert Baboian ................................................................................ 442 Background and Theory ...................................................... 547
The Cladding Process .......................................................... 442 Testing ................................................................................. 551

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© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
ASM Handbook, Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials (#06508G)

Corrosion of Steelmaking Refractories ............................... 551 Elastomer Material Identification ........................................ 617
Refractories for Glass-Melting Applications ...................... 554 Quantifying Performance .................................................... 617
Refractories for Aluminum Smelting and Refining
Applications ..................................................................... 557 Global Cost of Corrosion .................................................................. 619
Chemical-Resistant Masonry for Corrosive Liquid
Environments ................................................................... 560 Global Cost of Corrosion—A Historical Review
Performance of Ceramics in Severe Environments R. Bhaskaran, N. Palaniswamy, N.S. Rengaswamy,
Nathan S. Jacobson, Dennis S. Fox, James L. Smialek, M. Jayachandran ......................................................................... 621
Elizabeth J. Opila, Christopher Dellacorte, Kang N. Lee .......... 565 United States of America .................................................... 621
High-Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of United Kingdom .................................................................. 622
Silica-Forming Ceramics ................................................. 565 Australia .............................................................................. 623
Oxidation of Precursor-Derived Ceramics, Composites, Japan .................................................................................... 623
and Non-Silica-Forming Ceramics .................................. 571 Canada ................................................................................. 623
Corrosion of Oxide Ceramics .............................................. 572 Germany .............................................................................. 624
Environmental Barrier Coatings .......................................... 572 Poland .................................................................................. 624
Effects of Oxidation and Corrosion on Mechanical South Africa ......................................................................... 624
Properties ......................................................................... 574 Czechoslovakia .................................................................... 624
High-Temperature Wear of Advanced Ceramics ................ 575 Belgium ............................................................................... 624
Environmental Performance of Concrete Netherlands .......................................................................... 624
William C. Panarese ........................................................................ 579 Sweden ................................................................................ 624
Types and Causes of Concrete Degradation ....................... 579 Finland ................................................................................. 624
Addressing Durability with the Prescriptive Approach ...... 583 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) ...................... 624
Addressing Durability with the Performance Kuwait ................................................................................. 624
Approach ......................................................................... 584 India ..................................................................................... 625
Sustainability ....................................................................... 586 Basque Region ..................................................................... 625
Degradation of Protective Coatings Global Direct Cost of Corrosion ......................................... 625
Kenneth B. Tator ............................................................................. 589 Global Indirect Cost of Corrosion ....................................... 625
Molecular Composition of a Polymer ................................. 589 Global Cost of Corrosion .................................................... 626
Environmental Effects Resulting in Coating
Deterioration .................................................................... 591 Gallery of Corrosion Damage .......................................................... 629
Environmental Performance of Thermosetting Plastics and Resin
Matrix Composites Gallery of Corrosion Damage
Terry W. Cowley .............................................................................. 600 Peter Elliott ..................................................................................... 631
Fabrication of FRP Equipment ............................................ 600
Resins and Their Resistance to Various Environments ...... 600 Reference Information ...................................................................... 647
Curing Thermosetting Resin Types .................................... 602
Environmental Performance of Rubber Linings Periodic Table of Elements ................................................................. 649
Larry DeLashmit ............................................................................. 605 Crystal Structure .................................................................................. 651
Commonly Used Polymers .................................................. 605 Density of Metals and Alloys .............................................................. 658
Industrial Applications ........................................................ 607 Reference Electrodes ........................................................................... 662
Environmental Performance of Elastomers Overpotential ....................................................................................... 663
Jim Alexander, Pradip Khaladkar, Bert Moniz, Bill Stahl, Electrochemical Series ........................................................................ 665
Tommy Taylor .............................................................................. 608 Galvanic Series of Metals and Alloys in Seawater ............................. 672
Factors Governing the Performance of Elastomers ............ 608 Compatibility Guide ............................................................................ 673
Factors Affecting Chemical Resistance .............................. 610 Corrosion Rate Conversion ................................................................. 675
Performance Evaluation ...................................................... 612 Metric Conversion Guide .................................................................... 676
Failure Analysis ................................................................... 615 Abbreviations and Symbols ................................................................. 679
Elastomer Failure Modes .................................................... 615 Index .................................................................................................... 682

xv
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