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REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

PHILIPPINES
Philippine Statistics Authority
FOREWORD

The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) conducted two (2) rounds of Costs and
Returns Survey (CRS) of Corn Production covering the periods January to June for selected
Luzon provinces and January to September 2013 for Visayas and Mindanao provinces.

The CRS was designed to generate data on the cost structure of corn production,
average use of materials and labor inputs, measures of profitability and other socio-
economic characteristics of corn farming in the country. The costs and returns data
contained in this report are presented according to farm type, white and yellow, with
national and regional levels of disaggregation.

The PSA gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by the National
Rice Program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) for this activity. Further, the PSA
deeply appreciates the cooperation of the farmer respondents who were interviewed by
the Contractual Data Collectors (CDCs) during the two (2) rounds of the survey.

We welcome comments and suggestions from our data users and various
stakeholders for the improvement of our data systems on costs and returns of production.

ROMEO S. RECIDE
Interim Deputy National Statistician
Sectoral Statistics Office
Philippine Statistics Authority
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD i

TABLE OF CONTENTS ii

LIST OF TABLES iii

EXPLANATORY NOTES x

I. INTRODUCTION 1
A. Rationale 1
B. Objectives 1

II. SURVEY METHODOLOGY 2


A. Coverage 2
B. Reference Period 2
C. Sampling Frame 2
D. Sampling Design and Sample Selection Procedure 2

III. SURVEY OPERATIONS 3


A. Pre-survey Training 3
B. Data Collection 4
C. Supervision of Survey Operations 4

IV. DATA PROCESSING 4


Computation of Average Costs and Returns 5

V. DATA REVIEW AND ANALYSIS 5

VI. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE FINDINGS 6


A. Characteristics of Corn Farmers 6
B. Farm Characteristics 9
C. Farm Practices 10
D. Input Usage 15
E. Average Production Costs and Returns of Corn 18
F. Other Information 39

STATISTICAL TABLES 46

REFERENCES 143

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LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Page
1 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by sex and by region, Philippines, January- 47
September 2013

2.01 Average age and percentage distribution of corn farmers by age group and by region, 47
Philippines, January-September 2013

2.02 Average age and percentage distribution of male corn farmers by age group and by 48
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

2.03 Average age and percentage distribution of female corn farmers by age group and by 48
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

3.01 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by educational attainment and by region, 49


Philippines, January-September 2013

3.02 Percentage distribution of male corn farmers by educational attainment and by region, 50
Philippines, January-September 2013

3.03 Percentage distribution of female corn farmers by educational attainment and by 51


region, Philippines, January-September 2013

4.01 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of corn farmers by number of 52
years engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

4.02 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of male corn farmers by 52
number of years engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January-
September 2013

4.03 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of female corn farmers by 53
number of years engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January-
September 2013

5.01 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by main occupation and by region, Philippines, 53
January-September 2013

5.02 Percentage distribution of male corn farmers by main occupation and by region, 55
Philippines, January-September 2013

5.03 Percentage distribution of female corn farmers by main occupation and by region, 56
Philippines, January-September 2013

6 Percentage of corn farmers by type of farm investment owned and used in corn farm 57
parcel and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

7 Average farm size and area devoted to corn by region, Philippines, January-September 59
2013

8 Percentage distribution of corn farm parcels by farm type and by region, Philippines, 60
January-September 2013
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9 Average area planted and harvested of corn farm parcel by farm type and by region, 60
Philippines, January-September 2013

10 Percentage distribution of corn farm parcels by tenurial status and by region, 61


Philippines, January-September 2013

11 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by number of cropping per year and by region, 62
Philippines, January-September 2013

12 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by month of planting and by region, 62


Philippines, September 2012-July 2013

13 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by month of harvesting and by region, 63


Philippines, January-September 2013

14 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by farm type, by type of seeds planted and by 63
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

15.01 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of hybrid seeds and by region, Philippines, 64
January-September 2013

15.02 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of modern OPV seeds and by region, 64
Philippines, January-September 2013

15.03 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of native OPV seeds and by region, Philippines, 65
January-September 2013

16 Percentage of corn farmers by type of labor used in land preparation and by region, 65
Philippines, January-September 2013

17 Percentage of corn farmers by method of fertilizer application and by region, 66


Philippines, January-September 2013

18 Percentage of corn farmers by method of weeding and by region, Philippines, January- 67


September 2013

19 Percentage of corn farmers by method of shelling and by region, Philippines, January- 67


September 2013

20 Percentage of corn farmers by method of drying and by region, Philippines, January- 68


September 2013

21 Percentage of corn farmers by type of solid organic fertilizers used and by region, 68
Philippines, January-September 2013

22 Percentage of corn farmers by type of solid inorganic fertilizers used and by region, 69
Philippines, January-September 2013

23 Percentage of corn farmers by type of pesticides used and by region, Philippines, 70


January-September 2013

24.01 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of seeds, by source and by region, 70
Philippines, January-September 2013

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24.02 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of organic fertilizers, by source and 71
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

24.03 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of inorganic fertilizers, by source 71


and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

24.04 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of pesticides, by source and by 72


region, Philippines, January-September 2013

25.01 Average quantity of seeds used per hectare by farm type and by region, Philippines, 72
January-September 2013

25.02 Average quantity of seeds used per hectare by seed type and by region, Philippines, 73
January-September 2013

25.03 Average quantity of solid organic fertilizers used per hectare by farm type and by 73
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

25.04 Average quantity of solid organic fertilizers used per hectare by seed type and by 74
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

25.05 Average quantity of inorganic fertilizers used per hectare by farm type and by region, 74
Philippines, January-September 2013

25.06 Average quantity of inorganic fertilizers used per hectare by seed type and by region, 75
Philippines, January-September 2013

26.01 All Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by type and 75
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

26.02 White Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by type 76
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

26.03 Yellow Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by type 77
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

26.04 Hybrid Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by type 78
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

26.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by 79
type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

26.06 Native OPV Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare by 80
type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

27.01 Average quantity of fertilizer nutrients applied per hectare by farm type and by region, 81
Philippines, January-September 2013

27.02 Average quantity of fertilizer nutrients applied per hectare by seed type and by region, 83
Philippines, January-September 2013

28.01 Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by farm type and by region, 85
Philippines, January-September 2013

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28.02 Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by seed type and by region, 85
Philippines, January-September 2013

29.01 All Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region, 86
Philippines, January-September 2013

29.02 White Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region, 86
Philippines, January-September 2013

29.03 Yellow Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region, 87
Philippines, January-September 2013

29.04 Hybrid Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region, 87
Philippines, January-September 2013

29.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by 88
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

29.06 Native OPV Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by 88
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

30 Average labor utilization per hectare by farm type and by region, Philippines, January- 89
September 2013

31 Average labor utilization per hectare by seed type and by region, Philippines, January- 89
September 2013

32.01 All Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, Philippines, 90
January-September 2013

32.02 White Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, Philippines, 90
January-September 2013

32.03 Yellow Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, Philippines, 91
January-September 2013

32.04 Hybrid Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, Philippines, 91
January-September 2013

32.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, 92
Philippines, January-September 2013

32.06 Native OPV Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and by region, 92
Philippines, January-September 2013

33.01 Average labor utilization per hectare by farm activity and by farm type, Philippines, 93
January-September 2013

33.02 Average labor utilization per hectare by farm activity and by seed type, Philippines, 94
January-September 2013

34.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Philippines, 95
January-September 2013

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34.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, 97
Philippines, January-September 2013

34.03 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by seed type, Philippines, 98
January-September 2013

34.04 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by seed type, 100
Philippines, January-September 2013

34.05 Inter-regional comparison of yield and inputs usage per hectare for corn production, 101
Philippines, January-September 2013

34.06 Inter-regional comparison of average production costs and returns per hectare and per 101
kilogram for corn production, Philippines, January-September 2013

35.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, CAR, January- 102
June 2013

35.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, CAR, 103
January-June 2013

36.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Ilocos Region, 104
January-June 2013

36.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Ilocos 105
Region, January-June 2013

37.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Cagayan Valley, 106
January-June 2013

37.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Cagayan 107
Valley, January-June 2013

38.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Central Luzon, 108
January-June 2013

38.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Central 109
Luzon, January-June 2013

39.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, CALABARZON, 110
January-June 2013

39.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, 111
CALABARZON, January-June 2013

40.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, MIMAROPA, 112
January-June 2013

40.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, 113
MIMAROPA, January-June 2013

41.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Bicol Region, 114
January-June 2013

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41.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Bicol 115
Region, January-June 2013

42.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Western 116
Visayas, January-September 2013

42.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Western 117
Visayas, January-September 2013

43.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Central Visayas, 118
January-September 2013

43.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Central 119
Visayas, January-September 2013

44.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Eastern 120
Visayas, January-September 2013

44.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Eastern 121
Visayas, January-September 2013

45.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Zamboanga 122
Peninsula, January-September 2013

45.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, 123
Zamboanga Peninsula, January-September 2013

46.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Northern 124
Mindanao, January-September 2013

46.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Northern 125
Mindanao, January-September 2013

47.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Davao Region, 126
January-September 2013

47.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Davao 127
Region, January-September 2013

48.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, 128
SOCCSKSARGEN, January-September 2013

48.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, 129
SOCCSKSARGEN, January-September 2013

49.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Caraga, 130
January-September 2013

49.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Caraga, 131
January-September 2013

50.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, ARMM, 132
January-September 2013

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50.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, ARMM, 133
January-September 2013

51 Percentage distribution of corn produce by disposition item and by region, Philippines, 134
January-September 2013

52 Percentage of corn farmers reporting on current level of production in comparison with 135
the same period last year by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

53 Percentage of corn farmers with higher volume of production this year by reason for 135
change in production and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

54 Percentage of corn farmers with lower volume of production this year by reason for 136
change in production and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

55 Percentage of corn farmers reporting problems on production by region, Philippines, 136


January-September 2013

56 Percentage of corn farmers who sold produce to major buyer by region, Philippines, 137
January-September 2013

57 Percentage of corn farmers reporting problems on marketing of produce by region, 138


Philippines, January-September 2013

58 Percentage of corn farmers who availed of loans for corn production by source of loan 138
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

59 Percentage of corn farmers who were aware and availed of benefit from government 139
programs/interventions in corn production by region, Philippines, January-September
2013

60 Percentage of corn farmers who received benefit from government 139


programs/interventions on corn production by type of benefit and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

61 Percentage of corn farmers who used the benefit received and increased income by 140
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

62 Percentage of corn farmers by perceived effect of climate change on their corn farming 140
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

63 Percentage of corn farmers who are members of farmers’ organization and type of 141
benefits received by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

64 Percentage distribution of corn farmers reporting on the plan of farm operations by 141
region, Philippines, January-September 2013

65 Percentage of corn farmers reporting on the recommendations to further improve the 142
corn production by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

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EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. Data on demographic characteristics and farm practices contained in this report were
collected in 38 provinces covered by the survey.

2. The national average costs and returns of production represent the consolidated data
for 11 provinces of Luzon during the January to June 2013 period and 27 provinces of
Visayas and Mindanao in the January to September 2013 period. The regional average
refers to the average of the major producing provinces representing the region. In the
case of the following regions, the regional averages refer only to one (1) province:

CAR Ifugao
Ilocos Region Pangasinan
Central Luzon Tarlac
CALABARZON Quezon
MIMAROPA Palawan
Eastern Visayas Leyte
Caraga Agusan del Sur

3. Blank cells in the statistical tables indicate that there was no report for a particular data
item.

4. Data may not add up to respective totals due to rounding off of figures.

5. Percentage is used for multiple responses and may not equal to 100 percent while
percentage distribution is used for single response and should equal to 100 percent.

6. Concepts and definitions used in the report:

Cash Costs – refer to direct cash outlays or cash payments for the use of different
factors of production such as hired labor, fertilizers, chemicals, etc.

Non-Cash Costs – expenditures which are paid in kind. The prevailing prices in the
community are used in the valuation. Generally, these non-cash costs represent the
portions of the farmer’s production that serve as payments for the use of particular
factor of production.

Imputed Costs – expenditures that do not involve actual outlays in cash or in kind.
They represent the costs using owned resources in a particular activity. Valuation is
attributed through the value of the best alternative use given up for the purpose.

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The cost items are as follows:

Seeds – all types of corn seeds used in the production.

Fertilizers – any substance, solid or liquid, inorganic or organic, natural or


synthetic, single or combination of materials applied to the soil or on the plant to
provide one or more of the essential elements to improve plant nutrition, growth,
yield or quality, or for promoting a chemical change that enhances plant nutrition
and growth.

Soil ameliorants – elements placed or mixed into the soil to replenish depleted soil
nutrients for better plant growth.

Pesticides – all types of yield-protecting form of chemicals.

Hired labor – labor rendered by a person who is paid by the farm operator on the
agreed basis of payment. Hired labor includes man or animal or machine or any
combination with man-labor.

Mandays – conceptually, one manday is equivalent to eight (8) hours of work. To


compute for mandays, the number of days multiplied by number of hours worked
per day and the result is divided by eight (8).

Land tax – amount of tax paid by the owner-operator for the farm land.

Rentals – payments for the use of land, machine, animal, tools and farm
machineries.

Fuel and Oil – the costs incurred for the use of gasoline, oil, and other related
inputs.

Transport costs of inputs – expenditures incurred in transporting farm inputs to


the production sites.

Irrigation fee – payment for irrigation services utilized.

Interest payment on crop loan – payment for the interest on borrowed capital used
in the farm production.

Landowner’s share – portion of farmer’s production that goes to the owner of farm
land based on the agreed sharing system.

Repairs – costs incurred for all minor repairs and improvements made on the farm
investments.

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Food expenses – cash expenditures incurred in providing food to farm laborers.

Harvester’s/ Sheller’s share – portion of farmer’s production that serves as


payment to farm laborers who performed the harvesting and/or shelling activities.

Operator labor – imputed wages as payment to labor contributed by the operator.


Mandays of labor are valued at prevailing wage rate in the locality.

Family labor – labor rendered by the farmer’s family members who take part in any
production activities. Mandays of labor are valued at prevailing wage rate in the
locality.

Exchange labor – work done by farm laborers in exchange (or as payment) to the
work done by the farm operator/household members outside his/her own farm.

Depreciation – cost of wear and tear of farm tools and equipment, machinery and
other farm facilities and structures. The straight-line method is used in computing
for depreciation where the cost of acquisition is divided by the estimated life span of
above cited items.

Interest on operating capital – cost of capital foregone for the purchase of seeds,
fertilizers, chemicals and payment of wages for hired labor; this is derived by
multiplying the total cash outlays by the prevailing lending rates.

Rental value of owned land – imputed cost which is derived by asking the farmer
how much would be the annual value of the land if it will be rented.

Total Cost – refers to the sum of cash costs, non – cash costs and imputed costs.

Fixed Costs – are those costs which remain the same regardless of the volume of
production. Examples are land tax, lease rentals, interest payment on crop loan,
depreciation and rental value of owned land.

Variable Costs – are those costs that change with the level of output. Examples are
seed/seedlings, fertilizers, chemicals, labor, irrigation fee, etc.

Gross Returns – refers to the total value of production which is derived by multiplying
the total volume of produce by the price received by the farmer per kilogram.

Returns Above Cash Costs – returns after deducting the total cash outlays from the
total cost of production.

Returns Above Cash and Non-Cash Costs – returns after subtracting the cash and
non-cash costs from the total costs.

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Net Returns – refers to the net profit after subtracting all expenses incurred in corn
production (gross returns–total costs).

Net Profit-Cost Ratio – determines the rate of return to the farmers. This is the amount
earned by the farmer for every peso spent in the production.

Focus parcel – the particular farm parcel where the last harvest is completed within
the reference period. All information collected for this survey refers to the focus parcel.

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I. INTRODUCTION
A. Rationale

The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) recognizes the importance of generating


data on costs and returns of corn production. Thus, whenever there is opportunity, PSA
conducts Costs and Returns Survey (CRS). CRS data are among the highly requested
information from major users such as policy analysts, national accounts compilers,
farmers and other entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector. For corn farmers, CRS data
can serve as basis for the improvement of their efficiency and profitability. For both
government and non-government planners and policy makers, CRS data can be used in
designing appropriate programs and projects to boost the growth and development of
the corn industry.

Other important applications of CRS data are in the financial and insurance markets.
In particular, financial institutions require feasibility studies in every investment
portfolio. Doing a feasibility study needs CRS data. On the other hand, CRS data can
serve as solid basis in determining appropriate insurance premium rates.

The last Costs and Returns Survey of Corn Production was done in 2009. The
production costs and returns data generated by the 2009 survey were rather old and
may no longer be reflective of the current situation. While the regular updating of the
baseline data is being done, the impact of new technologies on the overall cost structure
of corn production may not be fully captured leading to possible unrealistic estimates.
Thus, with funding support from the National Rice Program of the Department of
Agriculture (DA), the PSA conducted the 2013 Survey of Costs and Returns of Corn
Production. The updated CRS data will serve as the primary basis for the annual
updating of costs and returns of corn production.

B. Objectives

The general objective of the survey is to generate data on costs and returns of corn
production. Likewise, the results will be used as basis in updating the database on costs
and returns.

Specifically, the survey aims to:

• establish an up-to-date production costs structure;


• come up with updated data sets on average use of material and labor inputs;
• determine indicators of profitability such as gross and net returns, returns above
cash cost, returns above cash and non-cash cost, profit-cost ratios and others;
and,
1
• generate other related socio-economic variables that can help characterize corn
farming households.

II. SURVEY METHODOLOGY


A. Coverage

The domain of the survey was the province. The survey was conducted in 38 corn
producing provinces in two (2) rounds to capture production seasonality and to obtain
better indicators of farm profitability. The first survey round was in July 2013 covering
321 corn farmers and the second survey round was conducted in September 2013
covering 1,035 corn farmers.

B. Reference Period

The reference period for the July 2013 survey round was the last completed harvest
within January to June 2013 which covered only Luzon provinces. For the September
2013 survey round, the reference period was the last completed harvest within January
to September 2013 and covered Visayas and Mindanao provinces.

C. Sampling Frame

The survey used the sub-samples of the Corn Production Survey (CPS)1. The 2013
CRS-Corn July Round used the CPS April 2013 Round raw data files in extracting
information on sample farmers/agricultural operators with corn harvest in January to
March 2013 and those with expected corn production (i.e. production forecasts) in
April to June 2013 based on standing crop.

On the other hand, the 2013 CRS-Corn September Round utilized two sets of raw
data files, those from the CPS April 2013 Round and those from July 2013 Round data
files, to come up with information on sample households with corn harvest in January
to March 2013 and April to June 2013 as well as those with expected corn production in
July to September 2013 based on standing crop. For both rounds, information on farm
type, seed type and month of harvest were obtained from the raw data files.

D. Sampling Design and Sample Selection Procedure

The resulting list of households with production/expected production during the


reference period was provided to concerned Operations Centers prior to each round’s
field operations. The list contained the names of farmers, type of farm, seed type and
month of harvest, and the geographic identification of the households. During data
1 The CPS is one of the two modules of the Palay and Corn Production Survey (PCPS). The PCPS is a quarterly survey of the Philippine

Statistics Authority (PSA). Its primary objective is to collect information on palay/corn area, production for the past quarter and
production forecasts for the next two quarters.
2
collection, further screening was done to confirm if those listed actually harvested corn
during the reference period. It was to be noted that one of the considerations used in
the initial screening of those to be covered in the CRS was information on expected
production (forecast) based on standing crop.

Data on costs and returns of corn production pertained to the focus parcel/s
operated or managed by the sample farmer/agricultural operator2. Focus parcel refers
to the area where the last completed corn production cycle during the reference period
took place. Its size may be equal to or less than the total agricultural area operated by
the sample farmer.

III. SURVEY OPERATIONS


A. Pre-survey Training

Three (3) levels of training were conducted. This activity aimed to have uniform
understanding of the survey concepts and procedures that were used during the survey
operations.

The first level was the training of selected Central Office (CO) staff who served as the
trainers in the next level of training. The second level training was for the Regional and
Provincial Agricultural Statistics Officers (RASOs and PASOs). They served as trainers
for the third level training which was intended for the Provincial Operations Centers
(POCs) staff and the Contractual Data Collectors (CDCs). Each level of training covered
the following activities:

• presentation of concepts and definitions, and procedures;

• conduct of dry run exercise in a non-sample barangay which provided the


training participants with hands-on experience of the things discussed
during the lectures;

• clearing of issues encountered during the dry run exercise; and,

• discussion of consistency checks and other editing guidelines.

2In the PCPS, the enumeration units are the farm households, represented by the listed farmers/agricultural operators. In the 2013 CRS-
Corn, the enumeration units are the farmers/agricultural operators of the PCPS sample households who harvested corn during the
reference period, thus the term “sample farmer/agricultural operator” in CRS documents.
3
B. Data Collection

The data collection was carried out by the CDCs in sample provinces with more than
20 samples using structured questionnaire. For provinces with samples of 20 and
below, the regular staff of the POCs conducted the data collection. The following
activities were undertaken during field data collection:

• The usual courtesy call to the Barangay Officials in getting clearance for the
conduct of the survey;

• Searching for the target respondent or the farmer whose name appears in the
list of samples3;

• Asking of screening questions: First, if the sample farmer harvested corn


during the reference period. Second, if the corn produce was intercropped
with other crops. If harvested corn was not intercropped, then the next
screening question was asked. Third, if they produced corn for seed
purposes. If the farmers harvested during the reference period and the
produce was not intended for seed purposes, then the last screening question
was asked. Lastly, if 20 percent or more of the area planted to corn were
damaged by flood, pests and diseases, etc. If the damage was less than 20
percent or none, interview proper followed; and,

• Making callbacks when necessary.

C. Supervision of Survey Operations

The POC and selected CO Staff conducted the field supervision. They ensured that
the field data collection ran smoothly and within the set schedule. These assigned
personnel were tasked to observe the data collectors, make follow-ups, spot-check the
CDCs, edit the completed questionnaires and back-check the work of the CDCs to ensure
the quality of data that were collected.

IV. DATA PROCESSING


Editing and coding of survey returns were done at the POCs upon submission of the
accomplished questionnaires by the CDCs. The POC staff served as editors.

3
Replacement of samples was not allowed, except in cases where the sample farmer gave up the operation and the person who took
over was a member of the same household.

4
Electronic data processing involved data encoding, data cleaning and correction of
errors. Initially, data were encoded at the POCs using CSPro-based data capture
program that the Information and Communication Technology Division (ICTD)
developed. Data cleaning and correction of errors were done in two levels. The first
level involved the Provincial Processing Officers (PPOs) using the CSPro-based error-
listing program. These data files were then submitted to ICTD and were exported to MS
Excel. The second level of data cleaning was done at the Agricultural Accounts and
Statistical Indicators Division (AASID) using MS Excel. The output of the second level of
data cleaning was the final set of raw data files which were used for the generation of
data tables.

Computation of Average Costs and Returns

The sum of all costs obtained from all sample farmers in the province comprised the
provincial total costs. Then, the total costs of producing corn obtained from sample
provinces were aggregated to come up with the regional total. Finally, the total costs of
producing corn in all regions were summed up to get the national total for January to
September 2013. Similar procedures were employed for area harvested and volume of
production.

Average costs and returns were computed on per hectare of production as follows:

Total value of input or output


Per hectare =
Total harvest area
The indicators of profitability were derived using the following computational procedures:

1. Gross Returns = Production x Farmgate Price


2. Returns Above Cash Costs = Gross Returns – Cash Costs
3. Returns Above Cash and Non-Cash Costs = Gross Returns – (Cash Costs + Non-Cash Costs)
4. Net Returns = Gross Returns – Total Costs
5. Net Profit-Cost Ratio = Net Returns ÷ Total Costs

V. DATA REVIEW AND ANALYSIS


The Socio-Economic Statistics Section (SESS) of AASID spearheaded the conduct of
seminars, training and technical meetings in preparation for the review and analysis of
all the output tables. The data generated through customized data processing system
were subjected to a series of review and validation using the following approaches:

5
• completeness, consistency and range checks of data within and across tables;
and,

• spatial and temporal analysis of results with the use available auxiliary
information.

The data review and analysis were done by AASID. Data review and validation of
the output data tables by region were conducted before these were finalized. The
results were presented by SESS to the steering committee and members of the
Technical Working Group on Agricultural Accounts and Indicators (TWG–AAI).

After the final data review and validation, the total number of samples accounted to
309 corn farmers in Luzon provinces and 951 corn farmers in Visayas and Mindanao
provinces.

VI. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE FINDINGS


A. Characteristics of Corn Farmers
(Tables 1-6)

Sex, Age, Educational Attainment and Farming Experience

• Of the total number of sample corn farmers interviewed nationwide, 92.78


percent were males and 7.22 percent were females. In Central Luzon (Tarlac)
and CALABARZON (Quezon), all the reporting corn farmers were males. CAR
(Ifugao) and Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) accounted for the biggest proportions of
female corn farmers at around 15 percent each.

• At the national level, the average age of corn farmers was 53 years old. This was
52 years for the males and 57 years for the females. The oldest groups of
farmers were noted in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and Central Visayas with an
average age of 58 years and 57 years, respectively. The youngest group of
farmers was noted in ARMM with an average age of 47 years.

• By age group, corn farmers belonging to 41 to 50 years and 51 to 60 years


comprised the biggest proportions at about 30 percent each. There were 9.37
percent who were more than 70 years old. Few farmers at 1.51 percent were
aged less than 31 years old. Among regions, Western Visayas posted the biggest
proportion of corn farmers at 50 percent belonging to age group 51 to 60 years.
SOCCSKSARGEN had 40.35 percent of the corn farmers aged 41 to 50 years old.
In CAR (Ifugao), Central Luzon (Tarlac), Central Visayas and Caraga (Agusan del
Sur), 16 to 19 percent were more than 70 years old.

6
• On the average, 42.38 percent of corn farmers in the country had elementary
education. Elementary graduates comprised 22.94 percent. This proportion was
higher among female corn farmers at 31.87 percent than male corn farmers at
22.24 percent. Meanwhile, some 10.71 percent and 3.33 percent of corn farmers
reached high school and college education, respectively. There were 13.17
percent who finished high school. Only 3.49 percent of the corn farmers
completed college education. The females had higher proportion of college
graduates at 6.59 percent while this was 3.25 percent among the male corn
farmers. Those who had no schooling accounted for 2.70 percent of corn
farmers. By region, MIMAROPA (Palawan) recorded the biggest proportions of
corn farmers who were graduates of high school at 40 percent and college
education at 20 percent. There were 10 percent who attained post-graduate
studies. About 18.52 percent in CAR (Ifugao) and 16.67 percent in Central Luzon
(Tarlac) were college degree holders.

• Nationwide, farming experience of corn farmers averaged 23 years. This was 23


years for the males and 22 years for the females. Across regions, average farming
experience of corn farmers ranged from 16 years in MIMAROPA (Palawan) to 30
years in CAR (Ifugao).

• There were 32.78 percent of corn farmers with 11 to 20 years of experience in


corn farming. About 27.14 percent reported farming experience of 21 to 30
years while 22.14 percent of corn farmers noted more than 30 years. Some 17.94
percent had been engaged in corn farming for less than 11 years. By region, the
biggest proportions of corn farmers with 11 to 20 years of experience in corn
farming were recorded in MIMAROPA (Palawan) and Central Luzon (Tarlac) at
60 percent and 50 percent, respectively. In Eastern Visayas (Leyte), more corn
farmers at 41.38 percent indicated 21 to 30 years while 44.44 percent of corn
farmers in CAR (Ifugao) noted more than 30 years of experience.

Main Occupation

• Crop farming was the main occupation of 80.79 percent of corn farmers
nationwide. Specifically, crop faming was cited by 81.52 percent of the male corn
farmers and 71.43 percent of the female corn farmers. Orchard farming as the
main occupation was noted by 9.29 percent of the corn farmers. Few farmers at
1.11 percent worked mainly as fishermen. Some 3.57 percent were laborers and
unskilled workers. Across regions, the percentage of corn farmers who reported
crop farming as their main occupation ranged from 40 percent in MIMAROPA
(Palawan) to 97.14 percent in Caraga (Agusan del Sur). Meanwhile, majority or
81.82 percent of corn farmers in CALABARZON (Quezon) and 51.72 percent in
Eastern Visayas (Leyte) cited orchard farming as their main occupation.
Laborers and unskilled workers comprised bigger proportions in CALABARZON
(Quezon) at 18.18 percent and Western Visayas at 14.81 percent.

7
Farm Investments Owned and Used in the Focus Parcel

• When asked on the use of owned farm investment in corn faming such as work
animals, 47.22 percent of corn farmers had carabao, 8.89 percent had cattle and
5.71 percent had horse. By region, ownership of carabao was cited by 22.22
percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac) to 83.56 percent in Bicol Region. Higher
proportions of corn farmers who owned and used cattle for corn farming were
noted in ARMM, Northern Mindanao and Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) at 30.61
percent, 24.24 percent and 19.57 percent, respectively.

• As to farm buildings and other structures, 23.57 percent of corn farmers across
the country owned farm houses. About 3.17 percent had warehouse/storage and
2.22 percent had farm shed. Caraga (Agusan del Sur) reported the biggest
percentage of corn farmers with farmhouse at 51.43 percent while Northern
Mindanao accounted for the biggest proportion of corn farmers with
warehouse/storage at 9.70 percent. Ownership and use of drying pavement was
reported only by 0.88 percent of the sample corn farmers in SOCCSKSARGEN.

• For farm machineries, irrigation pump was reported by 4.60 percent of corn
farmers in the country. Among regions, ownership of irrigation pump was cited
by 80.43 percent of corn farmers in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and 77.78
percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac). Meanwhile, farmers with two-wheel tractors
comprised 3.65 percent while those with four-wheel tractors were only 0.48
percent of corn farmers nationwide. Those who owned and used sheller, cart
and other transport facilities corresponded to 1.59 percent, 1.67 percent and
3.17 percent. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), about 55.56 percent reported having
two-wheel tractors.

• The common farm tools and implements owned and used in corn farming were
bolo as reported by 92.06 percent, plow and yoke as mentioned by 56.35 percent
and 36.43 percent, respectively. Some 28.33 percent had spade; 26.90 percent
had sprayer; 23.57 percent had scythe; 19.21 percent had sled; 17.70 percent
had harrow and 10.63 percent had hoe. Reports on ownership of jabber, weeder,
spading fork, post hole digger, rake, weighing scale, wooden sheller and trowel
ranged from 0.71 percent to 6.90 percent. In CALABARZON (Quezon) and
Eastern Visayas (Leyte), all corn farmers reported ownership and use of bolo in
their corn farms. Plow was commonly used by 88 to 90 percent in CAR (Ifugao),
MIMAROPA (Palawan) and Bicol Region. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), the usage of
spade was reported by 94.44 percent. There were 81.48 percent and 74.07
percent of the corn farmers in CAR (Ifugao) who used sprayer and yoke,
respectively.

8
B. Farm Characteristics
(Tables 7-10)

Farm Size and Area Devoted to Corn

• The average size of farms covering all crops was 2.14 hectares. The area
devoted to corn production averaged 1.14 hectares. MIMAROPA (Palawan) had
the biggest physical area of farms at 6.33 hectares with area devoted to corn at
2.28 hectares. CAR (Ifugao) posted the biggest area devoted to corn at 2.66
hectares.

Type of Corn Farm Parcels, Area Planted/Harvested to Corn

• At the national level, 72.54 percent of the focus farm parcels were planted to
white corn while 27.46 percent were cultivated with yellow corn. All the focus
farm parcels in CALABARZON (Quezon), Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas (Leyte)
and Davao Region were planted with white corn. In CAR (Ifugao), Ilocos Region
(Pangasinan) and Central Luzon (Tarlac), the focus farm parcels were planted
only to yellow corn. Bigger proportions of farm parcels in Bicol Region, Western
Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga
(Agusan del Sur) and ARMM ranging from 61.40 percent to 96.21 percent were
planted to white corn.

• The survey noted that the average area of the focus parcel planted to corn was
mostly the same as the area harvested. At the national level, the area planted
and harvested to white corn averaged 0.67 hectare. By region, ARMM posted the
biggest focus area planted to white corn at 1.12 hectares while area harvested
was only 1.10 hectares attributed to damaged produce. The smallest white corn
area planted was noted in Central Visayas at 0.34 hectare while area harvested
was 0.33 hectare. On the other hand, the area of the focus parcel planted and
harvested to yellow corn averaged 1.05 hectares. It ranged from 0.62 hectare in
Western Visayas to 2 hectares in Zamboanga Peninsula.

Tenurial Status

• About 36.11 percent of the focus corn farm parcels in the country were fully
owned, 25 percent were tenanted, 16.27 percent were owner-like possession
and 13.73 percent were rent-free. The remaining 8.88 percent comprised other
tenurial systems such as leased/rented, amortized, held under CLT/CLOA,
stewardship, mortgaged and those under voluntary offer to sell (VOS).

• The proportions of fully owned parcel were biggest in MIMAROPA (Palawan)


and ARMM at about 70 percent each. The biggest tenanted corn farm parcels
were found in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at 65.52 percent and CALABARZON
9
(Quezon) at 54.55 percent. The corn farm parcels in CAR (Ifugao) were
dominated by those held under owner-like possession at 62.96 percent. More
rent-free corn farm parcels were noted in Western Visayas and Davao Region at
33.33 percent and 30.46 percent, respectively.

C. Farm Practices
(Tables 11-24.4)

Number of Croppings per Year

• Nationwide, 81.43 percent of corn farmers practiced two (2) croppings per year.
Some 12.70 percent adopted three (3) croppings while the rest at 5.87 percent
had one (1) cropping a year. Two (2) croppings per year were observed by all
the sample corn farmers in CAR (Ifugao), Ilocos Region (Pangasinan), Central
Luzon (Tarlac) and CALABARZON (Quezon). The practice of three croppings a
year was common among 41.06 percent in Davao Region. There were 41.84
percent of the corn farmers in ARMM who reported one cropping in a year.

Month Planting

• Planting of corn was noted mostly in months of March, April, May and November
with 11.19 percent, 18.25 percent, 25.16 percent and 14.29 percent of corn
farmers reporting, respectively. Across regions, those who planted in May was
observed highest among corn farmers in Western Visayas at 66.67 percent and
Central Visayas at 58.38 percent. Planting of corn during November was noted in
CAR (Ifugao), Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and Central Luzon (Tarlac) as cited by
55.56 percent to 83.33 percent of corn farmers. April was the usual month of
planting in Zamboanga Peninsula as mentioned by 49.24 percent of the corn
farmers.

Month Harvesting

• Harvesting of corn in August was reported by 25.40 percent of the farmers in


the country. About 17.78 percent harvested corn in March; 15.40 percent in July
and 13.97 percent in September. By region, the proportions of corn farmers who
harvested in August were highest in Western Visayas and Northern Mindanao at
48.15 percent and 43.64 percent, respectively. On the other hand, harvesting in
March was noted among 80 to 83 percent in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan), Central
Luzon (Tarlac) and CALABARZON (Quezon). Zamboanga Peninsula had 40.91
percent of the corn farmers who harvested corn in July. September harvesting
was observed by 49.13 percent in Central Visayas.

10
Type of Seed Planted

• Of the total number of white corn farmers, 59.08 percent were users of native
OPV seeds; 40.37 percent used modern OPV seeds and 0.55 percent used hybrid
seeds. Among those who planted yellow corn, 74.86 percent used hybrid seeds;
21.97 percent, modern OPV seeds and 3.18 percent, native OPV seeds.

• At the regional level, all the white corn farmers in Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON
(Quezon) and Eastern Visayas (Leyte) planted the native OPV seeds. The usage of
modern OPV seeds was noted among 88.57 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN. Hybrid
seeds were used only by 2.70 percent and 3.45 percent of the white corn farmers
in Northern Mindanao and Caraga (Agusan del Sur), respectively. On the other
hand, the hybrid seeds of yellow corn were planted by all the sample farmers in
CAR (Ifugao), Ilocos Region (Pangasinan), Cagayan Valley and Caraga (Agusan
del Sur). The biggest proportions of the yellow corn farmers at 87.50 percent in
MIMAROPA (Palawan) and 82.61 percent in the Bicol Region used the modern
OPV seeds. There were 40 percent in ARMM who were users of native OPV of
yellow corn.

Source of Seeds

• About 93.94 percent of hybrid seed users in the country sourced their seeds
from traders. There were 2.65 percent who got their hybrid seeds from
cooperatives and only 1.89 percent obtained from co-farmers. Only few at 0.76
percent of the corn farmer-respondents acquired hybrid seeds from the
Department of Agriculture/Regional Field Office (DA/RFO), the Local
Government Units (LGUs) and seed growers. All corn farmers in Central Luzon
(Tarlac), Western Visayas and Caraga (Agusan del Sur) sourced this seed type
from traders.

• Of the total number of corn farmers who planted modern OPV seeds, 55.73
percent reported that their seeds came from their own produce while 28.76
percent noted that their seeds were sourced from co-farmers. About 12.36
percent obtained their modern OPV seeds from traders. About 0.67 percent to
2.47 percent got their seeds from seed growers, DA/RFO and LGUs. The modern
OPV seed type planted in Central Visayas and Zamboanga Peninsula was mostly
own produced as reported by 78.05 percent and 79.25 percent of corn farmers,
respectively. In Bicol Region, 54.17 percent cited traders as their source of seeds.

• Similarly, native OPV seeds were mostly out of the produce of the 66.24 percent
of corn farmers in the country. About 26.86 percent sourced their seeds from co-
farmers and 5.81 percent got their seeds from traders. The proportion of corn
farmers who acquired seeds from DA/RFO, LGUs and cooperatives ranged from
0.18 percent to 0.73 percent. In Cagayan Valley and MIMAROPA (Palawan), all
11
corn farmers produced their own native OPV seeds. Co-farmers were the sources
of native type of seeds used by 58.62 percent in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and
69.23 percent in Davao Region.

Method of Land Preparation

• Nationwide, about 58.25 percent of corn farmers used man-animal labor in


plowing while 15.48 percent utilized man-machine labor. In rotavating, about
3.18 percent employed 2-wheel and 4-wheel tractors. In the case of harrowing,
40.32 percent of corn farmers utilized man-animal labor while 5.79 percent used
man-machine labor. The usage of man-animal labor in furrowing was reported
by 63.73 percent while a few or 2.94 percent utilized man-machine labor.

• Man-animal labor in plowing was employed by all corn farmers in Eastern


Visayas (Leyte). Rotavating using the service of man and machine such as 4-
wheel tractor was reported by 13.04 percent in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and
14.52 percent in Cagayan Valley. For harrowing, man-animal labor was mostly
employed by 80 to 88.89 percent of corn farmers in MIMAROPA (Palawan), Bicol
Region and CAR (Ifugao). On the other hand, 88.89 percent of corn farmers in
Central Luzon (Tarlac) used 2-wheel tractors in harrowing. Furrowing by man-
animal was practiced by all corn farmers in MIMAROPA (Palawan). There were
66.67 percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac) who utilized machine in furrowing.

Method of Fertilizer Application

• Across the country, fertilizer application through side dressing method was
reported by 53.41 percent of the sample corn farmers. Basal application was
practiced by 30.79 percent and top dressing by 27.14 percent.

• In Central Luzon (Tarlac), all the sample corn farmers adopted side dressing
while there were 94.44 percent who applied fertilizer by top dressing. Similarly,
these two methods of fertilizer application were common among 91.30 percent
of corn farmers in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan). Basal application was the
dominant practice among 87.10 percent of corn farmers in Cagayan Valley and
67.88 percent in Northern Mindanao.

Method of Weeding

• Nationwide, 59.13 percent of corn farmers removed weeds manually. Chemical


spraying was employed by 30 percent. By region, all corn farmers in
CALABARZON (Quezon) practiced manual weeding while chemical spraying was
highly practiced by 96.77 percent of farmers in Cagayan Valley. Manual weeding
was not practiced by the sample corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac). There

12
was no reported chemical spraying done by the sample corn farmers in
CALABARZON (Quezon) and Eastern Visayas (Leyte).

Method of Shelling

• Shelling of corn was done manually by 58.73 percent of corn farmers in the
country. There were 33.57 percent who shelled corn mechanically. About 0.56
percent employed both methods. In CALABARZON (Quezon) and Eastern Visayas
(Leyte), all corn farmers did manual shelling of corn and there was no reported
usage of machine in shelling. All corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac)
performed only mechanical shelling.

Method of Drying

• At the national level, about 84.52 percent of corn farmers did solar drying while
0.08 percent employed mechanical drying. All corn farmers in Eastern Visayas
(Leyte) dried corn under the sun. Mechanical drying of corn was reported only in
Caraga (Agusan del Sur) by 2.86 percent of corn farmers.

Use of Yield Enhancing Inputs

• The solid type of organic fertilizer was used by only few corn farmers. Across the
country, about 1.59 percent of corn farmers applied animal manure and 0.71
percent used other solid organic fertilizers like compost, vermicast, Guano,
Green Friend, Wellgrow Bio-Organic and Durabloom. The usage of animal
manure was observed only in Central Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern
Mindanao and Davao Region by 0.66 to 4.24 percent of the corn farmers.

• For the solid type of inorganic fertilizers, the more popular grades were urea
(46-0-0) and complete (14-14-14) as reported by 43.02 percent and 33.17
percent of the corn farmers, respectively. The application of ammonium sulfate
(21-0-0) and ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) was also cited by 18.65 to 20.71
percent. Less than one percent of the corn farmers used liquid inorganic
fertilizers like Humus and Green Bee. Likewise, few corn farmers at less than one
percent reported the use of solid and liquid inorganic foliar fertilizers.

• Except for Eastern Visayas (Leyte), the proportion of farmers who used urea
(46-0-0) ranged from 9.09 percent in CALABARZON (Quezon) to 94.35 percent
in Cagayan Valley. Majority of the corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac) at
83.33 percent were users of complete fertilizer (14-14-14). It was least applied
in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) with only 3.45 percent reporting. There was no
reported user of this fertilizer grade in CALABARZON (Quezon). About half of the
sample corn farmers in Zamboanga Peninsula applied ammonium phosphate

13
(16-20-0) in their corn farms. Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) was also commonly
used by 44.44 percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac).

Use of Yield Protecting Inputs

• At the national level, the liquid type of herbicides/weedicides was used by 31.35
percent of corn farmers. The usage of liquid form of insecticides and fungicides
was cited by 3.25 percent and 0.08 percent, respectively. Only 3.49 percent of
corn farmers applied the solid form of herbicides/weedicides, insecticides,
fungicides and rodenticides. Among regions, the biggest proportion of corn
farmers who used liquid herbicides/weedicides was noted in Cagayan Valley at
96.77 percent. This was followed by those in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) at 56.52
percent, SOCCSKSARGEN at 48.25 percent and Davao Region at 46.36 percent.

Mode of Acquisition of Material Inputs

• Nationwide, 50.79 percent of corn farmers used the seeds from their own
produce. There were 39.12 percent who purchased seeds and 8.65 percent
received seeds from private individuals/organizations and 1.51 percent received
seeds from the government (LGU-DA/RFO). Of the total number of corn farmers
who purchased seeds, 36.98 percent resorted to cash payment while 2.14
percent paid in kind. By region, majority at 87.28 percent of corn farmers in
Central Visayas and 81.82 percent in CALABARZON (Quezon) used seeds from
their own production. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), CAR (Ifugao), Ilocos Region
(Pangasinan) and Cagayan Valley, 77.78 percent to 96.77 percent of farmers
purchased seeds on cash basis. There were 29.80 percent in Davao Region who
received seeds from private individuals/organizations.

• Organic fertilizers were purchased in cash as reported by 1.67 percent of corn


farmers across the country. Only less than 1 percent cited producing their own
organic fertilizers or received from DA/RFO and LGUs.

• Among the corn farmers who purchased their inorganic fertilizers, 71.27 percent
paid these inputs in cash while 0.48 percent paid in kind. In Cagayan Valley, all
farmers acquired inorganic fertilizers through cash payment.

• There were 33.57 percent of corn farmers nationwide who paid pesticides in
cash. In kind payment was noted by 0.48 percent. By region, 96.77 percent of
farmers in Cagayan Valley purchased pesticides on cash basis.

14
D. Input Usage
(Tables 25.01-33.02)

Seeds

• At the national level, the quantity of seeds used per hectare averaged 16.61
kilograms. By farm type, seeding rate in yellow corn farms was higher at 18.11
kilograms per hectare while in white corn farms, it was 15.73 kilograms per
hectare. By seed type, usage of hybrid seeds per hectare was the highest at 17.88
kilograms. This was 17.04 kilograms per hectare for modern OPV seeds and
15.17 kilograms per hectare for the native OPV seeds.

• Across regions, seeding rates of white corn ranged 9.63 kilograms per hectare in
CALABARZON (Quezon) to 20 kilograms per hectare in MIMAROPA (Palawan).
For yellow corn, the seed usage was highest in Central Luzon (Tarlac) at 20.87
kilograms per hectare and lowest in Zamboanga Peninsula at 9.60 kilograms per
hectare. By seed type, Central Luzon (Tarlac) posted the highest seeding rates of
hybrid corn at 20.45 kilograms per hectare and modern OPV at 23.57 kilograms
per hectare. Native OPV had higher seed usage in MIMAROPA (Palawan) at 20
kilograms per hectare.

Fertilizers

• Nationwide, application of organic fertilizer averaged 8.15 kilograms per


hectare. By farm type, application of organic fertilizer ranged 8.14 kilograms in
yellow corn farm to 8.16 kilograms in white corn farm. By seed type, hybrid corn
farmers used an average of 9.65 kilograms per hectare of organic fertilizers. The
usage of corn farmers who planted modern OPV and native OPV corresponded to
7.21 kilograms and 7.80 kilograms per hectare.

• At the regional level, corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac) were the heaviest
users of organic fertilizers averaging 55.48 kilograms per hectare followed by
farmers in Central Visayas at 46.39 kilograms per hectare. Specifically, the usage
of organic fertilizer in hybrid corn farm was biggest in Northern Mindanao at
107.53 kilograms per hectare. In Central Visayas, the application rates of organic
fertilizers per hectare were 82.65 kilograms for the modern OPV and 29.78
kilograms for the native OPV.

• Application of solid inorganic fertilizer in corn farms averaged 173.45 kilograms


per hectare across the country. The usage of liquid inorganic fertilizer was
minimal at 0.01 liter per hectare. By farm type, white corn farms used an average
of 93.31 kilograms of solid inorganic fertilizer per hectare. In yellow corn farms,
application rates of inorganic fertilizer were 308.35 kilograms for the solid type
and 0.02 liter for the liquid type. By seed type, hybrid seed users posted the
15
biggest application rate of solid inorganic fertilizers at 348 kilograms per
hectare. Additionally, hybrid seed users applied 0.02 liter per hectare of the said
inputs. For those who planted modern OPV, the usage of solid inorganic
fertilizers averaged 112.46 kilograms per hectare. About 86.57 kilograms per
hectare was applied by native OPV seed users.

• By region, higher application rates of solid inorganic fertilizer in all types of corn
farms were noted in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and Central Luzon (Tarlac) at
414.51 kilograms and 424.19 kilograms per hectare, respectively. In CAR
(Ifugao) and Cagayan Valley, fertilizer application rates corresponded to 359.86
kilograms per hectare and 348.30 kilograms per hectare.

• Among the various types of solid inorganic fertilizers, higher application rates
per hectare of corn farms were noted for urea (46-0-0) at 73.52 kilograms and
complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at 44.11 kilograms. Likewise, these types of
fertilizers were used in bigger amounts across corn farm type and seed type.

• White corn farms in Caraga (Agusan del Sur) recorded the biggest usage of urea
(46-0-0) at 66.34 kilograms. Complete fertilizer (14-14-14) was widely used by
the white corn farmers in SOCCSKSARGEN at 45.03 kilograms per hectare.
Yellow corn farmers in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) applied more quantities of
urea (46-0-0) at 206.64 kilograms and complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at 145.57
kilograms per hectare.

• As to the nutrient content, the solid form of fertilizers applied in a one hectare of
corn farm comprised of 52.80 kilograms of nitrogen, 12.26 kilograms of
phosphorous and 6.70 kilograms of potassium. The liquid form of fertilizers
contained less than 0.01 liter per hectare each of nitrogen, phosphorous and
potassium.

• In white corn farms, N-P-K contents of solid fertilizers corresponded to 26.28


kilograms, 6.59 kilograms and 3.44 kilograms per hectare. On the other hand, N-
P-K contents applied in yellow corn farms averaged 97.47 kilograms, 21.81
kilograms and 12.19 kilograms per hectare, respectively. Among hybrid seed
users, the quantity of solid fertilizers contained 110.82 kilograms of nitrogen,
24.51 kilograms of phosphorous and 13.49 kilograms of potassium per hectare.
For modern OPV seeds users, N-P-K contents corresponded to 32.78 kilograms,
7.68 kilograms and 4.78 kilograms per hectare. Among corn farmers who used
native OPV seeds, fertilizer applied contained the least amount of nutrients at
23.70 kilograms of nitrogen, 6.44 kilograms of phosphorous and 2.90 kilograms
of potassium.

• At the regional level, Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) posted the biggest quantity of
nitrogen content of solid fertilizer at 138.04 kilograms per hectare. Phosphorous
16
content of solid fertilizer was highest in CAR (Ifugao) at 29.57 kilograms per
hectare. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), potassium content of solid fertilizers was
biggest at 25.69 kilograms per hectare.

Pesticides

• On the average, 0.03 kilogram of solid pesticides and 1.56 liters of liquid
pesticides per hectare were used by corn farmers nationwide. By farm type,
usage of liquid pesticides was higher in yellow corn farms at 3.10 liters per
hectare than in white corn farms at 0.65 liter per hectare. By seed type, 3.58
liters of liquid pesticides were applied in a one hectare of hybrid corn farm.
About 1.03 liters and 0.39 liter per hectare of the said inputs were applied in
modern OPV and native OPV corn farms, respectively. Except for CALABARZON
(Quezon) and Eastern Visayas (Leyte), liquid pesticide usage ranged from 0.07
liter per hectare in Central Visayas to 5.02 liters per hectare in Cagayan Valley.

• Across all farm types of corn, average usage of liquid herbicides/weedicides was
1.53 liters per hectare nationwide. This ranged from 0.62 liter in white corn
farms to 3.06 liters in yellow corn farms. For insecticides, application rate
averaged 0.03 liter per hectare and less than 0.01 liter for fungicides. Solid
pesticides were used in minimal amount at less than 0.01 kilogram to 0.02
kilogram per hectare. Among regions, the average application rate of liquid
herbicides/weedicides in all corn farms was biggest in Cagayan Valley at 5.02
liters per hectare. This was followed by Western Visayas at 3.01 liters per
hectare. The quantity of liquid insecticides was biggest in Caraga (Agusan del
Sur) at 0.20 liter per hectare.

Labor Utilization

• At the national level, the average labor utilization in corn farming was 45.70
mandays per hectare. It was biggest in Central Luzon (Tarlac) at 56.40 mandays
per hectare. Western Visayas and Central Visayas had high labor utilization at
55.05 mandays and 54.95 mandays per hectare, respectively. The least labor
requirement was noted in CALABARZON (Quezon) at 26.95 mandays per
hectare.

• By farm type, white corn farms utilized an average of 45.11 mandays per
hectare. Labor usage was highest in Cagayan Valley at 62.61 mandays per
hectare and lowest in MIMAROPA (Palawan) at 23.70 mandays per hectare.
Yellow corn farms required an average of 46.69 mandays per hectare. ARMM
posted the highest labor utilization at 64.50 mandays per hectare followed by
Northern Mindanao at 62.53 mandays per hectare. The least was reported in
MIMAROPA (Palawan) at 32.32 mandays per hectare.

17
• By seed type, labor requirement per hectare averaged 46.60 mandays in hybrid
corn farms, 45.45 mandays in modern OPV corn farms and 45.19 mandays in
native OPV corn farms. Among regions, Northern Mindanao posted the highest
labor utilization in hybrid corn farms at 63.82 mandays per hectare. Labor
requirement in the modern OPV corn farms was biggest in Zamboanga Peninsula
at 58.38 mandays per hectare. The native OPV corn farms in Cagayan Valley
utilized higher labor at 62.61 mandays per hectare.

• In terms of the source of labor, hired labor contributed the highest in corn
farming at an average of 22.87 mandays per hectare. By farm type, white corn
farms required 16.29 mandays of hired labor while yellow corn farms utilized
33.95 mandays. Specifically, the usage of hired labor was higher in hybrid corn
farms at 36.15 mandays and lower in native OPV corn farms at 13.81 mandays.
For other sources of labor, operator and family labor averaged 9.39 mandays
and 12.02 mandays per hectare, respectively. Exchange labor provided 1.42
mandays per hectare. Across regions, Central Visayas had the biggest operator
labor at 17.85 mandays per hectare and family labor at 18.74 mandays per
hectare. Meanwhile, exchange labor was high in CAR (Ifugao) at 8.71 mandays
per hectare. This was followed by ARMM at 7.09 mandays. Hired labor ranged
from 6.41 mandays per hectare in CALABARZON (Quezon) to 38.66 mandays per
hectare in Cagayan Valley.

• The most labor intensive activity in corn farming was manual harvesting which
required an average of 9.76 mandays per hectare. Harvesting used up more
labor in yellow corn farms at 12.30 mandays than in white corn farms at 8.25
mandays. In hybrid corn farms, harvesting had higher labor utilization at 12.80
mandays per hectare. For other activities in corn farming, plowing using man
and animal labor utilized 3.19 mandays. About 6.16 mandays per hectare were
used in planting by man alone. Manual shelling required 3.83 mandays per
hectare while mechanical shelling averaged 1.33 mandays per hectare. Solar
drying required 4.65 mandays per hectare.

E. Average Production Costs and Returns of Corn


(Tables 34.01-50.06)

Philippines

All Corn

• In 2013, the average cost of producing corn in the country was P29,087 per
hectare. Of this amount, cash costs shared 61 percent. The biggest cash
expenditures were seeds at P2,161 per hectare, inorganic fertilizers at P3,828
per hectare and hired labor at P4,214 per hectare. Non-cash costs amounted to

18
P2,006 per hectare and contributed 9 percent to the total costs. Harvesters’
share was the leading non-cash item at P919 per hectare. About 29 percent of
the total costs were imputed costs of which unpaid labor such as operator,
family and exchange labor accounted for the biggest cost at P3,656. On a per
kilogram basis, the average cost of corn production was estimated at P9.31.

• Corn harvests during the reference period at 2,373 kilograms per hectare were
worth P29,087. Average price received by farmers was P12.26 per kilogram.
Per hectare, returns above cash costs were at P15,508. Deducting cash and non-
cash costs, returns amounted to P13,502. After subtracting all costs, corn
farmers netted P7,004 and gained P0.32 for every peso of investment in corn
production.

By Farm Type

• The cost of producing white corn averaged P13,614 per hectare while that of
yellow corn amounted to P36,340. Costs per kilogram were higher in white corn
farms at P10.73 than in yellow corn farms at P8.59.

• On the average, the volume of produce in yellow corn farms was 4,231
kilograms per hectare while this was 1,269 kilograms in white corn farms.
Farmers planting white corn received higher price at P13.14 per kilogram while
those planting yellow corn got P11.82 per kilogram.

• Gross returns were P16,669 in white corn farms and P49,992 in yellow corn
farms. Returns above cash costs were P10,551 in white corn farms and P23,852
in yellow corn farms. After subtracting non-cash costs, returns settled at P8,913
and P21,227 per hectare, respectively. Accounting for all costs, net returns per
hectare were higher in producing yellow corn at P13,652 than in producing
white corn at P3,055. For every peso of investment, yellow corn farms recorded
a net profit of P0.38 while it was P0.22 in white corn farms.

By Seed Type

• The average cost of producing hybrid corn was P39,979 per hectare. For modern
OPV and native OPV corn, costs were P15,518 and P14,208 per hectare,
respectively. Per kilogram, costs ranged from P8.41 for hybrid corn, P10.25 for
modern OPV and P11.12 for native OPV corn.

• The volume of corn production using hybrid seeds averaged 4,754 kilograms per
hectare. Corn farms planted to modern OPV seeds produced 1,514 kilograms
while those that used native OPV produced 1,278 kilograms.

19
• Farmers who planted modern OPV received the highest price at P12.64. Corn
farmers who planted hybrid seeds and native OPV seeds received P11.80 per
kilogram and P11.12 per kilogram, respectively.

• Gross earnings per hectare were P56,118 for hybrid corn, P19,142 for modern
OPV corn and P16,988 for native OPV corn. Deducting the cash expenses, returns
averaged P26,687 per hectare in hybrid corn farms, P10,810 in modern OPV corn
farms and P11,278 in native OPV corn farms. Net returns of farmers producing
hybrid corn amounted to P16,139 per hectare or a net profit-cost ratio of 0.40.
Farmers engaged in the production of modern OPV corn netted P3,624 or a net
gain of P0.23 for every peso of investment. Net returns from native corn farms
figured P2,780 equivalent to net profit-cost ratio at 0.20.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs of corn production across farm types averaged P18,680 per
hectare or 85 percent of all costs. The costs of labor at P7,961, inorganic
fertilizers at P3,983 and seeds at P2,395 were the major contributors to the
variable costs. Fixed costs averaged P3,403 per hectare and shared 15 percent
in the production cost. Rental value of owned land per hectare at P1,730 was
the biggest fixed cost item.

• In white corn farms, variable costs averaged P11,902 per hectare which was 87
percent of the total costs. Hired labor was the leading variable cost item at
P2,264 per hectare. This was followed by family labor at P2,134 and inorganic
fertilizers at P2,151 per hectare. Fixed costs amounted to P1,713 of which
P1,018 were rental value of owned land.

• For yellow corn farms, average variable costs were P30,092 per hectare or 83
percent of the total costs. The biggest variable cost item was hired labor at
P7,742 per hectare. Fixed costs at P6,248 per hectare were 17 percent of total
costs. Rental value of owned land accounted for the biggest fixed costs at P2,930
per hectare.

• Variable costs incurred in hybrid corn farms at P33,079 per hectare comprised
83 percent of the total costs. A big portion of the variable costs was attributed
to hired labor amounting to P8,469. In addition, inorganic fertilizers at P7,992
and seeds at P6,946 largely contributed to the total variable costs. Meanwhile,
fixed costs averaged P6,900 per hectare. The biggest fixed cost items were
rental value of owned land at P3,239, interest on operating capital at P1,358
and interest payment on crop loan at P1,334 per hectare.

• Corn farms planted to modern OPV seeds entailed an average variable cost at
P13,070 per hectare. This accounted for 84 percent of production costs. Hired
20
labor posted the biggest amount at P3,063. On the other hand, the remaining 16
percent of the total cost were fixed costs at P2,447 per hectare. The rental value
of owned land was the biggest item at P1,415 per hectare.

• In native OPV corn farms, variable costs amounted to P12,721 per hectare or 90
percent of the total costs. The leading variable costs items included family labor
at P2,484, operator labor at P2,193, hired labor at P2,143 and inorganic
fertilizers at P2,115. Fixed costs amounted to P1,487. Rental value of owned
land at P822 was the major contributor.

Inter-regional Comparisons

• During the reference period, corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac) had the
highest volume of produce averaged at 5,682 kilograms per hectare. This was
followed by Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) with average yield at 5,599 kilograms.
On the other hand, low production levels were noted in Central Visayas at 897
kilograms, Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at 634 kilograms and CALABARZON
(Quezon) at 339 kilograms per hectare.

• In terms of area harvested to corn, CAR (Ifugao) posted the biggest at 1.56
hectares. Area harvested in Cagayan Valley, Caraga (Agusan del Sur) and ARMM
ranged from 1.02 to 1.11 hectares. Smallest corn area was recorded in Central
Visayas at 0.33 hectare.

• The biggest usage of seeds in corn production was noted in Central Luzon
(Tarlac) at 20.87 kilograms per hectare. Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and ARMM
also reported big quantities of corn seeds averaged at 19.38 kilograms and 19.37
kilograms, respectively. The least seed usage was recorded in CALABARZON
(Quezon) at 9.63 kilograms per hectare.

• Application rates of solid fertilizers (all types) in corn farming were highest in
Central Luzon (Tarlac) at 479.68 kilograms per hectare and in Ilocos Region
(Pangasinan) at 414.51 kilograms per hectare. The lowest fertilizer usage was
reported in CALABARZON (Quezon) at 0.31 kilogram per hectare. It was also low
in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at 3.76 kilograms.

• Labor utilization in corn farming was biggest in Central Luzon (Tarlac) at 56.40
mandays per hectare. It was also high in Western Visayas and Central Visayas
with about 55 mandays per hectare each. The lowest was in CALABARZON
(Quezon) at 26.95 mandays per hectare.

• Corn production in Central Luzon (Tarlac) incurred the highest cost at P49,248
per hectare. High production costs were also reported in Ilocos Region
(Pangasinan) and Cagayan Valley at P47,116 and P43,183 per hectare,

21
respectively. The least production costs were observed in Eastern Visayas
(Leyte) at P8,144 per hectare and in CALABARZON (Quezon) at P6,228 per
hectare.

• Gross earnings of corn farmers were highest in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) and
Central Luzon (Tarlac) at P69,136 and P69,996 per hectare, respectively. Those
in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and CALABARZON (Quezon) recorded low gross
returns corresponding to P8,925 and P3,524 per hectare.

• Net earnings per hectare were highest in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) at P22,020
and in Central Luzon (Tarlac) at P20,749. On the other hand, MIMAROPA
(Palawan) and Eastern Visayas (Leyte) posted low net returns at P669 and
P781 per hectare, respectively. In CALABARZON (Quezon), the sample corn
farmers incurred losses worth P2,704 per hectare.

• In terms of net profit-cost ratio, Caraga (Agusan del Sur) registered the highest
at 0.55 and lowest in MIMAROPA (Palawan) at 0.04. Meanwhile, sample corn
farmers in CALABARZON (Quezon) had a loss of about P0.43 for every peso
invested in corn production.

• On a per kilogram basis, average production cost was highest in CALABARZON


(Quezon) at P18.36 and lowest in Caraga (Agusan del Sur) at P7.32. The prices
received by corn farmers for their produce were highest in Central Visayas at
P14.67 and Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at P14.08. These were lowest in
CALABARZON (Quezon) at P10.39 and MIMAROPA (Palawan) at P10.77.

CAR (Ifugao)

Yellow Corn

• In CAR, the survey covered only the province of Ifugao where the sample farms
were all planted to yellow corn during the reference period.

• Yellow corn production in Ifugao entailed an average cost of P32,034 per


hectare or P7.60 per kilogram. Of the total costs, about 65 percent were cash
costs; 8 percent were non-cash costs and 26 percent were imputed costs.
Inorganic fertilizer at P7,878 and hired labor at P4,489 per hectare were the
biggest cash expense items. Purchased seeds came next at P3,436 per hectare.
For the imputed costs, family labor was the leading expenditure item at P3,623
followed by exchange labor which amounted to P1,909 per hectare.

• During the reference period, yellow corn production averaged 4,217 kilograms
which amounted to P47,879 per hectare. Farmgate price was P11.35 per

22
kilogram. Returns above cash costs were computed at P26,942 per hectare.
Deducting non-cash outlays, returns to farmers were P24,283. Net of all costs,
corn farmers in Ifugao earned P15,846 per hectare and gained P0.49 for every
peso invested in yellow corn production.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• The variable costs incurred in producing yellow corn in Ifugao averaged


P30,182 per hectare. This comprised 94 percent of the total production costs.
Inorganic fertilizer at P8,916 and hired labor at P4,828 were the biggest
variable expense items. Likewise, seeds and family labor were also high at
P3,723 and P3,623, respectively. Fixed costs which amounted to P1,851 per
hectare were 6 percent of the total cost. Interest on operating capital valued at
P952 per hectare comprised more than half of the fixed costs.

Ilocos Region (Pangasinan)

Yellow Corn

• In Ilocos Region, the survey covered corn farmers in Pangasinan who were
planting yellow corn during the reference period.

• On the average, the cost of producing yellow corn in Pangasinan averaged


P47,116 per hectare. Of this amount, 84 percent were cash expenses, 15 percent
were imputed costs and only 1 percent comprised the non-cash expenses. Per
kilogram, the production cost of yellow corn was P8.42.

• Among cash expenses, hired labor accounted for the biggest cost at P12,348 per
hectare followed by inorganic fertilizers and seeds at P9,366 and P8,690 per
hectare, respectively. For imputed costs, the main expense items were interest
on operating capital at P1,773 and rental value of owned land at P1,749 per
hectare.

• Average production was 5,599 kilograms per hectare with a farmgate price of
P12.35 per kilogram during the reference period. The gross value of output was
estimated at P69,136 per hectare. Returns above cash costs averaged P29,347
per hectare. Net returns amounted to P22,020. The net profit-cost ratio was 0.47.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• About 87 percent of the total cost of production or P41,075 were variable costs.
Hired labor at P12,348 was the biggest variable cost item. Additionally, seeds
and inorganic fertilizers were major variable costs at P8,970 and P9,406,
respectively. Fixed costs at 13 percent of the production cost amounted to
23
P6,041 per hectare. Interest on operating capital and rental value of owned land
amounted to P3,522 and accounted for 58 percent of total fixed costs.

Cagayan Valley

All Corn

• During January to June cropping season, the average cost of producing corn in
Cagayan Valley was P43,183 per hectare or equivalent to P9.22 per kilogram. Of
the total costs, 74 percent were cash outlays, 19 percent comprised the imputed
costs and 7 percent were non-cash expenses.

• Seeds, inorganic fertilizers and hired labor were the biggest cash cost items
amounting to more than P8,000 per hectare each. For non-cash costs, harvesters’
share contributed the biggest at P1,705 per hectare. Rental value of owned land
at P5,397 accounted for the bulk of the imputed costs.

• The average volume of corn production in the region was 4,684 kilograms per
hectare. Gross value of corn production amounted to P53,964 per hectare. This
was equivalent to P11.52 per kilogram. Returns above cash costs were P22,096
per hectare while returns above cash and non-cash costs were P19,217 per
hectare. On the average, corn farmers in Cagayan Valley netted P10,781 per
hectare. For every peso of investment in corn production, these farmers gained
P0.25.

By Farm Type

• The average cost of producing white corn was P24,462 per hectare while for
yellow corn, it was P43,362 per hectare. Per kilogram, production costs were
P9.38 for white corn and P9.22 for yellow corn.

• Average production in white corn farms was lower at 2,608 kilograms per
hectare than in yellow corn farms at 4,704 kilograms. Per kilogram, farmgate
prices were P10.53 for white corn and P11.53 for yellow corn. Per hectare, white
corn farmers grossed P27,462. Those who planted yellow corn received P54,217
per hectare.

• Net returns of white corn farmers averaged P3,000 per hectare. This was P7,856
less than the net receipts of yellow corn farmers at P10,856 per hectare. Net
profit-cost ratios were 0.12 for white corn and 0.25 for yellow corn.

24
Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable production costs averaged P33,314 per hectare or 77 percent of all


costs. The remaining 23 percent were fixed costs at P9,869 per hectare. Of the
total variable expenses, seeds valued at P 8,654 accounted for the biggest share
at 26 percent. This was followed by hired labor at P8,301 and inorganic
fertilizers at P8,047 with shares of 25 percent and 24 percent, respectively.
Rental value of owned land comprised 55 percent of the total fixed costs.

• In white corn farms, variable costs of corn production averaged P17,836 while
fixed costs amounted to P6,626 per hectare. The combined cost of hired labor
and operator labor at P9,640 accounted for 54 percent of the total variable
expenses. Rental value of owned land at P6,000 shared 91 percent of the total
fixed costs.

• Variable expenses in yellow corn farms averaged P33,462. Seeds, inorganic


fertilizers and hired labor valued at more than P8,000 each comprised 24 to 26
percent of the total variable costs. Fixed costs figured to P9,900. Of this amount,
54 percent were rental value of owned land at P5,391 per hectare.

Central Luzon (Tarlac)

Yellow Corn

• The survey in Central Luzon covered corn farmers in Tarlac. These farmers
planted yellow corn during the January to June cropping cycle.

• The average cost of production in yellow corn farms was P49,248 per hectare. Of
this cost, cash expenses contributed 77 percent while imputed costs shared 22
percent. Only 1 percent was for non-cash expenditures. The biggest cash cost
item at P11,952 was hired labor. On the other hand, operator labor at P4,206 per
hectare was the leading imputed cost item. On a per kilogram basis, average cost
of production was computed at P8.67.

• The average volume of yellow corn produced in Central Luzon (Tarlac) was
5,682 kilograms per hectare worth P69,996. On the average, these farmers sold
their produce at P12.32 per kilogram. Returns above cash costs averaged
P32,143 per hectare. After subtracting the non-cash costs, returns averaged
P31,620 per hectare. Accounting for all costs, farmers netted P20,749 per
hectare or P0.42 for every peso of investment.

25
Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs of yellow corn production in Central Luzon (Tarlac) averaged


P43,189 per hectare. This was 88 percent of the total production cost. Fixed
costs at 12 percent amounted to P6,059. Hired labor was biggest variable cost
which shared 28 percent in the variable cost. Lease rental at P1,723 and interest
on operating capital at P1,532 were the major cost items with a combined share
of 54 percent in the total fixed cost.

CALABARZON (Quezon)

White Corn

• The survey in CALABARZON covered mostly the marginal corn farmers in


Quezon. During the reference period, these farmers planted white corn which
was intended for own consumption.

• In producing white corn, Quezon farmers incurred an average cost of P6,228 per
hectare. Imputed costs shared 52 percent in the total production cost. Cash and
non-cash expenses contributed 25 percent and 23 percent, respectively. The
leading imputed costs were operator labor at P1,511 and family labor at P1,424.
Hired labor valued at P979 was the primary contributor to the cash cost.
Meanwhile, per kilogram, the average cost of white corn production in Quezon
was P18.36.

• The average volume of white corn production was 339 kilograms per hectare
which amounted to P3,524. Farmgate price was P10.39 per kilogram. Returns
above cash costs averaged P1,968 per hectare. After deducting the non-cash
costs of production, returns settled at P529 per hectare only. Net of all costs,
farmers incurred losses at P2,704 per hectare. For every peso invested in corn
production, these farmers had a loss of P0.43.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs of white corn production in Quezon averaged P5,924 or 95


percent of the total production cost. Fixed costs averaged P304 per hectare.
Total labor cost at P3,914 contributed 66 percent to the total variable cost.
Among fixed cost items, rental value of owned land had the biggest cost at P123
per hectare.

26
MIMAROPA (Palawan)

All Corn

• The survey covered the corn farmers in Palawan. During the reference period,
two (2) sample farms were planted to white corn while eight (8) farms were
cultivated to yellow corn.

• The average cost of producing corn in Palawan was P15,883 per hectare. Of this
amount, cash expenses comprised 55 percent and non-cash costs shared 13
percent. About 33 percent were imputed costs. The major cash cost items were
hired labor at P3,608 and inorganic fertilizer at P2,136. Harvesters’ share was
the leading non-cash cost at P1,094. Of the total imputed costs, rental value of
owned land was biggest at P2,024. Per kilogram, average cost of production was
P10.34.

• Corn production per hectare averaged 1,536 kilograms per hectare with
corresponding gross earnings at P16,552. On the average, farmgate price was
P10.77 per kilogram. Returns above cash costs averaged P7,882 per hectare.
Deducting the non-cash costs of production, returns averaged P5,859 per
hectare. Net returns figured to P669 per hectare or equivalent to P0.04 for every
peso of investment in corn production.

By Farm Type

• Average cost of production in white corn farm was higher at P20,731 per hectare
than in yellow corn farms at P14,671 per hectare. On a per kilogram basis, the
average costs were P12.25 in white corn farms and P9.80 in yellow corn farms.

• White corn farms recorded higher production at 1,692 kilograms per hectare
compared to yellow corn farms at 1,498 kilograms per hectare. Price received
by farmers for white corn was higher at P12.77 per kilogram. Yellow corn was
priced at P10.21 per kilogram. Gross earnings were bigger in white corn farms
averaged at P21,600 per hectare than in yellow corn farms at P15,291 per
hectare.

• White corn farmers had net returns averaged at P869 per hectare while yellow
corn farmers netted P619. Net profit-cost ratios for both farm types settled at
0.04.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• The average variable costs of production in the MIMAROPA (Palawan) at


P12,694 per hectare shared 80 percent in the total production cost. Meanwhile,
27
fixed costs averaged P3,189 per hectare. About 43 percent of the total variable
costs were the cost of labor at P5,454. Inorganic fertilizer followed at P2,136 and
shared 17 percent. On the other hand, the rental value of owned land accounted
for the biggest fixed cost item at P2,024.

• During the reference period, variable costs of producing white corn averaged
P17,831 or 86 percent of the production cost . Fixed costs averaged P2,900 per
hectare. The cost of repairs was the biggest variable cost at P4,400 with 25
percent share. Other big variable cost items included hired labor at P2,640,
harvesters’ and sheller’s share at P2,000 each per hectare. Rental value of owned
land at P2,000 comprised the bulk of the fixed cost.

• Variable costs incurred in the production of yellow corn amounted to P11,410


corresponding to 78 percent of the total cost. Of this amount, labor cost was
P5,880. Fixed cost at P3,262 comprised mostly of rental value of owned land at
P2,030 per hectare.

Bicol Region

All Corn

• Corn production in the region incurred an average cost of P12,322 per hectare or
equivalent to P10.04 per kilogram. Of the total production cost, cash outlays
were 53 percent, non-cash cost shared 5 percent and imputed cost, 42 percent.
The biggest cost items were hired labor at P2,964 per hectare for cash cost,
landowner’s share at P389 for non-cash cost and family labor at P2,395 for
imputed cost.

• The volume of corn produced in Bicol Region averaged 1,227 kilograms per
hectare. Farmgate price of corn was P13.27 per kilogram. Correspondingly, the
estimated gross value of production was P16,290. Returns above cash expenses
averaged P9,727. After deducting cash and non-cash expenses, corn farmers had
net returns of P9,091 per hectare. Net earnings averaged P3,969 per hectare. For
every peso invested in corn production, farmers gained P0.32.

By Farm Type

• Cost of producing white corn in Bicol Region averaged P9,206 per hectare. In
yellow corn farms, average cost of production was P17,069 per hectare. On a per
kilogram basis, average costs were P10.98 for white corn and P9.38 for yellow
corn.

28
• White corn farms yielded an average production of 839 kilograms per hectare.
With farmgate price at P14.21 per kilogram, gross earnings amounted to
P11,918 per hectare. Production in yellow corn farms averaged 1,819 kilograms
per hectare worth P22,952. The price received by yellow corn farmers averaged
P12.61 per kilogram.

• Subtracting all costs, white corn farmers netted P2,712 per hectare. This was
lower than those received by yellow corn farmers at P5,884 per hectare. Net
profit-cost ratio in yellow corn farm was computed at 0.34 while that in white
corn farm was 0.29.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs of corn production averaged P11,213 per hectare. This was 91
percent of the total production cost. The costs of family labor at P2,395 and
hired labor at P2,964 made up 21 to 26 percent of the variable costs of
production. Fixed costs averaged P1,108 per hectare and rental value of owned
land accounted for more than half of this cost.

• Variable costs of producing white corn at P8,117 comprised 88 percent of the


production cost. The rest were fixed costs averaged P1,089 per hectare. Family
labor was the biggest variable cost at P2,174. For fixed costs, rental value of
owned land shared the biggest amount at P757.

• In yellow corn farms, variable outlays amounted to P15,930 and it contributed


93 percent in the production cost. Hired labor and inorganic fertilizers were the
leading variable expenses at P5,319 and P3,172, respectively. Fixed costs
averaged P1,139 of which 50 percent were interest on operating capital.

Western Visayas

All Corn

• In Western Visayas, the cost of producing corn averaged P24,450 per hectare. Of
the total production cost, 37 percent were cash costs, 41 percent were non-cash
costs and 22 percent were imputed costs. Hired labor and inorganic fertilizer
were the leading cash cost items valued at P3,325 and P2,471 per hectare,
respectively. Harvesters’ share at P2,949 and inorganic fertilizers at P2,339 were
the top contributors among the non-cash expenses. Family labor was the leading
imputed cost at P2,315 per hectare. Per kilogram, average cost of production
was P9.30.

29
• Corn production in the region averaged 2,629 kilograms per hectare. With
farmgate price at P12.65 per kilogram, total value of production was P33,242
per hectare. Returns above cash costs averaged P24,253 per hectare. Returns
above cash and non-cash costs figured to P14,257 per hectare. Net returns stood
at P8,792 per hectare. Farmers gained P0.36 for every peso of investment in
corn production.

By Farm Type

• Production costs in white corn farms averaged P11,279 per hectare. This was
P39,467 per hectare in yellow corn farms. Per kilogram, the costs were P12.06 in
white corn farms and P8.66 in yellow corn farms.

• White corn farms produced an average of 935 kilograms per hectare worth
P12,602. On the other hand, yellow corn production reached 4,560 kilograms
per hectare valued at P56,776. The price received by farmers for white corn was
higher at P13.48 per kilogram than for yellow corn at P12.45 per kilogram.

• Yellow corn farmers had higher net earnings of P17,309 per hectare or
equivalent to a gain of P0.44 for every peso of investment. White corn farmers
netted P1,323 per hectare translated to a gain of P0.12 per peso invested in
white corn farming.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs which shared 92 percent of the total production cost amounted to
P22,479 per hectare. Inorganic fertilizer was the major variable cost item at
P4,810 per hectare. Other big variable cost items included hired labor at P3,931
and seeds at P3,068 per hectare. Fixed costs at P1,971 per hectare shared 8
percent and rental value of owned land led at P644 per hectare.

• White corn farms recorded an average variable production costs amounting to


P10,016 or 89 percent of the total cost. Fixed costs amounted to P1,263. The cost
of hired labor at P3,014 comprised 30 percent of the total variable costs. Among
fixed cost items, rental value of owned land shared the biggest at 51 percent.

• For yellow corn farms, variable costs averaged P36,690 per hectare or 93
percent of the production cost. Fixed costs averaged P2,777. Of the total variable
costs, 22 percent or P8,098 per hectare were spent for inorganic fertilizers.
Depreciation was the major fixed cost item at P951.

30
Central Visayas

White Corn

• The sample farmers in Central Visayas solely planted white corn during the
reference period. The average cost of production in white corn farms was
P11,861 per hectare. Of this amount, cash costs accounted for 37 percent, non-
cash costs shared 22 percent and 41 percent were imputed costs. Among the
cash cost items, the leading were hired labor and inorganic fertilizer at P1,452
and P1,787 per hectare, respectively. Harvesters’ share was the biggest non-cash
cost item at P1,077. For the imputed costs, operator labor recorded the biggest
cost at P2,154 per hectare. Per kilogram, average cost of white corn production
was P13.22.

• White corn production in Central Visayas averaged 897 kilograms per hectare.
Producers’ price was P14.67 per kilogram. Farmers had gross earnings of
P13,160. Returns above cash costs averaged P8,744 per hectare . When cash and
non-cash costs were accounted, net returns settled at P6,195 per hectare. After
all costs were considered, farmers netted P1,299 per hectare. Farmers gained
P0.11 for every peso of investment in white corn production.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• On the average, variable cost of white corn production was P10,867 and this
corresponded to 92 percent of the total production cost. The remainder
comprised the fixed costs at P994 per hectare. Operator labor was the biggest
variable cost item at P2,154 per hectare. This was followed by family labor and
hired labor at P1,920 and P1,691 per hectare, respectively. Inorganic fertilizer
was another big variable cost item at P1,793 per hectare. The rental value of
owned land at P286 and depreciation at P221 were the major fixed costs.

Eastern Visayas (Leyte)

White Corn

• The sample respondents in Eastern Visayas were located in the province of Leyte
and they planted white corn during the reference period.

• White corn farms in Leyte entailed an average production cost of P8,144 per
hectare or equivalent to P12.85 per kilogram. Of the total cost, imputed cost
posted the biggest share at 63 percent. The main expense items were operator
labor at P2,400 and family labor at P2,222. Together, these items accounted for
90 percent of the total imputed cost. Cash expenses comprised 21 percent and
31
non-cash cost shared 16 percent of the total cost. Among cash costs, hired labor
was the biggest cost outlay at P1,123 while landowner’s share was the major
non-cash cost item at P573 per hectare.

• In Leyte, farmers produced an average of 634 kilograms of white corn per


hectare and these were worth P8,925. Farmgate price stood at P14.08 per
kilogram. Returns above cash costs amounted to P7,190 per hectare. Returns
above cash and non-cash expenses amounted to P5,927 per hectare. Deducting
all costs, farmers netted P781 per hectare and earned about P0.10 for every peso
of investment in white corn production.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Average variable cost of production in the region was P7,652 or equivalent to 94


percent of the total production cost. The rest were fixed costs at P492 per
hectare. The combined operator and family labor comprised 60 percent of the
total variable cost. The major fixed cost item was rental value of owned land at
P266 per hectare.

Zamboanga Peninsula

All Corn

• On the average, the cost of producing corn in the region averaged P12,692 per
hectare. Of the total production cost, 44 percent were cash expenses, 13 percent
were non-cash costs and 43 percent were imputed costs. Inorganic fertilizers at
P2,085 per hectare topped among the cash costs. Harvesters’ share was the
leading non-cash cost item at P797 per hectare followed by landowner’s share at
P544 per hectare. The costs of operator labor at P1,921 per hectare and family
labor at P1,778 per hectare were the biggest imputed costs. On a per kilogram
basis, the cost of production averaged P10.01.

• The average volume of corn production per hectare in Zamboanga Peninsula was
1,268 kilograms. At an average producers’ price of P13.85 per kilogram, farmers
grossed P17,564 per hectare. After deducting cash costs, returns averaged
P11,964 per hectare. When both cash and non-cash costs were subtracted,
returns amounted to P10,357 per hectare. Net returns stood at P4,872 per
hectare. The net profit-cost ratio was 0.38.

By Farm Type

• Per hectare, production cost in white corn farms averaged P11,996 and that in
yellow corn farms, at P16,577. Per kilogram, the average production costs were
32
P12.23 for white corn and P5.78 for yellow corn.

• On the average, the region produced 981 kilograms of white corn per hectare.
Production of yellow corn was bigger at 2,869 kilograms per hectare. The
average prices received by farmers were P13.63 per kilogram for white corn and
P14.28 per kilogram for yellow corn. Farmers grossed P13,369 per hectare in
white corn farms. Gross earnings in yellow corn farms reached 40,955 per
hectare.

• Farmers had net returns of P1,374 per hectare in producing white corn. In
yellow corn farms, farmers netted P24,378 per hectare. The net profit-cost ratio
in white corn farms was 0.11. This was higher in yellow corn farms at 1.47.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Across all farm types, the variable costs incurred in corn production averaged
P10,729 or 85 percent of the total production cost. Fixed costs averaged P1,964
and shared 15 percent of the total cost. Inorganic fertilizer was the biggest
variable cost item at P2,085 per hectare while it was rental value of owned land
at P1,388 for fixed costs.

• In white corn farms, variable costs shared 85 percent. It amounted to P10,164


per hectare. The rest were fixed costs at P1,832 per hectare. Operator and family
labor at P2,165 and P2,021, respectively, accounted for a combined share of 41
percent of the total variable cost. Rental value of owned land at P1,306 was the
major fixed cost item with 71 percent share to total fixed cost.

• For yellow corn farms, average variable cost of production was P13,879. This
was 84 percent of the total production cost. Fixed cost of production averaged
P2,698. Hired labor was the biggest variable cost at P5,735. This was followed by
inorganic fertilizer at P3,188. The rental value of owned land stood the biggest
fixed cost at P1,842.

Northern Mindanao

All Corn

• The average cost of corn production in Northern Mindanao amounted to


P16,731 per hectare or equivalent to P10.57 per kilogram. Cash expenses had
the biggest share at 59 percent of the total cost. Non-cash costs accounted for 9
percent and imputed costs, 32 percent. Inorganic fertilizer paid in cash
comprised the biggest cash outlay at P4,178. Harvesters’ share topped in the list
of non-cash cost items and it amounted to P717 per hectare. Operator labor and
33
family labor were the leading imputed cost items valued at P1,810 and P1,875
per hectare, respectively.

• Corn production per hectare averaged 1,582 kilograms. Average producers’


price was pegged at P13.10 per kilogram. Gross returns amounted to P20,726.
Returns above cash costs were P10,881 per hectare. After accounting the non-
cash cost of production, returns averaged P9,332 per hectare. Corn farmers
netted P3,995 per hectare translated to a net profit-cost ratio of 0.24.

By Farm Type

• The cost of producing white corn averaged P14,858 per hectare. For yellow corn,
it was P31,231. On a per kilogram basis, costs averaged P11.45 for white corn
and P8.25 for yellow corn.

• The average volume of production of white corn was 1,298 kilograms per
hectare. It was 3,787 kilograms per hectare for yellow corn. Farmgate prices
were P13.69 per kilogram for white corn and P11.54 per kilogram for yellow
corn. Gross returns were P17,760 per hectare in white corn farms and P43,696
per hectare in yellow corn farms.

• Net returns from white corn production averaged P2,902 per hectare. There
was a gain of P0.20 for every peso invested in white corn farming. In yellow corn
farms, farmers had bigger net returns at P12,465 per hectare or P0.40 for every
peso of investment.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• The variable costs incurred in producing corn in the region averaged P14,760
per hectare and it corresponded to 88 percent of the total production cost.
Inorganic fertilizer was the biggest variable cost item at P4,178 per hectare.
Fixed costs averaged P1,971 per hectare of which rental value of owned land at
P766 was the biggest cost item.

• In white corn farms, the average variable production cost was P13,778. This was
93 percent of the total cost. Fixed costs amounted to P1,080 per hectare. Among
the variable cost items, inorganic fertilizer comprised the biggest at P4,354.
Interest on operating capital was the major fixed cost item at P393. Rental value
of owned land followed at P339 per hectare.

• The variable cost of production in yellow farms averaged P22,363 or 72 percent


of the total cost. The remaining 28 percent were fixed cost at P8,868 per hectare.
Hired labor and seeds were the leading variable cost items at P7,467 and P4,049

34
per hectare, respectively. Rental value of owned land at P4,072 comprised the
biggest portion of the fixed costs at 46 percent.

Davao Region

White Corn

• The survey in Davao Region covered the corn farmers planting white corn
during the reference period.

• The average cost of white corn production in the region was P14,270 per
hectare. Of the said amount, cash expenditures and imputed costs had the most
shares at 48 percent and 46 percent, respectively. Non-cash costs contributed 6
percent. The biggest cost items were hired labor at P3,196 for cash cost and
family labor at P2,245 for imputed cost. For non-cash costs, harvesters’ share
was the major expense item valued at P492 per hectare. On a per kilogram basis,
the average cost of production in white corn farms was computed at P11.62.

• The average yield of white corn in the region was 1,228 kilograms per hectare.
At a farmgate price pegged at P13.25 per kilogram, gross value of production
was computed at P16,278 per hectare. When cash costs were subtracted, returns
were P9,475 per hectare. Accounting for both cash and non-cash costs, returns
averaged P8,608 per hectare. Net returns of white corn farmers settled at P2,008
or an earning of P0.14 for every peso invested in white corn production.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• In Davao Region, 81 percent of the total production cost in white corn farms
were variable costs which amounted to P11,554 per hectare. Fixed costs were
P2,716 per hectare and shared 19 percent. Majority or 62 percent of the variable
costs comprised the combined costs of hired, operator and family labor at
P7,180. About 13 percent were inorganic fertilizers amounting to P1,480. Among
fixed costs items, rental value of owned land had the biggest expense at P1,934.

SOCCSKSARGEN

All Corn

• Farmers in SOCCSKSARGEN spent an average of P20,780 per hectare in the


production of corn. Of this amount, cash outlays shared the biggest at 68 percent.
Non-cash expenses shared 4 percent while imputed costs, 28 percent. The bulk
of the cash costs were hired labor at P4,907 per hectare and inorganic fertilizer
35
at P3,994 per hectare. Among imputed cost items, the major contributors were
rental value of owned land at P2,597 per hectare and family labor at P1,191 per
hectare. Per kilogram, average cost of producing corn was P9.10.

• Corn production averaged 2,284 kilograms per hectare. Gross value of output
was P27,932 per hectare at a farmgate price of P12.23 per kilogram. Returns
above cash costs averaged P13,813 per hectare. Returns above cash and non-
cash costs amounted to P13,025 per hectare. Net returns of corn farmers settled
at P7,152 per hectare. For every peso of investment, corn farmers earned P0.34.

By Farm Type

• The average cost of producing white corn was P16,234 per hectare. Yellow corn
incurred higher production cost at P26,654 per hectare. For every kilogram of
white corn produced, farmers spent P11.06. It was P7.98 for yellow corn.

• On the average, production of white corn was 1,468 kilograms per hectare and
that of yellow corn was 3,340 kilograms. Farmers sold white corn at a price of
P12.81 per kilogram. Yellow corn was priced at P11.90. White corn farmers
grossed P18,804 per hectare. Yellow corn farmers earned more at P39,726 per
hectare.

• Net returns of farmers who planted white corn averaged P2,570 per hectare.
Those who cultivated yellow corn had higher net profit at P13,071 per hectare.
For every peso of investment, farmers who cultivated white corn netted P0.16
while those who planted yellow corn earned P0.49.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• Variable costs of corn production in the region averaged P16,781 per hectare or
81 percent of the total cost of production. Fixed costs at P3,999 per hectare
shared 19 percent of the total production cost. The major variable cost items
were hired labor and inorganic fertilizers with corresponding amount at P4,907
per hectare and P4,182 per hectare. For fixed cost items, rental value of owned
land contributed the most at P2,597 per hectare.

• White corn farms recorded variable costs at an average of P12,638. This was 78
percent of the total cost. Meanwhile, fixed costs amounted to P3,595 or 22
percent of the total cost. For variable costs, hired labor shared the biggest at
P3,168. It was rental value of owned land at P2,577 for fixed costs.

36
• In yellow corn farms, variable costs averaged P22,134, which was about 83
percent of the total cost. The remaining were fixed costs, which amounted to
P4,520. The bulk of the variable costs comprised the cost of hired labor at
P7,154. Rental value of owned land at P2,622 was also the leading fixed cost
item.

Caraga (Agusan del Sur)

All Corn

• In Caraga (Agusan del Sur), the average cost of producing corn was P20,433 per
hectare or equivalent to P7.32 per kilogram. About half of the total production
cost were cash costs. Among the cash outlays, expenditures were biggest for
hired labor at P3,883 per hectare and inorganic fertilizers at P3,118 per hectare.
Together, these two comprised 64 percent of the total cash expenditures. On the
other hand, the imputed costs comprised 25 percent and non-cash expenditures
shared 21 percent to the production cost. The major expenditure items were the
costs of operator labor at P1,826 for the imputed costs and harvesters’ share at
P2,945 for the non-cash costs.

• During the reference period, the region produced an average of 2,791 kilograms
of corn per hectare. Gross value of production was P31,626. The average price
received by farmers was P11.33 per kilogram. After deducting cash costs,
returns figured to P20,619 per hectare. Considering both cash and non-cash
expenditures, returns were computed at P16,371 per hectare. Net receipts of
corn farmers in Caraga stood at P11,193 per hectare or a gain of P0.55 for every
peso of investment.

By Farm Type

• The average cost of producing yellow corn in Caraga (Agusan del Sur) was
higher at P35,466 per hectare than producing white corn at P14,583 per hectare.
Production cost per kilogram was P7.67 in white corn farms. It was P6.99 in
yellow corn farms.

• Production of white corn in the region averaged 1,901 kilograms per hectare.
Yellow corn production reached an average of 5,076 kilograms per hectare. Price
of white and yellow corn averaged P11.77 per kilogram and P10.92 per
kilogram, respectively. Gross earnings in white corn farms were lower at
P22,369 per hectare. Yellow corn farms generated higher gross earnings at
P55,417 per hectare.

37
• Net returns of white corn farmers averaged P7,786 per hectare. Yellow corn
farmers had higher net profit at P19,950 per hectare. The net profit-cost ratios
were 0.53 for white corn farms and 0.56 for yellow corn farms.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• The average variable costs of production was P17,439 per hectare or 85 percent
of the total production cost. Fixed costs at P2,993 per hectare shared 15 percent.
The biggest variable cost item was labor at P7,178 per hectare. Other big
variable cost items included inorganic fertilizers and harvesters’ share at P3,118
and P2,945 per hectare, respectively. Rental value of owned land contributed the
biggest fixed costs at P924 per hectare.

• White corn farms entailed an average variable cost of P13,472 which was 92
percent of the total production cost. Of this amount, inorganic fertilizers,
harvesters’ share, hired and operator labor shared the biggest with more than
P2,000 each per hectare. Fixed costs averaged P1,111. Depreciation was the
leading fixed cost item at P658 per hectare.

• Variable costs in yellow corn farms reached P27,635 per hectare or about 78
percent of the total production cost. Fixed costs averaged P7,831 and shared 22
percent. Hired labor posted the biggest variable cost at P7,279 followed by
harvesters’ share at P5,007. On the other hand, interest payment on crop loan at
P3,200 and rental value of owned land at P3,000 comprised the bulk of the fixed
costs.

ARMM

All Corn

• On the average, the cost of corn production in the region was P16,512 per
hectare. Of this amount, 48 percent went to imputed costs and 35 percent were
cash costs and 17 percent, non-cash expenditures. The imputed cost of unpaid
labor contributed the biggest at P6,662. For cash costs, hired labor was the
major expense item at P1,980. This was followed by inorganic fertilizers
amounting to P1,587. The cost of harvesters’ share at P1,589 was leading among
the non-cash costs. Per kilogram, cost of producing corn averaged P8.70.

• Volume of corn production in the region averaged 1,899 kilograms valued at


P23,356 per hectare. Farmgate price was P12.30 per kilogram. Returns above
cash costs were estimated at P17,582 per hectare. After accounting for non-cash
outlays, farmers realized returns at P14,851 per hectare. Net returns of corn
farmers settled at P6,844 per hectare. Net profit-cost ratio was 0.41.
38
By Farm Type

• The cost of producing white corn averaged P15,146 per hectare. It was higher
for yellow corn at P28,057 per hectare. Per kilogram, average production costs
were P8.44 in white corn farms and P10.09 in yellow corn farms.

• The volume of production of white corn averaged P1,795 kilograms per hectare.
It was higher for yellow corn at 2,779 kilograms per hectare. Farmgate prices
per kilogram ranged from P12.30 for white corn to P12.32 for yellow corn. On
the average, the gross returns were P22,068 per hectare in white corn farms and
P34,241 per hectare in yellow corn farms.

• Farmers netted P6,922 per hectare in producing white corn. Yellow corn farmers
had net receipts at P6,184 per hectare. For every peso of investment, white corn
farmers gained P0.46 while yellow corn farmers earned P0.22.

Variable and Fixed Costs of Production

• On the average, variable costs of production in the region figured to P15,016 per
hectare or 91 percent of total production cost. Fixed costs at P1,497 per hectare
comprised 9 percent. Labor (all types) was the major variable cost item at
P8,745 per hectare. On the other hand, rental value of owned land was the
leading fixed cost item at P807 per hectare.

• In white corn farms, variable costs averaged P13,841 or equivalent to 91 percent


of the total cost. About 9 percent were fixed cost which amounted to P1,305.
Family labor at P2,865 and operator labor at P2,299 comprised bigger part of
the variable costs.

• Producing yellow corn entailed an average variable cost of P24,938 or about 89


percent of the total production cost. Fixed cost at P3,119 shared 11 percent. The
biggest variable cost item was hired labor at P4,587 per hectare, followed by
family and exchange labor at P3,560 and P3,310 per hectare, respectively.
Meanwhile, the bulk or 67 percent of the fixed cost were contributed by the
rental value of owned land amounting to P2,087.

F. Other Information
(Tables 51-66)

Disposition of Produce

• Nationwide, 81.68 percent of corn production were sold. The quantity of corn
consumed at home accounted for 9.41 percent, while harvesters’ and

39
landowner’s shares comprised 3.18 percent and 1.57 percent, respectively.
Other types of disposition such as sheller’s share, other laborers’ share, land
lease/rental, given away, paid to creditors, used for seeds or feeds, wastage, and
those that were stolen shared less than 1 percent each.

• At the regional level, all the corn produced in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan) were
sold. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), 99.53 percent were marketed. Higher
proportion of volume marketed was also reported in Cagayan Valley at 92.31
percent. The least proportion was noted in Central Visayas at 13.98 percent.
CALABARZON (Quezon) had no reported volume of corn produced that was sold.
The said region had the biggest proportion for home consumption at 66.61
percent. This was followed by Central Visayas at 62.97 percent, Zamboanga
Peninsula at 46.51 percent and Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at 43.38 percent.
Harvesters’ and landowner’s shares also accounted for higher proportions in
CALABARZON (Quezon) at 13.29 percent and 10.43 percent, respectively.

Production Compared with Last Year

• When asked on the level of corn production this reference period compared with
last year, there were 40 percent of the sample corn farmers who stated that they
have same level of production. Some 29.13 percent reported lower production
this year while 28.97 percent mentioned higher production this year.

• By region, the proportions of corn farmers who stated the same production level
were highest in Bicol Region, Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and ARMM at 60.27
percent, 62.07 percent and 69.39 percent, respectively. Those who said higher
production this year had bigger proportions in Central Visayas and Caraga
(Agusan del Sur) at around 42 percent each. In CALABARZON (Quezon), all corn
farmers cited lower production this year.

• Among the corn farmers who had higher volume of production this year, 59.45
percent reported favorable weather condition as the main reason. There were
29.86 percent who cited the use of adequate fertilizer and about 18.36 percent
mentioned good quality of seeds that contributed to the higher corn production.
Few at 8.77 percent mentioned the lesser occurrence of pests and diseases while
6.58 percent pointed out the increase in area.

• At the regional level, good weather condition was the reason given by 85 percent
of corn farmers in Western Visayas for higher production this year. In ARMM,
use of adequate fertilizer was stressed by 73.33 percent. Meanwhile, 57.14
percent of corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac) reported that the high
production this year was caused by the use of good quality of seeds. There were
33.33 percent each in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and Caraga (Agusan del Sur)
reasoned out the lesser occurrence of pests and diseases while 25 percent in
CAR (Ifugao) stated area expansion.
40
• Of those who had lower production this year, majority or 60.76 percent of the
corn farmers cited bad weather condition. Other main reasons were occurrence
of pests and diseases as stated by 20.16 percent, inadequate water supply by
19.07 percent and decrease in area planted to corn by 11.72 percent.

• Across the regions, bad weather condition was the foremost reason for lower
production as indicated by 80 to 92 percent of the corn farmers in Caraga
(Agusan del Sur), CALABARZON (Quezon), ARMM, Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and
CAR (Ifugao). The incidence of pests and diseases was mentioned by 60 percent
in MIMAROPA (Palawan) and 50 percent in Eastern Visayas (Leyte). There were
40 percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac) and 33.33 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN
whose reason was inadequate water supply.

Problems Related to Production

• High cost of inputs was the major production problem encountered by 45.87
percent of corn farmers in the country. Lack of capital and bad
weather/calamities were reported by 39.21 percent and 36.19 percent of corn
farmers, respectively. The incidence of pests and diseases was the main problem
on production mentioned by 26.83 percent. Other problems cited were rough or
poor road/inadequate transport facilities, poor soil condition and inadequate
supply of water/ irrigation problem.

• Those who reported problem on the high costs of inputs was biggest in Central
Luzon (Tarlac) at 94.44 percent. Lack of capital was noted by 62.96 percent in
CAR (Ifugao) and 54.29 percent in Caraga (Agusan del Sur). Bad weather
condition was a major constraint of 60 to 72.73 percent of corn farmers in
MIMAROPA (Palawan), Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and
CALABARZON (Quezon). Likewise, 72.41 percent of corn farmers in Eastern
Visayas (Leyte) encountered problem on the occurrence of pests and diseases
during the reference period. Rough road and inadequate transport facilities were
the complaints of 31.58 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN. There were 31.03 percent in
Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and 27.27 percent in CALABARZON (Quezon) who cited
poor soil condition as their problems affecting production.

Major Buyers of Produce

• Nationwide, wholesaler and wholesaler-retailer were the major buyers of corn


produce as reported by 45.70 percent and 38.42 percent of the corn farmers,
respectively. There were 7.88 percent who transacted with agents. Selling to
assemblers and consumers was cited by 3 percent. Only less than 1 percent sold
their produce to cooperatives and processors.

• By region, majority or 85.19 percent of farmers in CAR (Ifugao) and 75.61


percent in Cagayan Valley sold corn to wholesalers. Farmers who transacted
41
with wholesaler-retailers was biggest in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) at 72.73
percent. Selling corn to wholesaler-retailers was also the practice of 50 to 57
percent of the corn farmers in Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga (Agusan
del Sur) and ARMM. Transaction between corn farmers and agents were
mentioned by 44.44 percent of farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac). Consumer as
the major buyer was noted mostly by 37.50 percent in MIMAROPA (Palawan). In
Western Visayas, there were 7.14 percent who sold corn to cooperatives.

Problems Related to Marketing

• At the national level, low price of produce was the main marketing problem
among 44.21 percent of the corn farmers. Problem on unstable price was
reported by 38.73 percent. Rough road/high transport costs were the concerns
of 15.87 percent. Some 4.52 percent mentioned the lack of marketing
information and 3.57 percent cited limited buyer/market outlets.

• The biggest proportions of corn farmers who reported problem on low price of
produce were noted in CAR (Ifugao), SOCCSKSARGEN, Cagayan Valley, ARMM
and Central Luzon (Tarlac) ranging from 66.67 percent to 77.78 percent. There
were 96.30 percent in CAR (Ifugao) who reported problem on unstable prices.
Rough roads/high transport costs were the constraints of 39.07 percent of corn
farmers in Davao Region, 27.19 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN, 23.03 percent in
Northern Mindanao and 22.45 percent in ARMM.

Access to Credit

• Nationwide, 12.30 percent of corn farmers availed loans for corn production. At
the regional level, the percentages of farmer-borrowers were higher in CAR
(Ifugao) at 59.26 percent, Cagayan Valley at 52.42 percent and Central Luzon
(Tarlac) at 44.44 percent. Some 25.71 percent of corn farmers in Caraga (Agusan
del Sur) and 12.28 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN also availed loans for corn
production purposes. There was no reported availment of loans in CALABARZON
(Quezon) and Western Visayas.

• Private individuals were the major sources of loans among 87.10 percent of corn
farmers in the country. Borrowings from cooperatives and banks were cited by
7.10 percent and 1.29 percent, respectively. Some 4.52 percent obtained loans
from micro-financing, NGOs, farmer’s association and Quedancor.

• All farmer-borrowers in Ilocos Region (Pangasinan), MIMAROPA (Palawan),


Eastern Visayas (Leyte), Caraga (Agusan del Sur) and ARMM sourced their loans
from private individuals. In CAR (Ifugao), half of the farmer-borrowers got loans
from cooperatives. Meanwhile, banks were the major source of loans among
16.67 percent of the farmer-borrowers in Bicol Region.

42
Access to Government Programs/Interventions

• Awareness of government programs/interventions related to corn production


was cited by 66.75 percent of corn farmers nationwide. CAR (Ifugao) indicated
the biggest proportion of farmers who were aware of the government
programs/interventions at 92.59 percent while it was smallest in ARMM at
31.63 percent.

• Of the corn farmers who were aware of government programs/interventions,


about 12.86 percent of them availed of benefits. The proportions of these
farmer-beneficiaries were biggest in Cagayan Valley at 39.52 percent, Central
Luzon (Tarlac) at 22.22 percent and Zamboanga Peninsula at 18.94 percent.
Very few at 1.02 percent availed of benefits in ARMM.

• Among the corn farmers who received benefits from government programs/
interventions, 41.36 percent were beneficiaries of training on farming
technology. In Central Luzon (Tarlac), MIMAROPA (Palawan), and Western
Visayas, all farmer-beneficiaries were recipients of training on farming
technology.

• Seeds and post-harvest facilities were other benefits received by 30.86 percent
and 28.40 percent of the farmer-beneficiaries, respectively. All farmer-
beneficiaries in CAR (Ifugao), CALABARZON (Quezon), MIMAROPA (Palawan),
Eastern Visayas (Leyte), Caraga (Agusan del Sur) and ARMM were recipients of
seeds. In Cagayan Valley, 71.43 percent of the farmer-beneficiaries were
provided with post-harvest facilities. Farmers who had benefitted from
fertilizers and other inputs were 25 percent in Bicol Region and 20 percent in
Ilocos Region (Pangasinan).

• Of those corn farmers who benefitted from government programs/


interventions, about 77.16 percent of them said that they used the benefits. Of
this group, 61.73 percent reported that the benefits they received helped
increase their income from corn farming. At the regional level, all corn farmer-
beneficiaries in MIMAROPA (Palawan), Western Visayas, and ARMM used the
benefits they received and they claimed that the benefits helped in increasing
their income from corn farming.

Farm Practices Affected by Climate Change

• At the national level, there were 67.38 percent of corn farmers who believed that
their farming practices were affected by climate change. Specifically, this was
reported by all farmers in CALABARZON (Quezon). This belief was also highly
noted among 80 to 89 percent in CAR (Ifugao), Central Visayas and
SOCCSKSARGEN and lesser in Central Luzon (Tarlac) as cited by 11.11 percent.

43
• As to the perceived effect of climate change, decrease in yield was reported by
64.66 percent, change in cropping pattern by 34.98 percent, decrease in number
of cropping by 21.91 percent and increase in input usage by 12.49 percent.

• The decrease in yield was reported by all corn farmers in Central Luzon (Tarlac)
and CALABARZON (Quezon). Change in cropping pattern was mostly mentioned
by 67.80 percent in ARMM, 45.45 percent in Eastern Visayas (Leyte) and 42.86
percent in Central Visayas. Likewise, about 42 percent of corn farmers each in
ARMM and Bicol Region cited that climate change caused the decrease in
number of croppings. Increase in input usage was identified by 29 percent each
in Cagayan Valley and Ilocos Region (Pangasinan).

Membership in Organization and Type of Benefits Received

• Only 10 percent of corn farmers nationwide were members of farmers’


organization. Central Luzon (Tarlac) recorded the highest percentage of corn
farmers at 33.33 percent who were members of farmers’ organization. This was
20 to 22 percent in CAR (Ifugao), MIMAROPA (Palawan) and Zamboanga
Peninsula. The least membership was recorded in Cagayan Valley at 0.81 percent
and ARMM at 1.02 percent.

• Among the farmer-members, 65.08 percent availed of training/seminars. Some


11.11 percent received financial/credit support from the organization. Those
who availed of input support and marketing support were 10.32 percent and
9.52 percent of the farmer-members, respectively.

• All farmer-members of the organizations in CAR (Ifugao), Cagayan Valley and


ARMM were recipients of training/seminars. Likewise, all farmer-members in
Caraga (Agusan del Sur) were provided with financial/credit support and input
support from farmers’ organization. Meanwhile, financial assistance was given to
all the farmer-members in ARMM. Those who were provided with marketing
support were 31.82 percent in Davao Region and 28.57 percent in Western
Visayas.

Plans of Corn Farmers

• When asked on the plans of corn farmers, about 71.67 percent wanted to
maintain their current farming operations. Some 24.84 percent had plans of
expansion. A few at 1.43 percent planned to shift to other crops and 2.06 percent
desired to stop corn farming.

• In all regions, more than half of the corn farmers planned to maintain their
existing corn farm operations. This plan was dominant among 92.42 percent of
the corn farmers in Zamboanga Peninsula and 87.76 percent in ARMM. Those
44
who had plans for expansion of corn operation was highest in Davao Region at
44.37 percent. In Bicol Region, there were 10 percent who opted to shift to
other crops and another 10 percent planned to stop the corn farm operations.

Recommendation to Further Improve Corn Production

• To further improve corn farming operation, provision of financial support was


recommended by 68.17 percent of corn farmers nationwide. Price support was
suggested by 56.35 percent while regulation on price of farm inputs was cited by
43.89 percent. Some 20.32 percent recommended provision of new or modern
farming technologies and 14.44 percent, infrastructure facilities. Soil testing
analysis was mentioned by 12.94 percent. About 4 to 5 percent mentioned
addressing environmental concerns, implementing land reform and improving
irrigation services.

• The proportion of corn farmers suggesting financial support ranged from 30


percent in MIMAROPA (Palawan) to 96.30 percent in CAR (Ifugao). Price support
and regulation of prices of farm inputs were recommended by all corn farmers in
Central Luzon (Tarlac). There were 33.33 percent in Central Luzon (Tarlac) who
mentioned improvement of irrigation services. Establishment of infrastructure
facilities was suggested by 30 percent in MIMAROPA (Palawan). Meanwhile, in
CALABARZON (Quezon), about 54.55 percent proposed the conduct of soil
testing/analysis while 81.82 percent recommended the development of new or
modern farming technologies to further improve corn production. Addressing
environmental concern was cited by 37.04 percent in CAR (Ifugao).

45
STATISTICAL
TABLES
Table 1. Percentage distribution of corn farmers by sex and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Male Female

PHILIPPINES 92.78 7.22

CAR 85.19 14.81


Ilocos Region 84.78 15.22
Cagayan Valley 95.97 4.03
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 90.00 10.00
Bicol Region 95.89 4.11
Western Visayas 90.74 9.26
Central Visayas 89.60 10.40
Eastern Visayas 96.55 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 90.91 9.09
Northern Mindanao 94.55 5.45
Davao Region 91.39 8.61
SOCCSKSARGEN 92.98 7.02
Caraga 91.43 8.57
ARMM 97.96 2.04

Table 2.01 Average age and percentage distribution of corn farmers by age group and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Age Age Group


Region
(years) < 31 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60 61 - 70 > 70
(in percent)
PHILIPPINES 53 1.51 13.73 30.71 30.40 14.29 9.37

CAR 54 11.11 37.04 25.93 7.41 18.52


Ilocos Region 53 17.39 21.74 36.96 13.04 10.87
Cagayan Valley 51 3.23 19.35 29.84 29.03 8.87 9.68
Central Luzon 53 22.22 22.22 16.67 22.22 16.67
CALABARZON 48 27.27 27.27 36.36 9.09
MIMAROPA 53 20.00 20.00 30.00 30.00
Bicol Region 55 12.33 21.92 34.25 20.55 10.96
Western Visayas 53 1.85 14.81 16.67 50.00 11.11 5.56
Central Visayas 57 1.16 10.40 20.81 29.48 19.08 19.08
Eastern Visayas 58 3.45 20.69 34.48 34.48 6.90
Zamboanga Peninsula 53 1.52 14.39 34.85 21.21 21.21 6.82
Northern Mindanao 53 8.48 37.58 33.33 10.91 9.70
Davao Region 51 1.32 17.88 33.77 27.15 14.57 5.30
SOCCSKSARGEN 51 1.75 10.53 40.35 28.95 12.28 6.14
Caraga 55 2.86 8.57 31.43 22.86 17.14 17.14
ARMM 47 5.10 18.37 38.78 35.71 1.02 1.02

47
Table 2.02 Average age and percentage distribution of male corn farmers by age group and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Age Age Group


Region
(years) < 31 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60 61 - 70 > 70
(in percent)
PHILIPPINES 52 1.45 14.11 31.48 30.54 13.94 8.47

CAR 55 8.70 34.78 26.09 8.70 21.74


Ilocos Region 53 17.95 20.51 41.03 7.69 12.82
Cagayan Valley 51 3.36 19.33 28.57 29.41 9.24 10.08
Central Luzon 53 22.22 22.22 16.67 22.22 16.67
CALABARZON 48 27.27 27.27 36.36 9.09
MIMAROPA 52 22.22 22.22 22.22 33.33
Bicol Region 55 11.43 22.86 34.29 20.00 11.43
Western Visayas 53 2.04 16.33 18.37 46.94 10.20 6.12
Central Visayas 56 1.29 11.61 21.94 30.32 18.71 16.13
Eastern Visayas 58 3.57 21.43 35.71 35.71 3.57
Zamboanga Peninsula 52 1.67 15.00 35.00 21.67 20.83 5.83
Northern Mindanao 52 8.97 39.10 33.97 10.90 7.05
Davao Region 51 0.72 18.12 34.06 28.26 14.49 4.35
SOCCSKSARGEN 51 0.94 10.38 43.40 27.36 12.26 5.66
Caraga 55 3.13 9.38 31.25 21.88 15.63 18.75
ARMM 47 5.21 18.75 39.58 34.38 1.04 1.04

Table 2.03 Average age and percentage distribution of female corn farmers by age group and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Age Age Group


Region
(years) < 31 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60 61 - 70 > 70
(in percent)
PHILIPPINES 57 2.20 8.79 20.88 28.57 18.68 20.88

CAR 46 25.00 50.00 25.00


Ilocos Region 54 14.29 28.57 14.29 42.86
Cagayan Valley 49 20.00 60.00 20.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 57 100.00
Bicol Region 52 33.33 33.33 33.33
Western Visayas 57 80.00 20.00
Central Visayas 65 11.11 22.22 22.22 44.44
Eastern Visayas 74 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 58 8.33 33.33 16.67 25.00 16.67
Northern Mindanao 66 11.11 22.22 11.11 55.56
Davao Region 52 7.69 15.38 30.77 15.38 15.38 15.38
SOCCSKSARGEN 53 12.50 12.50 50.00 12.50 12.50
Caraga 58 33.33 33.33 33.33
ARMM 52 100.00

48
Table 3.01 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by educational attainment and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Elementary Elementary High School High School College


Region
Level Graduate Level Graduate Level

PHILIPPINES 42.38 22.94 10.71 13.17 3.33

CAR 37.04 18.52 11.11 7.41 7.41


Ilocos Region 6.52 32.61 2.17 34.78 13.04
Cagayan Valley 25.00 32.26 10.48 20.97 3.23
Central Luzon 11.11 22.22 11.11 27.78 5.56
CALABARZON 27.27 54.55 18.18
MIMAROPA 10.00 10.00 10.00 40.00
Bicol Region 34.25 24.66 13.70 19.18 4.11
Western Visayas 46.30 14.81 1.85 20.37 1.85
Central Visayas 54.34 25.43 3.47 8.67 1.73
Eastern Visayas 55.17 27.59 3.45 13.79
Zamboanga Peninsula 54.55 19.70 6.82 9.85 1.52
Northern Mindanao 47.27 16.36 18.18 9.09 6.06
Davao Region 43.05 19.87 14.57 15.89 2.65
SOCCSKSARGEN 34.21 28.07 12.28 9.65 4.39
Caraga 34.29 34.29 14.29 8.57 2.86
ARMM 59.18 13.27 17.35 1.02

Table 3.01 Concluded

College Post- No Formal


Region Vocational
Graduate Graduate Schooling

PHILIPPINES 3.49 0.16 1.11 2.70

CAR 18.52
Ilocos Region 4.35 6.52
Cagayan Valley 6.45 0.81 0.81
Central Luzon 16.67 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 20.00 10.00
Bicol Region 1.37 2.74
Western Visayas 7.41 5.56 1.85
Central Visayas 1.73 4.62
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.52 1.52 4.55
Northern Mindanao 1.21 1.82
Davao Region 1.99 0.66 1.32
SOCCSKSARGEN 8.77 1.75 0.88
Caraga 5.71
ARMM 1.02 8.16

49
Table 3.02 Percentage distribution of male corn farmers by educational attainment and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Elementary Elementary High School High School College


Region
Level Graduate Level Graduate Level

PHILIPPINES 43.11 22.24 11.12 13.09 3.34

CAR 39.13 17.39 13.04 4.35 8.70


Ilocos Region 5.13 35.90 2.56 35.90 12.82
Cagayan Valley 24.37 32.77 10.08 21.85 3.36
Central Luzon 11.11 22.22 11.11 27.78 5.56
CALABARZON 27.27 54.55 18.18
MIMAROPA 11.11 11.11 11.11 33.33
Bicol Region 32.86 25.71 14.29 20.00 2.86
Western Visayas 46.94 12.24 2.04 22.45 2.04
Central Visayas 58.06 21.94 3.23 9.03 1.94
Eastern Visayas 57.14 25.00 3.57 14.29
Zamboanga Peninsula 55.83 19.17 7.50 9.17 0.83
Northern Mindanao 48.08 14.74 19.23 8.97 6.41
Davao Region 41.30 21.01 14.49 15.94 2.90
SOCCSKSARGEN 36.79 27.36 12.26 8.49 4.72
Caraga 37.50 31.25 15.63 6.25 3.13
ARMM 58.33 13.54 17.71 1.04

Table 3.02 Concluded

College Post- No Formal


Region Vocational
Graduate Graduate Schooling

PHILIPPINES 3.25 0.17 1.03 2.65

CAR 17.39
Ilocos Region 2.56 5.13
Cagayan Valley 5.88 0.84 0.84
Central Luzon 16.67 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 22.22 11.11
Bicol Region 1.43 2.86
Western Visayas 8.16 4.08 2.04
Central Visayas 1.29 4.52
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.67 1.67 4.17
Northern Mindanao 1.28 1.28
Davao Region 2.17 0.72 1.45
SOCCSKSARGEN 7.55 1.89 0.94
Caraga 6.25
ARMM 1.04 8.33

50
Table 3.03 Percentage distribution of female corn farmers by educational attainment and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Elementary Elementary High School High School College


Region
Level Graduate Level Graduate Level

PHILIPPINES 32.97 31.87 5.49 14.29 3.30

CAR 25.00 25.00 25.00


Ilocos Region 14.29 14.29 28.57 14.29
Cagayan Valley 40.00 20.00 20.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 100.00
Bicol Region 66.67 33.33
Western Visayas 40.00 40.00
Central Visayas 22.22 55.56 5.56 5.56
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 41.67 25.00 16.67 8.33
Northern Mindanao 33.33 44.44 11.11
Davao Region 61.54 7.69 15.38 15.38
SOCCSKSARGEN 37.50 12.50 25.00
Caraga 66.67 33.33
ARMM 100.00

Table 3.03 Concluded

College No Formal
Region Vocational
Graduate Schooling

PHILIPPINES 6.59 2.20 3.30

CAR 25.00
Ilocos Region 14.29 14.29
Cagayan Valley 20.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 20.00
Central Visayas 5.56 5.56
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 8.33
Northern Mindanao 11.11
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 25.00
Caraga
ARMM

51
Table 4.01 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of corn farmers by number of years
engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Farming Years Engaged in Corn Farming


Region Experience
(years) < 11 11 - 20 21 - 30 > 30

PHILIPPINES 23 17.94 32.78 27.14 22.14

CAR 30 3.70 25.93 25.93 44.44


Ilocos Region 21 19.57 39.13 23.91 17.39
Cagayan Valley 23 20.16 31.45 27.42 20.97
Central Luzon 18 22.22 50.00 22.22 5.56
CALABARZON 22 18.18 36.36 27.27 18.18
MIMAROPA 16 20.00 60.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 24 15.07 26.03 36.99 21.92
Western Visayas 21 25.93 25.93 29.63 18.52
Central Visayas 25 18.50 25.43 24.86 31.21
Eastern Visayas 25 6.90 31.03 41.38 20.69
Zamboanga Peninsula 25 18.94 31.82 22.73 26.52
Northern Mindanao 26 8.48 36.36 29.09 26.06
Davao Region 20 24.50 39.07 24.50 11.92
SOCCSKSARGEN 24 13.16 29.82 32.46 24.56
Caraga 27 11.43 28.57 25.71 34.29
ARMM 17 29.59 39.80 23.47 7.14

Table 4.02 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of male corn farmers by number of
years engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Farming Years Engaged in Corn Farming


Region Experience
(years) < 11 11 - 20 21 - 30 > 30

PHILIPPINES 23 17.28 33.11 27.37 22.24

CAR 31 21.74 26.09 52.17


Ilocos Region 22 15.38 38.46 25.64 20.51
Cagayan Valley 23 21.01 31.93 25.21 21.85
Central Luzon 18 22.22 50.00 22.22 5.56
CALABARZON 22 18.18 36.36 27.27 18.18
MIMAROPA 17 22.22 55.56 11.11 11.11
Bicol Region 25 14.29 25.71 37.14 22.86
Western Visayas 21 26.53 26.53 28.57 18.37
Central Visayas 25 18.06 26.45 24.52 30.97
Eastern Visayas 25 7.14 32.14 39.29 21.43
Zamboanga Peninsula 25 17.50 30.83 25.00 26.67
Northern Mindanao 25 7.69 37.82 30.13 24.36
Davao Region 19 24.64 39.13 23.91 12.32
SOCCSKSARGEN 24 12.26 29.25 33.96 24.53
Caraga 27 9.38 31.25 25.00 34.38
ARMM 18 28.13 40.63 23.96 7.29

52
Table 4.03 Average farming experience and percentage distribution of female corn farmers by number
of years engaged in corn farming and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Average Farming Years Engaged in Corn Farming


Region Experience
(years) < 11 11 - 20 21 - 30 > 30

PHILIPPINES 22 26.37 28.57 24.18 20.88

CAR 19 25.00 50.00 25.00


Ilocos Region 14 42.86 42.86 14.29
Cagayan Valley 26 20.00 80.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 12 100.00
Bicol Region 19 33.33 33.33 33.33
Western Visayas 22 20.00 20.00 40.00 20.00
Central Visayas 24 22.22 16.67 27.78 33.33
Eastern Visayas 25 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 22 33.33 41.67 25.00
Northern Mindanao 33 22.22 11.11 11.11 55.56
Davao Region 21 23.08 38.46 30.77 7.69
SOCCSKSARGEN 20 25.00 37.50 12.50 25.00
Caraga 25 33.33 33.33 33.33
ARMM 10 100.00

Table 5.01 Percentage distribution of corn farmers by main occupation and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Officials of the Government and Service


Special Interest Organizations, Workers and
Region Corporate Executives, Managers Professionals Shop and
Managing Proprietors and Market Sales
Supervisors Workers

PHILIPPINES 1.59 0.48 0.71

CAR 3.70
Ilocos Region 4.35
Cagayan Valley 0.81
Central Luzon 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 10.00 20.00
Bicol Region 4.11
Western Visayas 3.70 1.85 1.85
Central Visayas 1.16 1.16
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.27 0.76 0.76
Northern Mindanao 1.21 0.61
Davao Region 2.65
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.88 1.75
Caraga 2.86
ARMM

53
Table 5.01 Continued

Farmers, Forestry Workers and Fishermen:


Region
Field Crop Orchard Livestock and Poultry
Fishermen
Farmers Farmers Farmers

PHILIPPINES 80.79 9.29 0.24 1.11

CAR 96.30
Ilocos Region 91.30
Cagayan Valley 96.77
Central Luzon 94.44
CALABARZON 81.82
MIMAROPA 40.00 30.00
Bicol Region 90.41 1.37
Western Visayas 68.52 1.85 1.85
Central Visayas 80.35 1.73 1.16 2.31
Eastern Visayas 48.28 51.72
Zamboanga Peninsula 58.33 28.03
Northern Mindanao 84.24 10.30
Davao Region 72.19 21.19 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 92.98
Caraga 97.14
ARMM 89.80 8.16

Table 5.01 Concluded

Craft and Elementary


Plant and Machine
Related Occupation: Special
Region Operators and
Trades Laborers and Occupation
Assemblers
Workers Unskilled Workers

PHILIPPINES 1.43 0.71 3.57 0.08

CAR
Ilocos Region 2.17 2.17
Cagayan Valley 0.81 0.81 0.81
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 18.18
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 4.11
Western Visayas 5.56 14.81
Central Visayas 4.05 0.58 7.51
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.76 9.09
Northern Mindanao 0.61 1.82 1.21
Davao Region 0.66 2.65
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.63 1.75
Caraga
ARMM 2.04

54
Table 5.02 Percentage distribution of male corn farmers by main occupation and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Officials of the Government and Service


Special Interest Organizations, Workers and
Region Corporate Executives, Managers Professionals Shop and
Managing Proprietors and Market Sales
Supervisors Workers

PHILIPPINES 1.45 0.34 0.51

CAR 4.35
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 0.84
Central Luzon 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 11.11 22.22
Bicol Region 2.86
Western Visayas 4.08 2.04 2.04
Central Visayas 0.65 0.65
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.67 0.83 0.83
Northern Mindanao 1.28 0.64
Davao Region 2.90
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.94
Caraga 3.13
ARMM

Table 5.02 Continued

Farmers, Forestry Workers and Fishermen:


Region
Field Crop Orchard Livestock and Poultry
Fishermen
Farmers Farmers Farmers

PHILIPPINES 81.52 9.07 0.26 1.20

CAR 95.65
Ilocos Region 94.87
Cagayan Valley 96.64
Central Luzon 94.44
CALABARZON 81.82
MIMAROPA 44.44 22.22
Bicol Region 91.43 1.43
Western Visayas 67.35 2.04 2.04
Central Visayas 80.00 1.94 1.29 2.58
Eastern Visayas 50.00 50.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 60.83 26.67
Northern Mindanao 83.97 10.26
Davao Region 72.46 21.01 0.72
SOCCSKSARGEN 94.34
Caraga 96.88
ARMM 91.67 8.33

55
Table 5.02 Concluded

Craft and Elementary


Plant and Machine
Related Occupation: Special
Region Operators and
Trades Laborers and Occupation
Assemblers
Workers Unskilled Workers

PHILIPPINES 1.37 0.77 3.42 0.09

CAR
Ilocos Region 2.56 2.56
Cagayan Valley 0.84 0.84 0.84
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 18.18
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 4.29
Western Visayas 6.12 14.29
Central Visayas 4.52 0.65 7.74
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.83 8.33
Northern Mindanao 0.64 1.92 1.28
Davao Region 0.72 2.17
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.83 1.89
Caraga
ARMM

Table 5.03 Percentage distribution of female corn farmers by main occupation and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Officials of the Government and Service


Special Interest Organizations, Workers and
Region Corporate Executives, Managers Professionals Shop and
Managing Proprietors and Market Sales
Supervisors Workers

PHILIPPINES 3.30 2.20 3.30

CAR
Ilocos Region 28.57
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 33.33
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 5.56 5.56
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 8.33
Northern Mindanao
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 25.00
Caraga
ARMM

56
Table 5.03 Concluded

Farmers, Forestry Workers Elementary


Craft and
and Fishermen: Occupation:
Related
Region Laborers and
Field Crop Orchard Trades
Unskilled
Farmers Farmers Workers
Workers

PHILIPPINES 71.43 12.09 2.20 5.49

CAR 100.00
Ilocos Region 71.43
Cagayan Valley 100.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 100.00
Bicol Region 66.67
Western Visayas 80.00 20.00
Central Visayas 83.33 5.56
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 33.33 41.67 16.67
Northern Mindanao 88.89 11.11
Davao Region 69.23 23.08 7.69
SOCCSKSARGEN 75.00
Caraga 100.00
ARMM 100.00

Table 6. Percentage of corn farmers by type of farm investment owned and used in corn farm parcel
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Work Animals Farm Buildings and Other Structures


Region Farm Warehouse Farm Drying
Carabao Cattle Horse
House / Storage Shed Pavement

PHILIPPINES 47.22 8.89 5.71 23.57 3.17 2.22 0.08

CAR 77.78 3.70 3.70 7.41


Ilocos Region 19.57 4.35 8.70
Cagayan Valley 50.81 8.06 4.03 0.81 1.61
Central Luzon 22.22 5.56 11.11 5.56
CALABARZON 54.55 18.18 18.18
MIMAROPA 70.00 40.00 20.00
Bicol Region 83.56 6.85 1.37 16.44
Western Visayas 62.96 7.41 14.81 1.85 1.85
Central Visayas 45.66 1.16 1.73 21.97 5.78 0.58
Eastern Visayas 65.52
Zamboanga Peninsula 48.48 5.30 10.61 19.70 0.76
Northern Mindanao 49.09 24.24 21.21 43.03 9.70 1.21
Davao Region 25.83 1.99 1.99 21.85 1.32
SOCCSKSARGEN 36.84 4.39 14.91 42.11 5.26 0.88
Caraga 48.57 2.86 51.43
ARMM 59.18 30.61 34.69

57
Table 6. Continued

Farm Machinery and Transport Facilities


Two- Four-
Region Irrigation Grain Transport
Wheel Wheel Sheller Cart Engine
Pump Dryer Facilities
Tractor Tractor

PHILIPPINES 3.65 0.48 4.60 1.59 0.08 3.17 1.67 0.08

CAR 22.22 3.70 14.81


Ilocos Region 26.09 4.35 80.43 4.35
Cagayan Valley 11.29 0.81 5.65 14.52 5.65 0.81
Central Luzon 55.56 77.78 11.11
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 10.00
Bicol Region 1.37
Western Visayas 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85
Central Visayas 0.58 0.58
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.76
Northern Mindanao 0.61 0.61 3.64 1.82
Davao Region 3.97 0.66 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.63 0.88 0.88 2.63 6.14 2.63
Caraga 2.86 2.86 2.86 2.86 14.29
ARMM

Table 6. Continued

Farm Tools and Implements

Region
Plow Harrow Jabber Sprayer Weeder Spade Bolo Scythe Hoe

PHILIPPINES 56.35 17.70 3.73 26.90 6.90 28.33 92.06 23.57 10.63

CAR 88.89 29.63 40.74 81.48 40.74 96.30 29.63 3.70


Ilocos Region 21.74 34.78 65.22 2.17 65.22 89.13 63.04 17.39
Cagayan Valley 70.16 26.61 2.42 71.77 0.81 32.26 87.90 28.23 7.26
Central Luzon 44.44 50.00 27.78 44.44 94.44 77.78 72.22 50.00
CALABARZON 72.73 9.09 9.09 100.00
MIMAROPA 90.00 70.00 20.00 40.00 90.00 30.00
Bicol Region 89.04 32.88 19.18 41.10 93.15 6.85 32.88
Western Visayas 62.96 14.81 27.78 14.81 53.70 75.93 20.37 48.15
Central Visayas 50.29 7.51 4.05 0.58 2.89 97.69 25.43 14.45
Eastern Visayas 75.86 10.34 3.45 13.79 100.00 10.34
Zamboanga Peninsula 53.03 10.61 2.27 10.61 3.79 31.06 96.97 25.00 4.55
Northern Mindanao 73.33 24.85 15.15 2.42 17.58 87.27 28.48 9.09
Davao Region 17.88 3.97 29.14 35.10 25.83 94.70 32.45 3.31
SOCCSKSARGEN 44.74 16.67 1.75 40.35 4.39 46.49 92.98 14.04 2.63
Caraga 51.43 22.86 40.00 11.43 97.14 11.43
ARMM 70.41 30.61 6.12 8.16 9.18 20.41 89.80

58
Table 6. Concluded

Farm Tools and Implements


Post Manual /
Region Spading Weighing
Sled Hole Yoke Rake Wooden Trowel Others1/
Fork Scale
Digger Sheller

PHILIPPINES 19.21 0.71 6.35 36.43 6.35 4.13 1.43 0.95 3.25

CAR 51.85 74.07 7.41 3.70


Ilocos Region 4.35 6.52 10.87 4.35 41.30 32.61
Cagayan Valley 25.00 1.61 5.65 47.58 1.61 1.61 5.65
Central Luzon 11.11 11.11 5.56 16.67 11.11
CALABARZON 81.82 27.27 72.73 9.09
MIMAROPA 50.00 20.00 70.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 13.70 12.33 39.73 9.59 4.11
Western Visayas 27.78 1.85 11.11 37.04 12.96 3.70 1.85 9.26
Central Visayas 5.20 13.29 42.77 1.16 4.62 6.36 4.05
Eastern Visayas 27.59 31.03
Zamboanga Peninsula 23.48 4.55 45.45 3.03 1.52
Northern Mindanao 20.61 1.82 41.21 7.27 4.24 2.42 0.61
Davao Region 18.54 0.66 19.87 3.97 2.65 2.65 11.92
SOCCSKSARGEN 18.42 2.63 26.32 3.51 6.14
Caraga 42.86 8.57 51.43 5.71 2.86
ARMM 8.16 1.02 9.18 24.49 12.24 6.12

1/ Include axe, cage wheel, canvas, sawali, seed holder, scooper, sharpening stone, sickle, tent and winnower

Table 7. Average farm size and area devoted to corn by region,


Philippines, January - September 2013

(in hectare)
Area Devoted
Region Farm Size
to Corn

PHILIPPINES 2.14 1.14

CAR 2.78 2.66


Ilocos Region 1.49 1.47
Cagayan Valley 2.43 1.86
Central Luzon 1.56 1.30
CALABARZON 4.10 0.74
MIMAROPA 6.33 2.28
Bicol Region 1.55 0.96
Western Visayas 2.03 0.67
Central Visayas 1.15 0.61
Eastern Visayas 1.72 0.89
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.96 0.68
Northern Mindanao 2.99 1.00
Davao Region 2.26 1.12
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.24 1.50
Caraga 3.49 1.42
ARMM 1.80 1.30

59
Table 8. Percentage distribution of corn farm parcels by farm type
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region White Yellow

PHILIPPINES 72.54 27.46

CAR 100.00
Ilocos Region 100.00
Cagayan Valley 1.61 98.39
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 20.00 80.00
Bicol Region 68.49 31.51
Western Visayas 62.96 37.04
Central Visayas 100.00
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 96.21 3.79
Northern Mindanao 89.70 10.30
Davao Region 100.00
SOCCSKSARGEN 61.40 38.60
Caraga 82.86 17.14
ARMM 89.80 10.20

Table 9. Average area planted and harvested of corn farm parcel by farm type
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

(in hectare)
White Yellow
Region Area Area Area Area
Planted Harvested Planted Harvested

PHILIPPINES 0.67 0.67 1.05 1.05

CAR 1.56 1.56


Ilocos Region 0.88 0.88
Cagayan Valley 0.63 0.63 1.07 1.07
Central Luzon 0.86 0.86
CALABARZON 0.74 0.74
MIMAROPA 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63
Bicol Region 0.77 0.77 1.10 1.10
Western Visayas 0.42 0.42 0.62 0.62
Central Visayas 0.34 0.33
Eastern Visayas 0.73 0.73
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.44 0.44 2.00 2.00
Northern Mindanao 0.80 0.80 0.90 0.90
Davao Region 0.76 0.76
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.83 0.83 1.03 1.03
Caraga 0.89 0.89 1.67 1.67
ARMM 1.12 1.10 1.15 1.15

60
Table 10. Percentage distribution of corn farm parcels by tenurial status and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Fully Leased/ Rent


Region Tenanted Amortized
Owned Rented Free

PHILIPPINES 36.11 3.65 25.00 1.03 13.73

CAR 3.70 18.52 3.70 7.41


Ilocos Region 47.83 10.87 36.96
Cagayan Valley 45.16 4.84 27.42 3.23
Central Luzon 50.00 16.67 27.78 5.56
CALABARZON 18.18 54.55 9.09
MIMAROPA 70.00 20.00
Bicol Region 35.62 5.48 30.14 2.74 9.59
Western Visayas 25.93 3.70 12.96 33.33
Central Visayas 23.12 3.47 38.73 1.16 17.92
Eastern Visayas 17.24 65.52
Zamboanga Peninsula 28.79 1.52 31.82 26.52
Northern Mindanao 38.18 4.85 28.48 9.70
Davao Region 37.75 5.96 1.99 30.46
SOCCSKSARGEN 35.09 4.39 23.68 1.75 5.26
Caraga 17.14 28.57 17.14
ARMM 70.41 2.04 2.04

Table 10. Concluded

Voluntary
Owner-like Held Under
Region Stewardship Mortgaged Offer to Sell
Possession CLT/CLOA
(VOS)

PHILIPPINES 16.27 1.98 1.03 1.11 0.08

CAR 62.96 3.70


Ilocos Region 4.35
Cagayan Valley 14.52 1.61 3.23
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 18.18
MIMAROPA 10.00
Bicol Region 8.22 8.22
Western Visayas 22.22 1.85
Central Visayas 15.03 0.58
Eastern Visayas 13.79 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 6.06 3.03 2.27
Northern Mindanao 15.76 1.21 0.61 1.21
Davao Region 15.23 5.30 3.31
SOCCSKSARGEN 23.68 2.63 2.63 0.88
Caraga 28.57 8.57
ARMM 25.51

61
Table 11. Percentage distribution of corn farmers by number of cropping per year
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

One Two Three


Region
Cropping Croppings Croppings

PHILIPPINES 5.87 81.43 12.70

CAR 100.00
Ilocos Region 100.00
Cagayan Valley 99.19 0.81
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 90.00 10.00
Bicol Region 93.15 6.85
Western Visayas 12.96 68.52 18.52
Central Visayas 5.78 84.97 9.25
Eastern Visayas 3.45 79.31 17.24
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.76 95.45 3.79
Northern Mindanao 4.85 89.70 5.45
Davao Region 2.65 56.29 41.06
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.88 69.30 29.82
Caraga 2.86 94.29 2.86
ARMM 41.84 46.94 11.22

Table 12. Percentage distribution of corn farmers by month of planting and by region,
Philippines, September 2012 - July 2013

2012 2013
Region
Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

PHILIPPINES 0.32 3.17 14.29 9.92 6.51 2.94 11.19 18.25 25.16 7.78 0.48

CAR 55.56 44.44


Ilocos Region 8.70 76.09 10.87 2.17 2.17
Cagayan Valley 10.48 41.13 41.13 7.26
Central Luzon 5.56 83.33 11.11
CALABARZON 18.18 9.09 72.73
MIMAROPA 10.00 30.00 40.00 20.00
Bicol Region 4.11 24.66 31.51 36.99 1.37 1.37
Western Visayas 12.96 7.41 11.11 66.67 1.85
Central Visayas 2.31 0.58 0.58 1.16 10.40 58.38 26.59
Eastern Visayas 3.45 10.34 10.34 17.24 6.90 20.69 27.59 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.52 1.52 3.79 1.52 4.55 17.42 49.24 18.18 2.27
Northern Mindanao 1.82 13.94 4.24 1.21 7.27 25.45 38.18 7.88
Davao Region 1.32 1.32 6.62 5.96 33.11 27.15 18.54 4.64 1.32
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.63 4.39 5.26 5.26 4.39 12.28 28.95 34.21 2.63
Caraga 2.86 45.71 31.43 20.00
ARMM 3.06 7.14 10.20 8.16 6.12 17.35 8.16 11.22 24.49 4.08

62
Table 13. Percentage distribution of corn farmers by month of harvesting and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept

PHILIPPINES 2.06 5.00 17.78 8.41 3.17 8.81 15.40 25.40 13.97

CAR 44.44 55.56


Ilocos Region 6.52 80.43 8.70 2.17 2.17
Cagayan Valley 2.42 10.48 58.06 29.03
Central Luzon 5.56 83.33 11.11
CALABARZON 18.18 81.82
MIMAROPA 20.00 60.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 2.74 10.96 45.21 30.14 10.96
Western Visayas 12.96 3.70 3.70 11.11 48.15 20.37
Central Visayas 2.31 0.58 1.73 5.20 41.04 49.13
Eastern Visayas 3.45 10.34 10.34 17.24 6.90 20.69 24.14 6.90
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.52 0.76 4.55 0.76 4.55 12.12 40.91 31.82 3.03
Northern Mindanao 1.82 1.82 12.12 4.24 0.61 3.03 18.18 43.64 14.55
Davao Region 1.32 1.32 1.99 3.97 4.64 27.81 25.83 23.84 9.27
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.63 4.39 5.26 5.26 2.63 7.89 25.44 41.23 5.26
Caraga 2.86 42.86 34.29 20.00
ARMM 3.06 7.14 4.08 12.24 4.08 17.35 9.18 12.24 30.61

Table 14. Percentage distribution of corn farmers by farm type, by type of seeds planted and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

White Yellow All


Region Modern Native Modern Native Modern Native
Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid
OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV

PHILIPPINES 0.55 40.37 59.08 74.86 21.97 3.18 20.95 35.32 43.73

CAR 100.00 100.00


Ilocos Region 100.00 100.00
Cagayan Valley 100.00 100.00 98.39 1.61
Central Luzon 83.33 16.67 83.33 16.67
CALABARZON 100.00 100.00
MIMAROPA 50.00 50.00 87.50 12.50 80.00 20.00
Bicol Region 10.00 90.00 82.61 17.39 32.88 67.12
Western Visayas 76.47 23.53 40.00 60.00 14.81 70.37 14.81
Central Visayas 23.70 76.30 23.70 76.30
Eastern Visayas 100.00 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 40.94 59.06 80.00 20.00 3.03 40.15 56.82
Northern Mindanao 2.70 27.70 69.59 52.94 41.18 5.88 7.88 29.09 63.03
Davao Region 74.17 25.83 74.17 25.83
SOCCSKSARGEN 88.57 11.43 50.00 47.73 2.27 19.30 72.81 7.89
Caraga 3.45 20.69 75.86 100.00 20.00 17.14 62.86
ARMM 26.14 73.86 60.00 40.00 29.59 70.41

63
Table 15.01 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of hybrid seeds and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Seed
Region DA/RFO LGU Trader Cooperative Co-Farmer
Grower

PHILIPPINES 0.76 0.76 93.94 0.76 2.65 1.89

CAR 3.70 81.48 3.70 11.11 3.70


Ilocos Region 2.17 91.30 2.17 4.35
Cagayan Valley 0.82 97.54 0.82 1.64
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 100.00
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 25.00 75.00
Northern Mindanao 92.31 7.69
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 90.91 4.55 4.55
Caraga 100.00
ARMM

Table 15.02 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of modern OPV seeds


and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Seed Own-
Region DA/RFO LGU Trader Co-Farmer
Grower Produced

PHILIPPINES 2.47 1.12 12.36 0.67 28.76 55.73

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon 33.33 33.33 33.33
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 12.50 12.50 37.50 37.50
Bicol Region 54.17 8.33 16.67 20.83
Western Visayas 7.89 34.21 57.89
Central Visayas 2.44 19.51 78.05
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.89 1.89 16.98 79.25
Northern Mindanao 2.08 16.67 2.08 35.42 43.75
Davao Region 6.25 2.68 4.46 33.93 56.25
SOCCSKSARGEN 15.66 37.35 48.19
Caraga 16.67 16.67 66.67
ARMM 37.93 10.34 51.72

64
Table 15.03 Percentage of corn farmers by source/s of native OPV seeds and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Own-
Region DA/RFO LGU Trader Cooperative Co-Farmer
Produced

PHILIPPINES 0.36 0.73 5.81 0.18 26.86 66.24

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 100.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 18.18 81.82
MIMAROPA 100.00
Bicol Region 2.04 4.08 12.24 81.63
Western Visayas 25.00 75.00
Central Visayas 9.85 90.15
Eastern Visayas 3.45 3.45 58.62 34.48
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.67 1.33 1.33 25.33 69.33
Northern Mindanao 1.92 13.46 28.85 55.77
Davao Region 69.23 30.77
SOCCSKSARGEN 22.22 22.22 55.56
Caraga 22.73 77.27
ARMM 17.39 36.23 47.83

Table 16. Percentage of corn farmers by type of labor used in land preparation and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Plowing Rotavating
Man-Machine
Region Man- Two-Wheel Four-Wheel
Two-Wheel Four-Wheel
Animal Tractor Tractor
Tractor Tractor

PHILIPPINES 58.25 1.19 14.29 0.48 2.70

CAR 92.59 14.81 3.70 3.70


Ilocos Region 8.70 86.96 2.17 13.04
Cagayan Valley 9.68 6.45 57.26 3.23 14.52
Central Luzon 5.56 88.89 5.56
CALABARZON 90.91
MIMAROPA 90.00 10.00
Bicol Region 91.78 6.85 1.37
Western Visayas 75.93
Central Visayas 61.85 1.73
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 62.12
Northern Mindanao 83.03 1.21 0.61
Davao Region 38.41
SOCCSKSARGEN 64.91 1.75 14.04
Caraga 77.14
ARMM 57.14 22.45 6.12

65
Table 16. Concluded

Harrowing Furrowing
Man-Machine
Region Man- Man- Man-
Two-Wheel Four-Wheel
Animal Animal Machine
Tractor Tractor

PHILIPPINES 40.32 3.49 2.30 63.73 2.94

CAR 88.89 11.11 70.37


Ilocos Region 2.17 43.48 10.87 23.91 39.13
Cagayan Valley 14.52 3.23 7.26 95.97
Central Luzon 5.56 88.89 33.33 66.67
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 80.00 100.00
Bicol Region 82.19 71.23
Western Visayas 42.59 1.85 90.74
Central Visayas 42.77 0.58 49.71 1.16
Eastern Visayas 41.38 75.86
Zamboanga Peninsula 19.70 67.42
Northern Mindanao 55.76 0.61 1.82 81.82
Davao Region 16.56 19.87 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 46.49 0.88 4.39 70.18 2.63
Caraga 57.14 8.57 62.86 2.86
ARMM 72.45 1.02 74.49

Table 17. Percentage of corn farmers by method of fertilizer application


and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Basal Side Dressing Top Dressing

PHILIPPINES 30.79 53.41 27.14

CAR 66.67 37.04 66.67


Ilocos Region 13.04 91.30 91.30
Cagayan Valley 87.10 80.65 26.61
Central Luzon 16.67 100.00 94.44
CALABARZON 9.09
MIMAROPA 70.00 30.00
Bicol Region 19.18 27.40 19.18
Western Visayas 27.78 46.30 22.22
Central Visayas 25.43 61.27 9.25
Eastern Visayas 6.90
Zamboanga Peninsula 13.64 81.82 15.15
Northern Mindanao 67.88 45.45 43.03
Davao Region 7.28 42.38 11.92
SOCCSKSARGEN 11.40 48.25 50.88
Caraga 40.00 48.57 11.43
ARMM 12.24 25.51 14.29

66
Table 18. Percentage of corn farmers by method of weeding and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Chemical
Region Manual
Spraying

PHILIPPINES 59.13 30.00

CAR 51.85 37.04


Ilocos Region 8.70 56.52
Cagayan Valley 1.61 96.77
Central Luzon 38.89
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 50.00 10.00
Bicol Region 58.90 5.48
Western Visayas 55.56 14.81
Central Visayas 78.03 0.58
Eastern Visayas 82.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 71.97 32.58
Northern Mindanao 60.00 21.21
Davao Region 82.12 38.41
SOCCSKSARGEN 44.74 39.47
Caraga 62.86 34.29
ARMM 87.76 8.16

Table 19. Percentage of corn farmers by method of shelling and by region,


Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Manual Mechanical Both

PHILIPPINES 58.73 33.57 0.56

CAR 3.70 85.19 3.70


Ilocos Region 13.04 86.96 2.17
Cagayan Valley 5.65 91.94 0.81
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 30.00 40.00
Bicol Region 73.97 21.92 1.37
Western Visayas 68.52 12.96
Central Visayas 88.44 1.16
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 91.67 5.30 1.52
Northern Mindanao 66.06 30.91 0.61
Davao Region 76.16 19.21
SOCCSKSARGEN 43.86 52.63
Caraga 65.71 31.43
ARMM 21.43 41.84

67
Table 20. Percentage of corn farmers by method of drying and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Solar Mechanical

PHILIPPINES 84.52 0.08

CAR 96.30
Ilocos Region 78.26
Cagayan Valley 79.84
Central Luzon 27.78
CALABARZON 90.91
MIMAROPA 70.00
Bicol Region 94.52
Western Visayas 70.37
Central Visayas 82.66
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 95.45
Northern Mindanao 87.27
Davao Region 94.04
SOCCSKSARGEN 92.11
Caraga 77.14 2.86
ARMM 60.20

Table 21. Percentage of corn farmers by type of solid organic fertilizers used
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Animal Manure Others1/

PHILIPPINES 1.59 0.71

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 0.81
Central Luzon 11.11
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 4.05 1.16
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 3.79
Northern Mindanao 4.24 1.82
Davao Region 0.66 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN
Caraga
ARMM

1/ Include Guano, Green Friend, Wellgrow Bio-Organic, Durabloom, compost and vermicast

68
Table 22. Percentage of corn farmers by type of solid inorganic fertilizers used and
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 7.70 43.02 18.65 20.71 0.16

CAR 7.41 88.89 7.41 29.63


Ilocos Region 23.91 73.91 4.35
Cagayan Valley 2.42 94.35 5.65 48.39
Central Luzon 83.33 44.44 11.11
CALABARZON 9.09
MIMAROPA 50.00
Bicol Region 1.37 32.88 1.37 13.70
Western Visayas 12.96 31.48 16.67 27.78
Central Visayas 2.31 30.64 27.17 12.72
Eastern Visayas 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.27 31.06 28.03 50.00
Northern Mindanao 20.00 42.42 29.09 36.97 1.21
Davao Region 12.58 21.85 28.48 4.64
SOCCSKSARGEN 1.75 63.16 17.54 7.02
Caraga 5.71 45.71 28.57 2.86
ARMM 10.20 20.41 1.02

Table 22. Concluded

Muriate of
Complete Complete Zinc Sulfate
Region Potash Others1/
(14-14-14) (16-16-16) (Zinc 21%)
(0-0-60)

PHILIPPINES 33.17 1.03 0.16 0.16 0.48

CAR 59.26 7.41


Ilocos Region 65.22 2.17
Cagayan Valley 36.29 1.61 1.61
Central Luzon 83.33 16.67
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 50.00
Bicol Region 21.92
Western Visayas 27.78
Central Visayas 44.51 0.58
Eastern Visayas 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 18.94 0.76
Northern Mindanao 35.15 3.64 1.21
Davao Region 11.92 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 51.75
Caraga 22.86
ARMM 30.61 2.04

1/ Include MRG, Amway APSA, Ammonium Chloride, Atlas (16-20-0) and Philphos (14-14-14)

69
Table 23. Percentage of corn farmers by type of pesticides used and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Fungicides Rodenticides
Region Weedicides
Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

PHILIPPINES 1.59 31.35 0.79 3.25 0.08 0.08 1.03

CAR 37.04
Ilocos Region 56.52 2.17 4.35 2.17
Cagayan Valley 2.42 96.77
Central Luzon 38.89
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 10.00
Bicol Region 5.48 6.85
Western Visayas 14.81 1.85
Central Visayas 0.58
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 32.58 0.76 3.79
Northern Mindanao 1.21 21.21 3.03 1.82
Davao Region 6.62 46.36 1.99 3.97
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.88 48.25 1.75 9.65 0.88
Caraga 2.86 34.29 17.14 5.71
ARMM 3.06 3.06 11.22

Table 24.01 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of seeds, by source and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Purchased Received
Self-Financed Own From Private Individual/
Region From Government
Paid in Paid in Discounted Produced Organization (Trader,
(LGU, DA/RFO, etc.)
Cash Kind Co-Farmer, Coop., etc.)

PHILIPPINES 36.98 2.14 50.79 1.51 8.65

CAR 88.89 3.70 7.41


Ilocos Region 95.65 2.17 2.17
Cagayan Valley 96.77 1.61 0.81 0.81
Central Luzon 77.78 5.56 16.67
CALABARZON 9.09 81.82 9.09
MIMAROPA 30.00 50.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 32.88 64.38 1.37 1.37
Western Visayas 29.63 9.26 51.85 9.26
Central Visayas 4.05 2.31 87.28 0.58 5.78
Eastern Visayas 41.38 3.45 34.48 20.69
Zamboanga Peninsula 14.39 75.00 2.27 8.33
Northern Mindanao 35.76 5.45 47.88 1.82 9.09
Davao Region 9.27 56.29 4.64 29.80
SOCCSKSARGEN 51.75 6.14 39.47 2.63
Caraga 34.29 65.71 2.86
ARMM 38.78 57.14 4.08

70
Table 24.02 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of organic fertilizers, by source and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Purchased Received
Self-Financed Own From Private Individual/
Region From Government
Paid in Paid in Discounted Produced (LGU, DA/RFO, etc.) Organization (Trader,
Cash Kind Co-Farmer, Coop., etc.)

PHILIPPINES 1.67 0.48 0.16

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 0.81
Central Luzon 5.56 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 3.47 1.73
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 3.79
Northern Mindanao 4.24 0.61 1.21
Davao Region 0.66 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN
Caraga
ARMM

Table 24.03 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of inorganic fertilizers, by source and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Purchased Received
Self-Financed Own From Private Individual/
Region From Government
Paid in Paid in Discounted Produced Organization (Trader,
(LGU, DA/RFO, etc.)
Cash Kind Co-Farmer, Coop., etc.)

PHILIPPINES 71.27 0.48 0.08 0.71

CAR 96.30 7.41


Ilocos Region 97.83 2.17
Cagayan Valley 100.00
Central Luzon 88.89 11.11
CALABARZON 9.09
MIMAROPA 70.00
Bicol Region 46.58 1.37
Western Visayas 57.41 7.41
Central Visayas 69.36 0.58
Eastern Visayas 6.90
Zamboanga Peninsula 88.64
Northern Mindanao 92.73
Davao Region 51.66 0.66 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 69.30 0.88 1.75
Caraga 74.29
ARMM 39.80

71
Table 24.04 Percentage of corn farmers by mode of acquisition of pesticides, by source and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Purchased Received
Self-Financed Own From Private Individual/
Region From Government
Paid in Paid in Discounted Produced (LGU, DA/RFO, etc.) Organization (Trader, Co-
Cash Kind Farmer, Coop., etc.)

PHILIPPINES 33.57 0.48 0.08 0.08 0.24

CAR 37.04
Ilocos Region 54.35 2.17
Cagayan Valley 96.77
Central Luzon 33.33 5.56
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 10.00
Bicol Region 8.22
Western Visayas 9.26 7.41
Central Visayas 0.58
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 32.58 0.76
Northern Mindanao 26.06
Davao Region 48.34 0.66 0.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 50.00 0.88 0.88
Caraga 54.29
ARMM 14.29

Table 25.01 Average quantity of seeds used per hectare by farm type and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Region White Yellow All Types
15.73 18.11 16.61
PHILIPPINES 15.73 18.11 16.61

CAR 17.98 17.98


Ilocos Region 19.38 19.38
Cagayan Valley 18.00 17.81 17.81
Central Luzon 20.87 20.87
CALABARZON 9.63 9.63
MIMAROPA 20.00 17.00 17.60
Bicol Region 16.49 19.64 17.74
Western Visayas 11.70 17.02 14.18
Central Visayas 13.58 13.58
Eastern Visayas 11.07 11.07
Zamboanga Peninsula 15.43 9.60 14.55
Northern Mindanao 16.03 17.57 16.20
Davao Region 14.53 14.53
SOCCSKSARGEN 19.30 17.87 18.67
Caraga 10.40 18.70 12.72
ARMM 19.22 20.57 19.37

72
Table 25.02 Average quantity of seeds used per hectare by seed type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Region Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Types
17.88 17.04 15.17 16.61
PHILIPPINES 17.88 17.04 15.17 16.61

CAR 17.98 17.98


Ilocos Region 19.38 19.38
Cagayan Valley 17.81 18.00 17.81
Central Luzon 20.45 23.57 20.87
CALABARZON 9.63 9.63
MIMAROPA 17.39 20.00 17.60
Bicol Region 19.90 16.33 17.74
Western Visayas 18.05 12.67 10.71 14.18
Central Visayas 14.43 13.20 13.58
Eastern Visayas 11.07 11.07
Zamboanga Peninsula 9.00 15.97 15.10 14.55
Northern Mindanao 17.36 17.63 15.38 16.20
Davao Region 15.17 10.99 14.53
SOCCSKSARGEN 17.28 19.04 19.71 18.67
Caraga 18.67 10.85 10.05 12.72
ARMM 19.84 19.10 19.37

Table 25.03 Average quantity of solid organic fertilizers used per hectare by farm type
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)

Region White Yellow All Types

8.16 8.14 8.15


PHILIPPINES 8.16 8.14 8.15

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 6.89 6.82
Central Luzon 55.48 55.48
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 46.39 46.39
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 12.91 10.95
Northern Mindanao 8.99 78.82 16.97
Davao Region 4.63 4.63
SOCCSKSARGEN
Caraga
ARMM

73
Table 25.04 Average quantity of solid organic fertilizers used per hectare by seed type
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Region Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Types
9.65 7.21 7.80 8.15
PHILIPPINES 9.65 7.21 7.80 8.15

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 6.89 6.82
Central Luzon 64.18 55.48
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 82.65 29.78 46.39
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 10.44 14.01 10.95
Northern Mindanao 107.53 3.73 12.74 16.97
Davao Region 5.47 4.63
SOCCSKSARGEN
Caraga
ARMM

Table 25.05 Average quantity of inorganic fertilizers used per hectare by farm type
and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

White Yellow All Types


Region
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)
``````````````` 93.31 - 308.35 0.02 173.45 0.01
PHILIPPINES 93.31 308.35 0.02 173.45 0.01

CAR 359.86 0.10 359.86 0.10


Ilocos Region 414.51 0.05 414.51 0.05
Cagayan Valley 120.00 350.48 348.30
Central Luzon 424.19 424.19
CALABARZON 0.31 0.31
MIMAROPA 40.00 94.10 83.28
Bicol Region 27.29 142.57 72.98
Western Visayas 88.62 366.64 218.52
Central Visayas 78.32 78.32
Eastern Visayas 3.76 3.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 86.86 140.00 94.94
Northern Mindanao 176.85 128.41 171.31
Davao Region 73.03 73.03
SOCCSKSARGEN 125.34 269.91 188.42
Caraga 110.21 200.00 135.36
ARMM 59.34 134.78 67.32

74
Table 25.06 Average quantity of inorganic fertilizers used per hectare by seed type and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Hybrid Modern OPV Native All Types


Region
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)
348.00 0.02 112.46 - 86.57 - 173.45 0.01
PHILIPPINES 348.00 0.02 112.46 86.57 173.45 0.01

CAR 359.86 0.10 359.86 0.10


Ilocos Region 414.51 0.05 414.51 0.05
Cagayan Valley 350.48 120.00 348.30
Central Luzon 442.16 309.52 424.19
CALABARZON 0.31 0.31
MIMAROPA 90.52 83.28
Bicol Region 140.76 28.57 72.98
Western Visayas 477.40 92.85 75.66 218.52
Central Visayas 87.61 74.06 78.32
Eastern Visayas 3.76 3.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 150.00 96.94 79.87 94.94
Northern Mindanao 127.24 184.52 170.11 171.31
Davao Region 82.22 22.41 73.03
SOCCSKSARGEN 329.52 124.35 226.53 188.42
Caraga 204.76 108.20 105.89 135.36
ARMM 95.23 52.01 67.32

Table 26.01 All Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 10.50 73.52 14.20 28.35 0.15

CAR 13.06 163.90 7.13 78.38


Ilocos Region 40.71 206.64 16.65
Cagayan Valley 2.65 194.43 5.49 81.47
Central Luzon 138.71 75.81 22.58
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA 35.28
Bicol Region 0.39 31.78 1.57 19.22
Western Visayas 11.77 68.24 8.62 64.01
Central Visayas 0.71 15.82 18.10 20.30
Eastern Visayas 1.41
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.52 29.19 19.66 34.84
Northern Mindanao 29.29 34.42 24.84 39.67 1.13
Davao Region 9.48 25.07 18.34 8.30
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.65 95.22 20.27 5.07
Caraga 12.61 78.57 21.50 1.40
ARMM 13.80 14.74 0.46

75
Table 26.01 Concluded

(in kilogram)
Zinc Muriate
Complete Complete 1/
Region Sulfate of Potash Others All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)
(Zinc 21%) (0-0-60)

PHILIPPINES 44.11 1.48 0.31 0.10 0.72 173.45

CAR 84.32 13.06 359.86


Ilocos Region 145.57 4.93 414.51
Cagayan Valley 62.33 1.89 0.02 348.30
Central Luzon 145.16 41.94 424.19
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA 48.00 83.28
Bicol Region 20.01 72.98
Western Visayas 65.89 218.52
Central Visayas 22.96 0.43 78.32
Eastern Visayas 2.35 3.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 8.97 0.76 94.94
Northern Mindanao 38.12 3.09 0.75 171.31
Davao Region 11.75 0.09 73.03
SOCCSKSARGEN 65.20 188.42
Caraga 21.29 135.36
ARMM 35.56 2.76 67.32

1/ Include MRG, Amway APSA, Ammonium Chloride, Atlas (16-20-0) and Philphos (14-14-14)

Table 26.02 White Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 11.42 26.17 14.95 15.71 0.16

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 40.00 80.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 0.65 13.65 3.90
Western Visayas 20.32 18.55 9.12 33.57
Central Visayas 0.71 15.82 18.10 20.30
Eastern Visayas 1.41
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.79 21.87 23.18 28.54
Northern Mindanao 33.07 32.16 26.56 41.09 0.85
Davao Region 9.48 25.07 18.34 8.30
SOCCSKSARGEN 60.19 14.55 5.57
Caraga 17.51 66.34 18.19 1.95
ARMM 11.32 11.85 0.51

76
Table 26.02 Concluded

(in kilogram)
Zinc
Complete Complete 1/
Region Sulfate Others All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)
(Zinc 21%)

PHILIPPINES 23.93 0.40 0.49 0.08 93.31

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 120.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA 40.00 40.00
Bicol Region 9.10 27.29
Western Visayas 7.07 88.62
Central Visayas 22.96 0.43 78.32
Eastern Visayas 2.35 3.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 10.57 0.90 86.86
Northern Mindanao 41.32 1.80 176.85
Davao Region 11.75 0.09 73.03
SOCCSKSARGEN 45.03 125.34
Caraga 6.23 110.21
ARMM 32.57 3.09 59.34

1/ Include Atlas (16-20-0) and PhilPhos (14-14-14)

Table 26.03 Yellow Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 8.94 153.24 12.93 49.63 0.14

CAR 13.06 163.90 7.13 78.38


Ilocos Region 40.71 206.64 16.65
Cagayan Valley 2.68 195.91 4.78 82.25
Central Luzon 138.71 75.81 22.58
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 44.10
Bicol Region 59.41 3.96 42.57
Western Visayas 2.01 124.90 8.06 98.71
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 70.00 70.00
Northern Mindanao 51.92 11.49 28.74 3.28
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 6.08 140.49 27.65 4.42
Caraga 110.00 30.00
ARMM 34.78 39.13

77
Table 26.03 Concluded

(in kilogram)
Muriate
Complete Complete 1/
Region of Potash Others All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)
(0-0-60)

PHILIPPINES 78.08 3.30 0.28 1.80 308.35

CAR 84.32 13.06 359.86


Ilocos Region 145.57 4.93 414.51
Cagayan Valley 62.93 1.91 0.02 350.48
Central Luzon 145.16 41.94 424.19
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 50.00 94.10
Bicol Region 36.63 142.57
Western Visayas 132.96 366.64
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 140.00
Northern Mindanao 13.27 13.14 6.57 128.41
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 91.26 269.91
Caraga 60.00 200.00
ARMM 60.87 134.78

1/ Include MRG, Amway APSA, Ammonium Chloride, Atlas (16-20-0) and Philphos (14-14-14)

Table 26.04 Hybrid Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 8.76 176.86 13.23 57.07 0.17

CAR 13.06 163.90 7.13 78.38


Ilocos Region 40.71 206.64 16.65
Cagayan Valley 2.68 195.91 4.78 82.25
Central Luzon 149.25 72.76 26.12
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 169.49 129.94
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 77.78 72.22
Northern Mindanao 54.07 12.80 24.32 5.12
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 180.00 32.38 4.76
Caraga 109.52 28.57 4.76
ARMM

78
Table 26.04 Concluded

(in kilogram)
Muriate
Complete Complete 1/
Region of Potash Others All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)
(0-0-60)

PHILIPPINES 85.89 3.44 0.34 2.24 348.00

CAR 84.32 13.06 359.86


Ilocos Region 145.57 4.93 414.51
Cagayan Valley 62.93 1.91 0.02 350.48
Central Luzon 145.52 48.51 442.16
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 177.97 477.40
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 150.00
Northern Mindanao 20.69 10.24 127.24
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 112.38 329.52
Caraga 61.90 204.76
ARMM

1/ Include MRG, Amway APSA, Ammonium Chloride, Atlas (16-20-0) and Philphos (14-14-14)

Table 26.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied
per hectare by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea Complete
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0) (12-12-12)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 9.66 39.73 14.52 14.45 0.30

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon 71.43 95.24
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 38.35
Bicol Region 0.99 64.43 3.97 30.73
Western Visayas 16.18 22.47 16.46 26.96
Central Visayas 0.03 25.46 15.07 24.66
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.19 27.86 23.37 32.32
Northern Mindanao 39.82 39.06 14.31 34.41 2.49
Davao Region 9.96 29.48 19.20 9.80
SOCCSKSARGEN 4.22 58.22 13.82 2.30
Caraga 74.59 33.61
ARMM 2.60 31.21 1.30

79
Table 26.05 Concluded

(in kilogram)

Complete Complete 1/
Region Others All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)

PHILIPPINES 32.54 1.12 0.15 112.46

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon 142.86 309.52
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 52.17 90.52
Bicol Region 40.64 140.76
Western Visayas 10.78 92.85
Central Visayas 22.40 87.61
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 9.82 2.37 96.94
Northern Mindanao 45.42 9.01 184.52
Davao Region 13.67 0.10 82.22
SOCCSKSARGEN 45.78 124.35
Caraga 108.20
ARMM 60.13 95.23

1/ Include Atlas (16-20-0) and Philphos (14-14-14)

Table 26.06 Native OPV Corn: Average quantity of solid inorganic fertilizers applied
per hectare by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(in kilogram)
Ammonium Ammonium
Urea Urea
Region Sulfate Phosphate
(45-0-0) (46-0-0)
(21-0-0) (16-20-0)

PHILIPPINES 12.74 19.89 14.70 17.72

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 40.00 80.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 10.39 11.69
Western Visayas 23.03 46.05
Central Visayas 1.02 11.40 19.48 18.31
Eastern Visayas 1.41
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.10 17.73 22.42 26.90
Northern Mindanao 27.64 29.87 31.34 44.02
Davao Region 6.82 0.80 13.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 110.20 28.57 20.41
Caraga 23.56 62.83 13.74
ARMM 19.95 5.70

80
Table 26.06 Concluded

(in kilogram)
Zinc
Complete Complete
Region Sulfate All Types
(14-14-14) (16-16-16)
(Zinc 21%)

PHILIPPINES 20.45 0.21 0.85 86.57

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 120.00
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.31
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 6.49 28.57
Western Visayas 6.58 75.66
Central Visayas 23.21 0.63 74.06
Eastern Visayas 2.35 3.76
Zamboanga Peninsula 10.72 79.87
Northern Mindanao 36.63 0.60 170.11
Davao Region 1.14 22.41
SOCCSKSARGEN 67.35 226.53
Caraga 5.76 105.89
ARMM 22.09 4.27 52.01

Table 27.01 Average quantity of fertilizer nutrients applied per hectare by farm type and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

White
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 26.28 6.59 3.44

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 35.20
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.14
MIMAROPA 5.60 5.60 5.60
Bicol Region 8.47 2.05 1.27
Western Visayas 25.95 7.70 0.99
Central Visayas 17.93 7.34 3.28
Eastern Visayas 0.62 0.33 0.33
Zamboanga Peninsula 21.92 7.34 1.54
Northern Mindanao 48.00 14.39 6.17
Davao Region 22.64 3.32 1.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 37.94 7.42 6.30
Caraga 43.40 1.26 0.87
ARMM 15.19 4.66 4.56

81
Table 27.01 Continued

Yellow
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 97.47 a/ 21.81 a/ 12.19 a/

CAR 109.20 0.01 29.57 0.01 13.90 0.01


Ilocos Region 138.04 21.17 21.17
Cagayan Valley 115.57 26.25 9.94
Central Luzon 114.47 25.16 25.69
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 27.29 7.00 7.00
Bicol Region 40.10 13.64 5.13
Western Visayas 94.46 38.36 18.61
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 43.40 14.00
Northern Mindanao 35.42 13.46 8.94
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 86.65 13.66 12.78
Caraga 65.30 8.40 8.40
ARMM 42.17 8.52 8.52

a/ Less than 0.01L

Table 27.01 Concluded

All Types
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 52.80 a/ 12.26 a/ 6.70 a/

CAR 109.20 0.01 29.57 0.01 13.90 0.01


Ilocos Region 138.04 21.17 21.17
Cagayan Valley 114.81 26.01 9.85
Central Luzon 114.47 25.16 25.69
CALABARZON 0.14
MIMAROPA 22.95 6.72 6.72
Bicol Region 21.00 6.65 2.80
Western Visayas 57.96 22.03 9.22
Central Visayas 17.93 7.34 3.28
Eastern Visayas 0.62 0.33 0.33
Zamboanga Peninsula 25.18 8.35 1.31
Northern Mindanao 46.56 14.29 6.49
Davao Region 22.64 3.32 1.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 59.19 10.14 9.13
Caraga 49.53 3.26 2.98
ARMM 18.04 5.07 4.98

a/ Less than 0.01L

82
Table 27.02 Average quanitity of fertilizer nutrients applied per hectare by seed type and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Hybrid
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 110.82 a/ 24.51 a/ 13.49 a/

CAR 109.20 0.01 29.57 0.01 13.90 0.01


Ilocos Region 138.04 21.17 21.17
Cagayan Valley 115.57 26.25 9.94
Central Luzon 120.99 25.97 26.58
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 123.67 50.90 24.92
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 47.33 14.44
Northern Mindanao 35.24 13.61 10.66
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 106.10 16.69 15.73
Caraga 65.81 9.62 8.67
ARMM

a/ Less than 0.01L

Table 27.02 Continued

Modern OPV
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 32.78 7.68 4.78

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon 72.86 20.00 20.00
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 24.94 7.30 7.30
Bicol Region 41.52 11.84 5.69
Western Visayas 26.89 6.90 1.51
Central Visayas 21.97 8.07 3.14
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 25.16 8.24 1.54
Northern Mindanao 52.50 14.98 8.10
Davao Region 25.57 3.89 1.93
SOCCSKSARGEN 38.36 6.87 6.41
Caraga 41.37
ARMM 24.15 8.68 8.42

83
Table 27.02 Continued

Native OPV
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 23.70 6.44 2.90

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 35.20
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 0.14
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 7.56 3.25 0.91
Western Visayas 18.65 10.13 0.92
Central Visayas 16.08 7.01 3.35
Eastern Visayas 0.62 0.33 0.33
Zamboanga Peninsula 19.61 6.88 1.50
Northern Mindanao 45.03 14.03 5.23
Davao Region 6.46 0.16 0.16
SOCCSKSARGEN 69.39 13.51 9.43
Caraga 43.20 0.81 0.81
ARMM 14.69 3.09 3.09

Table 27.02 Concluded

All Types
Region Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 52.80 a/ 12.26 a/ 6.70 a/

CAR 109.20 0.01 29.57 0.01 13.90 0.01


Ilocos Region 138.04 21.17 21.17
Cagayan Valley 114.81 26.01 9.85
Central Luzon 114.47 25.16 25.69
CALABARZON 0.14
MIMAROPA 22.95 6.72 6.72
Bicol Region 21.00 6.65 2.80
Western Visayas 57.96 22.03 9.22
Central Visayas 17.93 7.34 3.28
Eastern Visayas 0.62 0.33 0.33
Zamboanga Peninsula 25.18 8.35 1.31
Northern Mindanao 46.56 14.29 6.49
Davao Region 22.64 3.32 1.66
SOCCSKSARGEN 59.19 10.14 9.13
Caraga 49.53 3.26 2.98
ARMM 18.04 5.07 4.98

a/ Less than 0.01L

84
Table 28.01 Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by farm type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

White Yellow All Types


Region
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)
0.04 0.65 0.02 3.10 0.03 1.56
PHILIPPINES 0.04 0.65 0.02 3.10 0.03 1.56

CAR 1.38 1.38


Ilocos Region 0.02 1.21 0.02 1.21
Cagayan Valley 2.40 0.02 5.05 0.02 5.02
Central Luzon 0.66 0.66
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 0.80 0.16
Bicol Region 0.39 0.15
Western Visayas 0.07 6.45 0.04 3.01
Central Visayas 0.07 0.07
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.04 1.16 4.10 0.03 1.61
Northern Mindanao 0.04 0.35 3.78 0.03 0.74
Davao Region 0.13 1.65 0.13 1.65
SOCCSKSARGEN a/ 1.20 0.05 2.87 0.02 1.93
Caraga 0.04 0.54 3.00 0.03 1.23
ARMM 0.03 0.10 0.09 0.02 0.10

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg

Table 28.02 Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by seed type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Types


Region
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.02 3.58 0.06 1.03 0.02 0.39 0.03 1.56

CAR 1.38 1.38


Ilocos Region 0.02 1.21 0.02 1.21
Cagayan Valley 0.02 5.05 2.40 0.02 5.02
Central Luzon 0.77 0.66
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 0.17 0.16
Bicol Region 0.39 0.15
Western Visayas 9.04 0.07 0.04 3.01
Central Visayas 0.22 0.07
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 4.33 0.09 0.98 a/ 1.29 0.03 1.61
Northern Mindanao 4.45 0.06 1.12 0.02 0.13 0.03 0.74
Davao Region 0.11 1.48 0.23 2.59 0.13 1.65
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.08 2.78 a/ 1.65 1.58 0.02 1.93
Caraga 0.10 2.86 0.82 a/ 0.47 0.03 1.23
ARMM 0.06 0.19 0.04 0.02 0.10

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg

85
Table 29.01 All Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Fungicides Rodenticides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.02 1.53 0.01 0.03 a/ b/ a/

CAR 1.38
Ilocos Region 1.13 0.02 0.07 b/
Cagayan Valley 0.02 5.02
Central Luzon 0.66
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 0.16
Bicol Region 0.09 0.06
Western Visayas 3.01 0.04
Central Visayas 0.07
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.61 0.03 a/
Northern Mindanao 0.01 0.73 0.02 0.01
Davao Region 0.12 1.62 0.03 a/
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.02 1.86 a/ 0.06 a/
Caraga 0.03 1.04 0.20 a/
ARMM 0.02 0.02 0.07

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg b/ Less than 0.01 L

Table 29.02 White Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Rodenticides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.03 0.62 0.01 0.03 a/

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 2.40
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 0.80
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 0.07
Central Visayas 0.07
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.16 0.04 a/
Northern Mindanao 0.01 0.34 0.03 0.01
Davao Region 0.12 1.62 0.03 a/
SOCCSKSARGEN 1.19 a/ 0.01
Caraga 0.04 0.27 0.27 a/
ARMM 0.03 0.03 0.07

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg

86
Table 29.03 Yellow Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Fungicides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.01 3.06 a/ 0.04 a/ b/

CAR 1.38
Ilocos Region 1.13 0.02 0.07 b/
Cagayan Valley 0.02 5.05
Central Luzon 0.66
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region 0.24 0.15
Western Visayas 6.45
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 4.10
Northern Mindanao 3.78
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.04 2.74 a/ 0.13 a/
Caraga 3.00
ARMM 0.09

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg b/ Less than 0.01 L

Table 29.04 Hybrid Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Fungicides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.02 3.55 a/ 0.03 b/

CAR 1.38
Ilocos Region 1.13 0.02 0.07 b/
Cagayan Valley 0.02 5.05
Central Luzon 0.77
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 9.04
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 4.33
Northern Mindanao 4.45
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 0.08 2.59 a/ 0.19
Caraga 0.10 2.86
ARMM

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg b/ Less than 0.01 L

87
Table 29.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare by type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Fungicides Rodenticides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.04 0.99 0.02 0.04 a/ a/

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 0.17
Bicol Region 0.24 0.15
Western Visayas 0.07
Central Visayas 0.22
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 0.98 0.09
Northern Mindanao 0.01 1.11 0.05 0.01
Davao Region 0.11 1.47 0.01 a/
SOCCSKSARGEN 1.64 a/ 0.01 a/
Caraga 0.49 0.33
ARMM 0.06 0.01 0.18

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg

Table 29.06 Native OPV Corn: Average quantity of pesticides applied per hectare
by type and by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

Herbicides /
Insecticides Rodenticides
Region Weedicides
Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L) Solid (Kg) Liquid (L)

PHILIPPINES 0.01 0.36 a/ 0.03 a/

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 2.40
Central Luzon
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 1.29 a/
Northern Mindanao 0.01 0.11 0.02 0.01
Davao Region 0.23 2.45 0.14
SOCCSKSARGEN 1.50 0.08
Caraga 0.21 0.26 a/
ARMM 0.03 0.01

a/ Less than 0.01 Kg

88
Table 30. Average labor utilization per hectare by farm type and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Region White Yellow All Types

PHILIPPINES 45.11 46.69 45.70

CAR 46.38 46.38


Ilocos Region 46.63 46.63
Cagayan Valley 62.61 44.69 44.86
Central Luzon 56.40 56.40
CALABARZON 26.95 26.95
MIMAROPA 23.70 32.32 30.59
Bicol Region 32.72 42.28 36.51
Western Visayas 52.93 57.48 55.05
Central Visayas 54.95 54.95
Eastern Visayas 44.61 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 46.54 48.04 46.77
Northern Mindanao 45.15 62.53 47.14
Davao Region 48.44 48.44
SOCCSKSARGEN 36.05 40.55 38.01
Caraga 40.83 45.93 42.26
ARMM 46.51 64.50 48.42

Table 31. Average labor utilization per hectare by seed type and by region,
Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Region Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Types
42.01 42.76 40.88 41.86
PHILIPPINES 46.60 45.45 45.19 45.70

CAR 46.38 46.38


Ilocos Region 46.63 46.63
Cagayan Valley 44.69 62.61 44.86
Central Luzon 59.34 37.64 56.40
CALABARZON 26.95 26.95
MIMAROPA 30.99 26.00 30.59
Bicol Region 41.27 33.39 36.51
Western Visayas 59.41 55.76 42.33 55.05
Central Visayas 57.82 53.64 54.95
Eastern Visayas 44.61 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 45.83 58.38 40.15 46.77
Northern Mindanao 63.82 49.09 44.24 47.14
Davao Region 49.28 43.82 48.44
SOCCSKSARGEN 39.18 38.02 35.45 38.01
Caraga 47.43 35.04 41.72 42.26
ARMM 34.92 55.82 48.42

89
Table 32.01 All Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange
9.39 12.02 1.42 19.03 41.86
PHILIPPINES 9.39 12.02 1.42 22.87 45.70

CAR 1.72 16.66 8.71 19.29 46.38


Ilocos Region 5.78 5.41 0.12 35.32 46.63
Cagayan Valley 2.87 3.11 0.22 38.66 44.86
Central Luzon 14.93 5.91 0.26 35.30 56.40
CALABARZON 10.35 10.18 6.41 26.95
MIMAROPA 5.09 5.78 19.72 30.59
Bicol Region 9.04 13.95 0.17 13.35 36.51
Western Visayas 8.78 16.68 0.85 28.74 55.05
Central Visayas 17.85 18.74 0.54 17.82 54.95
Eastern Visayas 15.26 16.76 0.05 12.54 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 14.47 16.87 0.10 15.32 46.77
Northern Mindanao 11.91 14.99 0.26 19.98 47.14
Davao Region 9.90 14.22 0.68 23.65 48.44
SOCCSKSARGEN 5.29 8.12 0.04 24.56 38.01
Caraga 7.78 6.12 0.59 27.76 42.26
ARMM 13.44 14.91 7.09 12.98 48.42

Table 32.02 White Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange

PHILIPPINES 12.47 15.10 1.26 16.29 45.11

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 24.90 8.80 3.90 25.00 62.61
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 10.35 10.18 6.41 26.95
MIMAROPA 3.40 2.00 18.30 23.70
Bicol Region 10.51 14.42 0.03 7.77 32.72
Western Visayas 12.88 16.94 23.11 52.93
Central Visayas 17.85 18.74 0.54 17.82 54.95
Eastern Visayas 15.26 16.76 0.05 12.54 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 16.36 19.21 0.12 10.86 46.54
Northern Mindanao 12.82 16.52 0.29 15.51 45.15
Davao Region 9.90 14.22 0.68 23.65 48.44
SOCCSKSARGEN 6.74 10.52 0.07 18.72 36.05
Caraga 10.24 8.48 0.82 21.29 40.83
ARMM 13.94 14.70 6.03 11.85 46.51

90
Table 32.03 Yellow Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange

PHILIPPINES 4.19 6.84 1.70 33.95 46.69

CAR 1.72 16.66 8.71 19.29 46.38


Ilocos Region 5.78 5.41 0.12 35.32 46.63
Cagayan Valley 2.65 3.05 0.19 38.79 44.69
Central Luzon 14.93 5.91 0.26 35.30 56.40
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 5.51 6.73 20.08 32.32
Bicol Region 6.81 13.22 0.40 21.85 42.28
Western Visayas 4.12 16.39 1.81 35.16 57.48
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 3.96 3.85 40.23 48.04
Northern Mindanao 4.85 3.12 54.56 62.53
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 3.41 5.02 32.12 40.55
Caraga 1.46 0.08 44.39 45.93
ARMM 9.23 16.66 16.02 22.59 64.50

Table 32.04 Hybrid Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange
3.52 5.48 1.45 31.56 42.01
PHILIPPINES 3.52 5.48 1.45 36.15 46.60

CAR 1.72 16.66 8.71 19.29 46.38


Ilocos Region 5.78 5.41 0.12 35.32 46.63
Cagayan Valley 2.65 3.05 0.19 38.79 44.69
Central Luzon 15.17 5.41 0.30 38.46 59.34
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA
Bicol Region
Western Visayas 2.19 10.85 2.54 43.82 59.41
Central Visayas
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.31 0.94 42.58 45.83
Northern Mindanao 6.61 4.38 52.84 63.82
Davao Region
SOCCSKSARGEN 1.84 2.06 35.28 39.18
Caraga 1.49 0.07 45.87 47.43
ARMM

91
Table 32.05 Modern OPV Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange

PHILIPPINES 10.68 13.32 0.65 20.81 45.45

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley
Central Luzon 13.40 9.11 15.13 37.64
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 3.97 5.59 21.44 30.99
Bicol Region 6.42 11.05 0.40 23.41 41.27
Western Visayas 11.51 21.76 22.49 55.76
Central Visayas 14.54 19.46 0.08 23.75 57.82
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 20.46 25.91 0.06 11.95 58.38
Northern Mindanao 12.00 13.94 0.10 23.05 49.09
Davao Region 8.81 13.51 0.71 26.26 49.28
SOCCSKSARGEN 7.12 10.98 0.06 19.85 38.02
Caraga 10.90 5.64 18.50 35.04
ARMM 16.18 7.36 3.25 8.12 34.92

Table 32.06 Native OPV Corn: Average labor utilization per hectare by source and
by region, Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Unpaid Labor
Region Hired Labor All Types
Operator Family Exchange
13.02 16.23 2.13 9.50 40.88
PHILIPPINES 13.02 16.23 2.13 13.81 45.19

CAR
Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 24.90 8.80 3.90 25.00 62.61
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 10.35 10.18 6.41 26.95
MIMAROPA 18.00 8.00 26.00
Bicol Region 10.76 15.84 0.03 6.76 33.39
Western Visayas 14.17 11.68 16.48 42.33
Central Visayas 19.37 18.42 0.75 15.10 53.64
Eastern Visayas 15.26 16.76 0.05 12.54 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 14.01 15.55 0.16 10.44 40.15
Northern Mindanao 12.49 16.74 0.37 14.64 44.24
Davao Region 15.94 18.09 0.48 9.30 43.82
SOCCSKSARGEN 2.91 5.91 26.64 35.45
Caraga 10.25 9.61 1.10 20.77 41.72
ARMM 11.93 19.05 9.19 15.65 55.82

92
Table 33.01 Average labor utilization per hectare by farm activity and by farm type,
Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Region White Yellow All Types

Land Preparation
Plowing
Man and animal 4.33 1.27 3.19
Man and machine, two-wheel a/ 0.02 0.01
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.06 0.20 0.12
Rotavating
Man and machine, two-wheel 0.02 0.01
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.05 0.03 0.04
Harrowing
Man and animal 1.97 0.88 1.56
Man and machine, two-wheel 0.01 0.13 0.05
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.01 0.05 0.02
Furrowing
Man and animal 1.72 1.91 1.79
Man and machine 0.01 0.08 0.04
Planting
Man 5.49 7.29 6.16
Man and machine 0.03 0.05 0.04
Care of crops
Fertilizer application (basal) 0.71 1.19 0.89
Fertilizer application (side dressing) 1.28 2.06 1.57
Fertilizer application (top dressing) 0.55 1.30 0.83
Off-barring 1.05 0.56 0.87
Hilling-up 1.31 0.76 1.11
Irrigating 1.71 0.64
Weeding
Weeding (manual) 5.77 1.23 4.08
Weeding (chemical spraying) 0.38 1.17 0.67
Chemical application (other than weedicide) 0.10 0.10 0.10
Detasseling 0.03 0.04 0.03
Harvesting
Man 8.25 12.30 9.76
Man and machine 0.09 0.09 0.09
Hauling of produce
Man 0.73 0.51 0.65
Man and animal 0.87 1.43 1.08
Man and machine 0.04 0.36 0.16
Shelling
Manual 5.53 0.97 3.83
Mechanical 0.56 2.62 1.33
Drying
Solar 3.82 6.04 4.65
Mechanical 0.04 0.02
Others1/ 0.37 0.29 0.34

All farm activities 45.11 46.69 45.70

1/ Include clearing, digging, replanting, hauling of inputs, piling, removing of husks and packing or bagging
a/ Less than 0.01 manday

93
Table 33.02 Average labor utilization per hectare by farm activity and by seed type,
Philippines, January-September 2013

(manday)
Region Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Types

Land Preparation
Plowing
Man and animal 0.92 3.60 4.67 3.19
Man and machine, two-wheel 0.02 a/ 0.01
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.21 0.06 0.10 0.12
Rotavating
Man and machine, two-wheel 0.03 0.01
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04
Harrowing
Man and animal 0.60 1.65 2.28 1.56
Man and machine, two-wheel 0.16 0.01 0.01 0.05
Man and machine, four-wheel 0.06 0.01 a/ 0.02
Furrowing
Man and animal 1.84 1.53 2.00 1.79
Man and machine 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.04
Planting
Man 7.53 5.45 5.70 6.16
Man and machine 0.07 0.05 0.04
Care of crops
Fertilizer application (basal) 1.38 0.57 0.79 0.89
Fertilizer application (side dressing) 2.30 1.46 1.07 1.57
Fertilizer application (top dressing) 1.35 0.81 0.40 0.83
Off-barring 0.31 0.82 1.38 0.87
Hilling-up 0.46 1.03 1.71 1.11
Irrigating 2.09 0.04 0.64
Weeding
Weeding (manual) 0.53 6.50 4.73 4.08
Weeding (chemical spraying) 1.36 0.50 0.26 0.67
Chemical application (other than weedicide) 0.07 0.17 0.06 0.10
Detasseling 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.03
Harvesting
Man 12.80 8.71 8.23 9.76
Man and machine 0.08 0.05 0.13 0.09
Hauling of produce
Man 0.58 0.62 0.72 0.65
Man and animal 1.47 1.21 0.62 1.08
Man and machine 0.43 0.04 0.05 0.16
Shelling
Manual 0.27 5.07 5.61 3.83
Mechanical 2.92 0.86 0.45 1.33
Drying
Solar 6.31 4.22 3.67 4.65
Mechanical 0.05 0.02
Others1/ 0.26 0.34 0.41 0.34

All farm activities 46.60 45.45 45.19 45.70

1/ Include clearing, digging, replanting, hauling of inputs, piling, removing of husks and packing or bagging
a/ Less than 0.01 manday

94
Table 34.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Philippines, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,268.84 16,669 4,230.52 49,992 2,372.52 29,087


Area harvested ha. 0.67 1.05 0.77
Number of farms 914 346 1,260

CASH COSTS 6,119 26,140 13,579

Seeds kg 3.98 119 15.89 5,600 8.42 2,161


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 6.39 15 7.15 37 6.68 23
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 92.95 2,144 290.81 6,664 166.68 3,828
Inorganic fertilizers: Liquid L 0.02 8 0.01 3
Foliar: Solid kg b/ 1 b/ d/
Foliar: Liquid L 0.01 3 0.11 59 0.05 24
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.04 16 0.01 6 0.03 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.63 239 2.95 882 1.50 479
Hired labor manday 12.28 2,177 29.40 7,644 18.66 4,214
Land tax 110 105 108
Caretaker/overseer's wages 1 40 16
Rentals: Land 39 339 151
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 175 121 155
Fuel & Oil L 0.03 2 15.71 723 5.87 271
Transport cost of inputs 146 256 187
Interest payment on crop loan 57 1,089 442
Irrigation fee 6 21 12
Sacks and tying materials / needle 117 565 284
Electricity cost 6 19 11
Food expense 365 899 564
Repairs 379 1,009 614
Others a/ 3 51 21

NON-CASH COSTS 1,638 2,625 2,006

Seeds kg 10.22 175 1.16 182 6.85 178


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.54 5 0.99 6 1.33 5
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.08 2 7.91 174 3.00 66
Pesticides: Solid kg b/ d/ b/ d/
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.01 2 0.13 35 0.05 14
Hired labor in kind manday 0.43 87 0.25 98 0.36 91
Harvesters' share kg 62.79 793 97.04 1,131 75.55 919
Sheller's share kg 13.67 175 30.62 361 19.99 245
Landowner's share kg 28.47 382 52.28 606 37.34 465
Caretaker/overseer's wages kg 0.25 3 0.15 2
Rentals: Land kg 0.51 7 1.76 18 0.97 11
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment kg 0.39 5 0.24 3
Interest payment on crop loan kg 1.24 14 0.46 5

95
Table 34.01 Concluded

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

IMPUTED COSTS 5,858 7,575 6,498

Seeds kg 1.53 33 1.05 95 1.35 56


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.23 1 0.14 1
Inorganic Fertilizers: Solid kg 0.29 5 9.63 220 3.77 85
Foliar: Liquid L b/ d/ b/ d/
Pesticides: Solid kg c/ 1 c/ d/
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.01 2 0.02 8 0.01 4
Operator labor manday 12.47 1,937 4.19 860 9.39 1,536
Family labor manday 15.10 2,134 6.84 1,323 12.02 1,831
Exchange labor manday 1.26 241 1.70 370 1.42 289
Depreciation 199 547 328
Interest on operating capital 270 1,198 616
Rental value of owned land 1,018 2,930 1,730
Land Tax 13 8 11
Transport cost of inputs 1 d/
Sacks and tying materials / needle 5 16 9

TOTAL COSTS 13,614 36,340 22,083

GROSS RETURNS 16,669 49,992 29,087


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 10,551 23,852 15,508
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
8,913 21,227 13,502
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 3,055 13,652 7,004
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.22 0.38 0.32

COST PER KILOGRAM 10.73 8.59 9.31


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 13.14 11.82 12.26
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"
b/ Less than 0.01 kg
c/ Less than 0.01 L
d/ Less than P1.00

96
Table 34.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type, Philippines,
January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn Average

Variable Costs 11,902 30,092 18,680


Seeds 327 5,878 2,395
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 22 42 29
Inorganic
Solid 2,151 7,059 3,980
Liquid 8 3
Foliar
Solid 1 b/
Liquid 3 59 24
Pesticides
Solid 16 7 13
Liquid 244 925 497
Labor
Hired Labor 2,264 7,742 4,305
Operator Labor 1,937 860 1,536
Family Labor 2,134 1,323 1,831
Exchange Labor 241 370 289
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 4 40 18
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 179 121 158
Fuel & Oil 2 723 271
Transport costs 147 256 187
Irrigation fee 6 21 12
Electricity costs 6 19 11
Repairs 379 1,009 614
Food expense 365 899 564
Harvesters' share 793 1,131 919
Sheller's share 175 361 245
Landowner's share 382 606 465
Sacks and tying materials 122 581 293
Othersa/ 3 51 21

FIXED COSTS 1,713 6,248 3,403


Land tax 123 113 119
Lease rental 46 357 162
Interest payment on crop loan 57 1,103 447
Depreciation 199 547 328
Interest on operating capital 270 1,198 616
Rental value of owned land 1,018 2,930 1,730

TOTAL COSTS 13,614 36,340 22,083

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"


b/ Less than P1.00

97
Table 34.03 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by seed type, Philippines, January-September 2013

Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 4,754.36 56,118 1,514.14 19,142 1,278.04 16,988 2,372.52 29,087


Area harvested ha. 1.10 0.75 0.64 0.77
Number of farms 264 445 551 1,260

CASH COSTS 29,431 8,332 5,710 13,579

Seeds kg 16.70 6,643 5.15 414 4.91 109 8.42 2,161


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 8.42 45 5.68 16 6.52 12 6.68 23
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 328.93 7,559 109.53 2,495 91.07 2,109 166.68 3,828
Inorganic fertilizers: Liquid L 0.02 10 0.01 3
Foliar: Solid kg b/ 1 b/ d/
Foliar: Liquid L 0.14 73 0.01 6 0.05 24
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.02 8 0.06 20 0.02 8 0.03 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 3.41 997 0.99 377 0.41 153 1.50 479
Hired labor manday 31.26 8,358 17.87 3,017 9.47 2,020 18.66 4,214
Land tax 106 102 123 108
Caretaker/overseer's wages 50 2 16
Rentals: Land 332 137 15 151
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 76 136 250 155
Fuel & Oil L 18.61 858 0.93 43 c/ d/ 5.87 271
Transport cost of inputs 253 223 104 187
Interest payment on crop loan 1,317 103 41 442
Irrigation fee 25 8 4 12
Sacks and tying materials / needle 636 126 149 284
Electricity cost 21 14 11
Food expense 940 515 315 564
Repairs 1,064 572 296 614
Others a/ 60 5 3 21

NON-CASH COSTS 2,953 1,277 2,016 2,006

Seeds kg 0.52 208 9.80 153 9.79 186 6.85 178


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.24 7 1.53 6 1.29 4 1.33 5
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 9.88 218 0.15 4 3.00 66
Pesticides: Solid kg b/ d/ b/ d/
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.16 43 0.01 4 0.05 14
Hired labor in kind manday 0.30 111 0.25 46 0.55 123 0.36 91
Harvesters' share kg 109.72 1,275 47.91 587 77.45 991 75.55 919
Sheller's share kg 32.75 382 7.69 99 22.21 284 19.99 245
Landowner's share kg 59.79 691 28.04 358 29.06 401 37.34 465
Caretaker/overseer's wages kg 0.45 6 0.15 2
Rentals: Land kg 1.92 20 0.93 13 0.97 11
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment kg 0.07 1 0.64 8 0.24 3
Interest payment on crop loan kg 1.55 17 0.46 5

98
Table 34.03 Concluded

Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

IMPUTED COSTS 7,595 5,909 6,482 6,498

Seeds kg 0.65 95 2.09 47 1.29 34 1.35 56


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.42 2 0.14 1
Inorganic Fertilizers: Solid kg 9.19 206 2.78 64 0.23 6 3.77 85
Foliar: Liquid L c/ d/ c/ d/
Pesticides: Solid kg b/ 2 b/ d/
Pesticides: Liquid L c/ 3 0.03 10 0.01 4
Operator labor manday 3.52 748 10.68 1,651 13.74 2,193 9.39 1,536
Family labor manday 5.48 1,088 13.32 1,929 17.11 2,484 12.02 1,831
Exchange labor manday 1.45 324 0.65 113 2.24 450 1.42 289
Depreciation 529 293 207 328
Interest on operating capital 1,358 364 253 616
Rental value of owned land 3,239 1,415 822 1,730
Land Tax 3 15 14 11
Transport cost of inputs 1 d/ d/
Sacks and tying materials / needle 1 8 18 9

TOTAL COSTS 39,979 15,518 14,208 22,083

GROSS RETURNS 56,118 19,142 16,988 29,087


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 26,687 10,810 11,278 15,508
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
23,734 9,533 9,263 13,502
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 16,139 3,624 2,780 7,004
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.40 0.23 0.20 0.32

COST PER KILOGRAM 8.41 10.25 11.12 9.31


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 11.80 12.64 11.12 12.26
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"
b/ Less than 0.01 kg
c/ Less than 0.01 L
d/ Less than P1.00

99
Table 34.04 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by seed type, Philippines,
January-September 2013

Item Hybrid Modern OPV Native OPV All Corn

Variable Costs 33,079 13,070 12,721 18,680


Seeds 6,946 614 328 2,395
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 52 22 18 29
Inorganic
Solid 7,982 2,563 2,115 3,980
Liquid 10 3
Foliar
Solid 1 b/
Liquid 74 6 24
Pesticides
Solid 10 20 8 13
Liquid 1,043 392 153 497
Labor
Hired Labor 8,469 3,063 2,143 4,305
Operator Labor 748 1,651 2,193 1,536
Family Labor 1,088 1,929 2,484 1,831
Exchange Labor 324 113 450 289
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 50 2 6 18
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 76 137 258 158
Fuel & Oil 858 43 b/ 271
Transport costs 253 224 104 187
Irrigation fee 25 8 4 12
Electricity costs 21 14 11
Repairs 1,064 572 296 614
Food expense 940 515 315 564
Harvesters' share 1,275 587 991 919
Sheller's share 382 99 284 245
Landowner's share 691 358 401 465
Sacks and tying materials 638 133 167 293
Othersa/ 60 5 3 21

FIXED COSTS 6,900 2,447 1,487 3,403


Land tax 109 117 137 119
Lease rental 332 157 28 162
Interest payment on crop loan 1,334 103 41 447
Depreciation 529 293 207 328
Interest on operating capital 1,358 364 253 616
Rental value of owned land 3,239 1,415 822 1,730

TOTAL COSTS 39,979 15,518 14,208 22,083

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"


b/ Less than P1.00

100
Table 34.05 Inter-regional comparison of yield and inputs usage per hectare for corn production,
Philippines, January-September 2013

Area
Yield Seeds Fertilizers Labor
Regions Harvested
(kg) (kg) (kg) (mandays)
(ha.)

PHILIPPINES 2,372.52 0.77 16.61 181.60 45.70

CAR 4,217.34 1.56 17.98 359.86 46.38


Ilocos Region 5,599.04 0.88 19.38 414.51 46.63
Cagayan Valley 4,684.33 1.06 17.81 355.12 44.86
Central Luzon 5,682.32 0.86 20.87 479.68 56.40
CALABARZON 339.26 0.74 9.63 0.31 26.95
MIMAROPA 1,536.42 0.63 17.60 83.28 30.59
Bicol Region 1,227.41 0.87 17.74 72.98 36.51
Western Visayas 2,628.67 0.49 14.18 218.52 55.05
Central Visayas 897.03 0.33 13.58 124.70 54.95
Eastern Visayas 633.92 0.73 11.07 3.76 44.61
Zamboanga Peninsula 1,267.93 0.50 14.55 105.89 46.77
Northern Mindanao 1,582.33 0.81 16.20 188.29 47.14
Davao Region 1,228.13 0.76 14.53 77.66 48.44
SOCSKSARGEN 2,284.39 0.91 18.67 188.42 38.01
Caraga 2,790.52 1.02 12.72 135.36 42.26
ARMM 1,898.93 1.11 19.37 67.32 48.42

Table 34.06 Inter-regional comparison of average production costs and returns per hectare and per kilogram for
corn production, Philippines, January-September 2013

Per Hectare Per Kilogram


Region Yield Gross Total Net Net Profit- Gross Total Net
(kg) Returns (P) Costs (P) Returns (P) Cost Ratio Returns (P) Costs (P) Returns (P)

PHILIPPINES 2,373 29,087 22,083 7,004 0.32 12.26 9.31 2.95

CAR 4,217 47,879 32,034 15,846 0.49 11.35 7.60 3.76


Ilocos Region 5,599 69,136 47,116 22,020 0.47 12.35 8.42 3.93
Cagayan Valley 4,684 53,964 43,183 10,781 0.25 11.52 9.22 2.30
Central Luzon 5,682 69,996 49,248 20,749 0.42 12.32 8.67 3.65
CALABARZON 339 3,524 6,228 (2,704) (0.43) 10.39 18.36 (7.97)
MIMAROPA 1,536 16,552 15,883 669 0.04 10.77 10.34 0.44
Bicol Region 1,227 16,290 12,322 3,969 0.32 13.27 10.04 3.23
Western Visayas 2,629 33,242 24,450 8,792 0.36 12.65 9.30 3.34
Central Visayas 897 13,160 11,861 1,299 0.11 14.67 13.22 1.45
Eastern Visayas 634 8,925 8,144 781 0.10 14.08 12.85 1.23
Zamboanga Peninsula 1,268 17,564 12,692 4,872 0.38 13.85 10.01 3.84
Northern Mindanao 1,582 20,726 16,731 3,995 0.24 13.10 10.57 2.52
Davao Region 1,228 16,278 14,270 2,008 0.14 13.25 11.62 1.64
SOCCSKSARGEN 2,284 27,932 20,780 7,152 0.34 12.23 9.10 3.13
Caraga 2,791 31,626 20,433 11,193 0.55 11.33 7.32 4.01
ARMM 1,899 23,356 16,512 6,844 0.41 12.30 8.70 3.60

101
Table 35.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, CAR, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 4,217.34 47,879 4,217.34 47,879


Area harvested ha. 1.56 1.56
Number of farms 27 27

CASH COSTS 20,937 20,937

Seeds kg 15.63 3,436 15.63 3,436


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 317.10 7,828 317.10 7,828
Inorganic fertilizers: Liquid L 0.10 50 0.10 50
Foliar: Liquid L 0.80 447 0.80 447
Pesticides: Liquid L 1.38 367 1.38 367
Hired labor manday 16.70 4,489 16.70 4,489
Land tax 2 2
Rentals: Land 71 71
Transport cost of inputs 340 340
Interest payment on crop loan 600 600
Sacks and tying materials / needle 960 960
Food expense 1,182 1,182
Repairs 1,166 1,166

NON-CASH COSTS 2,659 2,659

Hired labor in kind manday 1.00 340 1.00 340


Harvesters' share kg 13.06 151 13.06 151
Sheller's share kg 156.24 1,776 156.24 1,776
Landowner's share kg 35.63 392 35.63 392

IMPUTED COSTS 8,438 8,438

Seeds kg 2.35 287 2.35 287


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 42.76 1,038 42.76 1,038
Operator labor manday 1.72 403 1.72 403
Family labor manday 16.66 3,623 16.66 3,623
Exchange labor manday 8.71 1,909 8.71 1,909
Depreciation 225 225
Interest on operating capital 952 952

TOTAL COSTS 32,034 32,034

GROSS RETURNS 47,879 47,879


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 26,942 26,942
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
24,283 24,283
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 15,846 15,846
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.49 0.49

COST PER KILOGRAM 7.60 7.60


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 11.35 11.35

102
Table 35.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
CAR, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 30,182 30,182


Seeds 3,723 3,723
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 8,866 8,866
Liquid 50 50
Foliar
Liquid 447 447
Pesticides
Liquid 367 367
Labor
Hired Labor 4,828 4,828
Operator Labor 403 403
Family Labor 3,623 3,623
Exchange Labor 1,909 1,909
Transport costs 340 340
Repairs 1,166 1,166
Food expense 1,182 1,182
Harvesters' share 151 151
Sheller's share 1,776 1,776
Landowner's share 392 392
Sacks and tying materials 960 960

FIXED COSTS 1,851 1,851


Land tax 2 2
Lease rental 71 71
Interest payment on crop loan 600 600
Depreciation 225 225
Interest on operating capital 952 952

TOTAL COSTS 32,034 32,034

103
Table 36.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Ilocos Region, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 5,599.04 69,136 5,599.04 69,136


Area harvested ha. 0.88 0.88
Number of farms 46 46

CASH COSTS 39,789 39,789

Seeds kg 18.63 8,690 18.63 8,690


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 412.66 9,346 412.66 9,346
Inorganic fertilizers: Liquid L 0.05 20 0.05 20
Foliar: Liquid L 0.10 30 0.10 30
Pesticides: Liquid L 1.19 503 1.19 503
Hired labor manday 35.32 12,348 35.32 12,348
Land tax 186 186
Caretaker/overseer's wages 9 9
Rentals: Land 1,018 1,018
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 289 289
Fuel and Oil L 82.85 3,846 82.85 3,846
Transport cost of inputs 408 408
Interest payment on crop loan 296 296
Irrigation fee 123 123
Sacks and tying materials / needle 969 969
Food expense 472 472
Repairs 1,237 1,237

NON-CASH COSTS 253 253

Seeds kg 0.52 253 0.52 253

IMPUTED COSTS 7,074 7,074

Seeds kg 0.22 27 0.22 27


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.85 41 1.85 41
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.02 12 0.02 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.02 14 0.02 14
Operator labor manday 5.78 1,219 5.78 1,219
Family labor manday 5.41 1,197 5.41 1,197
Exchange labor manday 0.12 25 0.12 25
Depreciation 1,020 1,020
Interest on operating capital 1,773 1,773
Rental value of owned land 1,749 1,749

TOTAL COSTS 47,116 47,116

GROSS RETURNS 69,136 69,136


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 29,347 29,347
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
29,094 29,094
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 22,020 22,020
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.47 0.47

COST PER KILOGRAM 8.42 8.42


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 12.35 12.35

104
Table 36.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Ilocos Region, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 41,075 41,075


Seeds 8,970 8,970
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 9,386 9,386
Liquid 20 20
Foliar
Liquid 30 30
Pesticides
Solid 12 12
Liquid 517 517
Labor
Hired Labor 12,348 12,348
Operator Labor 1,219 1,219
Family Labor 1,197 1,197
Exchange Labor 25 25
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 9 9
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 289 289
Fuel and Oil 3,846 3,846
Transport costs 408 408
Irrigation fee 123 123
Repairs 1,237 1,237
Food expense 472 472
Sacks and tying materials 969 969

FIXED COSTS 6,041 6,041


Land tax 186 186
Lease rental 1,018 1,018
Interest payment on crop loan 296 296
Depreciation 1,020 1,020
Interest on operating capital 1,773 1,773
Rental value of owned land 1,749 1,749

TOTAL COSTS 47,116 47,116

105
Table 37.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Cagayan Valley, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 2,608.00 27,462 4,704.19 54,217 4,684.33 53,964


Area harvested ha. 0.63 1.07 1.06
Number of farms 2 122 124

CASH COSTS 9,340 32,083 31,868

Seeds kg 17.73 8,730 17.56 8,647


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 6.89 34 6.82 34
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 120.00 2,240 350.48 8,102 348.30 8,047
Foliar: Solid kg 0.01 2 0.01 2
Foliar: Liquid L 0.01 6 0.01 5
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.02 7 0.02 7
Pesticides: Liquid L 2.40 720 5.05 1,365 5.02 1,359
Hired labor manday 18.60 4,780 32.78 8,300 32.65 8,266
Land tax 80 80
Caretaker/overseer's wages 33 33
Rentals: Land 186 184
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 38 37
Fuel and Oil L 6.12 300 6.06 297
Transport cost of inputs 40 171 170
Interest payment on crop loan 2,266 2,244
Irrigation fee 3 3
Sacks and tying materials / needle 480 608 607
Food expense 960 1,210 1,208
Repairs 120 508 505
Others a/ 135 133

NON-CASH COSTS 1,476 2,893 2,880

Seeds kg 18.00 180 0.17 2


Hired labor in kind manday 0.09 35 0.09 35
Harvesters' share kg 125.76 1,296 149.13 1,709 148.91 1,705
Sheller's share kg 1.25 14 1.24 14
Landowner's share kg 98.30 1,136 97.36 1,125

IMPUTED COSTS 13,646 8,386 8,435

Seeds kg 0.08 5 0.08 5


Operator labor manday 24.90 4,860 2.65 498 2.87 540
Family labor manday 8.80 1,640 3.05 473 3.11 484
Exchange labor manday 3.90 520 0.19 41 0.22 45
Depreciation 183 455 453
Interest on operating capital 444 1,521 1,511
Rental value of owned land 6,000 5,391 5,397

TOTAL COSTS 24,462 43,362 43,183

GROSS RETURNS 27,462 54,217 53,964


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 18,122 22,134 22,096
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
16,646 19,241 19,217
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 3,000 10,856 10,781
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.12 0.25 0.25

COST PER KILOGRAM 9.38 9.22 9.22


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 10.53 11.53 11.52
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

106
Table 37.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Cagayan Valley, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 17,836 33,462 33,314


Seeds 180 8,735 8,654
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 34 34
Inorganic
Solid 2,240 8,102 8,047
Foliar
Solid 2 2
Liquid 6 5
Pesticides
Solid 7 7
Liquid 720 1,365 1,359
Labor
Hired Labor 4,780 8,335 8,301
Operator Labor 4,860 498 540
Family Labor 1,640 473 484
Exchange Labor 520 41 45
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 33 33
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 38 37
Fuel and Oil 300 297
Transport costs 40 171 170
Irrigation fee 3 3
Repairs 120 508 505
Food expense 960 1,210 1,208
Harvesters' share 1,296 1,709 1,705
Sheller's share 14 14
Landowner's share 1,136 1,125
Sacks and tying materials 480 608 607
Othersa/ 135 133

FIXED COSTS 6,626 9,900 9,869


Land tax 80 80
Lease rental 186 184
Interest payment on crop loan 2,266 2,244
Depreciation 183 455 453
Interest on operating capital 444 1,521 1,511
Rental value of owned land 6,000 5,391 5,397

TOTAL COSTS 24,462 43,362 43,183

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

107
Table 38.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Central Luzon, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 5,682.32 69,996 5,682.32 69,996


Area harvested ha. 0.86 0.86
Number of farms 18 18

CASH COSTS 37,853 37,853

Seeds kg 16.35 6,776 16.35 6,776


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 32.26 161 32.26 161
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 372.58 7,658 372.58 7,658
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.63 182 0.63 182
Hired labor manday 35.30 11,952 35.30 11,952
Land tax 110 110
Rentals: Land 1,723 1,723
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 135 135
Fuel and Oil L 87.77 3,669 87.77 3,669
Transport cost of inputs 178 178
Interest payment on crop loan 932 932
Irrigation fee 135 135
Sacks and tying materials / needle 281 281
Electricity cost 387 387
Food expense 1,019 1,019
Repairs 2,554 2,554

NON-CASH COSTS 523 523

Seeds kg 1.61 65 1.61 65


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 23.23 129 23.23 129
Landowner's share kg 26.84 330 26.84 330

IMPUTED COSTS 10,871 10,871

Seeds kg 2.90 806 2.90 806


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 51.61 937 51.61 937
Foliar: Liquid L 0.01 5 0.01 5
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.03 16 0.03 16
Operator labor manday 14.93 4,206 14.93 4,206
Family labor manday 5.91 1,477 5.91 1,477
Exchange labor manday 0.26 129 0.26 129
Depreciation 988 988
Interest on operating capital 1,532 1,532
Rental value of owned land 774 774

TOTAL COSTS 49,248 49,248

GROSS RETURNS 69,996 69,996


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 32,143 32,143
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
31,620 31,620
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 20,749 20,749
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.42 0.42

COST PER KILOGRAM 8.67 8.67


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 12.32 12.32

108
Table 38.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Central Luzon, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 43,189 43,189


Seeds 7,647 7,647
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 290 290
Inorganic
Solid 8,595 8,595
Foliar
Liquid 5 5
Pesticides
Liquid 199 199
Labor
Hired Labor 11,952 11,952
Operator Labor 4,206 4,206
Family Labor 1,477 1,477
Exchange Labor 129 129
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 135 135
Fuel and Oil 3,669 3,669
Transport costs 178 178
Irrigation fee 135 135
Electricity costs 387 387
Repairs 2,554 2,554
Food expense 1,019 1,019
Landowner's share 330 330
Sacks and tying materials 281 281

FIXED COSTS 6,059 6,059


Land tax 110 110
Lease rental 1,723 1,723
Interest payment on crop loan 932 932
Depreciation 988 988
Interest on operating capital 1,532 1,532
Rental value of owned land 774 774

TOTAL COSTS 49,248 49,248

109
Table 39.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, CALABARZON, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 339.26 3,524 339.26 3,524


Area harvested ha. 0.74 0.74
Number of farms 11 11

CASH COSTS 1,555 1,555

Seeds kg 0.61 49 0.61 49


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.31 9 0.31 9
Hired labor manday 6.04 979 6.04 979
Land tax 43 43
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 61 61
Sacks and tying materials / needle 76 76
Food expense 135 135
Repairs 202 202

NON-CASH COSTS 1,439 1,439

Seeds kg 8.40 494 8.40 494


Harvesters' share kg 45.09 475 45.09 475
Landowner's share kg 35.39 363 35.39 363
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment kg 10.74 107 10.74 107

IMPUTED COSTS 3,233 3,233

Seeds kg 0.61 37 0.61 37


Operator labor manday 10.35 1,511 10.35 1,511
Family labor manday 10.18 1,424 10.18 1,424
Depreciation 79 79
Interest on operating capital 59 59
Rental value of owned land 123 123

TOTAL COSTS 6,228 6,228

GROSS RETURNS 3,524 3,524


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 1,968 1,968
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
529 529
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS (2,704) (2,704)
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO (0.43) (0.43)

COST PER KILOGRAM 18.36 18.36


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 10.39 10.39

110
Table 39.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
CALABARZON, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 5,924 5,924


Seeds 580 580
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 9 9
Labor
Hired Labor 979 979
Operator Labor 1,511 1,511
Family Labor 1,424 1,424
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 169 169
Repairs 202 202
Food expense 135 135
Harvesters' share 475 475
Landowner's share 363 363
Sacks and tying materials 76 76

FIXED COSTS 304 304


Land tax 43 43
Depreciation 79 79
Interest on operating capital 59 59
Rental value of owned land 123 123

TOTAL COSTS 6,228 6,228

111
Table 40.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, MIMAROPA, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,692.00 21,600 1,497.52 15,291 1,536.42 16,552


Area harvested ha. 0.63 0.63 0.63
Number of farms 2 8 10

CASH COSTS 11,449 7,976 8,671

Seeds kg 5.20 278 4.16 222


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 40.00 1,120 94.10 2,390 83.28 2,136
Foliar: Liquid L 3.20 1,600 0.64 320
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.80 480 0.16 96
Hired labor manday 12.30 2,640 16.00 3,850 15.26 3,608
Land tax 131 105
Caretaker/overseer's wages 512 102
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 180 144
Transport cost of inputs 30 24
Sacks and tying materials / needle 277 146 172
Food expense 420 468 458
Repairs 4,400 504 1,283

NON-CASH COSTS 4,072 1,510 2,022

Seeds kg 4.00 72 9.80 123 8.64 113


Harvesters' share kg 160.00 2,000 71.00 868 88.80 1,094
Sheller's share kg 160.00 2,000 43.00 520 66.40 816

IMPUTED COSTS 5,210 5,185 5,190

Seeds kg 16.00 1,200 2.00 24 4.80 259


Operator labor manday 3.40 730 5.51 990 5.09 938
Family labor manday 2.00 380 6.73 1,040 5.78 908
Depreciation 565 597 591
Interest on operating capital 335 373 366
Rental value of owned land 2,000 2,030 2,024
Land Tax 131 104

TOTAL COSTS 20,731 14,671 15,883

GROSS RETURNS 21,600 15,291 16,552


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 10,151 7,314 7,882
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
6,079 5,804 5,859
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 869 619 669
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.04 0.04 0.04

COST PER KILOGRAM 12.25 9.80 10.34


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 12.77 10.21 10.77

112
Table 40.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
MIMAROPA, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 17,831 11,410 12,694


Seeds 1,272 425 594
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 1,120 2,390 2,136
Foliar
Liquid 1,600 320
Pesticides
Liquid 480 96
Labor
Hired Labor 2,640 3,850 3,608
Operator Labor 730 990 938
Family Labor 380 1,040 908
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 512 102
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 180 144
Transport costs 30 24
Repairs 4,400 504 1,283
Food expense 420 468 458
Harvesters' share 2,000 868 1,094
Sheller's share 2,000 520 816
Sacks and tying materials 277 146 172

FIXED COSTS 2,900 3,262 3,189


Land tax 261 209
Depreciation 565 597 591
Interest on operating capital 335 373 366
Rental value of owned land 2,000 2,030 2,024

TOTAL COSTS 20,731 14,671 15,883

113
Table 41.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Bicol Region, January-June 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 838.80 11,918 1,819.49 22,952 1,227.41 16,290


Area harvested ha. 0.77 1.10 0.87
Number of farms 50 23 73

CASH COSTS 3,286 11,558 6,564

Seeds kg 3.51 312 15.52 1,153 8.27 646


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 27.29 679 139.60 3,098 71.80 1,638
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.39 325 0.15 129
Hired labor manday 7.74 1,418 21.66 5,319 13.26 2,964
Land tax 74 40 61
Rentals: Land 13 85 42
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 311 34 201
Fuel and Oil L 0.13 10 0.08 6
Transport cost of inputs 22 153 74
Interest payment on crop loan 59 24
Sacks and tying materials / needle 148 194 166
Food expense 82 869 394
Repairs 217 228 222

NON-CASH COSTS 867 283 636

Seeds kg 12.88 268 3.76 69 9.27 189


Harvesters' share kg 1.17 16 1.98 30 1.49 21
Landowner's share kg 35.43 523 17.82 184 28.45 389
Caretaker/overseer's wages kg 3.90 52 2.35 31
Rentals: Land kg 0.52 8 0.31 5

IMPUTED COSTS 5,053 5,228 5,122

Seeds kg 0.10 2 0.36 28 0.20 12


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 2.97 73 1.18 29
Operator labor manday 10.51 1,880 6.81 1,363 9.04 1,676
Family labor manday 14.42 2,174 13.22 2,733 13.95 2,395
Exchange labor manday 0.03 3 0.40 76 0.17 32
Depreciation 98 149 119
Interest on operating capital 138 567 308
Rental value of owned land 757 238 551

TOTAL COSTS 9,206 17,069 12,322

GROSS RETURNS 11,918 22,952 16,290


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 8,632 11,395 9,727
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
7,765 11,112 9,091
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 2,712 5,884 3,969
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.29 0.34 0.32

COST PER KILOGRAM 10.98 9.38 10.04


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 14.21 12.61 13.27

114
Table 41.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Bicol Region, January-June 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 8,117 15,930 11,213


Seeds 582 1,250 847
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 679 3,172 1,667
Pesticides
Liquid 325 129
Labor
Hired Labor 1,418 5,319 2,964
Operator Labor 1,880 1,363 1,676
Family Labor 2,174 2,733 2,395
Exchange Labor 3 76 32
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 52 31
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 311 34 201
Fuel and Oil 10 6
Transport costs 22 153 74
Repairs 217 228 222
Food expense 82 869 394
Harvesters' share 16 30 21
Landowner's share 523 184 389
Sacks and tying materials 148 194 166

FIXED COSTS 1,089 1,139 1,108


Land tax 74 40 61
Lease rental 21 85 46
Interest payment on crop loan 59 24
Depreciation 98 149 119
Interest on operating capital 138 567 308
Rental value of owned land 757 238 551

TOTAL COSTS 9,206 17,069 12,322

115
Table 42.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Western Visayas, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 934.89 12,602 4,559.92 56,776 2,628.67 33,242


Area harvested ha. 0.42 0.62 0.49
Number of farms 34 20 54

CASH COSTS 5,467 13,004 8,989

Seeds kg 1.56 41 5.96 2,211 3.61 1,054


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 88.62 1,926 139.00 3,092 112.16 2,471
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.07 6 0.04 3
Pesticides: Liquid L 2.58 701 1.20 328
Hired labor manday 18.26 2,833 13.52 3,886 16.04 3,325
Land tax 48 246 140
Rentals: Land 322 151
Fuel and Oil L 0.14 8 2.98 226 1.47 110
Transport cost of inputs 69 749 387
Interest payment on crop loan 1 1
Sacks and tying materials / needle 98 529 300
Food expense 202 385 287
Repairs 234 593 402
Others a/ 64 30

NON-CASH COSTS 1,270 19,946 9,996

Seeds kg 9.87 184 10.52 4,058 10.17 1,994


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 227.64 5,006 106.36 2,339
Pesticides: Liquid L 3.87 1,015 1.81 474
Hired labor in kind manday 1.10 181 2.61 1,089 1.80 605
Harvesters' share kg 62.47 769 443.71 5,434 240.60 2,949
Sheller's share kg 225.79 2,793 105.50 1,305
Landowner's share kg 10.85 137 35.05 510 22.16 311
Rentals: Land kg 3.22 40 1.51 19

IMPUTED COSTS 4,542 6,516 5,465

Seeds kg 0.26 12 0.54 29 0.39 20


Operator labor manday 12.88 1,598 4.12 710 8.78 1,183
Family labor manday 16.94 1,648 16.39 3,075 16.68 2,315
Exchange labor manday 1.81 453 0.85 212
Depreciation 242 951 573
Interest on operating capital 275 567 412
Rental value of owned land 638 651 644
Land Tax 59 31
Sacks and tying materials / needle 70 80 75

TOTAL COSTS 11,279 39,467 24,450

GROSS RETURNS 12,602 56,776 33,242


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 7,135 43,772 24,253
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
5,865 23,825 14,257
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 1,323 17,309 8,792
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.12 0.44 0.36

COST PER KILOGRAM 12.06 8.66 9.30


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 13.48 12.45 12.65
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

116
Table 42.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Western Visayas, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 10,016 36,690 22,479


Seeds 236 6,298 3,068
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 1,926 8,098 4,810
Pesticides
Solid 6 3
Liquid 1,716 802
Labor
Hired Labor 3,014 4,975 3,931
Operator Labor 1,598 710 1,183
Family Labor 1,648 3,075 2,315
Exchange Labor 453 212
Fuel and Oil 8 226 110
Transport costs 69 749 387
Repairs 234 593 402
Food expense 202 385 287
Harvesters' share 769 5,434 2,949
Sheller's share 2,793 1,305
Landowner's share 137 510 311
Sacks and tying materials 168 609 374
Othersa/ 64 30

FIXED COSTS 1,263 2,777 1,971


Land tax 107 246 172
Lease rental 363 169
Interest payment on crop loan 1 1
Depreciation 242 951 573
Interest on operating capital 275 567 412
Rental value of owned land 638 651 644

TOTAL COSTS 11,279 39,467 24,450

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

117
Table 43.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Central Visayas, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 897.03 13,160 897.03 13,160


Area harvested ha. 0.33 0.33
Number of farms 173 173

CASH COSTS 4,416 4,416

Seeds kg 0.60 13 0.60 13


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 33.06 42 33.06 42
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 77.88 1,787 77.88 1,787
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.07 23 0.07 23
Hired labor manday 9.41 1,452 9.41 1,452
Land tax 75 75
Rentals: Land 138 138
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 78 78
Transport cost of inputs 55 55
Interest payment on crop loan 29 29
Sacks and tying materials / needle 39 39
Food expense 413 413
Repairs 268 268
Others a/ 5 5

NON-CASH COSTS 2,549 2,549

Seeds kg 11.57 228 11.57 228


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 13.33 36 13.33 36
Hired labor in kind manday 1.72 239 1.72 239
Harvesters' share kg 76.33 1,077 76.33 1,077
Sheller's share kg 5.18 76 5.18 76
Landowner's share kg 57.45 828 57.45 828
Rentals: Land kg 1.82 27 1.82 27
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment kg 2.60 37 2.60 37

IMPUTED COSTS 4,896 4,896

Seeds kg 1.42 29 1.42 29


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.43 6 0.43 6
Operator labor manday 17.85 2,154 17.85 2,154
Family labor manday 18.74 1,920 18.74 1,920
Exchange labor manday 0.54 55 0.54 55
Depreciation 221 221
Interest on operating capital 190 190
Rental value of owned land 286 286
Land Tax 28 28
Transport cost of inputs b/ b/
Sacks and tying materials / needle 6 6

TOTAL COSTS 11,861 11,861

GROSS RETURNS 13,160 13,160


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 8,744 8,744
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
6,195 6,195
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 1,299 1,299
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.11 0.11

COST PER KILOGRAM 13.22 13.22


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 14.67 14.67
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"
b/ Less than P 1.00
118
Table 43.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Central Visayas, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 10,867 10,867


Seeds 270 270
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 78 78
Inorganic
Solid 1,793 1,793
Pesticides
Liquid 23 23
Labor
Hired Labor 1,691 1,691
Operator Labor 2,154 2,154
Family Labor 1,920 1,920
Exchange Labor 55 55
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 115 115
Transport costs 55 55
Repairs 268 268
Food expense 413 413
Harvesters' share 1,077 1,077
Sheller's share 76 76
Landowner's share 828 828
Sacks and tying materials 44 44
Othersa/ 5 5

FIXED COSTS 994 994


Land tax 103 103
Lease rental 165 165
Interest payment on crop loan 29 29
Depreciation 221 221
Interest on operating capital 190 190
Rental value of owned land 286 286

TOTAL COSTS 11,861 11,861

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

119
Table 44.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Eastern Visayas, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 633.92 8,925 633.92 8,925


Area harvested ha. 0.73 0.73
Number of farms 29 29

CASH COSTS 1,735 1,735

Seeds kg 3.67 71 3.67 71


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 3.76 77 3.76 77
Hired labor manday 7.91 1,123 7.91 1,123
Land tax 13 13
Transport cost of inputs 6 6
Sacks and tying materials / needle 12 12
Food expense 284 284
Repairs 149 149

NON-CASH COSTS 1,263 1,263

Seeds kg 5.35 101 5.35 101


Hired labor in kind manday 1.17 126 1.17 126
Harvesters' share kg 34.36 462 34.36 462
Landowner's share kg 48.00 573 48.00 573

IMPUTED COSTS 5,146 5,146

Seeds kg 2.05 41 2.05 41


Operator labor manday 15.26 2,400 15.26 2,400
Family labor manday 16.76 2,222 16.76 2,222
Exchange labor manday 0.05 5 0.05 5
Depreciation 69 69
Interest on operating capital 73 73
Rental value of owned land 266 266
Land Tax 70 70

TOTAL COSTS 8,144 8,144

GROSS RETURNS 8,925 8,925


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 7,190 7,190
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
5,927 5,927
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 781 781
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.10 0.10

COST PER KILOGRAM 12.85 12.85


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 14.08 14.08

120
Table 44.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Eastern Visayas, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 7,652 7,652


Seeds 213 213
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 77 77
Labor
Hired Labor 1,249 1,249
Operator Labor 2,400 2,400
Family Labor 2,222 2,222
Exchange Labor 5 5
Transport costs 6 6
Repairs 149 149
Food expense 284 284
Harvesters' share 462 462
Landowner's share 573 573
Sacks and tying materials 12 12

FIXED COSTS 492 492


Land tax 84 84
Depreciation 69 69
Interest on operating capital 73 73
Rental value of owned land 266 266

TOTAL COSTS 8,144 8,144

121
Table 45.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Zamboanga Peninsula, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 980.76 13,369 2,869.00 40,955 1,267.93 17,564


Area harvested ha. 0.44 2.00 0.50
Number of farms 127 5 132

CASH COSTS 4,465 11,927 5,600

Seeds kg 1.69 44 5.40 288 2.25 81


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 12.91 44 10.95 37
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 86.86 1,887 140.00 3,188 94.94 2,085
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.04 4 0.03 4
Pesticides: Liquid L 1.16 354 4.10 1,282 1.61 495
Hired labor manday 7.25 1,154 39.43 5,735 12.14 1,851
Land tax 163 200 168
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 37 31
Fuel and Oil L 0.01 1 0.01 b/
Transport cost of inputs 161 220 170
Interest payment on crop loan 30 25
Sacks and tying materials / needle 29 70 35
Food expense 220 60 196
Repairs 339 885 422

NON-CASH COSTS 1,712 1,020 1,607

Seeds kg 12.54 208 10.63 177


Pesticides: Solid kg a/ b/ a/ b/
Hired labor in kind manday 0.17 60 0.14 51
Harvesters' share kg 66.99 907 12.00 180 58.62 797
Landowner's share kg 36.71 491 70.00 840 41.77 544
Rentals: Land kg 3.32 46 2.81 39

IMPUTED COSTS 5,818 3,630 5,485

Seeds kg 1.21 24 4.20 143 1.66 42


Operator labor manday 16.36 2,165 3.96 560 14.47 1,921
Family labor manday 19.21 2,021 3.85 429 16.87 1,778
Exchange labor manday 0.12 15 0.10 13
Depreciation 79 55 76
Interest on operating capital 200 601 261
Rental value of owned land 1,306 1,842 1,388
Land Tax 8 7

TOTAL COSTS 11,996 16,577 12,692

GROSS RETURNS 13,369 40,955 17,564


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 8,904 29,028 11,964
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
7,192 28,008 10,357
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 1,374 24,378 4,872
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.11 1.47 0.38

COST PER KILOGRAM 12.23 5.78 10.01


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 13.63 14.28 13.85
a/ Less than 0.01 kg.
b/ Less than P 1.00

122
Table 45.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Zamboanga Peninsula, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 10,164 13,879 10,729


Seeds 276 431 300
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 44 37
Inorganic
Solid 1,887 3,188 2,085
Pesticides
Solid 5 4
Liquid 354 1,282 495
Labor
Hired Labor 1,214 5,735 1,901
Operator Labor 2,165 560 1,921
Family Labor 2,021 429 1,778
Exchange Labor 15 13
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 37 31
Fuel and Oil 1 a/
Transport costs 161 220 170
Repairs 339 885 422
Food expense 220 60 196
Harvesters' share 907 180 797
Landowner's share 491 840 544
Sacks and tying materials 29 70 35

FIXED COSTS 1,832 2,698 1,964


Land tax 171 200 175
Lease rental 46 39
Interest payment on crop loan 30 25
Depreciation 79 55 76
Interest on operating capital 200 601 261
Rental value of owned land 1,306 1,842 1,388

TOTAL COSTS 11,996 16,577 12,692

a/ Less than P 1.00

123
Table 46.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Northern Mindanao, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,297.62 17,760 3,787.43 43,696 1,582.33 20,726


Area harvested ha. 0.80 0.90 0.81
Number of farms 148 17 165

CASH COSTS 8,368 21,287 9,845

Seeds kg 4.26 110 17.41 4,017 5.76 557


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 6.61 11 78.82 412 14.87 57
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 176.85 4,354 128.41 2,816 171.31 4,178
Foliar: Liquid L 0.13 39 0.02 5
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.04 13 0.03 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.35 127 3.78 1,288 0.74 260
Hired labor manday 12.25 2,251 45.75 7,467 16.08 2,847
Land tax 137 135 137
Rentals: Land 19 1,445 182
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 407 442 411
Fuel and Oil L 6.44 362 0.74 41
Transport cost of inputs 187 349 206
Interest payment on crop loan 31 552 90
Sacks and tying materials / needle 215 590 258
Food expense 157 1,097 265
Repairs 348 277 340

NON-CASH COSTS 1,471 2,150 1,548

Seeds kg 9.70 148 0.13 24 8.60 134


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.19 8 1.05 8
Hired labor in kind manday 0.47 107 0.42 95
Harvesters' share kg 39.55 545 182.35 2,054 55.88 717
Sheller's share kg 10.11 135 8.96 119
Landowner's share kg 37.86 527 6.57 72 34.28 475

IMPUTED COSTS 5,020 7,794 5,337

Seeds kg 2.07 41 0.03 8 1.84 37


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.19 6 1.05 6
Operator labor manday 12.82 1,953 4.85 702 11.91 1,810
Family labor manday 16.52 2,072 3.12 347 14.99 1,875
Exchange labor manday 0.29 50 0.26 45
Depreciation 154 1,745 336
Interest on operating capital 393 919 454
Rental value of owned land 339 4,072 766
Land Tax 7 6
Sacks and tying materials / needle 4 3

TOTAL COSTS 14,858 31,231 16,731

GROSS RETURNS 17,760 43,696 20,726


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 9,392 22,409 10,881
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
7,921 20,259 9,332
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 2,902 12,465 3,995
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.20 0.40 0.24

COST PER KILOGRAM 11.45 8.25 10.57


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 13.69 11.54 13.10

124
Table 46.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Northern Mindanao, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 13,778 22,363 14,760


Seeds 299 4,049 728
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 26 412 70
Inorganic
Solid 4,354 2,816 4,178
Foliar
Liquid 39 5
Pesticides
Solid 13 12
Liquid 127 1,288 260
Labor
Hired Labor 2,358 7,467 2,942
Operator Labor 1,953 702 1,810
Family Labor 2,072 347 1,875
Exchange Labor 50 45
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 407 442 411
Fuel and Oil 362 41
Transport costs 187 349 206
Repairs 348 277 340
Food expense 157 1,097 265
Harvesters' share 545 2,054 717
Sheller's share 135 119
Landowner's share 527 72 475
Sacks and tying materials 219 590 261

FIXED COSTS 1,080 8,868 1,971


Land tax 144 135 143
Lease rental 19 1,445 182
Interest payment on crop loan 31 552 90
Depreciation 154 1,745 336
Interest on operating capital 393 919 454
Rental value of owned land 339 4,072 766

TOTAL COSTS 14,858 31,231 16,731

125
Table 47.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Davao Region, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,228.13 16,278 1,228.13 16,278


Area harvested ha. 0.76 0.76
Number of farms 151 151

CASH COSTS 6,803 6,803

Seeds kg 1.08 39 1.08 39


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 4.37 26 4.37 26
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 71.28 1,444 71.28 1,444
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.13 53 0.13 53
Pesticides: Liquid L 1.58 585 1.58 585
Hired labor manday 21.60 3,196 21.60 3,196
Land tax 119 119
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 26 26
Fuel and Oil L 0.06 5 0.06 5
Transport cost of inputs 142 142
Interest payment on crop loan 156 156
Irrigation fee 21 21
Sacks and tying materials / needle 17 17
Food expense 630 630
Repairs 346 346

NON-CASH COSTS 867 867

Seeds kg 9.65 162 9.65 162


Organic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.26 1 0.26 1
Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 0.44 12 0.44 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.03 12 0.03 12
Hired labor in kind manday 0.11 25 0.11 25
Harvesters' share kg 38.06 492 38.06 492
Sheller's share kg 7.34 94 7.34 94
Landowner's share kg 5.34 68 5.34 68

IMPUTED COSTS 6,600 6,600

Seeds kg 3.80 73 3.80 73


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.31 25 1.31 25
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.03 11 0.03 11
Operator labor manday 9.90 1,714 9.90 1,714
Family labor manday 14.22 2,245 14.22 2,245
Exchange labor manday 0.68 89 0.68 89
Depreciation 202 202
Interest on operating capital 306 306
Rental value of owned land 1,934 1,934

TOTAL COSTS 14,270 14,270

GROSS RETURNS 16,278 16,278


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 9,475 9,475
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
8,608 8,608
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 2,008 2,008
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.14 0.14

COST PER KILOGRAM 11.62 11.62


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 13.25 13.25

126
Table 47.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Davao Region, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 11,554 11,554


Seeds 275 275
Fertilizers
Organic
Solid 28 28
Inorganic
Solid 1,480 1,480
Pesticides
Solid 53 53
Liquid 608 608
Labor
Hired Labor 3,221 3,221
Operator Labor 1,714 1,714
Family Labor 2,245 2,245
Exchange Labor 89 89
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 26 26
Fuel and Oil 5 5
Transport costs 142 142
Irrigation fee 21 21
Repairs 346 346
Food expense 630 630
Harvesters' share 492 492
Sheller's share 94 94
Landowner's share 68 68
Sacks and tying materials 17 17

FIXED COSTS 2,716 2,716


Land tax 119 119
Interest payment on crop loan 156 156
Depreciation 202 202
Interest on operating capital 306 306
Rental value of owned land 1,934 1,934

TOTAL COSTS 14,270 14,270

127
Table 48.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, SOCCSKSARGEN, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,467.71 18,804 3,339.58 39,726 2,284.39 27,932


Area harvested ha. 0.83 1.03 0.91
Number of farms 70 44 114

CASH COSTS 9,177 20,503 14,118

Seeds kg 6.64 195 15.56 2,756 10.53 1,312


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 125.34 2,820 252.21 5,511 180.69 3,994
Pesticides: Solid kg b/ 1 0.05 27 0.02 12
Pesticides: Liquid L 1.20 413 2.74 926 1.87 637
Hired labor manday 17.20 3,168 31.68 7,154 23.52 4,907
Land tax 70 123 93
Caretaker/overseer's wages 220 96
Rentals: Land 225 127
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 232 106 177
Fuel and Oil L 0.07 4 0.27 13 0.15 8
Transport cost of inputs 326 308 318
Interest payment on crop loan 64 234 138
Sacks and tying materials / needle 76 220 139
Electricity cost 62 20 44
Food expense 432 506 464
Repairs 1,081 2,377 1,646
Others a/ 8 4

NON-CASH COSTS 1,161 305 788

Seeds kg 12.35 134 0.82 14 7.32 81


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 1.11 27 0.48 12
Harvesters' share kg 23.23 286 7.49 89 16.36 200
Landowner's share kg 59.61 741 3.54 42 35.14 436
Rentals: Land kg 13.27 133 5.79 58

IMPUTED COSTS 5,895 5,846 5,874

Seeds kg 0.31 5 1.48 27 0.82 14


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 16.59 404 7.24 176
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.13 46 0.06 20
Operator labor manday 6.74 1,069 3.41 619 5.29 873
Family labor manday 10.52 1,568 5.02 704 8.12 1,191
Exchange labor manday 0.07 8 0.04 5
Depreciation 237 423 318
Interest on operating capital 378 938 622
Rental value of owned land 2,577 2,622 2,597
Land Tax 44 47 45
Transport cost of inputs 7 4
Sacks and tying materials / needle 3 16 8

TOTAL COSTS 16,234 26,654 20,780

GROSS RETURNS 18,804 39,726 27,932


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 9,627 19,223 13,813
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
8,465 18,917 13,025
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 2,570 13,071 7,152
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.16 0.49 0.34

COST PER KILOGRAM 11.06 7.98 9.10


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 12.81 11.90 12.23
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"
b/ Less than 0.01 kg.

128
Table 48.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
SOCCSKSARGEN, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 12,638 22,134 16,781


Seeds 334 2,796 1,408
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 2,820 5,942 4,182
Pesticides
Solid 1 27 12
Liquid 413 972 657
Labor
Hired Labor 3,168 7,154 4,907
Operator Labor 1,069 619 873
Family Labor 1,568 704 1,191
Exchange Labor 8 5
Caretaker/overseer`s wages 220 96
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 232 106 177
Fuel and Oil 4 13 8
Transport costs 333 308 322
Electricity costs 62 20 44
Repairs 1,081 2,377 1,646
Food expense 432 506 464
Harvesters' share 286 89 200
Landowner's share 741 42 436
Sacks and tying materials 78 236 147
Othersa/ 8 4

FIXED COSTS 3,595 4,520 3,999


Land tax 114 170 138
Lease rental 225 133 185
Interest payment on crop loan 64 234 138
Depreciation 237 423 318
Interest on operating capital 378 938 622
Rental value of owned land 2,577 2,622 2,597

TOTAL COSTS 16,234 26,654 20,780

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

129
Table 49.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, Caraga, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,901.23 22,369 5,076.00 55,417 2,790.52 31,626


Area harvested ha. 0.89 1.67 1.02
Number of farms 29 6 35

CASH COSTS 6,424 22,782 11,007

Seeds kg 3.39 94 16.60 4,090 7.09 1,213


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 110.21 2,522 200.00 4,648 135.36 3,118
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.04 24 0.03 18
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.54 360 3.00 1,152 1.23 582
Hired labor manday 11.84 2,561 28.19 7,279 16.42 3,883
Land tax 18 75 34
Fuel and Oil L 4.50 200 1.26 56
Transport cost of inputs 5 126 39
Interest payment on crop loan 2,700 756
Sacks and tying materials / needle 7 244 74
Food expense 566 539 559
Repairs 230 1,729 650
Others a/ 36 26

NON-CASH COSTS 2,865 7,805 4,249

Seeds kg 6.81 110 2.10 19 5.49 85


Hired labor in kind manday 1.07 277 0.77 199
Harvesters' share kg 185.80 2,143 428.35 5,007 253.74 2,945
Sheller's share kg 2.09 25 1.50 18
Landowner's share kg 25.99 310 194.00 2,280 73.05 861
Interest payment on crop loan kg 45.00 500 12.61 140

IMPUTED COSTS 5,294 4,879 5,177

Seeds kg 0.19 27 0.14 20


Operator labor manday 10.24 2,416 1.46 308 7.78 1,826
Family labor manday 8.48 1,631 0.08 15 6.12 1,179
Exchange labor manday 0.82 126 0.59 91
Depreciation 658 572 634
Interest on operating capital 319 984 505
Rental value of owned land 116 3,000 924

TOTAL COSTS 14,583 35,466 20,433

GROSS RETURNS 22,369 55,417 31,626


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 15,944 32,634 20,619
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
13,080 24,829 16,371
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 7,786 19,950 11,193
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.53 0.56 0.55

COST PER KILOGRAM 7.67 6.99 7.32


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 11.77 10.92 11.33
a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

130
Table 49.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
Caraga, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 13,472 27,635 17,439


Seeds 232 4,109 1,318
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 2,522 4,648 3,118
Pesticides
Solid 24 18
Liquid 360 1,152 582
Labor
Hired Labor 2,838 7,279 4,082
Operator Labor 2,416 308 1,826
Family Labor 1,631 15 1,179
Exchange Labor 126 91
Fuel and Oil 200 56
Transport costs 5 126 39
Repairs 230 1,729 650
Food expense 566 539 559
Harvesters' share 2,143 5,007 2,945
Sheller's share 25 18
Landowner's share 310 2,280 861
Sacks and tying materials 7 244 74
Othersa/ 36 26

FIXED COSTS 1,111 7,831 2,993


Land tax 18 75 34
Interest payment on crop loan 3,200 896
Depreciation 658 572 634
Interest on operating capital 319 984 505
Rental value of owned land 116 3,000 924

TOTAL COSTS 14,583 35,466 20,433

a/ Include canvas, tarpaulin and "sawali"

131
Table 50.01 Average production costs and returns of corn per hectare by farm type, ARMM, January-September 2013

White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn


Item Unit
Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P) Quantity Value (P)

Production kg 1,794.75 22,068 2,779.30 34,241 1,898.93 23,356


Area harvested ha. 1.10 1.15 1.11
Number of farms 88 10 98

CASH COSTS 5,074 11,692 5,774

Seeds kg 9.94 243 9.57 417 9.90 261


Inorganic fertilizers: Solid kg 59.34 1,393 134.78 3,224 67.32 1,587
Pesticides: Solid kg 0.03 12 0.02 11
Pesticides: Liquid L 0.10 87 0.09 78 0.10 86
Hired labor manday 5.43 1,705 10.46 4,304 5.96 1,980
Land tax 159 289 173
Rentals: Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 240 1,043 325
Transport cost of inputs 181 109 173
Interest payment on crop loan 68 50 66
Irrigation fee 14 11 14
Sacks and tying materials / needle 276 657 316
Food expense 432 803 471
Repairs 265 706 311

NON-CASH COSTS 2,555 4,221 2,731

Seeds kg 9.24 166 3.70 100 8.65 159


Hired labor in kind manday 0.18 82 0.37 283 0.20 103
Harvesters' share kg 131.02 1,553 155.98 1,893 133.66 1,589
Sheller's share kg 59.45 753 119.17 1,521 65.77 834
Landowner's share kg 39.13 424 4.14 45

IMPUTED COSTS 7,518 12,145 8,008

Seeds kg 0.05 2 7.30 365 0.82 40


Operator labor manday 13.94 2,299 9.23 1,770 13.44 2,243
Family labor manday 14.70 2,865 16.66 3,560 14.91 2,939
Exchange labor manday 6.03 1,264 16.02 3,310 7.09 1,480
Depreciation 225 234 226
Interest on operating capital 197 460 225
Rental value of owned land 655 2,087 807
Sacks and tying materials / needle 11 359 48

TOTAL COSTS 15,146 28,057 16,512

GROSS RETURNS 22,068 34,241 23,356


RETURNS ABOVE CASH COSTS 16,994 22,550 17,582
RETURNS ABOVE CASH
14,440 18,329 14,851
AND NON-CASH COSTS
NET RETURNS 6,922 6,184 6,844
NET PROFIT-COST RATIO 0.46 0.22 0.41

COST PER KILOGRAM 8.44 10.09 8.70


FARMGATE PRICE PER KILOGRAM 12.30 12.32 12.30

132
Table 50.02 Average variable and fixed production costs of corn per hectare by farm type,
ARMM, January-September 2013

Item White Corn Yellow Corn All Corn

VARIABLE COSTS 13,841 24,938 15,016


Seeds 411 883 461
Fertilizers
Inorganic
Solid 1,393 3,224 1,587
Pesticides
Solid 12 11
Liquid 87 78 86
Labor
Hired Labor 1,787 4,587 2,083
Operator Labor 2,299 1,770 2,243
Family Labor 2,865 3,560 2,939
Exchange Labor 1,264 3,310 1,480
Rentals:
Machine, Animals, Tools and Equipment 240 1,043 325
Transport costs 181 109 173
Irrigation fee 14 11 14
Repairs 265 706 311
Food expense 432 803 471
Harvesters' share 1,553 1,893 1,589
Sheller's share 753 1,521 834
Landowner's share 424 45
Sacks and tying materials 287 1,016 364

FIXED COSTS 1,305 3,119 1,497


Land tax 159 289 173
Interest payment on crop loan 68 50 66
Depreciation 225 234 226
Interest on operating capital 197 460 225
Rental value of owned land 655 2,087 807

TOTAL COSTS 15,146 28,057 16,512

133
Table 51. Percentage distribution of corn produce by disposition item and by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Other Land
Sold / Harvesters' Shellers' Landowner's
Region Laborers' Lease/
To be Sold Share Share Share
Share Rental

PHILIPPINES 81.68 3.18 0.84 0.32 1.57 0.05

CAR 89.65 0.31 3.70 0.70 0.84 0.17


Ilocos Region 100.00
Cagayan Valley 92.31 3.18 0.03 0.07 2.08
Central Luzon 99.53 0.47
CALABARZON 13.29 10.43
MIMAROPA 46.14 5.78 4.32
Bicol Region 83.27 0.12 2.32 0.01
Western Visayas 68.53 9.15 4.01 1.91 0.84 0.06
Central Visayas 13.98 8.51 0.58 2.03 6.40 0.20
Eastern Visayas 29.03 5.42 1.86 7.57
Zamboanga Peninsula 41.91 4.62 0.26 3.29 0.20
Northern Mindanao 68.76 3.53 0.57 0.45 2.17
Davao Region 64.18 3.10 0.60 0.27 0.44
SOCCSKSARGEN 86.50 0.72 1.54 0.25
Caraga 70.81 9.09 0.05 0.66 2.62
ARMM 83.21 7.04 3.46 0.43 0.22

Table 51. Concluded

For Used/ Used/


Given Paid to
Region Home To be Used To be Used Wastage Others 1/
Away Creditor
Consumption for Seeds for Feeds

PHILIPPINES 9.41 0.72 0.35 0.41 0.65 0.29 0.03

CAR 0.65 0.59 0.59 1.15 1.63


Ilocos Region
Cagayan Valley 0.87 0.30 0.15 0.05 0.72 0.26
Central Luzon
CALABARZON 66.61 5.06 1.44 3.16
MIMAROPA 2.47 2.54 3.38 0.55 34.81
Bicol Region 10.89 0.57 0.34 1.34 0.72 0.42
Western Visayas 12.15 0.90 0.15 1.72 0.57
Central Visayas 62.97 2.23 0.13 1.56 0.94 0.05 0.42
Eastern Visayas 43.38 0.03 8.00 2.18 1.04 1.48
Zamboanga Peninsula 46.51 0.81 0.02 0.55 1.79 0.02
Northern Mindanao 20.88 1.93 0.01 1.04 0.23 0.39 0.05
Davao Region 29.76 0.18 0.42 0.86 0.04 0.15
SOCCSKSARGEN 5.29 0.29 0.48 0.14 0.09 0.12
Caraga 15.19 0.31 0.45 0.33 0.06 0.14
ARMM 0.70 2.46 1.10 1.07 0.23 0.05 0.02

1/ Include rentals other than land and stolen produce

134
Table 52. Percentage of corn farmers reporting on current level of production in comparison
with the same period last year by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Region Higher This Year Lower This Year About The Same

PHILIPPINES 28.97 29.13 40.00

CAR 29.63 48.15 22.22


Ilocos Region 23.91 19.57 56.52
Cagayan Valley 38.71 36.29 25.00
Central Luzon 38.89 27.78 33.33
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 30.00 50.00 20.00
Bicol Region 24.66 15.07 60.27
Western Visayas 37.04 20.37 35.19
Central Visayas 41.62 34.68 20.81
Eastern Visayas 10.34 27.59 62.07
Zamboanga Peninsula 37.88 14.39 47.73
Northern Mindanao 24.24 44.24 29.09
Davao Region 19.87 19.21 56.29
SOCCSKSARGEN 21.93 39.47 37.72
Caraga 42.86 28.57 25.71
ARMM 15.31 13.27 69.39

Table 53. Percentage of corn farmers with higher volume of production this year by reason for change
in production and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Reasons For Higher Production This Year


Lesser
Good Used Adequate
Region Increase Good Occurrence 1/
Quality Adequate Water Others
in Area Weather of Pests and
of Seeds Fertilizer Supply
Diseases

PHILIPPINES 6.58 59.45 8.77 18.36 29.86 0.27 3.29

CAR 25.00 50.00 37.50 50.00


Ilocos Region 9.09 36.36 27.27 36.36 9.09
Cagayan Valley 81.25 47.92 29.17
Central Luzon 57.14 28.57 14.29
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 66.67 33.33
Bicol Region 11.11 72.22 16.67 33.33
Western Visayas 10.00 85.00 15.00
Central Visayas 6.94 65.28 5.56 5.56 33.33
Eastern Visayas 66.67 33.33
Zamboanga Peninsula 6.00 62.00 14.00 12.00 24.00 2.00
Northern Mindanao 5.00 60.00 12.50 12.50 27.50 2.50
Davao Region 16.67 30.00 16.67 16.67 16.67 13.33
SOCCSKSARGEN 8.00 56.00 16.00 36.00 32.00 4.00
Caraga 40.00 33.33 26.67 13.33
ARMM 33.33 6.67 13.33 73.33 13.33

1/ Include proper farm management, increased planting density, good quality of soil and adequate financial support

135
Table 54. Percentage of corn farmers with lower volume of production this year by reason for change
in production and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Reasons For Lower Production This Year


Occurrence Poor Inadequate Poor
Region Decrease Bad 1/
of Pests and Quality Water Quality of Others
in Area Weather
Diseases of Seeds Supply Produce

PHILIPPINES 11.72 60.76 20.16 10.35 19.07 1.36 5.72

CAR 23.08 92.31 15.38 7.69 15.38


Ilocos Region 44.44 55.56 11.11
Cagayan Valley 4.44 66.67 22.22 11.11 4.44 2.22
Central Luzon 60.00 40.00 40.00
CALABARZON 81.82 18.18 9.09 18.18
MIMAROPA 60.00 60.00 20.00
Bicol Region 18.18 63.64 36.36 9.09 9.09
Western Visayas 18.18 54.55 18.18 9.09 18.18 9.09
Central Visayas 23.33 55.00 10.00 1.67 31.67 10.00
Eastern Visayas 87.50 50.00 12.50 25.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 15.79 57.89 47.37 26.32
Northern Mindanao 13.70 57.53 19.18 16.44 16.44 8.22
Davao Region 6.90 55.17 34.48 6.90 17.24
SOCCSKSARGEN 11.11 53.33 13.33 11.11 33.33 11.11
Caraga 80.00 10.00 20.00
ARMM 84.62 23.08

1/ Include lack of financing, poor soil condition, improper farm management, eaten by animals and
affected by permanent crops such as rubber and mango.

Table 55. Percentage of corn farmers reporting problems on production by region,


Philippines, January - September 2013

Bad Occurrence
High Cost Lack of
Region Weather/ of Pests
of Inputs Capital
Calamities and Diseases

PHILIPPINES 45.87 39.21 36.19 26.83

CAR 59.26 62.96 55.56 7.41


Ilocos Region 43.48 39.13 6.52
Cagayan Valley 67.74 45.97 50.81 29.03
Central Luzon 94.44 22.22
CALABARZON 72.73 36.36
MIMAROPA 30.00 40.00 60.00 30.00
Bicol Region 52.05 20.55 23.29 17.81
Western Visayas 33.33 12.96 35.19 12.96
Central Visayas 47.40 38.15 60.69 22.54
Eastern Visayas 13.79 37.93 68.97 72.41
Zamboanga Peninsula 59.09 36.36 23.48 34.85
Northern Mindanao 44.85 45.45 28.48 26.67
Davao Region 15.23 30.46 28.48 36.42
SOCCSKSARGEN 64.91 51.75 35.09 21.05
Caraga 28.57 54.29 25.71 11.43
ARMM 37.76 48.98 30.61 40.82

136
Table 55. Concluded

Rough or Poor Poor Inadequate Supply


Region Road/Inadequate Soil of Water/ Others1/
Transport Facilities Condition Irrigation Problem

PHILIPPINES 11.19 10.24 2.70 2.14

CAR 3.70 11.11


Ilocos Region 6.52 4.35 17.39 4.35
Cagayan Valley 8.06 4.84 6.45 3.23
Central Luzon 11.11
CALABARZON 27.27
MIMAROPA 10.00
Bicol Region 10.96 4.11
Western Visayas 12.96 11.11 9.26 1.85
Central Visayas 10.40 16.76 2.31
Eastern Visayas 31.03
Zamboanga Peninsula 6.06 1.52 0.76
Northern Mindanao 7.27 6.67 1.21 3.03
Davao Region 21.85 15.89 1.99
SOCCSKSARGEN 31.58 19.30 1.75 3.51
Caraga 5.71 8.57
ARMM 4.08 11.22 3.06

1/ Include excessive water, poor quality of seeds, eaten by animals, lack of post-harvest facilities
and lack of area for planting.

Table 56. Percentage of corn farmers who sold produce to major buyer by region,
Philippines, January - September 2013

Wholesaler-
Region Wholesaler Agent Assembler Consumer Cooperative Processor
Retailer

PHILIPPINES 45.70 38.42 7.88 3.39 3.27 0.85 0.48

CAR 85.19 14.81


Ilocos Region 45.65 43.48 8.70 2.17
Cagayan Valley 75.61 15.45 6.50 0.81 1.63
Central Luzon 22.22 33.33 44.44
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 37.50 25.00 37.50
Bicol Region 40.00 27.27 14.55 16.36 1.82
Western Visayas 67.86 7.14 14.29 3.57 7.14
Central Visayas 23.08 7.69 30.77 11.54 26.92
Eastern Visayas 72.73 27.27
Zamboanga Peninsula 60.98 26.83 7.32 4.88
Northern Mindanao 57.73 40.21 2.06
Davao Region 29.75 57.02 2.48 7.44 1.65 1.65
SOCCSKSARGEN 39.25 57.01 2.80 0.93
Caraga 35.00 50.00 15.00
ARMM 20.62 50.52 27.84 1.03

137
Table 57. Percentage of corn farmers reporting problems on marketing of produce
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Rough Roads/ Lack of Limited


Low Price Unstable
Region High Transport Marketing Buyer/
of Produce Prices
Cost Information Market Outlet

PHILIPPINES 44.21 38.73 15.87 4.52 3.57

CAR 77.78 96.30 14.81 3.70


Ilocos Region 45.65 63.04 15.22 2.17 2.17
Cagayan Valley 71.77 73.39 11.29 11.29 10.48
Central Luzon 66.67 44.44 16.67
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 50.00 50.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 58.90 42.47 9.59 6.85 2.74
Western Visayas 20.37 22.22 9.26 1.85
Central Visayas 11.56 4.05 0.58 1.16
Eastern Visayas 24.14 24.14 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 30.30 5.30 5.30 0.76 1.52
Northern Mindanao 49.09 47.27 23.03 6.67 4.24
Davao Region 27.81 40.40 39.07 1.99 7.28
SOCCSKSARGEN 72.81 65.79 27.19 5.26 0.88
Caraga 42.86 31.43 11.43
ARMM 68.37 40.82 22.45 8.16 7.14

Table 58. Percentage of corn farmers who availed of loans for corn production by source
of loan and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Percentage of Source
Region Corn Farmers Private
Who Availed Loan
Cooperative Bank Others1/
Individual

PHILIPPINES 12.30 7.10 1.29 87.10 4.52

CAR 59.26 50.00 50.00


Ilocos Region 8.70 100.00
Cagayan Valley 52.42 1.54 98.46
Central Luzon 44.44 75.00 25.00
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 10.00 100.00
Bicol Region 8.22 16.67 83.33
Western Visayas
Central Visayas 4.05 14.29 71.43 14.29
Eastern Visayas 10.34 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 8.33 9.09 81.82 9.09
Northern Mindanao 4.24 71.43 28.57
Davao Region 1.32 50.00 50.00
SOCCSKSARGEN 12.28 7.14 92.86
Caraga 25.71 100.00
ARMM 2.04 100.00

1/ Include micro-financing institutions, NGOs, farmers' association and Quedancor.

138
Table 59. Percentage of corn farmers who were aware and availed of benefit from government programs/
interventions in corn production by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Aware of Government Availed of Benefit from Government


Region
Programs/Intervention Programs/Intervention

PHILIPPINES 66.75 12.86

CAR 92.59 7.41


Ilocos Region 34.78 10.87
Cagayan Valley 79.84 39.52
Central Luzon 77.78 22.22
CALABARZON 90.91 9.09
MIMAROPA 90.00 10.00
Bicol Region 87.67 5.48
Western Visayas 88.89 1.85
Central Visayas 53.18 7.51
Eastern Visayas 55.17 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 65.15 18.94
Northern Mindanao 56.36 13.33
Davao Region 80.79 15.89
SOCCSKSARGEN 78.07 7.02
Caraga 77.14 2.86
ARMM 31.63 1.02

Table 60. Percentage of corn farmers who received benefit from government programs/interventions on
corn production by type of benefit and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Training on Post -
Fertilizer and Marketing
Region Seeds Farming Harvest Loans Others1/
Other Inputs Support
Technology Facilities

PHILIPPINES 30.86 4.94 41.36 28.40 0.62 2.47 7.41

CAR 100.00 50.00


Ilocos Region 60.00 20.00 40.00
Cagayan Valley 14.29 18.37 71.43 2.04 12.24
Central Luzon 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00
MIMAROPA 100.00 100.00
Bicol Region 50.00 25.00 50.00
Western Visayas 100.00
Central Visayas 23.08 7.69 53.85 7.69 7.69 30.77
Eastern Visayas 100.00
Zamboanga Peninsula 16.00 76.00 16.00 8.00
Northern Mindanao 36.36 18.18 50.00
Davao Region 54.17 4.17 29.17 16.67 8.33
SOCCSKSARGEN 37.50 37.50 37.50
Caraga 100.00
ARMM 100.00

1/ Include crop insurance, tractor services and farm to market roads

139
Table 61. Percentage of corn farmers who used the benefit received and increased income
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Used the Benefit Received from Increased


Region
the Government Corn Farm Income

PHILIPPINES 77.16 61.73

CAR 50.00 50.00


Ilocos Region 60.00 20.00
Cagayan Valley 87.76 81.63
Central Luzon 100.00 50.00
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 100.00 100.00
Bicol Region 50.00 25.00
Western Visayas 100.00 100.00
Central Visayas 76.92 46.15
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 88.00 80.00
Northern Mindanao 63.64 45.45
Davao Region 66.67 45.83
SOCCSKSARGEN 75.00 62.50
Caraga 100.00
ARMM 100.00 100.00

Table 62. Percentage of corn farmers by perceived effect of climate change on their corn farming
and by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Effect
Affected
Change in Decrease in Increase
Region By Climate Decrease
Cropping Number of in Input Others 1/
Change in Yield
Pattern Cropping Usage

PHILIPPINES 67.38 34.98 21.91 12.49 64.66 3.06

CAR 85.19 17.39 13.04 21.74 95.65


Ilocos Region 30.43 7.14 28.57 71.43
Cagayan Valley 71.77 21.35 26.97 29.21 71.91
Central Luzon 11.11 100.00
CALABARZON 100.00 27.27 100.00
MIMAROPA 70.00 14.29 28.57 14.29 57.14
Bicol Region 35.62 26.92 42.31 38.46
Western Visayas 75.93 41.46 19.51 7.32 63.41
Central Visayas 80.92 42.86 20.00 10.00 70.00 11.43
Eastern Visayas 37.93 45.45 9.09 72.73
Zamboanga Peninsula 75.76 28.00 13.00 9.00 54.00 1.00
Northern Mindanao 75.15 31.45 13.71 11.29 73.39 4.84
Davao Region 66.23 34.00 20.00 65.00
SOCCSKSARGEN 89.47 39.22 32.35 23.53 58.82 2.94
Caraga
ARMM 60.20 67.80 42.37 10.17 40.68

1/ Include decrease in frequency of plowing, increase in production, more occurrence of weeds and crop stress

140
Table 63. Percentage of corn farmers who are members of farmers' organization and type
of benefits received by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Benefits Received
Members of
Financial/
Region Farmers' Trainings/ Inputs Marketing
Organization Seminars
Credit Others1/
Support Support
Support

PHILIPPINES 10.00 65.08 11.11 10.32 9.52 5.56

CAR 22.22 100.00 50.00 16.67


Ilocos Region 10.87 80.00 20.00
Cagayan Valley 0.81 100.00
Central Luzon 33.33 16.67
CALABARZON
MIMAROPA 20.00 50.00
Bicol Region 6.85 80.00
Western Visayas 12.96 71.43 14.29 14.29 28.57 14.29
Central Visayas 10.98 73.68 15.79 15.79
Eastern Visayas
Zamboanga Peninsula 21.21 64.29 7.14 10.71 7.14
Northern Mindanao 4.85 62.50 25.00 25.00
Davao Region 14.57 68.18 13.64 31.82
SOCCSKSARGEN 13.16 53.33 13.33 13.33 6.67
Caraga 2.86 100.00 100.00
ARMM 1.02 100.00 100.00

1/ Include farm machineries, livestock dispersal and vegetable production livelihood

Table 64. Percentage distribution of corn farmers reporting on the plan of farm operations
by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Maintain Current Expand Shift To Other Stop


Region
Operations Operations Crops Operations

PHILIPPINES 71.67 24.84 1.43 2.06

CAR 59.26 37.04 3.70


Ilocos Region 65.22 34.78
Cagayan Valley 62.90 33.87 1.61 1.61
Central Luzon 83.33 16.67
CALABARZON 63.64 36.36
MIMAROPA 60.00 20.00 10.00 10.00
Bicol Region 64.38 31.51 1.37 2.74
Western Visayas 74.07 20.37 5.56
Central Visayas 73.99 21.97 1.16 2.89
Eastern Visayas 79.31 13.79 6.90
Zamboanga Peninsula 92.42 2.27 1.52 3.79
Northern Mindanao 77.58 21.21 0.61 0.61
Davao Region 51.66 44.37 0.66 3.31
SOCCSKSARGEN 64.91 28.95 6.14
Caraga 71.43 28.57
ARMM 87.76 12.24

141
Table 65. Percentage of corn farmers reporting on the recommendations to further improve
the corn production by region, Philippines, January - September 2013

Improve Regulate
Price Infrastructure Financial
Region Irrigation Price of
Support Facilities Support
Services Farm Inputs

PHILIPPINES 56.35 4.68 14.44 43.89 68.17

CAR 70.37 14.81 25.93 96.30


Ilocos Region 78.26 23.91 19.57 32.61 67.39
Cagayan Valley 95.16 6.45 13.71 85.48 67.74
Central Luzon 100.00 33.33 22.22 100.00 66.67
CALABARZON 9.09 18.18 45.45 72.73
MIMAROPA 90.00 30.00 10.00 30.00
Bicol Region 63.01 4.11 45.21 53.42
Western Visayas 35.19 11.11 24.07 29.63 55.56
Central Visayas 15.61 2.89 11.56 52.02 79.19
Eastern Visayas 89.66 3.45 24.14 58.62
Zamboanga Peninsula 30.30 6.06 36.36 77.27
Northern Mindanao 51.52 1.21 17.58 46.06 58.79
Davao Region 53.64 0.66 20.53 28.48 69.54
SOCCSKSARGEN 80.70 0.88 14.91 38.60 74.56
Caraga 85.71 11.43 57.14 74.29
ARMM 64.29 15.31 21.43 24.49 58.16

Table 65. Concluded

Soil Land New/Modern


Environmental
Region Testing/ Reform Farming Others 1/
Concern
Analysis Program Technologies

PHILIPPINES 12.94 3.73 4.52 20.32 2.78

CAR 18.52 37.04 33.33


Ilocos Region 13.04 4.35 4.35 13.04 4.35
Cagayan Valley 16.13 4.84 6.45 25.81 2.42
Central Luzon 27.78 5.56 50.00
CALABARZON 54.55 9.09 9.09 81.82
MIMAROPA 10.00 10.00 20.00
Bicol Region 4.11 9.59 9.59 1.37
Western Visayas 18.52 9.26 20.37 5.56
Central Visayas 13.87 3.47 2.31 22.54 1.73
Eastern Visayas 3.45 3.45
Zamboanga Peninsula 2.27 0.76 0.76 7.58 3.03
Northern Mindanao 3.64 5.45 0.61 16.97 6.67
Davao Region 21.19 0.66 11.26 17.88 1.32
SOCCSKSARGEN 19.30 2.63 4.39 28.07 1.75
Caraga 2.86 28.57 2.86
ARMM 18.37 6.12 7.14 26.53

1/ Include more inputs support, provision of good variety of seeds, provision of crop insurance and dispersal of work animals

142
References

2009 Costs and Returns of Corn Production, March 2011. BAS

Costs and Returns of Tilapia Production, September 2011. BAS

3rd Edition Metadata for National Agricultural Statistics in the Philippines. BAS

Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC),2007. NSO

List of Fully Registered Fertilizer (Finished Products/Raw Materials) as of 31


December 2011. Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority, Department of Agriculture

143
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
PHILIPPINES
Philippine Statistics Authority
Ben-Lor Bldg., 1184 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Agricultural Accounts and Statistical
Indicators Division
Tel. No. 372-3823

aasid.bas@gmail.com
https://www.psa.gov.ph/