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Corrosion and preventive measures of blast furnace gas pipeline


2018-07-29

 Industry News
 News

1 At present, in order to reduce the cost of blast furnace smelting and increase production,
iron and steel enterprises widely use technologies such as sinter spraying CaCl2 solution,
blast furnace oxygen-enriched coal injection, dry gas dedusting, gas residual pressure
power generation, etc. Some of the technologies will cause by-product blast furnace gas.
The content of medium-acid components (such as SO2, SO3, H2S, HCl, etc.) is relatively
increased. When all kinds of acidic components remain in the gas, when the temperature
drops below the dew point, water will be precipitated, and the acidic components in the
wet environment with water will become more and more obvious. The blast furnace gas
produced by the blast furnace is used to meet the national energy conservation and
emission reduction requirements. A large number of dry gas dedusting technologies are
used, followed by a gas residual pressure power generation device. When the blast
furnace top gas temperature is low, the gas residual pressure power generation The net
gas exported may be as low as below the dew point. This kind of gas is sent to the hot air
furnace, heating furnace, lime, sintering, coking and other users through the whole
plant pipe network to meet the energy demand. According to the survey, Baosteel,
Henggang, Taigang, Shougang and other enterprises have different degrees of blast
furnace gas pipelines. The corrosion problem has affected the safety and service life of
the gas pipe network. Therefore, it is imperative to take corresponding measures to
prevent the corrosion of the pipe network by the blast furnace gas.

2 corrosion of pipelines, equipment and accessories

Corrosive components enter the next process with the flow of gas, and with the
temperature drop of the gas and the precipitation of moisture, a highly corrosive acidic
substance is formed. In the entire gas pipeline network, the objects of corrosion are gas
pipelines, equipment and accessories. The parts that are prone to corrosion are: TRT
blades, compensators on gas pipelines, connecting flanges, valves, drain pipes, drains,
instrument pipes, etc. The specific corrosion situation is analyzed as follows:

2.1 Corrosion generation process

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The process of producing acidic components in blast furnace gas can be expressed by
the following process:

Raw materials (Imported ore washed by sea water) – Sintering plant (spraying CaCl2
process) – Ironmaking plant (disposable gas produced by coal injection process)

– Gas purification (dry dust removal process) – residual pressure power generation (dry
TRT process) – whole plant net gas pipe network (acid component blast furnace gas).

2.2 Chemical corrosion mechanism

The corrosion mechanism of the blast furnace gas pipeline can be expressed by the
following chemical equation:

SO3+H2O=H2SO4, SO2+H2O=H2SO3

Fe+H2SO4=FeSO4+H2, Fe+H2SO3=FeSO3+H2

Fe+2HCl=FeCl2+H2 and the like.

The Fe2+ in the condensed water comes from the corrosion of the pipeline by the acid.

2.3 Pipeline corrosion

The metal corrosion of the blast furnace gas pipeline itself is mainly: chemical corrosion,
electrochemical corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion.

(1) Hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, sulfide or other corrosive compounds in the
gas directly interact with the metal to cause chemical corrosion; (2) water forms a
hydrophilic film on the inner wall of the pipe, forming a corrosion of the primary battery.
Conditions that produce electrochemical corrosion;

(3) crevice corrosion is likely to occur at pipe joints, linings, gaskets, pipe welds
(especially single-sided welds), equipment sludge deposits, corrosion product
attachments, metal coating damage, etc.

(4) Chloride in blast furnace gas, chloride ion in solution, sulfur

The compound is an important cause of stress corrosion in stainless steel; wet carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide mixed gas (high stress), hydrogen sulfide, nitrate solution, lye,
etc. cause stress corrosion to carbon steel low alloy steel.

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2.4 Pipeline attachment corrosion

Before the gas enters the dry dust collector, due to the high gas temperature, the acidic
corrosive medium exists in a gaseous form, and the gas pipe network and accessories
(such as various compensators) are damaged in the form of wear, and the acid chemical
corrosion is extremely small.

After the dry dust removal, the acid corrosive gas in the gas dissolves with the
precipitation of part of the condensed water in the gas to form an acidic liquid or a salt
solution, and the accessories on the gas pipe are as follows: Corrugated compensators,
drains and flanges cause corrosion.

The stainless steel corrugated compensator of the dry dust removal cylinder inlet and
outlet and the main gas pipeline of the gas has a large area of point corrosion,
accompanied by condensation of yellow precipitates, severe linear cracks, and burst in
normal operation. According to reports, some corrugated compensators of some steel
companies’ dry dust removal systems have a minimum life span of only 5 months and an
average life expectancy of about 8 months.

For the drainer, due to the low pH value of the gas condensate (4~5), the steel gas drainer
steel plate is seriously thinned, rust and water leakage, which seriously threatens the
normal operation of the drainer and gas pipeline, and the wall thickness of some gas
pipelines. The thinning is severe, from 8~12mm at the time of initial construction to
1~3mm, and some pipes cannot be welded due to the thin wall thickness.

2.5TRT blade corrosion and scaling

After the blast furnace gas is dedusted, a variety of acidic components (such as H2S, HCl,
SO2, etc.) are generated due to the gas dust, water vapor and blast furnace raw materials,
and the multi-phase flow composed of gas-vapor-solid is entered into the TRT device.
After the blast furnace gas enters the TRT device, the temperature will gradually decrease
due to the expansion work. When the TRT inlet temperature is low (about 130 °C), the
outlet gas temperature will be lower than 80-90 °C, the acidic component of the gas
dissolves in the condensation. The water will form an acidic water film on the blade,
causing corrosion on the surface of the blade, and the smoothness of the metal surface
after corrosion is drastically reduced.

At the same time, due to the decrease in gas temperature and pressure, some trace
components such as NH4+ and Cl-, which are corrosive products, oil, dust, etc., combine

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to form salt and scale, and precipitate in a crystalline state to form various inorganic salts.
The crystal adheres to the metal surface to form a solid salt layer. They are attached to
the turbine maneuver, static vane, exhaust volute and outlet pipe. In severe cases, the
thickest layer reaches 50~60mm, which will make the turbine rotor balance. The damage
caused the vibration to exceed the standard and the unit was forced to stop for
maintenance. When the unit is seriously fouled, it needs to be cleaned once a week,
which affects the stable operation of the unit.

3 preventive measures

3.1 Raw fuel control

Reduce the S and Cl content of the raw fuel in the furnace, and eliminate or reduce the
acidic components in the blast furnace gas from the source, such as: imported ore that
has not been washed by seawater; reasonably control the amount of CaC12 additive
sprayed in the sinter, or change the spray without Other additives such as chlorine and
low chlorine; reasonable control of the S content in the coal injection process.

3.2 anti-corrosion coating

Corrosion-resistant coating layer protection measures are adopted for chemical corrosion
and electrochemical corrosion of the inner wall of pipes, equipment and accessories. The
organic coating is applied to the inner surface of the object to form a continuous film,
which is dried to form a solid anti-corrosion coating for shielding, corrosion inhibition and
protection.

The choice of anti-corrosion coatings should be based on the characteristics of the gas
medium, the material of the pipeline and the corrosive environment, etc. The type of paint,
the number of painting passes and the thickness of the dry film should be determined. The
anti-corrosion process with economical and reasonable construction conditions is
adopted.

3.3 Pipe, equipment and accessories insulation

Gas temperature is the main factor affecting corrosion. Insulation of pipes, equipment and
accessories is adopted. One is to save energy and reduce the loss of heat in the medium.
The second is to prevent or reduce the precipitation of saturated water in the blast furnace
gas and prevent the acid gas in the gas from condensing with the condensate. The
formation of an acidic solution leads to corrosion of pipes and equipment.

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3.4 bellows

For blast furnace gas pipeline network with chloride ion concentration exceeding 25mg/L,
the compensator should adopt anti-corrosion measures. The elastic components in the
compensator should not be made of ordinary 300 series stainless steel (such as 304, 316,
316L). Inconer600 or In-coloy800 series or 254SMo stainless steel or non-metallic
materials such as fluororubber or polytetrafluoroethylene should be used.

From the experience of operation and maintenance of gas pipe network of each steel mill,
the stainless steel corrugated compensator made by 254SMo is used to replace the
ordinary 300 series stainless steel corrugated compensator. The service life is less than
one year from the original, and can be extended to 4~5 years. good effect. In addition, the
in-coloy800, 825 nickel-based austenitic stainless steel corrugated compensator or
polymer composite corrosion-resistant corrugated compensator replaces the ordinary
stainless steel corrugated compensator, and has achieved very good results.

3.5 TRT device

In order to ensure the normal operation of the dry TRT, the following measures are usually
adopted: (1) The TRT inlet gas pipeline is provided with on-line detection of dust content,
temperature detection, dust content and temperature over-standard alarm and shutdown
interlock.

(2) By sampling and analyzing the dry TRT turbine scale, the scale component is NH4Cl
crystal. The scale inhibitor technology utilizes a scale inhibitor to mask and inhibit the
formation of ammonium chloride salt before the TRT inlet, and at the same time form a
protective film on the blade to protect the blade from corrosion of acid gas and dust in the
gas. The main components of dry scale inhibitor: heterocyclic organic amine, imidazoline,
surfactant.

For the TRT device, the corrosion and scale inhibitor is sprayed, that is, the neutralization
reaction of the acid gas in the TRT gas is periodically performed, and the agent (scale
inhibitor) is added at 1 to 1.5 m after the quick-cut valve of the condensing device in the
pipeline is weakened to prevent water. Acidity to alleviate the corrosion of gas pipelines.

TRT dynamic and static blade fouling corrosion. It has been used in TRT equipment such
as Jinan Iron and Steel Plant, Laiwu Steel and Rizhao 3.6.1 Process Brief Steel Plant, and
its effect is very obvious. The basic function of the system is to automatically adjust the

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spray volume of the spray gun according to the change of the gas temperature to ensure
that the gas outlet temperature is maintained at an appropriate level.

3.6 spray process

Through the gas drainage temperature range of the steel system of Shougang, Henggang
and other steel plants. During operation, the water source tank/pump station is analyzed
by the chemical composition of the condensate of the filter filter. After seeing the pH of the
gas condensate and adjusting to a certain flow rate, it is sent to the spray gun through the
outlet pipe. The nitrogen value is generally 1~2. Between the Cl-, SO42- and other strong
acid ion content is atomized under the action of gas, resulting in very fine atomized
particles, the water mist is high, and it is strongly acidic. The blast furnace gas using dry
dust removal usually needs to evaporate rapidly in the gas, absorb a large amount of heat
of the gas, and cool the spray water mist in the gas temperature pipeline. The process is
rapidly reduced and maintained in a certain temperature range in the spray equipment.
The spray process diagram is set to add alkali equipment: the original neutral water mist is
changed into alkaline water mist, as shown in Figure 1.

3.6.2 Working principle

The alkali adding device is arranged in the spraying device: the original neutral water mist
is changed into an alkaline water mist, and the acid gas in the gas gas is neutralized, and
the acidity of the condensed water in the pipeline is weakened to alleviate the corrosion
phenomenon of the gas pipeline.

The lye is made of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
solution has high solubility, strong alkalinity, high absorption rate of acid gas such as SO2
and HCl, and higher deacidification by spraying lower concentration NaOH solution. effect.
At the same time, other alkali liquids such as lime water (Ca(OH)2) soda ash (Na2CO3)

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are easily avoided, which may cause precipitation of CaCO3 and CaSO4, which may
cause problems such as nozzles and pipes being blocked. The reaction between sodium
hydroxide (NaOH) and the absorption of acid gases is:

NaOH+HCl=NaCl+H2O2NaOH+H2SO4=Na2SO4+2H2O

The pipeline spray alkali spraying device has small investment and quick effect, which can
greatly alleviate the corrosion phenomenon of the pipeline, improve the pipeline life and
prevent gas leakage accidents caused by pipeline corrosion. The spray condensate is
adjusted from acid to near neutral, and the water-gas ratio is about 0.1L/m3, which saves
a lot of water resources and reduces environmental pollution. The device is well used in
projects such as Meigang blast furnace.

3.7 spray tower process

3.7.1 Process Description

A spray washing tower is arranged on the net gas pipe network to remove the
chlorine-containing substance in the gas while cooling the net gas, and then remove the
acid-containing mechanical water containing chloride through the two-layer packing in the
upper part of the tower. The main equipment of the spray dechlorination tower system
includes spray cooling tower, water supply pump, drainage pump, pool, nozzle, metal
packing, drainage water seal and so on. The spray tower body is composed of a casing, a
gas inlet and outlet pipe, a water sprinkler system and a garland packing. The schematic
diagram of the spray washing tower is shown in Figure 2.

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3.7.2 Working principle

The gas enters the spray tower from the inlet pipe below, and during the flow from the inlet
pipe to the tower body, the flow rate is slowed due to the sudden expansion of the flow
cross-sectional area. The circulating cooling water enters from the atomizing spray device
in the upper part of the tower and sprays down; the gas moves from bottom to top, and the
spray washing section is in full contact with the water mist to complete the gas cooling and
washing. The water spray not only can quickly cool down, but also capture the tiny
condensation droplets trapped in the gas stream in time to make it settle quickly. The gas
continues to ascend into the packing section, and the filler removes the mechanical water
from the gas and then enters the gas pipe network from the upper outlet pipe network.

The acidic substances such as chlorine ions in the gas are absorbed into the circulating
cooling water, and the acidic condensate flows into the bottom of the tower to be collected,
and is discharged into the circulating water system through the outlet to be precipitated
and cooled. The spray tower adopts circulating cooling water, and the drainage of the
spray dewatering tower first flows into the water collecting pit, and is pumped to the spray
tower for circulating water supply through the local pump. A liquid level gauge is installed
in the sump and interlocked with the local pump, which is displayed in the central control
room of the blast furnace. The circulating water is tested regularly. When the pH is low
and the concentrations of Cl- and SO42- are too large, the water is discharged into the
water treatment system and the new water is added.

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After the TRT of the dry system such as Baosteel Blast Furnace, a spray tower has been
built. The spray tower can thoroughly clean out Cl-, SO42-, etc., but the spray tower
occupies a large amount of water and the water spray ratio. About 0.3~0.5L/m3.

4 Conclusion

After the blast furnace gas dedusting is changed from the wet method to the dry method,
the corrosiveness of the gas is generally enhanced. Due to the difference of the original
fuel, the corrosive components in the gas vary greatly. The steel enterprises should be
based on the actual production conditions, and the acid corrosion of the blast furnace gas.
The current situation, for different steel companies and production processes, from the
aspects of protection, control, and extension of life, take appropriate corrosion prevention
measures for pipelines, equipment and accessories. Under the premise of meeting the
economical and reasonable, stable and safe operation of the blast furnace gas pipeline
network, one or more of the above-mentioned anti-corrosion measures can be selected
for comprehensive use.

Source: China Industrial Gas Pipelines Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry


(www.metallicsteel.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless
steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges,
Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in
Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage
treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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References:

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