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ANSIIAGMA 6001-097

(Revision of ANWAGMA 6001-C88)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Design und Selection of Components


for Enclosed Gear Drives

COPYRIGHT American Gear Manufacturers Association, Inc.


Licensed by Information Handling Services
Design and Selection of ComponentsforEnclosed Gear Drives
American ANSI/AGMA 6001-D97
National [Revision of ANSIIAGMA 6001-CSSI
Standard Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the require-
ments for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the
standards developer.
Consensus is established when,inthe judgmentof the ANSI Board of Standards Review,
substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than asimple majority, but not necessarily una-
nimity. Consensus requires that al views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effortbe made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standardsis completely voluntary; their existence does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products,processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and wil in no
circumstances give an interpretationof any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to an interpretation of an American National
issue
Standard in the name ofthe American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpre-
tation of this standardshould be addressed totheAmericanGearManufacturers
Association.
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawalas dictated by experience. Any person who refers to anyAGMA
Technical Publication shouldbe sure that the publicationis the latest available from the
Association on the subject matter.
Fables and other self-supporting sections may be quoted or extracted in their entirety.
Credit lines should read: ExtractedAGMA from 6001-D97,Design and selection of Com-
ponents tÒrEnclosed GearDrives,with permission of the publisher, American Gear Manu-
facturers Association,1500 King Street, Suite201, Alexandria, Wrginia,22314.1

Approved August7,1997

ABSTRACT
This standard outlines the basic practices for the design and selection of components, other than gearing, for
use in commercial and industrial enclosed gear drives.

Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright O 1997 by American Gear Manufacturers Association


A l l rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic


retnevd system or otherwise, without prior written permissionof the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 1-55589-683-9

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Contents
Page
Foreword ............................................................... iv
1 scope .............................................................. 1
2
Definitionsandsymbols ............................................... 1
Designconditions
3 .................................................... 1
4 Shafts .............................................................. 4
Keys
5 .............................................................. 19
6 Bearings ........................................................... 20
Housings
7 .......................................................... 21
8Threadedfasteners .................................................. 22
9Miscellaneouscomponents ........................................... 22

1 Symbols used in equations ............................................ 2


2 Modifying factor for stress concentration.4 .typical values for keyways
in
solid round steel shafts .............................................. 14
Figures
1Designcriteria ....................................................... 5
Cyclicloading
2 ....................................................... 7
3 Stress convention showing orbiting element .............................. 7
4 Surfacefinishfactor. k, ............................................... 10
5 Sizefactor. k6 ....................................................... 11
6 Reliabilltyfactor, .................................................. 11
7 Notchsensitiwty - steel. q ............................................ 12
8 Theoretical stress concentration factorin bending for a circular shaft with a
square shoulder.& (nominal stress is calculated at diameter4 ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9 Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending for a circular shaft with
a u-notch, & (nominal stress is calculated at diameter4 ) ................ 13
1O Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending for a circular shaft with a
radial hole.& (based on full section without considering hole). . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11Torsionaldeformation ................................................ 15
12 Bending deflection intermediate concentrated load ....................... 16
13 Bending deflection overhung concentrated load ......................... 17
14 Bending deflection intermediate concentrated moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
15 Bending deflection overhung concentrated moment ...................... 18
16Axialdeformation ................................................... 18
17 Average shaft and hub radius ......................................... 19
18 Variation of coefficient of friction versus the bearing parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Annexes
A Allowable stresses for typical key and keyway materials .................. 25
B Allowable stresses for typical threaded fasteners ........................ 27
C Interferencefit torquecapacity ........................................ 29
D Previous method .shaftdesign ....................................... 31
E Sample problems -transmission shaft design ........................... 33
FSampleproblems . deflection ......................................... 37
G References ......................................................... 41

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ANWAGMA 6M)l-D97 AMERICAN runowL STANDARD

Foreword
r h e foreword,footnotes,andannexes, if any, in thisdocumentareprovidedfor
informational purposes only and are notconstrued as a part of ANWAGMA Standard
to be
60014 9 7 , Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]
AGMA 260.02 was approved by the AGMA membership on February 1,1973, and in issued
January of 1974. It consolidatedwith minor revision, information contained
in the following
superseded AGMA Standards:
AGMA 255.02 (November 1964),Bolting (Allowable TensileStress) for Gear Drives;
AGMA 260.01 (March 1953),Shafting -Allowable Torsional and Bending Stresses;
,
AGMA 260.02 also incorporated allowable stresses for keys;
AGMA 265.01 Bearings -Allowable Loads and Speeds.
The purposeof AGMA 6001 -C88, as a replacement for AGMA 260.02,to was establish a
common base for the design and selection of components for the different types of
commercial and industrial gear drives.
AGMA 6001-C88 was expanded to include a generalized shaft stress equation which
includedhollowshafting,miscellaneousComponents,housings,andkeywaystress
to allow for 200 percent
calculations. A l l design considerations were revised peak load for
helical,spiralbevel,spurandherringbonegearing,and 300 percentpeakload for
wormgearing. The bearing section was gpdated to include consideration life
of adjustment
factors, bearing lives other than 5000 hours andreliability levels other thanL1O.
During the preparation of AGMA 6001 -C88, a considerable amount of time was spent on
the shaft design section
in an effort to include the most recent theories on shaft stresses and
material characteristics. The standard included the existing practice for shaft design, and
forreferencepurposes,appendix C includedadescriptionof,andexcerptsfrom,
ANSVASME B1 06.1 M, Design of Emsmjssjon Shafting, published in 1985.
AGMA 6001 -C88 was approved by the membership in May 1988 and approved as an
American National Standard on June 24, 1988.
This revision, AGMA 6001-D97, has been expanded to include more recent theories on
shaft design and analysis.Also, equations for shaft deformation were added.
AGMA 6001 -D97 was approved by the membership
in October 1996 and approved as an
7, 1997.
American National Standard on August
Suggestionsfor improvement of this standard be
willwelcome. They shouldbe sent to the
AmericanGearManufacturersAssociation, 1500 KingStreet,Suite201,Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

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AMERICAN NATIONALSTANDARD ANWAGMA 6001-097

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Component Design Committee

Chairman: D.McCarthy ......................... Dorris Company


Vice Chairman: D. Cressman .................... Philadelphia Mixers Corporation

ACTNE MEMBERS

R. Errichello ................................... GEARTECH


J.B. Hagaman .................................. Cone Drive Operations, Inc.
R. Holzman .................................... Milwaukee Gear Company, Inc.
J. Lisiecki ...................................... The Falk Corporation
D.R. M c V i e ................................... Gear Engineers, Inc.
K. Newton ..................................... Rockwell Automation/Dodge
W.F. Schierenbeck .............................. Xtek, Inc.
R.G. Smith ..................................... Philadelphia Gear Corporation
R. Tarneja ..................................... Peerless-Winsmith, Inc.
F.C. Uherek .................................... Flender Corporation
J.J. Vielhauer .................................. The Cincinnati Gear Company

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

D. Behlke ...................................... Twin Disc, Inc.


R.E. Brown .................................... Caterpillar, Inc.
R.Z. Johnston .................................. University of Maine
S. Miller ....................................... The Cincinnati Gear Company
C. Mischke .................................... Iowa State Universlty
A.E. Phillips .................................... Rockwell Automation/Dodge
A. Williston ..................................... Dorris Company

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ANSUAGMA 6001497 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97

American National Standard - ances,metallurgy,residualstresses,andsystem


dynamics. It is not
intendedfor
use
by
the
engineering public at large.
Design and Selectionof
Components for 2 Definitions andsymbols

Enclosed Gear Drives The symbols and definitions used in this standard
may differ from those in other AGMA standards. The
user should not assume that familiar symbols can be
used without acarefulstudy of theapplicable
semon(s) and equation(s).
1 Scope
2.1 Definitions

This standard provides an acceptable practice for The terms used, wherever applicable, conform
to the
the design and selection of componentsfor enclosed following standards:
gear drives. Fundamental equations provide for the AGMA 904496, Metric Usage
proper sizingof shafts, keys, and fasteners based on
stated allowable stresses. Other components are ANSI Y10.3-1968, Letter Symbols for Quantities
discussed in a manner to provide an awarenessof
Used in Mechanics of Solids
their function or specific requirements. This stan- ANSI/AGMA 1012-F90, Gear Nomenclature,
dard applies to the following typesof commercial and Definitions of Terms with Symbols
industrialenclosed geardrives,individuallyorin 2.2 Symbols
combination: spur, helical, herringbone, bevel and
worm. The symbols used in this standard are shown in table
1.
1.1 Exceptions
SI units of measure are shown in parentheses in
The equations in this standard are not applicable table 1 and in the text. Where equations require a
when gear drives are subjected to vibratory condi- different format or constant for use with SI units, a
tionswheretheremaybeunpredictablefatigue second expression is shown after the first, indented,
failure. in smallertype, and with 'M" included in the equation
The procedure for design or selection of the specific number.
gearcomponentsisvariedandcomplexand is Example:
beyond the scope of this standard. Designers must
referto thespecificrating or encloseddrive Wf FP
standards for this aspect of drive design.
Ste = 2 ...(70)
0.785 (D - F)
1.2 Intended use
- Wf FP
Theequationsandvaluespresentedprovidea Ste - 2 ...(70M)
0.785(0 - 0.9382P)
generalapproach to design.Deviationsfromthe
methods and values statedin this standardmay be The second expression uses SI units.
made whenjustified by experience, testing, or more
specific
analysis. It is intended
for
useby
experiencedgeardesignerscapableofselecting 3 Design conditions
reasonable values based on their knowledge of the
performanceof similar designs and the of effect
such This standard should be used in conjunction with
items as lubrication, deflection, manufacturing toler- appropriatecurrentAGMAstandards.Whenthe

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ANSVAGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATlONAL STANDARD

operating conditions are known, each component of directions and rotations producing the most unfavor-
the drive shall be designed to meet those conditions.able stresses unless more specific information is
When operating conditions are not known, all load available. Due allowances must be made for peak
carrying components of the drive shallbe designed loads.
to support the stated mechanical rating of the drive Forencloseddrivesdesigned to operateunder
for continuous dutybased on a unrty service factor specific conditions suchas load, speed, duty cycle
(1.O). Externalloads must be consideredas acting in and l i , components maybe selected accordingly.

-
Table 1 Symbols used in equations
First
Term Units referenced
Coefficient - Fig 4
Compressive areaof key in keyway in2 (mm? Eq 68
Shear area in2 (mm? Eq 69
Cross sectional area ni2 (mm? Eq 63
Distance from supportto concentrated load in (mm) Eq 46
Coefficient - Fig 4
Coefficient - Eq 37
Fastener nominal diameter in (mm) Eq 70
Shaft diameter adjacent to section being analyzed in (mm) Fig 8
Shaft inside diameter in (mm) Eq 6
Shaft outside diameter in (mm) Eq 6
Modulus of elasticity Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 46
Concentrated load Ib (NI Eq 46
Peak load factor - Eq 5
Fatigue safety factor - Eq 1
Peak load safety factor - Eq 2
Allowable stressto yield strength factor - Eq 5
Modulus of rigidity Ib/i$ (N/mm? Eq 41
Brinell hardness number H6 Eq 30
Radial step in (mm) Fig 8
Second area momentof cross section in4 (mm4) Eq 46
Second polar moment of area in4 (mm4) Eq 41
Second polar moment of area of nth section of shaft in4 (mm4) Eq 44
Constant - Eq 8
Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending - Eq 38
Fastener torque coefficient - Eq 71
Fatigue strength modification factor - Eq 34
Surface finish factor - Es 35
Size factor - Eq 35
Reliabiltty factor - Eq 35
Temperature factor - Eq 35
Life factor - Eq 35
Modrfying factor for stress concentration - Eq 35
Miscellaneous effects factor - Eq 35
Length of shaft in (mm) Eq 41
Length of the nth section of shaft in (mm) Eq 44
Bending moment Ib in (Nm) Eq 7
Coefficient - Eq 37
Number of stress cycles - Eq 37
(contin&,

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANWAGMA 6001-D97

Table 1 (continued)
First
Term Units referenced
Permissible number of momentary peak load cycles - Eq 39
Fastener threads per inch in-’ Eq 70
Fastener thread pitch (mm) Eq 70M
Axial force Ib (N) Eq 10
Notch sensitivrty - Eq 38
Reliability (survival rate) - Eq 36
Surface finish Pin (Pm) Fig 4
Notch radius, fillet radius, hole radius in (mm) Fig 7
Average radius alongthe key length in (mm) Eq 69
Average radius at compressive load area in (mm) Eq 68
Allowable compressivestress lb/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 66
+ at I 06 stress cycles lb/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 37
Modified fatigue strength (endurance limit) lb/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 3
Basic fatigue strength (endurance limit)of polished, unnotched lb/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 32
test specimenin reverse bending
Fastener proof loadstress lbhr? (N/mm2) Eq 72
Allowable shear stress lbhr? (N/mm2) Eq 67
Ultimate tensile strength lb/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 30
Tensile yield strength Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 3
Calculated compressive stress Ib/in2 (N/mrn2) Eq 68
Calculated key shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 69
Calculated tensile stress in fastener Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 70
Torque Ib in (Nm) Eq 6
Fastener torque Ib in (Nm) Eq 71
Transverse shear force Ib (NI Eq 8
Applied tensile load on fastener Ib (NI Eq 70
Fastener tensile preload Ib (NI Eq 71
Distance from support to cross section in (mm). Eq 46
Deflection of shaft in (mm) Eq 46
Elongation in (mm) Eq 63
Angular position of shaft element radians Fig 3
Shaft slope radians Eq 47
Critical stress angle radians Eq 28
Angle of twist radians Eq 41
Poisson’s ratio - Eq 9
Alternating componentof stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 12
Alternating axial normal stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating radial normal stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating tangential normal stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 13
Axial normal stress due to bending Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 7
Mean componentof stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 11
Maximum stress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Fig 2
Minimum stress Ibhr? (N/mm2) Fig 2
Mean axial normal stress Ibh$ (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean radial normal stress Ibh? (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean tangential normal stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 14
Axial normal stress due to tension or compression lblir? (N/mm2) Eq 10
(continued)

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ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN


STANDARD
NATIONAL

Table 1 (wncludet?)
First
Term Units referenced
Total axial normal stress Ib/W (N/mmz) Eq 15
Total radial normal stress Ib/ir? (N/mrn2) Eq 15
Total tangential normal stress lbhn2 (N/md) Eq 15
Von Mises alternating stress IbAr? (N/mm2) Eq 3
Von Mises mean stress Ibb$ (N/mm2) Eq 3
Equivalent uniaxial stress under peak loading Ibb$ (N/mm2) Eq 39
Von Mises total stress Ib/i$ (N/mm2) Eq 5
Alternating torsional shear stress Ibhr? (N/mm)2 Eq 20
Alternating radial shear stress Ibbr? (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating axial shear stress Ibbr? (N/mm2) Eq 13
Alternating tangential shear stress IMr?(Nhnrn2) Eq 13
Mean radial shear stress Ibbr? (Nlmm2) Eq 14
Mean axial shear stress Ibbn2 (N/mm2) Eq 14
Mean tangential shearstress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 14
Maximum torsional shear stress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 19
Minimum torsional shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 19
Mean torsional shear stress IbbG (N/mm2) Eq 19
Total radial shearstress Ib/ir? (N/mm2) Eq 15
Total axial shear stress lb/ir? (N/rnd) Eq 15
Total tangential shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 15
Torsional shear stress Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 6
Shear stress dueto shear force lb/ir? (N/rnm2) Eq 8
Test shear stressto find 0, Ib/in2 (N/mm2) Eq 27

3.1 Load spectrum analysis 3.3 System analysis


This standard assumes that within the operating
It isrecommendedthatthecumulativefatigue speed range, the system of connected rotating parts
damage criteria proposed by Miner (Miner’sbeRule)iscompatibleandfree from criticalspeedsand
employed to evaluate the effectsof variable loading torsional or other
types of vibrations, no matter how
on thelife of components. induced.
Thegeardrivedesignerormanufacturer is not
3.2 Momentary peak loads responsibleforthesystemanalysisunless this
provision lis clearly
identified
by
contractual
agreement.
This standard is based on an allowable momentary
mechanical peak load rating of200 percent (2.0 x
mechanicalrating)forspur,helical,hemngbone,
4 Shafts
and bevel gear drives and an allowable momentary
mechanical peak load ratingof 300 percent (3.0 x
mechanical rating) forworm gear drives. Frequency Thissectioncoversastressanalysisprocedure
and durationof peak loads must be considered when steel shafts usedin conjunc-
applicable to cylindrical
designingandselectingcomponents. If the fre- tion with and as part
a of enclosed gear drives. This
quency or duration of peak loading becomes signifi- analysismayormaynot be applicable to other
cant (greater than1O0 cycles during the design life), materials.
the designer should consider a cumulative fatigue Shaft stressis but one consideration in the designof
analysis suchas Miner’s Rule. shafting. Ashaft must have proper radial, axial, and

STD-AGMA
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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6001-D97

torsional stiffness to limit deflections to acceptable considerably greater than unity shall be used. If the
levels andto avoid unwanted vibratory motion. consequence of failure is minimal, a safety factor
closer to unity maybe used.
4.1 Designcriteria
4.2 Fatigue safetyfactor
Shafts must pass two stress analysis tests to be
considered adequately designed. First, they must The elliptic equation has been selected for analysis
be designed to resist fatigue failure due to cyclic of the fatigue failure mode.It is foundin references
loading over their intended life.A l l operating loads, [3], [lo] and [15].*This equation is:
including momentary peak loads, must be consid-
ered,andaMiner'sRuleanalysis(see IS0 TR
10495) maybe required to properly account for the
(9) (?)* (L)
2
+ = Fsf
2
...(3)
states.
different
stress See 4.6.8. where
-
Fsf L 1.O ...(1) a, is VonMises
alternating
stress,
Ib/in2
where (N/mm2);
Fsffatigue
safety
isfactor. S,
-
is modified
fatigue
strength,
Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
Second, they must be designed to withstand mo- q,, is Von Mises mean stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
mentarypeakloadswithoutdistressorpermanent J; istensileyieldstrength, Ib/in2(N/mm2);
deformation. factor. safety fatigue Fsf is
Fsp 2 1.0 ...(2) This equation canbe rewritten to solvefor the fatigue
where safety factor.

[($F (?r]
Fsp is peak load safety factor. 1
FSf = 0.5
both
requirement
The
for to of
iscriteria
these ...(4)
compare the
stress
condition
for
the
given
shaft +

geometryandloadingtopropertiesoftheshaft
material.EachstressconditionappliedtotheshaftForthedesigntobeconsideredacceptablefor
mustbecheckedwithequation 1 andequation 2 fatiguecondition,theresuMngfatiguesafetyfactor,
suchthatFsfL 1.o L 1.o. Seefigure 1. WhereFsf,must be equaltoorgreaterthan 1.O.
nominal or estimated material properties are used, a
factor ofsafety,Fsf,greaterthan1.0isrecom- 4.3 Peak load safety factor
nalysis
uation
loadpeak
following
The
mended. to used is
solve forthe peak load safety factor:
In selecting a value for safety factor, the conse-
quence
failure
ofshall
considered.
be theIf - FYasY
...(5)
consequence of failure high,
is safety
a factor FSP -

v)
v)
al
v \
Stress curve associated
with equation5

,associated
Stress
curve

- 0 Mean stress
-
Figure 1 Design criteria

* Numbers in brackets throughout the text,[ 1, refer to publications listed in annex G.

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ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97 AMERC


I AN NATIONAL STANDARD

where must be those which would be present when the


drive is loaded
to its unrty (1 .O) service factor rating.
FsP is peak load safety factor;
For torque:
Fya is allowable stress to yield strength factor;
4 is tensile yield strength, Ibh? (N/mm2); tl = -316 T do ...(6)
X (d; - d f )
Fp ispeakloadfactor; 16 O00 T d o
- Tt = -
is Von Mises total stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2).
ottOtal .:(G- c) ..(6M)
CAUTION: Equation 5 is based on a ductilematerial. where
For purposesofthis standard, a materialis considered
of the core materialis at
ductile if the tensile elongation t istlorsionalshearstress,Ib/in2(N/mm2);
least 10%. For nonductilematerials, the effects of T is tlorque, Ib in (Nm);
stress concentrationshould be considered. See 4.5.1.
rZ, isshaftoutsidediameter,in(mm);
If Godincludes stresses which are not a function of
load, such as stress resulting from the weight of 4 is shafi insidediameter, in (mm).
components or stress resulting from shrink fit of For bending moment:
components, FsP may be conservative. Consider-
ations may be given to only applying Fp to those
stresses oftota l are load related.
that
...(7)
For the designto be considered acceptable for peak
load condition,the resulting peak load safety factor, .(7M)
,

FsP,must beequal to or greater than 1.O.


where
Thesafetyfactorsareto be chosenbasedon
experience and engineering judgement. q, is axial normal stress due to bending, lbfir?
(N/mm2);
4.3.1 Allowable stress to yield strength factor,
M isbendingmoment,Ibin(Nm).
FYO
For shear force:
The allowable stress to yield strength factor is to
provide conservatism over the stress resulting from T, = -4vK
expected peak load conditions and variations in the X (dg - d:)
0.66 and 0.80
tensile yield strength. Values between
where
have traditionally been employed for this variable.
Unless otherwise agreed upon, a value of 0.75 is r, isshearstressduetoshearforce, Ibhs
recommended. (N/nnm2);
4.3.2 Peak load factor, Fp V istransverseshearforce,Ib(N).
The peak load factor accounts for momentary peak and
loadsover theunityservicefactorload. In the
(1+ 2v)(d;s + 2.25f)
absence of other known conditions, the following K=- ...(9)
values for the peak load factor are
to be used: (1 + v)(dz + d:)
For spur, helical, herringbone, and bevel gear drives,
where
Fp= 2.0.
v is the material’sPoisson’s ratio.
For wormgear drives,Fp= 3.0.
For a solidsteelshaft, wherev= 0.3,K = 1.23 and for
4.4 Calculated stresses a thin walled hollowsteel shaft, K approaches 2.0.
There are four major types of loading applied to For axialtemion or compression:
shafting that constitute the simplified case. These
result in torque (I), bending moments (M), shear
forces (V),and axial tension or compression (Px).
...(10)
The equations converting these forces to stresses where
are given in equations 6 to 10. Positive forces and
stressesare in tension and negative forces and 9 isaxialnormalstressduetotensionor
stresses arein compression. Al forces and stresses comlpression, lbbr? (N/mm2);

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AMERICAN NATlONAL STANDARD ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97

P, isaxialforce, Ib (N). the shaft. If all loads are treated as positive values
All of these stresses can have alternating and meanand aretherefore additive, the critical locations to be
components. See figure 2. examined are at positions
A (e = O ) and B (O = d2)
and at positions 8 between them. Depending on the
Therefore: relationships between the four stresses, any position
U,,, = 0.5 (omax+ Omin) = mean componentof of 8 between O andmay be thelocation of
stress ...(11) maximum stress.
U, = 0.5 (Omax - Omin) = alternating componentof
stress ...(12)
(Equations 11 and 12 are generalized for a normal Tension
stress, but also apply to shear stresses.) (+I
Thecase of completelyreversedstress,where
, = am, and U,,, = O, occurs for the axial normal
U
bending stress,ub, and the shear stress,q,, (due to
transverse shear force) when the shaft is rotating
and is subjected to a constant direction load. This is
a common loading condition.
The location of the maximum and minimum stress
intensities due to these loads varies as the stress
element being analyzed orbits with the rotating shaft. (-1
Compression
See figure 3. In this figure, the loads are fixed and
only the shaft element under analysis is rotating with -
Figure 2 Cyclic loading

Element at
position A

Figure 3 - Stress convention showing orbiting element

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ANSIIAGMA 6001- W 7 AMERICAN NAIONAL STANDARD

Where stressis not uniformly distributed around the is meantangentialnormalstress,Ib/in2


periphery of the shaft, the stress intenstty of an (Nlmm2);
element
orbiting
between A and B will vary k ~ . yis imean radial shear stress, lb/ir? (N/mm2);
approximately in a sine or cosinepattern as t.y. is lmean axial shear stress, Ib/i$ (N/mm2);
appropriate.
h is meantangentialshearstress,Ib/i$
Most shaft stress analyses are concerned onlywith (N,lmm2).
position A, as the bending stress, e,is typically
Von Mises totalstress:
much larger than the transverse shear stress, T, -
which producesthe bending. - SyY + (Sy - o,)* + (o,- %Pl
(%oral = { O . W a ,
+ 31:%2 +
+ ~&]}0.5
I$ ...(15)
Stress at position B or 0, between A and B, can
where
become importantin a short shaft section with a high -
shear force as maybe found adjacent to a bearing. is Von Mises total stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
cr, is total axial normal stress, Ib/i$ (N/mm2);
4.4.1 The general case
ory is total radial normal stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
For a complete 3-dimensional fatigue analysis, the
o, is totaltangential normalstress,
Ibh$
VonMisesstresseswill be used.Referagainto
(Nl'mm?;
figure 3.These are given in equations 13 through 15,
where the total or maximum stress is the sumof the + is total radial shear stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
alternating and mean stresses (at, = o, + + ...). %z is total axial shear stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
Von Mises alternating stress: 4p total
is tangential
shear
stress,
Ib/i$
- (N/mm2).
a, = {0.5[(0, - %y)2 + (%y - %I2
2 0.5 Al unused terms in the above equations are set
+ (Cr,- %d21 + 3['hxv2 + %yz2 + ha Il
equalto zero. The results of equations
13 through 15
...(13)
are used in equations 3 through 5.
4.42 The rrimplffied case
is Von Mises alternating
stress,
lb/$ There are stresses which are not includedin these
(N/mm2); simplified Gase formulas but to which, nonetheless,
isalternatingaxialnormalstress,Ib/i$ the designer must be alert and appropriately ad-
(N/mm?; dress if they are encountered. These include, but
are not 1imil:edt o , hoop stresses dueto press fitted
isalternatingradialnormalstress, Ib/i$ parts, pressure on hollow shafts, thermal s t r e s s e s ,
(N/mm2,; stresses due to unbalance and centrifugal forces,
is alternating tangential normal stress, Ib/i$ and residual stresses, any of which can become
(N/mm2); significant.
isalternatingradialshearstress,Ib/ir? For thesimplified c a s e , all stresseson the free
(N/mm2); (outer)surtace of theelementarezero (¡.e.,no
interferencefitted elements), as are shearstress in
isalternatingaxialshearstress,Ib/i$ theradialdirectionandthetangentialstress.
(N/mm?; However, experience has shown the effect ofthe
that
is alternating tangential shear stress, Ib/ir? interference fit can be modeled using the simplified
(N/mm2). case and the modtfying factor for stress concentra-
tion, 9, as discussed in4.6.6. Keeping in mind sign
Von Mises mean stress: convention:
-
4n = {0.5[(% - + (%y - 4NP At position El:
+ ( 4 n -%YI
~ + 3[+2 + tnyz2 + ~ 2 1 1 0 . 5
...(14) &=QcoIs0+4 ...(16)
k=qshle+% ...(17)
where c+=l&=li=F=O ...(18)
-
G is Von Mises mean stress, Ib/inz(N/mm2); After detemnining the forces and stresses on the
% is meanaxial normal stress, Ib/ir? (N/mm2);
the amount of
shaft at the critical sections, determine
each stress 'thatis alternating and the amount
that is
4ny is meanradial normal stress, Ib/i$ (N/mr$); mean, per elquations11 and 12. For manycases q,

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and ,T, arecompletelyalternating, whereas t+ is This represents the maximum value of stress at any
entirely mean. The torsional shear stress, q,often point of the shaft surface at that location for the
has both a mean (hr) and an alternating component general case. The results of equations 25,26 and29
(%r). are usedin equations 3 through 5.
tnr = 0.5 (trmax + t min) ...(19) properties of steel
4.5 Mechanical
Tzt = 0-5 (Pmax "4 min) ...(20) Mechanicalpropertyvalues,determined from test,
If such is thecase,
at
position 8, of
the
specified
grade of steel
in its processed
and
heattreatedconditionshould be Üsedwhenever
Mean stresses: available.
%Lx=% ...(21) 4.5.1 Estimated propertiesof steel
tnzr=tttl ...(22)
It is important to note that the estimated material
Atternating stresses: properties may deviate significantly from actual test
o,=abcos8 (maxat8=0) ...(23) values. Thus, an appropriate factor of safety should
be used.
h=q,sin8+ht x
(maxatO=-)
2
...(24)
In the absence of test data, the following properties
Themeancomponentsofstresshave m asthe of forged or rolled s t e e l shafting material may be
firstsubscript (%, h)whilethealternating used. For through hardened steel
shafts,
the
components haveU as the first subscript ,o
(, h). ultimate tensile strength can be based on the Brinell
For standard catalogued gear drives that are not hardness of the shaft, near the outer surface, at the
subjected to torque reversals, alternating torques in diameter under consideration. For s t e e l shafts that
the rangeof 25% to 50% are suggested. If no data are case hardened by processes as such
carburizing
exists, a worst case50% alternating torque (that is and nitriding, the ultimate tensile strength is based
betweenzeroandthemaximumtorque,where on the Brinell hardness of the shaft underneath the
k t= Gr) should be used. A value lower than 25% hardened case unless a detailed analysis or experi-
may be used if experienceshowsthatreduced ence indicatesthat a different tensile strength should
torque fluctuations exist. be used. See sample problem 3 in annex E. The
yield strength and modified fatigue strength can be
If frequent torque reversals are present, consider calculated based on the ultimate tensile strength.
setting G, =,,,T and = O (100% alternating The following equations have been developed by
torque). curvefitting
representative test
results
from
Von Mises alternating stress for the simplified case: references (3 1,[18] and [19].
- Ultimate tensile strength:
= [om2+ 3hzx2]0-5 ...(25)
Von Mises mean stress for the simplified case:
Su = 500 HB ...(30)
- S,, = 3.45 HB ...(30M)
U ,= [h2
,
, + 3b2]0.5 ...(26) where
Calculate equations 23 through 25 for 8, depending Su isuttimatetensilestrength,Ib/in2(N/mm2);
on qeSt and G r :
HB isBrinellhardnessnumber,HB.
..(27) NOTE: The value of 500 in equmon 30 is a typical
value. in reference [15], 450 is mentioned as a
minimum value.
Tensile yield strength:
,. (28) -
S;, = 0.94 S, 12 500 ...(31)
S; = 0.94 S, - 86.2 ...(31M)
If xar 2 -ctesr, 8 - E! radians where
c - 2
where S;, is tensile yield strength, Ib/ir? (N/mm2).
0, is thecriticalstressangle,deg. Basic fatigue strength:
+e = 0.5 S, if& 5 200 O00 Ib/in2 ...(32)
and
use
the
components U
, and
for
the
maximum value of 0, to calculate Von Mises total
sfe = 0.5 S, if S, 5 1380 N/mm2 ...(32M)
stress for the simplified case:
NOTE: The value of 0.5 in equation32 is an average
- value. The values can rangefrom 0.4 to 0.6 depending
~ t o t a l =[ ( 4 n +
~ + 3(* + ha)210.5 .-.(29) upon heat treatment.See [15] for detailed information.

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sf, = 100 O00 lb/ir$ i


f& > 200 O00 Ib/in2 ...(33) 4.6.1 Surface finish factor, k
= 690 N / m d if& > 1380 N/mm* ...(33M) The surface finish factoraccounts for the difference
where between theactual shaft and a highly polished test
specimen. Values f o r b are given in figure 4.
is basicfatiguestrengthofpolished,un-
notched test specimenin reverse bending, 4.69 Size factor, &
Ib/ir$ (N/mm2>.
The size factor accounts for the increased likelihood
4.6 Modified fatigue strength asthe shaft
of encountering a fatigue initiating defect
diameter increases. Values for & are givenin figure
Since the fatigue strength is largely influenced by 5.
physical conditions, environmental conditions, and
as material conditions,
application conditions as well 4.6.3 Reli~rbilityfactor, R,
the basic fatigue strength must be modified. The reliability factor accounts for variation or scatter
Sf=kSfe ...(34) in fatigue test data forsamples of a given material.
The reliability factor is determined by the desired
where
level of reliability and the dispersion
of the test data.
Sf is modified fatigue strength, Ibh$ (N/mm*); Unless otherwise agreed upon, a valueof = 0.817
(for 99% reliability) shouldbe used.
k is fatiguestrengthmodificationfactor.
The formulas and data in figure 6 are for a normal
The fatigue strength modification factor, k, is the distribution where the standard deviation is 8% of the
product of the fatigue factors (ka through kg). The mean.
fatigue safety factor, Fsf, is greatly affected by the
fatigue strength modification factor. Therefore, care NOTE For high levels of reliability (greater than 0.99)
the reliatlility factoris very sensitive to the failure
should be exercised in determining the values of the
distribution assumed. The equation shown in figure 6
fatigue factors[3]. may only provide an approximation of the actual
k=kakbkckdk*kg ...(35) reliability,factor for these levels.

60 80 100 140
120 160 180 200 220 240 lOOOIb/ir?
r I I I I l I 1 I I I I I t
400 500 600 700 800 900 lo00 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700N/mm2
S,
Ultimate tensile strenmh.
-
Figure4 Surface finishfactor, 4, [lo]

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AMERICAI? NATIONALSTANDARD ANWAGMA 6Wl-D97

O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 in
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I

o 50 250
200
150
100 350
300 400 450 500mm
Shaft diameter,(I,

-
Figure 5 Size factor,& [lo]

Reliabilrty, R , is the fraction


of a groupof apparently limits ofsteels. However, between normal operating
identical parts that exceed -a given life. temperatures ranging fromabout -20°F (-29°C) to
250bF (121"C), the &igue strength characteri&cs
number of pieces exceeding given
a lie
R = unchanged.
For
essentially
are steels most of this
total number of pieces subjected to loading temperaturerange,atemperaturefactor = 1.0
...(36) may be used.
4.6.4 Temperature
factor, 4 CAUTION: Consideration must bethe
given
to loss of
hardness and strength of some materials due to the
Extremeoperatingtemperaturesaffectthefatigue temperingeffectathightemperatures.

1.o0
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
A
? 0.90
$ 0.88
c
8
r 0.86
-
3 0.84
5
-
.-
m 0.82
0.80
0.78
0.76
0.74.
0.5 0.99 0.999
Reliability, R
For normal distribution where the standard deviation is 8% of the distribution mean.
Figure 6 - Reliabilityfactor, k, [3] [lo]

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For applications outside this temperature range, theshoulder, c)r other discontinuity where the effective
fatigue properties should be determined by actual stresses have been amplified. The effect Of Stress
tests [3].. concentration on the fatigue strength of the shaft is
representedbythe m o d i n g factorforstress
4.6.5 Life factor, ke
concentrabion, 4,
Life factor, t ,is taken as unrty (1.O) at lo6 stress 1 " ...(38)
cycles. At greater than lo6 stress cycles, should kf - 1 -I- q ( & - 1 )
be taken as unlty, but in fact may be continually
where
decreasing with increasing number ofstress cycles
at an unknown (lesser) rate. q is notch sensitivity;
k, is greater than unlty between 1@ and 1 stress & is theoreticalstressconcentrationfactorin
cyclesand in thisrangemay be calculatedas bending.
follows: A single fatigue stress concentration factor, that in
bending (A;), is utilizedasrepresentativeofany
stress condition. For many applications, aonly small
where error will result from this assumption because the
other stress concentration factors are very close to
m is '/3 loglo [ O e 8 &/Se]; that inbending.However, if adifferentstress
c is loglo ((0.8 &J2/&}; concentration factor (other than bending) is required
&, a modification
and it is significantly different than
se is sf at 106stresscycles(where = 1.O); to this analysismay be necessary.
N is number of stress cycles (between
1@and
Notch sensitivity, q, accounts for the phenomenon
106). that low strengthsteels are less sensitive to fatigue
Below 1 6 stress cycles, the value of
k, obtained at at notches than are high strengthsteels. Valuesfor q
16cycles shouldbe used. are shown in figure 7 for ductile (¡.e., elongation 1
10%) throu!gh hardened steel shafts.
4.6.6 Modifyingfactor for stress Concentration,
The theoreltical stress concentration factor in bend-
9 ing, &, as shown in figures 8 through 10 are taken
Experience has shown that a shaft fatigue failure from reference 13. These values for 4 represent
almostalwaysoccursat a notch,hole,keyway, some of the more commoncases.
1 .o

0.9

0.5

0.4 I I I I I I r- I I
60 80 1 O0 120 140 160 180
200 220 240 260 1 O00 lb/n2
I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I

400 500 600 700 800 900 o


0
l0 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 N/mm2
S,
Ultimate tensile strength,
-
Figure 7 Notch sensitivity stesll, q [lo] -

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ANSI/AGMA
STANDARD 6001-D97

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

$ 3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.o I I I I I I
0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 d.6
214
- in bending fora circular shaft with a square
Figure 8 Theoretical stress concentration factor
shoulder, k; (nominal stressis calculated at diameter $)[13]

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5
*- 3.0
2.5

2.0

1.5

1.o

Utfd,
Figure 9 - Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending for a circular shaft with a u-notch,
1Fr;
(nomlnal stress is calculated at diameter$) [13]

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~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~

ANSI/AGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

4.0 3
- 4/43
K, = K, + K2($) + + &(E) 0.9
- 0.8
3.8- where
For dj/d, 5 0.9 and */do S O 3 - 0.7
KI 3.000
- 0.6
3.6' Kr -6.69(tl.6ZOdi/d0 + 4.432(dJd0)2 f 83
solid

0.00 O.o5 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30


214
-
Figure 10 Theoretical stress concentration factor in bending for a circular shaft with a radial
hole,
4 (based onf u l l section without considering hole) [13]

Table 2 givestypicalvaluesfor 4 forstandard Experimentalverificatronispreferredforsuper-


keyways in solidround steel shafts.Changes in position of stressconcentrationfactors. Wrthout
keyway proportions, comer radii, size of shaft, fit andverification, the smaller values should be used. One
with mating memberscan greatly alter the values of reason is lhat thepossibilityofafatiguefailure
4. Often press-tit assembly of hub and isshaft used originating in the region of an interference fit is often
with or without provisions of a key. Fatigue stress aggravated by fretting corrosion.
modifying factors for interference fits vary widely but 4.6.7 Miscellaneous effects factor, Rg
are often quoted as being in the general range of
0.50. Combinations of interference fit and keyway Since fatigue failures nearly always occur or near
at
give valuesof 4 typically in the rangeof 0.4 to 0.33. the surface of the shaft where thestresses are
greatest, surfacecondition
strongly
influences
fatigue life. A number of factors affecting the fatigue
limit have vialues not readily foundin design texts.
-
Table 2 Modifying factor far stress
Some of these factors are:
concentration, 4 -'typical values for keyways
in solid rounds t e e l shafts') -
resid.ual stresses (such as cold rolling,
peening, and welding);
Profiled Sled-runner -
heat 'treatment (such as case hardening and
keyway keyway decarbonization);
bending bending
Steel stress stress -
corrosion (such as stress corrosion cracking,
Annealed (less than fretting a~rrosion);
200 HB) 0.63 0. 77 -
platingorsurfacecoating.
Quenched and Although ontly limited quantitative data have been
drawn (over200 HB) 0.50 0.63 published for these factors, they shouldbe consid-
NOTE:
Nominal stresses should be based on the section ered and accounted for if applicable. Someof these
modulus for the shaft section with the keyway effect factors can have a considerableeffect on the shaft
ignored. endurance characteristics. In the
absence of

14

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published data, it is advisable to conduct fatigue tion, a mechanical design text or similar reference
tests that closely simulate the shaft condition and its
should be consutted.
operating environment. Use published data or test
Deformationisthedeviationofashaftfromits
data when available.If none of the above conditions
original or ideal shape.A l l shafts deform when they
orothermiscellaneouseffectscontribute to the
are subjectedto stress. For a particular application,
endurance of the shaft being analyzed, $ may be set the deformation may be so small that it cannot be
to 1.0. If anyoftheseconditionsreducethe
measured with usual techniques, or it may be large
endurance strength, consider setting$ to less than enough to be observed with the unaided eye.
1.0; if any
of these
conditionsincrease
the
endurance strength,k, may be greaterthan 1.O. Deformationcancausemisalignmentofcompo-
nentsmountedontheshaft,reducesealperfor-
4.6.8 Permissible number of peak load cycles mance, and alter bearing and gear tooth load contact
patterns. A l l shafts should be designed so that shaft
If the number of momentary peak load (Fp x the
deformation is withinsuitablelimitsforreliable
unity service factor load) cycles are significant, they
operation of gears and other components that are
canbecomethedominantfactorinthestress
affected by shaft deformation.
analysis. If a Miner’s Rule analysis has not been
performedincludingtheseloads,thepermissible Only homogeneous isotropic cylindrical shafts sub-
number of momentary peak load cycles,Nf,, to avoid jectedtoelasticstrains will beconsideredhere.
excessive fatigueis determined as follows: Design conditions such as varymg material proper-
ties, inelastic strains, complex loading conditions, or
If 1.0 L F sc~Fp, then non-cylindrical shapes may require a more detailed
analysis.
Finite elementanalysis
andphysical
Nfo= (E) I/m
, ..(39) testing may be appropriate alternative methods of
- obtaining deformation information.
-
(J,
= (J,
1/ 2 While the equations presented in this section cannot
...(40) predict exact deformations, calculated deformations
can often indicate the suitabiltty of a shaft for its
application.
where
4.7.1 Torsion

To number Of momentary peak


is permissible
load cycles;
Torsionaldeformationismeasuredas theangle of
- shaft twist.
O, isequivalentuniaxialstressunderpeak
Figure 11 is a sketch of a cylindrical shaft subjected
loading, Ib/in2 (N/mm2);
to pure torsion. The analetwist
of for this ideal shaft
c, m are as defined in 4.6.5. can be calculated from equation 41.
If F,f L Fp, the permissible number of peak load
cycles analysisis not necessary.
If Nfo islessthanorequaltothenumberof
momentary peak load cycles of the application, a
redesign
with
lower
calculated
stresses is
necessary.
If Fq < 1.0, the design is unacceptable. See 4.2.

4.7 Deformation

Thissectionisintendedtogiveanoverviewof
deformation of steelshaftswithinenclosedgear
drives.Deformationofbearings,housings,and
other
components is beyond
scope
the of this T
standard.Foramoregeneraltreatment of deforma- -
Figure 11 Torsionaldeformation

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ANSllAGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL
STANDARD

TL ...(41) 4.7.2 Bending


01 = GJ
Bendingtlefíection is deformationwhich is rnea-
-
0, = lo00 T L
GJ
...(41M)
sured perpendicular to theaxis of the shaft. Slope,
where al=’
of deflection, can
which is the rate of change be
@ is angleof twist, rad; an important design criterion.

T is torque, Ib in (Nm); Severalcommonsimplysupportedshaftloading


L is length,in(mm);
cases are shown. These loading cases assume a
uniform q+indrical shaft reacting to concentrated
G is modulusofrigid@,Ib/n2(N/mm2); forces and:moments. Many shafts can be evaluated
J is second polar moment of area, in4 (mm4). as some combinationof these loadingcases. Shaft
loads and reactions can often be separated in order
For steel:
of the deformations which
to simplify calculation can
G = 11.5 x o
l6Ib/in2 (79 300 N/mm2) then
be
added
vectorially to give
the
total
deformation.
x(< - d!) ..(42)
J = Additional loading cases with distributed loads or
32
where different supporting arrangements can be found in
several
rnechanical
design
texts
similar
or
4, isshaftoutsidediameter, in (mm); references.
4 isshaftinsidediameter,in (mm).
Cases invldving shafts with severaldiametersor
For solid steel shafts equation 41 can be simplified indetermin{ate bearing arrangements should not be
to: analyzedwith the methodsshownhere.Finite
element analysis and numerical integration are other
, ..(43) methods for estrmating deflection and slope and can
be appliedto a wide variety of cases.
0, = 0.1284 TL ...(43M)
4 4.7.2.1 Intermediate concentrated load
The angle of twist between shaft ends or specific
Figure 12 i.s a diagram of a simply supported shaft
cross sectionscan be calculated by adding the twist
with acoincentratedloadappliedbetweenthe
angles of the intervening shaft lengths that have
supports. Forces and reactions are assumed to act
constant properties.
at right angles to the shaft. Zero deflection at the
e , =TUL+ ” -T7L2
+ ... +-Tn Ln ...(44) reactions (twings) is assumed.
GlJl
G2J2 Gn Jn

...(44M)
For a homogeneousshaft which consists of n
different diameters and is subjected to a constant
torque:

Figure l:! - Bending deflection intermediate


concentrated load

where The equations for deflection and slope for a simply


supported shaft subjected to an intermediate con-
L,, is the length of the nth section, in (mm); centratedloadaredifferentdependingupon the
Jn is the second polar moment of area of the relative position of the load to the shaft Section of
nth section, in4 (mm4). interest.

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ANDARD
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AMERICAN 6001 -D97

Forx < a and (L -a) > a: The equations for deflection and slopefor a simply
supported shaft subjected to an concentrated over-
F(x)(L - u)(xZ - 2aL, + a2) ...(46)
Y = hung load are different depending upon the relative
6EE position of the sectionof interest to the supports.
F(L - a)(3x2 - 2aL + a2)
e, = 6ELL
...(47) Ifx<L

For x > a and (L - a ) > a : F(a)(x)(L2 - x 2 )


Y = ...(51)
6EzL
F(a)(L - .)(x2 - 2Lr + a2) ...(48) F(a)(L2 - 3x2)
Y = 6ELL e, = ..(52)
6EIL
F(a)(6Lx - 3x2 - 2 L 2 - a2) Ifx>L
8, =
6EzL
...(49)
F(x - L)[@ - L)2 - - L)
where
y isdeflectronofshaftat x , in (mm),(positive
Y = 6EZ
U(%

1 ...(53)
upward as shown in figures 12 - 15);
F isconcentratedload,Ib (N), (positivedown-
ward as shown in figures12 - 15);
4.7.2.3 Intermediate concentrated moment
L is length of shaft between supports, in (mm);
Figure 14 is a diagram of a simply supported shaft
U isdistancefromsupport to concentrated with a concentrated moment applied between the
load, in (mm); supports. The reactions are assumed to act at right
x is distance from support to cross section of angles to the shaft. Zero deflection atthe reactions
interest, in (mm); (bearings) is assumed.
E isshaftmaterialmodulusofelastictty,lb/in2
(N/mm2);

eb is shaft slope at x , (g),


rad;

I is second area moment of cross section, in4


(mm4).

I = "(&
64
- df) ...(50)
1
4.7.2.2 Overhung concentrated load
-
Figure 14 Bending deflection intermediate
Figure 13 is a diagramof a simply supported shaft concentrated moment
subjected to a concentrated overhung load. Forces
The equations for deflection and slope for a simply
and reactions are assumedto act at right angles to
supported shaft subjected to an intermediate con-
the shaft. Zero deflection at the reactions (bearings)
centrated moment are different depending upon the
is assumed.
relative position of the load to the shaft section of
interest.
Y Ifx5a

M(x)(6aL - 2L2 - 3a2 - x2) ..-(55)


Y = 6ElL
1000M(~)(6aL- 2L2 - 3a2 - x 2 )
Y = ...(55M)
6ElL
M(M- 2 ~ -2 3a2 - 3x2)
8, = ...(56)
6EIL
-
Figure 13 Bending
deflection
overhung
8, =
loOOM(6aL - 2L2 - 3rd - "2) ...(56M)
load concentrated 6ELL

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ANSI/AGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Ifx>a Ifx>L

M(3a2L - 3a2x - 2L2x + 3Lx2 - x3) y=-


- M(L - x)(L - 3x) ...(61)
Y = 6Ea ...(57) 6EI
- 1 m q L - x)(L - 3x) ...(61M)
1000M(3& - 3~2,- 2L% f 3Lr2 - ~ 3 ) Y=- 6EI
Y- 6ELL
r - U)
...(57M) eb = -- . M ( 66EI , .(62)
M(& - 3a2 - 2L2 - h2) ...(58) - lOOoM(& - U )
e, = 6EL5 8, = ...(62M)
6EI
1 ~ h f ( 6 L x- 302 - 2L2 - %') ...(58M) 4.7.3 Mrl
8, =
6EIL
Elongation1is axial deformationand is measured
Were axis of the shaft.A positive elongation
parallel to íthe
M is concentratedmoment,Ib in (Nm). is the result of a tensile shaft stress and a negative
elongation isthe result of a compressive shaft stress.
4.7.2.4 Overhung concentrated moment Figure 16 is a sketchof a shaft subjectedto an axial
force. Elongation of this ideal shaft can
be calculated
Figure 15 is a diagram of a simply supported shaft
from the following equation.
subjected to an overhungconcentratedmoment.
Reactions are assumed to act at right angles to the a=-- PX,C ...(63)
shaft. Zero deflection at the reactions (bearings) is A,E
assumed. where
8 is elongation,in(mm);
Y Px is tuial force, Ib (N);
L is length, in (mm);
is cross sectional area, in* (mm2).
L a "
" L

-
Figure 15 Bending deflection overhung
concentrated moment

The equations for deflection and slope for a simply


supported shaft subjected to an overhung concen-
tratedmomentaredifferentdependinguponthe
relative position the
of section of interestto the shaft -
Figure 16 Axial deformation
supports.
For cylindrical shafts:
Ifx<L
...(64)
M(x)(L~ x2)- ...(59)
Y = For s t e e l E 30 x 106 Ib/in2 (207 O00 N/md).
1OoOM(x)(L2 - 9 ) For solid cylindricalsteel shafts equation63 can be
Y = 6EIL
...(59M) simplified to:

a = -4.24 x 10-8PxL
...(60) ...(65)
4
...(60M) ,.(65M)

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ANDARD
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4.7.4 Permissible deflection , = 0.5 Sc0


S ...(67)
The amount of deflection permissible in a shaft is where
dependent,toagreatextent,upontheparticular S, is allowable shear stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2).
conditionof
operation
encountered;hence, no
See annexA, table A.l for typical values of Ssa and
general rulescan be given. However, the shaft must n
acu
be stiff enough to limit the deflection of key power
elements such as gears and pulleys. The allowable 5.4 Compressive stress calculation
slope of the shaft through the bearings should not The compressive stress in a key or keyway resulting
exceedtheallowablemisalignmentlimitsofthe from the transmitted torque may be calculated using
bearings. Moreover, the judgment and the experi- equation68. The calculated compressive stress,
G,
ence of thedesignermust be relieduponto
shouldnotexceed
the
allowable
compressive
determinetheextenttowhicheitherlateralor stress, Scu.
torsional deflection may be permitted.
,.(68)

5 Keys ...(68M)

where
Keysaredetachablecomponentswhich,when
assembled into keyways, provide a positive means s, calculated
is compressive
stress,
lb/n2
for transmitting torque between the shaft and hub. (N/mm2);
Four commontypes of keys are square, rectangular, T isshafttorque, Ib in(Nm);
tapered, and Woodruff. Tac is average radius at compressive load area,
5.1 Sizes and tolerances in (mm) (see figure 17);
is cornpressive area of key in contact with
Standard key and keyway sizes, tolerances
and fits shaft or hub, in2 (mm2);
may be obtainedfrom ANSI 617.1, Keys and
Keyseats, ANSI 017.2, Woodruff Keys and Key- is peak load factor
seats, or AGMA 9002-A86, Bores and Keyways for
= 2.0 for spur, helical, herringbone and bevel
gear drives
Flexible Couplings (InchSeries).
= 3.0 for worm gear drives.
5.2 Allowable compressive stress NOTE: Each component shallbe evaluated basedon
the allowable stress for its material and hardness.
Theallowablekey,shaftandhubcompressive
stresses are commonly based on70 percent of the
component material yield strength.
Scu = 0.7$
!.. ...(66)
where
Scu is allowable
compressive
stress,
Ib/in2
(N/mm2);
J; is tensile yield strength of key, shaft or hub
at the keyway section, Ib/in2 (N/mm2).
ofand5.
See annexA, tableA.l for typical valuesScu
NOTE: Theallowablestress for surfacehardened -
Figure 17 Averageshaft and hub radius
components shallbe based on thecore hardness ofthe
material except when a detailed analysis justifies a
5.5 Shear stress calculation
higher allowable stress.
Theshear stress in a keyresultingfromthe
5.3 Allowable shear stress
transmitted torque may be calculated using equation
The allowable key shear stress shall
be based on50 69. The calculated key shear stress, &k, should not
percent of the allowable key compressive stress. exceed the allowable shear stress,
S,,.

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of the bearlng system and bearing lubrication system


...( 6 9 ) is critical tlo proper functioningof gear drives.
where 6.1 Roller and ball bearing selection criteria
%k calculated
is key
shear
stress
Ib/in2 Rollerand ball bearingsgenerallyareselected
(N/mm2); according toL1O life calculated by the methods of the
As is sheararea,in2 ( m d ) ; bearing manufacturer and adjusted for the factors
givenbelow.Aminimumcalculated life of 5000
r, is average shaft radius along the key length, hours L10, without considerationofadjustment
in (mm).
factors, has historically been the standard for gear
5.6 Keyed interferencefit drives. The L10 life is the length of time that 90
percent of a group of apparently identical bearings
When an interference fit is used in conjunctionwith a
will equal or exceed before a subsurface originated
key, the torque to be transmitted by thekey maybe
fatigue spJI reaches a predetermined size at the
reducedbytheminimumtorque capacity of the surface. TheL1O life is associated with 90 a percent
interference fit. The minimum torque capacity ofthereliabiltty level.
interference fit is the minimum capacity at the most
unfavorable conditions of speed, temperature, di- A bearing'!; dynamic load rating is the loadthat the
mensionaltolerancesandslidingcoefficient of bearing will carry for a specified number of revolu-
fricbon. For reversing loads, either a tight fit key
is to tions at a specified reliabilrty level. Bearing life shall
be usedor the restraining torque the of interference be calculated according to the load supported by the
fit must exceed the peak torque applied to the joint. bearing resultingfrom bothinternalandexternal
Due to the irregular shape createdby the keyway, loads. Life in hours shall be calculated using the
the calculationof this torque capacityis beyond the rotational speed of the bearing.
scope of this standard and must be established by In addition to dynamic load rating, other selection
experiment. criteriasuchasstaticloadrating,minimumload
requiremenh,andspeedlimitationsshouldbe
5.7 Keyless interferencetit
considered.
When an interference fit is used without a key, the 6.1.1 Relialbility
restraining torque resulting from the interference fit
shall exceed the peak torque the at joint. Reliabilitylevelsotherthan 90 percentmay be
calculated. For more specific analysis, consult the
Annex C presentsonemethodforcalculation of bearing manufacturer.
torque due to interferencefit.
6.1 9 Life adjustment factors
CAUTION: When calculating the torquecap- dan
interference fit, consideration should be given to:
Abearing's;ratingisgivenforoperationundera
specified set of operating conditions. Thelife should
- thermal effects of dissimilar materials; be adjusted for the following factors:
- centrifugaleffects; Lubrication. A bearing's dynamic rating is estab-
- hoopstresses; lished for slpecific conditions of lubricant viscostty,
- residualstresses; speed andtemperaturewhichaffectlubrication.
Adjustmentshouldbemadeforactuallubricant
- dimensionaltolerances; viscosity, speed and temperature as specified by the
- coefficient of friction
as
determined
by gear drive designer.
surface finish, material, and lubrication. Load zone. A bearing's dynamic ratingis generally
based on ti nominal amount of intemal clearance
w hih generates a load zone (loaded arc) within the
c
6 Bearings bearing of 1
n- 150" and 180". Adjustment
should be made for the actual load zone under the
Bearings are required to support shafting
in accurate loads imposed on the bearing.
alignment while supporting shaft loads and allowing Alignment. Adjustment should
be
made
for
shafts to rotate or translate, or both. Proper selection
misalignment magnitudes which may reduce bear-

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ing life. The misalignment may be dueto size, form Boundary


Mixed
or position tolerances; shaft or housing deflection
under load; or a combination of the above.

Bearingmaterial. A bearing’sdynamicrating is
based upon hardened, good quality bearing steel.If
premium steels are used, the life may be adjusted
due to the reduction of impurities in steel.
the

Usable life. A bearing’s dynamic rating is based c


O
upon a laboratory spall size which normally will not c
C
hinder the performance of a gear drive.A spall size o)
I

o
which is considered detrimental to the performance $
of the gear drive maybe a usable life criterion.
s
NOTE: The life calculation methods used by bearing
manufacturers are based upon subsurface originated
fatigue damage which leads to spalls. Other types of
bearing damage which may reduce beering life include,
but are not limitedto, surface originated spatting due
to Lubricant Rubbing
bruises from contaminantsin the lubricant, plastic
yielding or brinelling dueto overload, retainer damage
and scoring or scuffing dueto lack of lubrication.
Bearing
parameter

-
ViSCOSitV x Speed
Projected area pressure
Figure 18 Variation of coefficient of friction
)
Consult the bearing manufacturer for specific life versus the bearing parameter
adjustment factors.
Operating temperature. In general, for tin based
6.2 Sleeve bearing selection criteria babbitt, metal temperature does not exceed 260°F
(127°C).
Sleeve bearings operatein three basic regimes: NOTE: The criteriaabovemay be exceededwhen
sophisticatedanalyses are performedonbearing
- boundarylubrication; materials,construction,clearance,eccentriuty ratio,
- mixedfilmlubrication; shaft slope, length
to diameter ratio,lubricant viscosity,
and operating temperature.
- fullfilmhydrodynamiclubrication. Hydrodynamicbearingssubjected toinfrequent
Figure 18 illustratesthetypicalvariation of the momentary peak loads shallbe designed such that
coefficient of friction as a function of the bearing theyieldpoint ofthebearingmaterials is not
parameter for the three lubrication regimes. exceeded.
For
specific
informationrefer to the
bearing
6.2.1 Boundary and mixed film regimes manufacturer, or [4],

In the boundary and mixed film lubrication regimes, a


pressure-velocity criterion for the specific material 7 Housings
of the bearing shouldbe checked.
Thehousingprovidesaccuratealignment of the
6.2.2 Hydrodynamic regime
gearsandbearingswithsufficientstrengthand
stiffness to maintainalignmentundermaximum
In the hydrodynamic regime, the main design criteria
are: internalandexternalloading.Thehousingalso
providessome,butnotnecessarilyall,ofthe
Unit loading. In general, bearings are operated at following:
less than750 Ib/in2 (5.2 N/rnm2) unit loading. - reservoir for retention of lubricant;
Oil film thickness. In general, oil film thickness is - exclusion of contaminants;
greater than0.0008 in (0.02 mm). - drainand fill locations;

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- inspectioncovers; typical threaded fasteners for tensile preloads of


- oillevelindicators; 75% of proofloadare shown in annex B. Other
values may be used based on testing or experience.
- surface area for heat dissipation;
8.2 Toque
- feet or mounting pads;
The following equation may be used to estimate
- motormountingsurface; torque for inducing a given tensile preload[5]:
- liftinglugs. lj = &.D W& ...(71)
M)
..r1
8 Threaded fasteners where
is fastener torque, lbin (Nm);
The purpose of threaded fasteners is totwo clamp
or Kt, is iastener torque coefficient;
more joint members together. The fastenersbeshall = 0.2 fornonplated s t e e l fasteners.In
of sufficient tensile strength and quantity to with- applicationswherelubricants
such as
standthemaximuminternalandexternaldesign thrleadlockingcompounds,greases,oils
loadsandpreventmovementbetweenthejoint and waxes are appliedto the fasteners, Kt,
members.Fastenersmayalso be subjected to maly be assumed to be as low as 0.12 [5];
shearloading.Thisconditionrequiresadditional D is nominal diameter of threaded fastener, in
analysis andis beyond the scope of this standard. (mm);
8.1 Tensile stress Wfp is fastener tensile preload, Ib (N). Common
practice is to torque the fastener to provide
The forces to be considered are those developed by a tensile preload of75 percent of the proof
the mechanical ratingof the gear drive in addition to loald.
the externalloads.Theequationforcalculating r " I

tensile stressis as follows:


wz,
J c
W# = 0.75 + [0.785 (D- 0.9382@] ...(72M)
st, =
" 1
...(70)
0.7850 - where
S, is proofloadstress,Ib/in2 (N/md).
WfFP
Ste = 2 ...( 70M) CAUTIOkI: The preload shallbe adequate to prevent
0.785(D - 0.9382) movement between the joint members with due
consideration givento deformation of the members.
where
8.3 Engagement length
S, is calculated tensile stress, lb/n2 (N/mm2);
The thread 'engagementin tapped holes shallbe of
Wf is applied tensile load on fastener, Ib(N); sufficient lengththatthe shear strength
in the internal
Fp is peak loadfactor andexternalthreads is greater thanthetensile
= 2.0for spur; helical, herringbone and bevelpreload in the fastener.
gear drives
= 3.0 for worm gear drives;
9 Miscellzbneous components
D isfastenernominaldiameter, in (mm);
n isfastenerthreadsperinch,in-'; Thefollowingsectionsdiscussfrequently used
P isfastenerthreadpitch,mm. components; of industrial enclosed gear drives. A
specific geiu drivemaynotrequireall of the
The calculated tensile stress should not exceed the componentslisted
and
may
utilize
other
allowable stress. The allowable stress is 80% of the components; which are not included.
fastener tensile preload stress in order to ensure
joint integrity. The fastener tensile preloadstress is 9.1 Shims
75% of theproofloadstress in ordertoavoid Shims are generally used to position gears, bear-
fastenerbreakage.Allowable stress valuesfor ings,orothercomponents.Whenalsoused as

22

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97

gaskets,shimsshallprovidepropersealing.The and the external atmosphere while isolating the


two.
shim material must withstand the minimum ambient Environmentalconditionsandsomeapplications
and maximum operating temperatures at the shim. may preclude the use of breathers, in which case
The material shall remain dimensionally stable at expansion chambers may be used.
initial assembly and when exposed to temperature
9.6 Oil level indicators
extremes for the life of the drive. The shim material
shall be compatible with the gear drive lubricant and Oil level indicators are used to identify the proper oil
outside atmosphere, including contaminants. levelwiththe geardrivemountedinaspecified
CAUTION: The total shim pack thickness should not
position.Themanufacturershallspecifyunder
exceed the shim manufacturer’s recommendation. which condition the oil is level
to be checked, static or
operating.
9.2 Gaskets
Typical oil level indicators include pipe plugs, sight
Gaskets are used to retain lubricant and to excludegauges, standpipes and dipsticks.
contaminants. They should notbe used to position
CAUTION: A pressure buildup insidea gear drivewill
components. The gasket material shall be compat- cause a false reading on a vented oil gauge.
ible with the minimumambientandmaximum
operating temperatures at the gasket. 9.7 Bearing retainers
Bearing retainers are devices other than the housing
Gasket material is generally intended to compress at
thatmaintaintheaxialorradialpositions of the
assemblybutshallremaindimensionallystable
bearings. A l l retainers shall be designed to locate
whensubjectedtotemperatureextremes.The
and maintain dimensional stability for the bearings
gasket material shallbe compatible with gear drive
and gears in accordance with the bearing and gear
lubricant
and
outside
atmosphere,
including
manufacturers’ specifications. Bearing retainers in-
contaminants.
clude but are not limited to locknuts, keeper plates,
9.3 Oil seals end caps, cartridges or carriersand snap rings.

Oil seals are used with rotating shaftsto retain the 9.8 Grease retainers
lubricant andto exclude contaminants. Considera- Grease retainers are generally located between the
tions concerning oil seal selection include but are not cavrty and oil sump to retain greasein the
bearing
limited to hardness, material, pressure at the seal, bearings.
shaft
finish,
roundness,concentricrty,
bearing
endplay,speed,minimumambientandmaximum 9.9 Dowels and pins
operatingtemperaturesattheoilseal,lubricant, Many different types of dowels and pins are used to
outside environment and expected life. provide positive location or to prevent movement
CAUTION: Oil seals shouldbe selected in accordance between two or more parts under load.
with the seal manufacturer’s recommendations. Con-
tact type seals should be consideredwearableand 9.9.1 Dowels and pinsused for positive location
replaceable items overthe life of the gear drive.
These devices are generally used to return parts to
9.4 Breathers the exact position required
if disassembly is neces-
sary.Careshouldbetaken toassurethatthe
Breathers maintain pressure balance between the required holes are the proper size.
inside of the drive and the external atmosphere,
whileexcludingenvironmentalcontaminants.The 9.9.2
Dowels
and
pins used to prevent
location should be such that oil leakage through the movement
breather is prevented. When the pressure dlfferen- Thesedevicesshallbeselectedbasedonthe
tia1 is less than the acceptable component sealing maximum design loads. Generally two or more of
limits, a breather may not be required. these devices are used. Care should be taken to
9.5 Expansion chambers assure that the required holes are the proper size.
CAUTION: In the abovecases, the dowel and pin
Expansionchambersaredevicesthatmaintain manufacturers’ recommendations for fit and strength
pressure balance between the inside of a gear driveshould be followed.

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9.10 Spacers 9.11 Seal retainers


Seal retainlers are generally used to position the seal
Spacers are generally used to positionbearings, in proper relationship
to a
shaft, or type
to lock a split
gears, and other components. The spacer construc- seal in plata.
tionandmaterialshall be ofsufficientstrength, 9.12 Fastener locking dwices
stiffnessandsize to providepropersupportfor Locking devices may be provided to lock fasteners in
adjacent components under maximum internal and place. Typical locking devices include lockwashers,
externaldesignloads.Spacersshall withstand self-lockin!g fasteners, locking compounds, locking
required assembly forces. tabs, and lock wiring.

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Annex A
(informative)
Allowable stresses for typical key and keyway materials
if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed
r h e foreword, footnotes, and annexes, as
a partof ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

Table A1 - Allowable stresses for typical key and keyway materials


Hardness
r Allowable stress, Ib/in2 (N/mm2)
Key orhub material HB Shear, ,
S
AlSI 1018 126
Cold drawn
AlSI 1045 179
Cold drawn
AlSI 4140 320
Heat treated
Cast iron 160 - 190
Class 30
Ductile iron 187 - 255
60-55-06
Heat treated forged bronze 1 62
(copper alloy no. 90673)
Nickel-tin bronze ( S E 65) 1 02
(copper alloy no. C90700
centrifugal
cast) .

Aluminum bronze (copper 1 95


alloy no. C95499 heat
treated)
NOTES:
SA€ - Society of Automotive Engineers
*) Compressive yieldstrength
3, MH - Machinery’s Handbook
4, CDA - Copper Development Association

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6001- W 7

Annex B
(informative)
Allowable stresses fortypical threaded fasteners

if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be as
vheforeword, footnotes, and annexes, construed
a partof ANSI/AGMA6001-D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

B.l Purpose

The purposeof this annex isto provide reference information required for fastener calculations.

Table B.l - Allowable tensile stress for typical inch threaded fasteners
Grade
designation Products Nominal diameter, in
SAE 1 Bolts,
Screws,
Studs
1/4 through 1-1/2 33 006) I 750
24 I
I
19800
___-

SAE 2 Bolts, 1/4 through 3/44) 55 0003) 41 250 33 O00


Screws,
Studs Over 3/4to 1-1 /2 33000 I 24750 I 19800
ASTM A-449 Over 1 -1/2to 3 Bolts 55 O00 I 41 250 I 33 O00
SAE 4 1/4 through 1-1 /2 Studs
65 O00 I 48 750 I 39000
SAE 5 Bolts, 1/4 through1 85 O00 63 750 51 O00
Screws,
Studs Over 1 to 1-1 /2 74 O00 55 500 44 400
SAE 75) Bolts, 1/4 through 1-1/2 105 O00 78 750 63 O00
Screws
ASTM A-354 Bolts Over 1 /4 to 2-1 /2 105 O00 78 750 63 O00
Grade BC
Bolts Over 2-1 /2 to 4 95 O00 71 250 57 O00
-_______
SAE 8 Bolts,
Screws, 1/4 through 1-1/2 120 O00 90 O00 72 O00

120 O00 90 O00 72 O00


-__

Bolts,
through
1/4 1 120 O00 90 O00 72 O00

NOTES:
')The fastener tensile preload stress values in the table are based on torquing oi
the fastener to produce atensile preload
75% of its proof load to avoid fastener breakage. Other values of percentage of proof load may be used, based on testins
or experience.
2,The allowable stress values in the table are based80% on ofthe fastener tensile preload stress in order to ensure join{
' integrity.
3, Proof load test: Requirements in these grades apply onlyto stress relieved products.
4, Grade S E 2 requirements for sizes 1/4 through3/4 inch apply onlyto botts and screws 6 inches and shorter in length
and to studs of all lengths. For botts and screws longer than 6 inches, Grade SAE 1 requirements shall apply.
5,GradeS E 7 bolts and screws are roll threaded after heat treatment. Reference: Fastener Standards, Cleveland, Ohio
Industrial Fasteners Institute, 1988, Sixth Edition.

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ANSItAGMA 6001497 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

-
Table B 2 Allowable tensllestress for typical metric threaded fasteners

Proof load Tonsile pre- Allowable


IS0 property Nominal diameter, stress, load‘) stress, strd),
class mm N/mmz N/md N/mm2
4.6 5.0 through 36 225 169 135
4.8 through
1.6 16 31O 232 186
5.8 5.0 through 24 380 285 228
8.8 16.0 through 36 600 450 360
9.8 through
1.6 16 650 408 390
10.9 5.0 through 36 830 622 498
12.9 1.6 through 36 970 728 582
I NOTES:
The kstener tensile preloadstress values in the tableare based on torquing the fastener to produce a
tensile preloadof 75% of its proofo
l adto avoid fastener breakage. Other values of percentage
of proof load
may be used, based on testing or experience.
2)Theallowablestressvaluesinthetablearebasedon80%ofthefastenertensilepreloadstressinorderto
ensure joint integrity.
Reference: SAE Handbook, Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1986.

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C.l Purpose E ismodulus of elasticity,Ib/i$(N/mm2);


The purpose of this annex is to provide a typical E, ismodulusofelasticity - outermember,
calculation method for determining the amount of lbhr? (N/mm2);
torque that can be transmitted by an interference
fit i$ ismodulus of elasticity - innermember,
between cylindrical surfaces without discontinuities. lbh$ (N/mm2);
f is coefficient of friction;

C.2 Calculations L is fit length, in (mm);


PC isinterfacepressure, lbh9 (N/mm2);
6 S, istangentialstressattheinterface-inner
PC = r 1
member, lb/ir? (N/mm2);
E AB2+A2
C2+B2
B ~- A Z ) + E , ( c-~~
- 5+
2 ) Ei Eo

...(C.1)
J S, istangentialstressattheinterface-outer
member, Ibht-? (N/mm2);
T torque
capacity
is resulting
from
interference fit, Ib in (Nm);
For similar metalsE = Ei= E, and =h
6 isdiametralinterference,in(mm);
(c2 - B Z ) ( B ~ -~ 2 ) is Poisson’s ratio- inner member;
PC = - ...(C.2)
2B3 (C2 - A 2 ) -
is Poisson’s ratio outer member.

...(C.3) member
Outer
member
Inner

....(C.4)

xB2PcLf
T= ...(CS)
2
zB2PcLf
T= ,..(CSM)

---
2000
where
A is inside diameter - innermember,in(mm);
B

C
nominal
is outside

is
diameter
member, in (mm);
outside
diameter - outer
member,
in
- inner
I
* c -
(mm); Figure C.l - Calculation terminology

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSIIAOMA 6001-D97

Annex D
(informative)
Previous method - shaft design
if any, are provided for informational
pheforeword, footnotes, and annexes, purposes only and should not
be construedas
a part of ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97,Design and Selection ofComponents for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

D.l Purpose D.2.1 Shaft stress calculation

The purpose of this annex is to include the previous Nominal shaft stresses are calculated as follows.
shaftdesignsectionofANWAGMA 6001-C88 The applicability of equations D.1 and D.2 to the
(formerly AGMA260)for reference purposes. design of thin wall shafts where the (di&)
ratio > 0.9
has not been established.
D.2 Shafting
16 Td,
Thegeneralequationsfortorsionalandbending ,.(Dl)
stress are shown in equations D.1 and D.2. While the
allowablestressesshown in figure D.l donot ...(D.1M)
separately consider the effects of such things as
shaftsize,surfacefinish,operatingtemperature,
corrosion,residualstressesandreliabilrty, this ...(D.2)

.((ill
method was the accepted practice for shaft design
that has been included in AGMAstandards and used Sb = " V

...(D.2M)
successfully for many years. - G)
(U
E
E
t
175 -

150 -

125-

v)
100 -
v)
m
L
I
v)
a 75-
ñ
6
3
g 50'
ã
25 -

'O
160
200
240
280 320 360 400 440
Brinell hardness
8'0 I
100
120
I I
140
160
180
I

Tensile strength,1O00 Ib/in2


l
200
I 1
220
I I
I I I 1
600 800 1000 1200 1400
Tensile strength, N/mrr?

Figure D.l - Allowable strew for steel shafts

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ANWAGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

where key joints, shoulders, grooves, splines and interfer-


ence fits. Notchsensitivityaccountsfordifferent
S, is calculatedtorsionalshearstress,Ib/ir?
(N/mm?; materials reacting differently
to the same theoretical
stress concentration. The allowablestresses shown
T isshafttorque,Ib in (Nm); in figure 11.1 providefor stress concentrations,
4 is shaftoutsidediameter, in (mm); including notch sensitivity, up to 3.0. the
Whenactual
4 is shaftinsidediameter, in (mm); stress concentration is greater than 3.0 a detailed
analysis is required.
is calculated bending stress, IbAr? (N/mm2);
M is bendingmoment, Ib in (Nm).
D.2.4 Spec:lfic life

For solid shafting, equationsD.l and D.2 simplify to: When designing a shaft for a specific number of
rotating cyccles, the allowable bending stresses of
16 T
ss = - figure D.l may be multiplied by the factorsin table
R d:
...(D.3)
D.1.
-
s, = 16000T
d; A
...(D.3M) Table D.l - Allowable stress multipliers for
32 M shatting
Sb = -
R dz
...(D.4)
Cycles Factor
Sb -
= 32000M
A dz
...(D.4M) up to 1000 cycles 2.4
Over 1O00 to 1O O00 cycles 1.8
D2.2 Allowable stress Over 1O O00 to 1O0 O00 cycles 1.4
For steel shafts the calculated stress due to bending 000to 1 million cycles 1.1 Over 100
and the calculated stress due to torsion shall not Over 1 million cycles 1.o
exceedthevaluesshown in figure D.l. These D9.5 Deflection
stresses may exist simultaneously.
Deflection (lateral, torsional and axial)
is a functionof
Theallowablestressforsteelshaftsthatare the loading on the shaft, modulus of elastic@ and the
hardened by processes such as case carburizing or size ofthe slhaft, andis independent the
of hardness.
nitriding should based
be on the core hardness ofthe Damage to bearings, gear teeth or other compo-
material unless a detailed analysis or experience nents may clccurif deflection is excessive.
indicates thata different allowable stress be used.
D.2.6 Peak loads
0.2.3 Stress concentration
Bending and torsional stresses resulting from peak
Shaft stresses concentrate near a change in the loads
musl: be
analyzed to
assure
that
the
shaft or where a load is applied to theshaft. Typical mechanical properties ofthe shaft material are not
stress concentrators include but are not limited to exceeded.

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ANDARD
NATIONAL
AMERICAN ANWAGMA 6001-097

Annex E
(informative)
Sample problems- transmission shaft design
rheforeword,footnotes, and annexes,
if any, are provided for informational purposes only andshould not be construed as
a part of ANSIJAGMA6001-D97, Design and Selectionof Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

E.l Purpose 4022)2 - 3(1201)' = 3289 b,


%est =( (1201)
3
The purpose of this annex is to provide examples of
the applicationof clause 4, Shafting. The equations Since$, isgreaterthanztSt,thenthemaxstress is at
of this section will be applied to practical shafting 0, = 90". Therefore ~ r= 0, and = 5999 lb/in'.
-
problems. ao = {(OY + 3(5999)2}0.5= 10 391 Ib/in2
E.2 Sample problem number1 -
s, = {(611)2+ 3(4798)2}o*5= 8333 Ib/in2
-
An AIS1 4140 steelhelicalpinionshaft,through qotal = ((611 + Op t 3(4798 + 5999)2}0.5
hardened to 360 H6 issubject to 10 O00 peakload = 18
711 lb/in2
cycles @ 200% operating load and has the following
Su = 500(360 HB) = 180 O00 lb/in2
loads imposed onit at the shaft's critical section:
SJ, - , O001- 12 500 = 156 700 lbfin'
= 0.94(180
T = 1565 Ib in (50% alternating);
sfe = OS(180 OOO) = 90 O00 l b h '
M = 328 in Ib(100%alternating - shaft is
rotating); Listed below are the fatigue limit modification factors
for this example:
V = 678 Ib (100% alternating - shaft
is
rotating); = 30.3(180 000)-0-315 = 0.670
Px (constant).
= 424
Ib NOTE: Shaft is machined to a 125 & surface
finish.
The sectional properties
of the shaft at
this point are: = 0.869(0.94)4*@7= 0.874

4 = 0.94in;
k, = 0.512Qn1/O.99)0.l1 + 0.508 = 0.817
(99% reliability)
4 = 0.0 in;
= 1.0
4 = 1.25 in (as shown in figure 8);
= 1.0 (106 cycles)
r = 0.12 in (as showninfigure 8).
The criticalsectionis at a radiusadjacentto a
4 = 1/[1 + 0.93(1.6 - l)] = 0.64
shoulder. where

The stresses are:

4 = 1.60 (from figure 8)

For a 50% alternating torque, k, = 1.0


k = 0.670(0.874)(0.817)(1.0)(1.0) (0.64) (1.0)
= 'ktr = = 4798 Ib/in2 = 0.306
S, = 0.306(90 000) = 27 557 Ib/in2
Theresultingsafetyfactorsforfatiguefailure
analysis and the peak load failure analysis are:
F,, = 1/{(10 391/27 55q2 + (8333/156 700)2}0-5
= 2.63
0.75 (156 700)
= 3.14
Fsp = 2(18711)
,U = 4022 COS 8 Nfo isnot calculated as Fg > F p (Fp = 2 for helical
z, = 1201sin 0 + 4798 gears)*

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. ANSYAGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

-
E.3 Sample problem number2 = {[O
atotal + 6487 COS (31.8')]' + 316577
+ 2204 sin (31.8') + 2192]2}0-5= 18 061 Ib/in2
An AlSI 4140 steel worm gearshaftthrough
hardenedto 360 HB is subjectto 10 O00 peak load The calculationof the fatigue (endurance) limit of the
cycles @?300% operating load and has the followingshaft isas follows:
loads imposed onit at the shaft's critical section: Su = 500 (360 HB)= 180 O00 lb/in2
T = 152 751 in Ib (25% alternating); J;i -
= 0..94(180OOO) 12 500 = 156 700 Ib/in2
M = 56 498 in Ib (100% alternating - shaft is sf, = 05 (180 OOO) = 90 O00 lb/in2
rotating); the fatigue limit modification factors
Listed below are
V = 28 O00 Ib (100% alternating - shaftis for this example:
rotating); = 313.3(180 000)-0-315 = 0.670
Px =o. NOTE: Shaft is machined to a 125 & surface finish.
The sectional properties the
of shaftat this point are: = 0.869(4.46)-O.@" = 0.752
4 =4.46 in; kc = 0.512(ln1/0.99)o.11 + 0508 = 0.817
(!99% reliability)
4 = 0.0 in.
kd = 1.0
Thiscriticalsectionhasakeywayandagear
pressed onto it with an interference fit ($ taken as = 1.0 (106 cycles)
0.33). 4 = 0.33
The stresses are: kg =la
k = 0.1670 (0.752)(0.817)(1.0)(1.0)(0.33)(1.0)
? = = 8769 ]b/in2
= O. 136
II (4.46Q
sf = 0.136 (90 OOO) = 12 240 lb/in2
For a 25% alternating torque (torque is fluctuating
between
the
maximum
value
and
one-half The resultinig safety factors for the fatigue failure
maximum value): analysis and the peak load failure analysis are as
follows:
hl = 914 = 2192 Ib/in2
'F =1/{(8008/12 240)2+(11392/156 700)2}0-5
kt = 3t14 = 6577 Ib/in2 = & = 152

As 1.0sFqr Fp, calculate the permissible number


of
peak load cycles.

U. ,.

Therefore,

1
-
a, = {[6487 cos (31.8')12 + 3[2204 sin (31.8') Nfo = -
24(
106.229
- 617) 03569
= 140 329cycles
+ 2192]2}0.5= 8008 lb/in2 As Nfois greater than the 10 O00 peak load cycles
-
= {G+ 3 (657v}0-5= 11392 lb/in2 expected in service, this is acceptable.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANWAGMA 6001-D97

-
E.4 Sample problem number 3 o,, = ((15 646)2 + 3(2607)2}0-5= 16 285 lb/in2
-
A carburized and hardenedAlSI 931O steel helical o,,, = {(OY + 3(7823)2}0.5= 13 550 Ib/in2
300 HB and a 63
pinion shafthas a core hardness of -
atotal = {(O + 15 646)2 + 3(7823 + 2607)'}0.5
5 surface finish at the shaft's critical section. Only = 23 899 Ib/in2
100 O00 cycles are required during service,
and no
peak loading is present. The loading is: For a surface hardened part,it is usually conserva-
tivetoanalyze it at its corehardness.For this
T = 4000 Ib in (25% alternating);
example, 300 HB is arbararily chosen. This particu-
M = 3000 in Ib (100% alternating - shafl is lar part has a surface hardness of greater than
600
rotating); HB and also some residual compressive stress at
V = 1000 Ib (100% alternating - shaft
is the surface, whose beneficial effect is beyond the
rotating); scope ofthis standard.
Px =o. The calculation of the fatigue (endurance) limit
the at
The sectional properties are: 300 HB core hardness is as follows:
C& = 1.25 in; Su = 500 (300)= 150 O00 Ib/in2
4 = 0.0 in;
J; -
= 0.94 (150 OOO) 12 500 = 128500 lb/in2
4, = 1.75 in (asshown in figure 8);
s/, = 0.5 (150 OOO) = 75 O00 lb/in2
r = 0.06 in (asshown in figure 8).
Thecriticalsectionis at aradiusadjacenttoa k =kukbk,kdtk/kg
shoulder. & = 14.2 (150 000)4*244 = 0.775
The stresses are: h = 0.850
= 0.869 (l.Z)-0.w7
k, = 0.817 @ 99%reliability
t = = 10lb/in2
430
n (1.25)3 b = 1.0 @ 100°F
For a25% alternating torque; k/ = 1/{1+0.87(2.14-1)) = 0.503
br = q/4 = 2607lb/in2 kg = 1.0
ht = 3q/4 = 7823 Ib/in2 = h TocalculateSe,set~=1.0,k=0.271;Se=kSf,=20304
lb/in2.
Ob = 32 (3000) = 15 646lb/i$
x (1.25)3 For this example, the part will only be1O0runO00
for
cycles. Therefore,twil be calculated
at 1O5 cycles.
r,

Up =o=%
x (1.25)'
m = 1/3 log,o 0.8 [ (W)]
0.257 =

O, = 15 646 COS 0 C = loglo [(0.8 = 5.851


= 1002 sin 8 + 2607 (I
(105.851 100 000 - 0.257
t = 20 304
) = 1.81 @ lo5 cycles
15 646)' - 3(1002)L
%test =( = 80 434 > hr
3 (1002) S, = 20 304 (1.81) = 36 750 lb/in2
Therefore, Thus,
qc = sin - 2607
(80 434)
= 0.033radians = 1.9" -O Fsf = 1/{(16 28336 750)*+ (13 550/128 500)2}O-5
= 2.20
Set 0, = O.
0.75 (12.8500) = 2.02
:. U, = 15646 lb/in2and = 2607 lb/in2 Fsp = 2 (23899)

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ANSI/AGMA 6001-D97 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSVAGMA 6001-D97

Annex F
(informative)
Sample problems deflection -
[The foreword, footnotes, and annexes,
if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should
be construed
not as
a part of ANSIIAGMA 60014 9 7 , Design and selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

F.l Purpose F is load = 120 Ib.


The purpose ofthis annex is to illustrate the method Since X < U , use equation 46 for determining the
of numerical integration in the determination of shaft deflection and equation 47 for slope.
deflection
and slope. A sample shaft will be F(x)(L - a ) x 2 - 2uL U 2 + ...(46)
presentedbrokeninto
various
nodes.
Then Y = CIL
deflection and slope about its neutral axis will be F(L - U ) 3x2 - 2aL + U* ...(47)
determined atthevarious nodes. The main objective e, = 6EIL
of this example isto calculate the slope of the shaft Substituting in the above equations, we get:
through the journal bearing so that the bearing can
be analyzed for sufficient clearance. 120(30)(90 - 70) 302 - 2(90)(70) + 702
Y =
6(30) lo6 (0.7854)(90)
F.2 Sample problem number 1 ...(F.l)
= -0.0385 in (minus sign indicates deflection
Determine the slope and the deflection of the shaft at is downward)
a point A as shown in figureF.l.
120(90 - 70)[3(302)- 2(70)(90) + 7021
Solution: Refer to 4.7.2.1. The various parameters eb =
6(30)( 106)(0.7854)(90)
are: ...(F.2)
= -0.OOO9 rad (minus sign indicates slope is
L is length of the shaft = 90 in; pointed downward as x increases)
X isdistancewheredeflectionandslopeare F.3 Sample problem number 2
required = 30 in;
Determine the slope and the deflection of the shaft at
U is distance from support to the concentrated a pointA as shown in figure F.2.
load = 70 in;
Solution: Refer to 4.7.2.1. The various parameters
I is moment of inertia = (st/64)& = 0.7854 in4; are:
E is Young’s modulus = 30 x lo6 IMn2;
L is length of the between supports = 90 in;
y is deflectionofshaftat x , in; x is distancewheredeflectionandslopeare
is shaft slope
at x , rad; required = 70 in;

Shaft Diameter= 2 in 120 Ib


d 30 in ”
L - 40 in

“A”
90 in
R1 R2
Figure F.l

80 Ib Shaft Diameter= 2 in
,b- 30 in J”60 4
in -

-r 70 in
I
R1 R2
Figure F.2.

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I is moment of inertia = (da)&= 0.7854 in4; Since x < L, use equation 51 for determining the
E isYoung'smodulus = 30 x lo6 Ib/in2; deflection rand equation 52 for slope.

y is deflection of shaft at x, in; F(ti)(X)(L2 - x2) ...(51)


y = -
6ElL
Ob is shaft slope at x, rad;
..4

F is load = 80 Ib.
Since x > a, use equation 48 for determining the Substituting in the above equations, we get:
deflection and equation49 for slope. 120,(20)(30)(902- 302)
Y=- = 0.0407in
F(=)@ - x ) ( x +
~ a2 -U X ) ...(48) (1O6)(O.78S)(9O)
6 (30) ...(F.5)
Y = 6EIL
120(20)[902 - 3 (3O2)]
F(u)(6Lx - 3x2 - 2L2 - 02) 8, = - = 0.0010 rad
eb = ...(49) 6(30)(106)(0.7854)(90) ...(F.6)
6ElL
Substituting in the above equations, we get: F.5 Sample problem number4
80(30)(90 - 70)[702 + 302 - 2(9O)(7O)] The steel plinion shaft presented above in figure F.4
Y = will be analyzed. The slope of the shaft about its
6 (30)( 106)(0.7854)(90)
...(F.3) neutral axis; at point A and F will be determined for
= -0.0256 in (minus sign indicates deflection further bearing analysis.
is downward)
The shear ;and moment diagrams for this problem
- 80(30)[6(90)(70) - 3(702)- 2(902)- 3021 are illustrattd in figureF.5.
H -
"b - 1O6)(O.7854)(9O)
6(30)(
= 0.0011 rad
...(F.4)
The deflection and slope of the simply supported
beam wil be calculated at the points indicated
in the
F.4 Sample problem number3 figure.
NIJmeriCal
integration will be
used to
of the shaft at
Determine the slope and the deflection determine these values[14].
a point A as shownin figure F.3. The followingtwo successive integralswill be used:
U is distance from support to the concentrated X
load = 30 in.
...(F.7)
Solution: Refer to 4.7.2.2.The various parameters
are: O
X
L is length of shaft between supports = 90 in;
X is distancewheredeflectionand
required = 30 in;
slope are ,=\W ...(F.8)
O
II is distance from support to the concentrated
load = 20 in; l h e slope is calculated from:
X
I is moment of inertia = (464)&= 0.7854 in4; r

E isYoung'smodulus = 30 x lo6 Ib/in2; e = -dr= J "E+ C c , = + + C , ...(F.9)


y is deflection of shaft at x, in; O
eb is shaft slope at x, rad; Second integration yields deflection:
F is load = 120 Ib. y = I# + Ctx + c2 ...(F.10)
Shaft Diameter= 2 in 120 Ib

F-
R1
30 in ~-d
"A"
90 in

Figure F.3
T4 R2 20 in

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AMERICAN NATIONALSTANDARD ANSYAGMA 6001-D97

A B C D E
9298 Ib
1.75 in
v A~
I F
7-
3.5 in Y"
c ' - - 5.0 in 5.38in .-
t
2.5 in

P" T
" "

X
Dia Dia

- I~

5.0 in "
"
V

5.0 in + -4
W V

7.75 in - 1.31 in

-
Figure F.4 Shaft geometry and loading

-X
2439

X
(in-lb) I I
Figure F.5 - Shear and moment diagrams

Where C1 and C2 are determined by the values of x Applying Simpson's rule, equation F.8 produces:
and ty at thesupports where deflection is zero:

c, = VxAF -
-
VA
XF
.(F.ll)

,..(F.12) Table F.l presentsthetabulatedvaluesforthe


equationspresented,applied totheexample to
Rewritingequation F.7 usingthetrapezoidalrule
determinethedeflectionandslope of the shaft.
yields:
Therefore, the slopeof the shaft through the center
of bearing A is -0.000 28 radians and through the
center of bearing F is 0.00016 radians.

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Table F.l

=T
c"
X OD I M 9 Q
Station (in) i (in) (in4) (in-lb) WEI "
(rad)
O O O O O OI
A 1 3.50 7.366 O Ol O O o -0.000 28
0.875 2 3.50 7.366 6 W 2 27.16 l

3 3.50 7.366 6 002 27.16 11.88


B 1.75 4 3.50 7.366 12 00354.32
5 5.00 31.42 12 O03 12.73 47.53 27.72 -0.000 37 -0.000 1 a
3.375 6 5.00 31.42 23 149 24.56
7 5.00 31.42 23 14924.56 77.83
C 5.00 8 5.00 31.42 34 295 36.38
9 5.00 31.42 34 295 36.38 127.3 291.1 -0.000 8s -0.000 la
7.50 10 5.00 31.42 28 198 29.92
11 5.00 31.42 28 19829.92 ,210.2
D 10.00 12 5.00 31.42 22 10023.45
13 5.38 41.12 22 100 17.92 :276.9 1329 -0.00096 0.00005
13.875 14 5.38 41.12 12 64910.25
15 5.38 41.12 12 64910.25 :33 1.5
E 17.75 16 5.38 41.12 3195 2.59
17 2.50 1.918 31 9555.53 l356.4 3860 -0.00020 0.00013
18.41 18 2.50 1.918 1585 27.55
19 2.50 1.918 1585 27.55 383.8
F 19.06 20 2.50 1.918 O O
21 O O O O 392.8 4359 O I 0.00016
E =30> rn (steel s r c1 = -0.000 1
9
+
~

Values for M W , and 9 are x 1 0 s c2 = o

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AMERICAN NATlONAL STANDARD ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97

Annex G
(informative)
References
and not be construed as
[The foreword,footnotes, and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes onlyshould
a part of ANSIIAGMA 6001-D97, Design and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives.]

Thefollowingdocumentsareeitherreferenced in the 11. SAE J429January,1980.


text or included for additional information.
12. Wellauer, Edward J., Design Of Shafting f o r
1. AGMA 904-C96, Metric Usage. Gear Drives,AGMA Technical Paper P246.01, Oc-
2. ANWAGMA 9002-A86, Bores And Keyways for tober 966.
Flexible Couplings. 13.Roark,Raymond J. andYoung,WarrenC.,
3.ANWASMEB106.1M-1985, Design Of Trans- Formulas for Stress and Strain. NewYork:McGraw
mission Shat?ing (second
printing).
Book
Hill
Company,
1975,
Fifth
Edition.
4. Cast BronzeBearingDesignManual. Evanston, 14. Shigley,Joseph E. andMischke,Charles R.,
Cast
IL:Bronze
Bearing
Institute. Standard
Handbook of Machine
Design. New
York:
5. fastener Standards. Cleveland,Ohio:Industrial hMh~W-HillBook ComPaYl1986-
Fasteners Institute,1988. Sixth Edition. 15. Shigley, Joseph E. and Mischke, Charles R.,
6. Hopkins,
Bruce R. Design
And
Analysis Of MechanicalEngineering
Design, New
York:
Shafts And Beams. NewYork:McGraw Hill BookMcGraw-HillBookCompany,1989,FifthEdition.

17. ANWAGMA 2001-C95, fundamental Rating


8. Metric fastener Standards. Cleveland, Ohio: ln-
Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute
Spur
dustrial Fasteners Institute, 1983, Second Edition.
and Helical GearTeth.
9. Peterson, R. E. Stress Concentration Factors.
NewYork: John
Wiley
and Sons, 1974.
18.
NASA,
Reference 1123, Design of Power
Transmiitting Shafts, S.Lowenthal, 1984.
10. Shigley, Joseph E. and Mitchell, Larry D.Me-
chanical Engineering Design. New York: McGraw 19.Bethlehem SteelCorp., ModemSteelsand
Hill Book Company, 1983, Fourth Edition. Their Properties, Seventh Edition, 1972.

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