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1NC Recruitment vs Camas LL

Topical plans must exclusively be actions by the federal Department of Education to
sanction or induce state or local governments.
CPJ 17 — Center for Public Justice, an American Christian think tank, 2017 (“How Are The Local, State
And Federal Governments Involved In Education? Is This Involvement Just?,” Available Online at, Accessed 09-17-2017)


Most of the day-to-day operation of schools takes place at the state and local level. However, when
Congress passes a federal budget each year, it sets aside enough money to fund about ten percent of
government-run schools’ operating costs. However, this funding nearly always comes with rules and
regulations. In order to receive the funding, schools must comply with various requirements from all
three branches of government, because Federal educational funding comes from taxation. In 2013, the
Federal government spent $72 billion on education, making it the third largest area of discretionary
For example, in 2001, Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires government schools
to test students annually in core subjects. This legislation, which was the most recent version (or
reauthorization) of the law that has provided K-12 funding to schools since 1965, introduced a
fundamental change to the existing law – it required accountability. Students in schools that perform
below their state’s established standards for more than two years must be offered free tutoring, after
school programs, or the opportunity to continue their education at a higher-performing government

In addition, schools that fall below standards for more than two years in a row may be required to
replace underperforming teachers, rework their curriculum, or restructure the internal organization of
the school, among other measures. Constitutionally, the federal government cannot force states to
comply with No Child Left Behind, but all 50 states cooperate in order to continue receiving federal
education funds.

The educational reforms passed by Congress are regulated and enforced by the federal Department of
Education. The U.S. Department of Education collects data on government-run schools, evaluates their
performance, suggests policy changes, and measures outcomes.

Vote neg to preserve predictable limits and a stable set of ground – there are infinite
education actors and mechanisms – makes the negative research burden impossible
and imprecise – also means no stable set of links or counterplan ground to DOE and
government, legal education reform

Topicality is a voting issue and competing interpretations is the best standard of
evaluation. A stable point of clash is crucial to productive debates and limits is the
most objective measure of stability.

ISBN 0-313-31335-0. The plan durable fiats congress which re-empowers DeVos to issue new federal ed regulations. In Section 103.”1 Much of the act consists of laying out the organizational structure and administrative titles of the new department and of formally transferring legal responsibility for federal education programs from existing departments to the new department. The traditional and predominant roles of these governments are reaffirmed. and the act explicitly states that it will in no way increase the authority of the federal government in education or provide for federal control of state or local educational activities. New DOE regulations were explicitly prohibited by Congress. 2002 (“Chapter 17: Department of Education Organization Act.D. p. The most telling parts of the act are Sections 101 and 103. The counterplan PICs out of this. regardless of their state. Contributing Editor to Education Dive—a publication providing comprehensive coverage of business. The need for a federal department is justified on several grounds: education is the right of all citizens. from Purdue. by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. technology. Published by Greenwood Press. increasing technology and complexity demand management techniques that some states lack. all U. and new and expanded federal education programs have been disorganized and fragmented across multiple administrative departments. regardless of the state in which they live. 194) The Organization Act itself is quite brief and straightforward. MA from Purdue. Congress declares that “there is established an executive department to be known as the Department of Education. Ph. It’s mutually exclusive — USFG “regulation of primary and secondary education” must be done by the DOE. The counterplan solves the entire case without increasing Department of Education regulations. Associate Professor of PoliSci at Middle Tennessee State University who has published extensively on gubernatorial politics. The detail and extent of these sections are a reflection of the significant concerns many people then had over the creation of the department.S. In the former. OFF The Department of Defense should prohibit military recruitment on primary and secondary education campuses and revise recruiting manuals to refrain from predatory recruiting practices. Carleton 2 — David Carleton.” Student’s Guide to Landmark Congressional Laws. Congress lays out an extensive listing of findings to justify elevating the federal presence in education. and culture trends in K-12 and higher .” to be administered by a cabinet-level secretary “appointed by the President. citizens are guaranteed equal access to education. Congress lays out guarantees to protect the roles of state and local governments in education. Mathewson 17 — Tara García Mathewson.

2017 (“Federal action on ESSA may not change much for schools. Wolfe 17 — Christy Wolfe. Vague statutory and regulatory language can impede choice by empowering state decision-makers who are opposed to and new regulations essentially cannot be passed until the Elementary and Secondary Education Act is once again reauthorized. and the Department of Education. allowed under the Congressional Review Act. Accessed 10-14-2017) Creating a “safe place” for choice and flexibility Regulations and guidance can create a “safe place” for forward-leaning state and local leaders that want to align their federal funds with their own decisions—and dollars—by which to expand school choice. DeVos will use this power to push through school choice.” Education Next. March 21st. wrote regulations that briefly had the strength of law. led by Betsy DeVos. Consequently. This would. Congress’ action. but when faced with nebulous statutory language. by clearly delineating just how expansively the statute can be read. state attorneys and program managers aren’t necessarily inclined to sign off on bold new uses of the money that comes from Washington. Senior Policy Adviser for the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Available Online at http://www. (See Andy Smarick’s paper on this idea for the National Alliance.” Education Dive. some of which were announced in the final weeks of the presidency. 2017 (“How ESSA Regulation Protects Choice and Local Flexibility.) . While the department can issue guidance on these topics — which Hyslop thinks it will be important to do — the guidance will not have the force regulations did. Spell out flexibility for state educational agencies (SEAs) to contemplate accountability that looks different in urban areas with many charter schools. The Trump administration should look at opportunities to “tip the scales” in these state-level in turn. eliminated those regulations. ESSA’s flexibility coupled with the fact that some cities now have fewer than half their schools within the traditional district can enable state leaders to apply charter-style accountability to district-run schools. She can’t do it in the status quo because Congress eliminated her regulatory power under ESSA. They often want to see some direct authority in statute or regulations. ESSA offers much flexibility to much-for-schools/438185/. allow state leaders to give district-run schools charter-like autonomy and create a single citywide accountability system. all public schools in a city could be held accountable via performance contracts held by an independent authorizer. leaving the Trump Education Department.educationdive. Secretary DeVos can leverage regulations and guidance to ensure that ESSA is read as expansively and flexibly as possible by doing the following: 1. Available Online at http://educationnext. March 1st. That’s partly because the same fault lines that prevented agreement on issues in Congress (or the executive branch) often exist in states as well. with limited say in how states will have to interpret the more ambiguous elements of the law. under Obama. Accessed 10-14-2017) ESSA became law with bipartisan support at the end of 2015.

Charter Schools . Secretary DeVos should use her authority to simplify the application process for districts wanting to take advantage of this pilot. 3 percent state-level set-aside in Title I that awards funds to LEAs to provide innovation to students. Secretary DeVos could capitalize on those ideas and actively encourage the use of DSS.. such as micro-charter schools to provide school choice and access to courses not readily available district-wide. Allow and encourage states to leverage Title I’s 7 percent set-aside for school improvement to replicate and expand high-quality charter schools to serve students otherwise attending low-performing schools (i. one or more classrooms or individual teachers could receive a charter to provide course access to students beyond the walls of a particular school—or to incubate new charter school models on a small scale before growing them. less risky scale. DSS. should states choose to take advantage of it.e. and describe how they can work together: Title I. • Clarifying a state’s responsibilities with respect to the high-quality tutoring provided through DSS. There is a lot of potential in this broad authority. • Encouraging innovative strategies. Support the use of Title I funds to turn around schools that feed into or out of struggling schools. has the potential to facilitate public school choice by helping to ensure district schools of choice receive equitable funding. those identified for comprehensive support and improvement). Direct Student Services is an optional. Issue comprehensive ESSA school choice guidance. Without clear permission. Micro-charters are schools where individuals or an organization receive a charter to open a very small school to test out new ideas on a smaller. A comprehensive choice and ESSA guidance package could connect the dots for SEAs and LEAs on all the authorities in the statute that could be integrated into a comprehensive vision for school choice. so DSS isn’t simply a windfall for district bureaucracies. local education agencies (LEAs) and SEAs may be hesitant to use school improvement funds to open or expand high-quality schools. She could shape DSS into a program that fosters choice in a variety of ways: • Providing specific guidance on how states can integrate and align their DSS program with their use of the Title I set-aside for school improvement. 5. With micro-chartering. The Flexibility for Equitable Student Funding pilot gives districts that use student-based budgeting new freedom to allocate Title I and Title II dollars to schools along with state and local dollars. Magnet Schools Assistance Program. instead of more typical methods of district-based budgeting and funding personnel. Equitable Student Funding Pilot. Weighted student funding pilot. 4.2. Guidance to states can help remove any state imposed accounting roadblocks that might further deter districts from participating in this pilot 6. The comment and responses section of the Obama Administration’s final ESSA accountability rules indicated this would be possible. Allocating funds based on the number and characteristics of students that attend a school. Chiefs for Change has already done great work generating ideas for DSS’s potential. • Requiring LEAs to be transparent and report the benefits they are furnishing to individual students. Make it clear that strategies can integrate targeted support schools that feed in or out of schools identified for comprehensive support and improvement. not just low-performing schools. 3. while providing guidance that illustrates potential best practices and clarifies any ambiguous statutory language. Encourage states to implement Direct Student Services (DSS).

A. Weingarten 17 — Randi Weingarten. While the Secretary has the authority to rewrite or not enforce troublesome provisions in the accountability rules. given the restrictions the Congressional Review Act would place on future ESSA rulemaking. such as new reporting requirements. received a B. from the Cardozo School of Law. Available Online at http://time. May 3rd. A repeal. 2017 (“AFT President: Betsy DeVos and Donald Trump Are Dismantling Public Education. using the “transferability” authority.Grants. could make it more complicated to implement choice-friendly regulations. The National Alliance for Public Charter Schools has identified specific issues in the accountability rules that would potentially hamstring charter schools through additional regulation. as well as language encouraging states to request waivers to tailor the program to their state. Current Charter Schools Program guidance needs to be revised to be consistent with ESSA. Accessed 09-29-2017) One of President Trump’s first acts was to appoint the most anti-public education person ever to lead the Department of Education. former president of the United Federation of Teachers. 7. that much of what I’ve outlined here could still be accomplished via guidance if regulations are not possible. President of the American Federation of Teachers. It should also take advantage of flexibility in the statute. from Cornell University’s School of Industrial and Labor Relations and a J. The result? Nearly half of Michigan’s charter schools rank in the bottom of U. This collapses democracy — it causes segregation and decks achievement. Ensure that ESSA isn’t used to undercut state charter school laws. When that failed. 9. In addition. I believe. schools. clear guidance or regulations are necessary to ensure that states don’t use the federal “teacher effectiveness” definition requirements to layer on teacher evaluation requirements that are not otherwise in state laws. For example. 8. While the Department has already spilled a lot of ink describing how to use ESSA funds. Revisit certain ESSA accountability regulations—if they aren’t repealed by Congress. Streamline and update Charter Schools Program guidance.” Time. and the Student Support and Academic Enrichment (SSAE) grant. she spent millions electing legislators who then did her bidding slashing public school budgets and spreading unaccountable for-profit charters across the state. guidance can address how to transfer funds between programs to support choice.D.S. such as new freedom for schools receiving federal aid to implement weighted lotteries. Congress may short-circuit that process and repeal the rules outright. however. and Michigan dropped from 28th to 41st in reading and from 27th to 42nd in math compared with other states. Betsy DeVos has called public schools a “dead end” and bankrolled a private school voucher measure in Michigan that the public defeated by a two-to-one ratio. . Proactive choice regulations and/or guidance will give states and districts the legal assurance they need to innovate and to provide more options to their families. there is very little guidance for SEAs and LEAs that may want to take advantage of flexibility in the statute to use those funds to advance school choice.

their view that education is a commodity as opposed to a public good threatens the foundation of our democracy and our responsibility to provide opportunity to all of America’s young people. to robust robotics and other strategies that engage kids in powerful learning.C. last month. building teacher capacity. And it transcends politics. Funding for community schools that provide social. But Trump and DeVos have acted to undermine the rights of kids who look or feel different. and continued to invest funds in the schools that need it the most. This is an area that voted more than 70 percent for Trump. After-school and summer programs — gone. they do not want those choices pit against one another or used to drain money from other public schools. engaging in powerful learning. It’s one of the reasons we saw such a massive grass-roots response to the DeVos nomination from every part of the country. The Trump/DeVos budget funnels more than $1 billion to new voucher and market strategies even though study after study concludes those strategies have hurt kids. and increase segregation. Recent studies of voucher programs in Ohio and Washington. D. teachers. They’ve proposed a budget that takes a meat cleaver to public education and programs that work for kids and families. But it doesn’t stop there. and fostering cultures of collaboration. to a community school that helps the kids most at risk of dropping out stay on a path . It’s dangerous in education when the facts don’t matter to people. and that’s a belief shared both by parents who send their kids to voucher schools and those who send their kids to public schools.. students and community members about what they want for their public schools. I see it every day as I crisscross the nation talking to parents. private voucher schools take money away from neighborhood public schools. Investments to keep class sizes low and provide teachers with the training and support they need to improve their craft — gone. health and academic programs to kids — gone. the DeVos/Trump agenda is wildly out of step with what Americans want for their kids. Americans have a deep connection to and belief in public education. and to cut funding for school health and safety programs. emotional. show students in these programs did worse than those in traditional public schools. Schools must be safe and welcoming places for all children. The Trump/DeVos agenda not only jeopardizes that work. pushed decision-making back to states and communities.Now DeVos is spreading this agenda across the country with Trump and Vice President Mike Pence’s blessing. Further. lack the same accountability that public schools have. What Trump and DeVos are doing stands in stark contrast to the bipartisan consensus we reached in 2015 when Congress passed a new education law that shifted the focus from testing back to teaching. but people there love and invest in their public schools — from a strong early childhood program. In other words. It’s what I saw when I took DeVos to visit public schools in Van Wert. A recent poll by Harvard and Politico showed that while parents want good public school choices to meet the individual needs of their kids. It offered an opportunity to focus on what we know works best for kids and schools—promoting children’s well-being. fail to protect kids from discrimination. Their budget cuts financial aid for low-income college students grappling with student debt at the same time the Trump administration is making it easier for private loan servicers to prey on students and families. Ohio.

D. and after a pregnant pause said he was having an “Aleppo moment. Tony Schwartz.S. Many of those who voted for Trump did so because they believed he would keep his promise to stand up for working people and create jobs. and demagogic leanings. reads books of any kind. Now. anti-intellectual.theatlantic. one 2016 presidential candidate and former two-time governor of New Mexico. This illiteracy has created a void that is easily filled by those with anti-science. To immediately cite the absurd. And it’s what I saw this week at Rock Island Elementary School in Broward County.” The bliss/506894/. have meaningful elections if its citizens have a paucity of civic knowledge and history that might allow them to make informed decisions? A significant part of the answer lies. graduation. as I’ve written in the past. to name his favorite leader of any nation in the world. who was Donald Trump’s ghostwriter for The Art of the Deal. Fla. the public’s limited knowledge—or even what the psychologist William James called “acquaintance with knowledge”—is neither monopolized by the poorly educated nor found only among certain social classes. John Mitchell Mason Professor of the University at Columbia University. Cole 16 — Jonathon R. Cole. Johnson could not name one. if ever. suggests that Trump apparently rarely. Former Chief Academic Officer. in Sociology from Columbia University. November 8th. It’s what I saw at the Community Health Academy of the Heights in New York City where the school provides a full-service community health clinic. in the failures of the American education system. where kids participate in robotics programs after school. it must give Americans pause. enable opportunity and propel our nation forward. 2016 (Provost and Dean of Faculties) at Columbia University. parent resource center. had no idea what was going on in Aleppo. . where there is a library in every classroom and a guided reading room where kids can build their literacy skills. or of the near-scientific consensus about global climate change and our seeming determination to destroy our planet. I believe. the person who ran on jobs and the economy seems intent on crushing one of the most important institutions we have to meet the demands of a changing economy. 2016 (“Ignorance Does Not Lead to Election Bliss. No wonder he turns out to be woefully ignorant of history and science. When this kind of ignorance reaches the level of presidential aspirants. earned a Bachelor’s degree and Ph. much less historical works. Available Online at https://www. Gary Johnson. asked by the commentator. Strong civic democracy key to solve existential threats. in-school social workers. Where does the ignorance originate? Why has it become so pervasive in the United States today? Can the U. They didn’t vote to dismantle public education and with it the promise and potential it offers their children. a food pantry. Syria. Accessed 09-29-2017) In short. The great things happening in these schools are all funded by federal dollars and threatened by the Trump/DeVos budget. Chris Matthews.” Along the same lines.. That’s one of the biggest takeaways from Trump’s first 100 days. where a great human tragedy involving the United States is unfolding before the world’s eyes. and other services for parents and kids.

Why does this ignorance exist among even “elite” college students today? I’ll start by pointing out that.S. genetically modified crops.  Roughly half of college students could not correctly state the length of the terms of members of the Senate or the House of Representatives. 40 percent mistakenly thought that it secures the right to vote. “government of the people. by the people. the same is true of only four of the 25 top national universities (such as the Ivies.Without addressing how to remedy this situation. While colleges often reason that these statistics are indicative of efforts to maximize the choices available to students. according to the ACTA study. Stanford. and only 22 percent knew that the phrase. Constitution. In a study of historical knowledge carried out in 2015 for the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA).S.  When asked in what century the American Revolution took place and whether the Civil War. more than 80 percent of college seniors at 55 top- ranked institutions would have received a grade of either a D or F. Meanwhile. The survey found that only about half of the students at the top 50 colleges and universities could identify the purpose of The Federalist Papers. history (the report does not note the proportion of history majors that elect to take a course in American history). only seven of the nation’s top 25 liberal-arts colleges require history majors to take a course on U.  And more than a third of Americans did not know that the Bill of Rights guarantees a right to a trial by jury. which were based on standard high-school civics curricula:  Only about 20 percent knew that James Madison was the father of the Constitution. and the Emancipation Proclamation preceded or followed the Revolution. it shouldn’t come as a surprise that the results of surveys of the general student population seem remarkable. these efforts apparently happen at the expense of knowledge about the history of the United States. If few of those who actually major in history are required to take such courses. Things have not gotten better more recently. Finally. consider some of its manifestation and possible causes—a few illustrations of the problem as reported in The Atlantic in 2010:  Americans were more able to identify Michael Jackson as the composer of a number of songs than to know that the Bill of Rights was the first 10 amendments to the U. while over 60 percent gave the title to Thomas Jefferson. The public must weigh in on critical ethical and moral issues—human cloning. Here’s an overview of some of the 2015 results. Turning to scientific and technological literacy among Americans yields perhaps even more startling ignorance.  More than 40 percent of college graduates did not know that the Constitution grants the power to declare war to Congress. the War of 1812. consider the eye-opening findings of a July 2016 ACTA study on the inclusion of American history in the curricula of the leading colleges and universities in the United States. That these are questions many Atlantic readers probably wouldn’t be able to answer confidently attests to the fact that the dearth of historical knowledge is a matter of education and not intelligence. the production of greenhouse gases. for the people” could be found in the Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. and the University of Chicago) and just 14 of the top 25 public ones. to name a few—that require at least a modicum . more than 30 percent of respondents answered that question incorrectly.

If individuals feel that they are being excluded from the benefits of American prosperity—if they feel that there is little chance for them or their children to rise in the world. and other matters that provide the population with critical-reasoning skills and a basis for choice would be one of only many other factors influencing their decisions. Most often this labeling is based upon how rapidly students can obtain correct answers to questions when the answers are already known—not on how they respond to the kinds of intriguing questions for which the answer isn’t known. then perhaps knowledge of history. technology. it’s possible that the evident lack of knowledge is overwhelmed by other social and economic interests within the public. many teaching positions are filled by people with limited classroom training or educators who aren’t experts in the field they’re being hired to teach. Which leads me to another phenomenon contributing to the widespread dearth of knowledge in the country: the education system’s obsession. Therefore. What they know about science and .S.” Of course.of literacy in science and technology. from the small classrooms in rural areas teaching high-school students to the Ivy League universities educating the world’s future leaders. as I have previously written. In 1993. doesn’t pay teachers well compared with most other professions. Consequently.  In 2012.S. science. as I’ve found in my own research. the National Science Foundation found that slightly more than half of surveyed Americans said astrology was “not at all scientific. but only about 60 percent were certified in the subject. many of America’s very talented students come to believe that they have little aptitude for science and engineering—eventually moving into professions far removed from the sciences. for example. Consider just two illustrative findings:  More than half of the adults questioned in a 2009 survey from the California Academy of Science did not know that it took a year for the Earth to orbit the sun. Surveys and statements by public officials speak to the critical need for a highly educated workforce—for the national economy as well as for individual participation in American democracy. But it’s undeniable that the state of America’s education system. A 2013 Gallup poll showed. Take the way the U. Yet the U. that 70 percent of Americans believed that a college education was very important—up from 36 percent when the survey was first taken in the late 1970s. almost 30 percent hadn’t majored in math. the kinds that are often key to gauging scientific talent. knowledge that is infrequently found among the country’s citizens. the science historian and former physics professor Gerald Holton noted that “we are losing 13 mathematics and science teachers for each one entering the profession. Many never take a science course after they have completed the final requirement in high school—even though the 20th century was distinguished by the extraordinary contributions of science and technology to contemporary culture and the economic well-being of Americans.” According to National Center for Education Statistics data from the 2007-08 school year. when it comes to civic affairs in the country. roughly 70 percent of math teachers in high schools majored in math. with labeling youngsters as scientifically “able” or “talented” at an early age. and it does little to sustain their motivation to continue as educators. treats its public-school teachers. and only 16 percent of these were certified. If so. is contributing to the country’s political state. that the government refuses to take action on matters that are of great importance to them—they may vote on the basis of these interests.

I contrasted space devoted to science and technology with that to contemporary culture and the arts and found. I’ve recently reviewed. In fact.” The information it provides is good stuff: It notes that American scientists “have repeatedly made significant contributions to the life of the nation”. And it provides only scanty references to the Constitution’s Bill of Rights and to science and technology in the 20th century. covering all of American history. very briefly. . A review of the nearly 400 pages devoted to the 20th century reveals two pages devoted to scientists and engineers as “makers of America. as just one example. it mentions the Human Genome project and how industry along with universities spurred developments in communications and information technology. In the late 1990s. who discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. the move to Big Science in America after World War II and the role that research universities have made in those discoveries. This turns out to be one of the most popular texts used to prepare high-school students for AP examinations. It is a big. In this great century of American science. in a cursory fashion to be must. Lizabeth Cohen. Because its range is so great. it was mostly to a brief discussion of the discovery of atomic power and the atom bomb. wars. Kennedy. One of the most widely used and highly praised is The American Pageant. Have things in the textbook world changed since the 1990s? To answer this question. come from various news and social-media sources and from whatever teaching they may have received in American history during high school or in college. that much more discussion was devoted to. it discusses. by the renowned historians David M. This is a first-rate textbook. then. say. If someone today is ignorant of science and technology—and of its implications for the average citizen— it is likely to come from what he read or was taught through American-history courses. I examined the content of a number of the leading American history textbooks used in high schools and colleges. a stranger would likely never know from these texts that science and technology had played a central role in the growth of American society. These books. in these massive textbooks a few pages at most were dedicated to science—and when that was the case. which were authored by world-class historians. it’s depth is limited. the content of some of today’s leading high-school texts for AP American-history courses as well as some widely used in American colleges (although the leading schools rarely rely on textbooks). but a student studying from it would gain little knowledge about American science and technology and more specifically the thousands of discoveries made at America’s universities that have had a critical role in shaping the nation—nor would they get a sense of the important aforementioned ethical and moral questions that remain unaddressed. were almost totally devoid of discussions of science. social movements. The same was true when it came to scores of other scientific discoveries. and Thomas Bailey. In comparison to the space devoted to political events. I looked at the 13th edition of a couple of years ago. well-written book. the singer Madonna than to James Watson and Francis Crick. But it says very little about the thousands of discoveries that have been central to American economic growth and well-being. though. there is almost no attention to science and technology. crises of one kind or another.

https://www. Schumer ticked off a list of House Republicans whose constituents would lose the generous state and local tax deduction under the GOP’s tax “We already made that choice.” The Washington Times. Tim Kaine. “If you continue to try and eliminate the state and local deduction you’re going to kill suburban legislators who are already in trouble because the suburbs don’t seem to like Donald Trump. And that . even as they’ve become increasingly comfortable with Obamacare nearly eight years on. who shellacked Mr. state. insisted those suburban families will end up ahead of the game with the GOP tax-cut bill. saying the loss of deductions is more than offset by lower tax rates many of them will enjoy. For one thing. “Is There an Upside for Democrats in DeVos as GOP's Face of K-12 Policy?.S. immigrant-rights advocates. voters picked Mr.and upper-class taxpayers poised to lose some of their biggest tax breaks under the GOP’s tax-cut bill. Mr. Make our day. and flipped a number of high-profile executive jobs in suburban counties in New York. Gillespie while posting the largest Democratic victory in the state in decades. recaptured the governorship in New Jersey. Democrats swept both of Virginia’s other top state offices. Senate Minority Leader Charles E. environmentalists. New York Democrat. Ryan.” The Plan saves the GOP Klein 17 (Alyson. seemed poised to win control of the state Senate in Washington. it could energize Dem ocrat s and those who support their vision to open their wallets and pound the pavement for local. was the battleground in those races: suburban areas that make up the key battlegrounds where next year’s mid-term congressional elections are likely to be fought. Trump promised voters. But her time in the spotlight also has a big potential upside for them. especially if she tries to make good on the $20 billion voucher initiative President Donald Trump pitched on the campaign trail. Northam. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos and her initiatives over the next few years. Northam’s victory was just one part of an electoral wave. but a too-timid party that’s failed to deliver on the agenda Mr. gay rights activists — every part of the Democratic coalition — claimed momentum Wednesday in the wake of stunning victories in the off-year elections. Ryan said. Virginia Democrat. the fallout could reach deep into Capitol Hill. though.html) Dem ocrat s could spend a lot of time fighting brand-new U.” said Sen. “We just had a trial run about whether a tax cut was appealing in a battleground state. where Democrats said they’re newly energized in their battle against the GOP’s tax-cut bill. http://blogs.” He flatly ruled out Republicans distancing themselves from the president and returning to a GOP more tied to the Bush years.” 2/9.” House Speaker Paul D.they’re capitalizing on the fact that Trump doesn’t have a positive legislative achievement Dinan 11-8 (Stephanie.” Mr. “We merged our agendas. Obamacare supporters. Most important. We ran with Donald Trump. and federal Democratic candidates.washingtontimes. “Democrats see momentum for midterms after stunning election victories. Given a choice between a pro-Obamacare candidate in Ralph Northam and a tax-cutting candidate in GOP nominee Ed Gillespie. Democrats said. “As Clint Eastwood said. Those are also the places with middle. Schumer. He said the problem voters were reacting to on Tuesday wasn’t a too-expansive GOP. and warned Republicans to heed the signs out of Virginia. November 8. 2017.” said Mr. And though no federal offices were at stake. “What people want to know and see is that this Donald Trump presidency and this Republican Congress makes a positive difference in my life.edweek. The answer was no. OFF This week’s elections show Dems have momentum.” Mr. made historic gains in the state House of Delegates. you want to pass this tax bill. Ryan said on the “Brian Kilmeade Show. saying they would be “committing political suicide” if they backed the midterm-el/) PCS Gun-control activists. We’re with Trump. you want to hurt the suburbs? Make our day.

I don't understand how you can give the back of your hand to rural America with this decision.181 survey participants—which constituted a nationally representative sample—said they support the idea of vouchers." he said. Rural Missouri. down from 55 percent four years ago. who spent three decades working for Democrats on Capitol Hill.—are both from rural states and have faced contested elections. and West Virginia.000 anti-DeVos calls. But many rural areas don't have the broadband capability to make that work. and said on Twitter that she had gotten nearly 3." Sen. Even Catholic schools in the cities are declining. and private schools. cited DeVos' lack of knowledge of education policy—and especially rural schools—as a reason he voted against her. the president of the Winston Group. opinion polling doesn't show vouchers as a big winner. of which there are not a lot in suburbia. But she will have to show that her policies are actually improving student outcomes . Obama ignited a legal and political firestorm .) Jack Jennings. if nothing else." But David Winston. where students have transportation challenges just getting to regular public schools. the poll found: 49 percent compared to 37 percent. setting up the DeVos nomination as an example of Trump betraying his most- loyal voters. as an investigation by Education Week found. but a potential political plus for his party. 1/3/17.) And the vulnerable senators—all of whom joined their Democratic colleagues in voting against DeVos Tuesday—were more than happy to point that out. D-W. Claire McCaskill. DeVos has offered up virtual charter schools as a solution for families in isolated areas that want to take advantage of school choice. Heidi Heitkamp. red states with Democratic senators that are up for re-election in 2018. professor of law at Vermont Law School. made a similar pitch in this post on Medium. President Obama acted boldly to conserve important ecological resources and solidify his environmental legacy. North Dakota. This action “ indefinitely ” protects almost 120 million acres of ecologically important and highly sensitive marine environments from the risks of oil spills and other industrial impacts. Susan Collins. And to be sure. Less than half of Americans are fans of the policy." Republicans. Democrats have 25 seats to protect in the mid-term election.. But by making creative use of an obscure provision of a 1953 law. And on the national level.V. (More here in this great explainer by my colleague Arianna Prothero. Sen. "In rural areas of this country. the Club for Growth and America Next. And I don't get that. including 10 in states that President Donald Trump won. of Maine. a key voting block for the GOP . “Will Trump Scuttle Obama's Offshore Drilling Bans?. dismal—academic performance. (More on that issue here.. They would have to drive miles. not just her positions. and Lisa Murkowski.desmogblog. a Washington polling firm that works with GOP candidates. Montana. including many questioning her qualifications. "The main advantage for the Democrats is that it clearly identifies the Republicans nationally as committed to privatizing public education. urging voters to persaude them to vote for DeVos.” https://www. "are kicking in the shins the very voters that put them in power. D-N. " The electorate is willing to take some risks to change the status quo because they feel that it isn't working. even as more states have embraced choice." Sen. Notably. And virtual charter schools have been plagued by uneven—and would serve Democrats best where they may need it most right now: in rural.D.. Joe Manchin. Dem ocrat s though. That won't sit well with suburban parents whose kids go to public schools." Jennings said. . "The reddest part of my state are parts of my state where there are no private schools. noted that Trump's win is evidence that voters might be ready to take a chance on something different. of which there are not a lot anywhere." he said of DeVos . D-Mo. another likely 2018 GOP target. the two Republicans who ultimately opposed DeVos— Sens. And in this tweet. especially among Republican voters. there are not private schools for parents and kids to choose. including Missouri. Both Heitkamp and Manchin were the target of ads by two conservative nonprofit groups. DeVos' favorite K-12 policy — vouchers— won't do much good in those states . McCaskill said. "Democrats can tell those parents that the Republicans are only interested in charter schools. "You need results. a journal published by Stanford University's Hoover Institution. according to an August 2016 opinion poll by Education offshore-drilling-bans President Obama gave environmental advocates a Christmas present when he announced in late December that he was banning oil and gas drilling in huge swaths of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. vouchers have slipped in popularity. sees DeVos as a policy minus. already appear to think they may hold the winning cards on the DeVos debate when it comes to mobilizing the grassroots activists. Filibuster-proof majority means the GOP expands offshore drilling---locks in warming which causes extinction Patrick Parenteau 17. and that's going to play in her favor. In fact. And vouchers for low-income students were more popular among Democrats than Republicans. said Tuesday as the Senate was wrapping up debate on DeVos. Forty-three percent of the 4. of Alaska.

First. including the state of Alaska and the U. and that it can be redressed by the court. including several unique and largely unexplored coral canyons. Royal Dutch Shell stopped drilling in the Chukchi Sea in 2015 after spending US$7 billion and drilling in what proved to be a dry hole. operational. They also contend that the Trump administration can act directly to reverse it. BP and Exxon have all to some degree abandoned offshore Arctic drilling. In ordering the Atlantic withdrawals. Obama’s latest action bars energy production in 115 million more acres of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas – an area known as the “Arctic Ring of Life” because of its importance to Inupiat Peoples who have lived there for millennia. Since 2008 the Interior Department has canceled or withdrawn a number of sales in Alaskan waters due to low demand. which averaged about $43 per barrel through 2016. and other coastal areas are open for leasing in Alaska’s near-shore waters and the Gulf of Mexico. other wildlife. will rise to only about $52 per barrel in 2017.8 million acres in the biologically rich Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Obama provided three reasons for his action. Obama cited his responsibility to “ensure that the unique resources associated with these canyons remain available for future generations. especially since rapid changes are taking place in the electricity and transportation sectors. one of the most productive wild salmon fisheries in the world. will seek to intervene in any such lawsuit. W. Market conditions will make this very difficult. safety and scientific challenges. The Energy Information Administration currently projects that crude oil prices. Finally.S. President Obama used section 12(a) in 2014 to protect Alaska’s Bristol Bay. but some were long-term. Donald Trump could issue his own memorandum in office seeking to cancel Obama’s. The Royal Dutch Shell drilling rig Kulluk broke loose and ran aground near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska as it was being towed to Seattle for winter maintenance in December 2012. Virginia to Canada. But a close reading of the law suggests that it could be difficult to undo Obama’s sweeping act. In 2015 he took the same step for approximately 9. The power to withdraw Congress passed the law now known as the O uter C ontinental S helf L ands A ct in 1953 to assert federal control over submerged lands that lie more then three miles offshore. Once they take this step. ConocoPhillips. Lloyd’s of London forecast this scenario in a 2012 report that called offshore drilling in the Arctic “a unique and hard-to-manage risk. Whether these areas will ever be commercially viable is an open question. he asserted. wildlife habitat. plaintiffs would have to show that they have suffered or face imminent injury. Moreover. in 1990 President George H. For example. Alternatively. section 12(a) does not provide any authority for presidents to revoke actions by their predecessors. beyond state coastal waters.Republicans and oil industry trade groups are threatening to challenge the ban in court or through legislation . six presidents from both parties have used this power. Most withdrawals were time- limited. It delegates authority to presidents to withdraw land unconditionally.” Starting in 1960 with the Eisenhower administration. that this harm was caused by Obama’s action. Bush permanently banned oil and gas development in California’s Monterey Bay. drilling for oil and responding to spills in Arctic waters poses unique logistical. which later became a national marine sanctuary. This Coast Guard overflight video shows the harsh conditions along Alaska’s coast in winter. Shell. in hopes that the Trump administration will opt not to defend it. Low oil prices coupled with high drilling costs make business success in the region a risky prospect. which hailed Obama’s action. Chevron. scientific research and Alaska Native subsistence use.” What happens next? Critics of President Obama’s action.8 million acres off the Atlantic Coast from Norfolk. these areas have irreplaceable value for marine mammals. to demonstrate that they have standing to sue.” Market forces support Obama’s action. Section 12(a) of the law authorizes the president to “withdraw from disposition any of the unleased lands of the outer Continental Shelf. But environmental groups. say they may challenge Obama’s order in court. Second. . Statoil. The order also withdraws 3. However. Why Obama acted In a Presidential Memorandum on the Arctic withdrawals. Chamber of Commerce. they are extremely vulnerable to oil spills. only Congress can undo it .

Examples include the Forest Service Organic Administration Act. and the 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act. In the meantime. Some laws do include language that allows such actions to be revoked. which sets out policies for managing multiple-use public lands. This would include the authority to open these areas to leasing for energy development . Obama has also used this power extensively – most recently. while at the same time weaning the nation from its dangerous dependence on fossil fuels. On the other hand. last week when he designated two new national monuments in Utah and Nevada totaling 1. Congress has plenary authority to dispose of federal property as it sees fit. environmental groups contesting his decision would face some of the same obstacles as an industry challenge to Obama’s action. the Antiquities Act does not authorize subsequent presidents to undo the designations of their predecessors. under which most national forests were established. Members of Alaska’s congressional delegation are considering introducing legislation to override Obama’s drilling ban.This issue has never been litigated. Thus President Obama’s decision reflects a considered judgment that the national interest is best served by protecting the unique natural resources of these areas. and Republicans – who will hold a 52-48 margin in the Senate – would need 60 votes to stop them. given the weak market for the oil in these regions. which authorizes the president to “reserve parcels of land as a part of [a] national monument. one could argue that Obama’s action was based on an articulation of intelligible principles gleaned from the stated policies of the OCSLA. What can the new Congress do? Under Article IV of the Constitution. at least until a post-Obama administration acts to actually open up these areas for leasing.” However. Opponents can be expected to argue that Obama’s use of section 12(a) in this manner is unconstitutional because it violates the so-called “nondelegation doctrine. this decision is a fitting capstone for a president who has done everything within his power to confront the existential threat of climate change and rationally move the nation and the world onto a safer and more sustainable path . which recognizes that the “the outer Continental Shelf is a vital national resource reserve held by the Federal Government for the public. If Trump attempts to reverse the withdrawal. .65 million acres. But Democrats could filibuster to block any such move. That may not occur for some time. Congress may be content to let President-elect Trump make the first move and see how it goes in court.” which basically holds that Congress cannot delegate legislative functions to the executive branch without articulating some “intelligible principles. The fact that Congress chose not to include revocation language in the OCSLA indicates that it did not intend to provide such power.” Like the OCSLA. It could be especially challenging for environmental groups to show that the claim is “ripe” for judicial review.” The law expressly recognizes both the energy and environmental values of the OCS. The section 12(a) authority is similar in some respects to the authority granted by the Antiquities Act.

pdf) NC The ACLU calls upon the United States Government to take immediate.ACLU.S.”9 Accordingly. administrative and other measures to ensure the effective implementation and enforcement of the provisions of the present Protocol within its jurisdiction.aclu.require that military recruiter access refers to youth age 17 and above . Available online at https://www. American Civil Liberties Union. Article 6(1) of the Optional Protocol requires that “[e]ach State Party shall take all necessary legal.S. meaningful action to bring its policies and practices on military recruitment of youth.) from the No Child Left Behind Act entirely. especially on potential recruits’ race and ethnicity ." published by ACLU.end the JAMRS database mining program .C.strengthen the penalty against recruiters who coerce recruits about the DEP and other enlistment factors Substantial reform of the military recruiting process solves – recruiting occurs in other areas than education . 5/13/08 ("Soldiers of Misfortune: Abusive U.apply meaningful punishments to recruiters who engage in abusive. into compliance with the Optional Protocol. reform the No Child Left Behind Act by building in safeguards that protect children from military recruitment in violation of the Optional Protocol: .create readily accessible grievance procedures for recruiter abuses . and consideration of the asylum claims of former child soldiers. or deceptive recruitment practices . in order to disassociate military recruiter access to youth and their personal information from state education funding. • In the alternative.require that all entry programs have prominent information and notice that there is no obligation to enlist .stop the data collection of students in elementary and secondary schools for recruitment and should not provide existing data to the Department of Defense. harassing. the ACLU calls upon the United States to take the following measures to ensure compliance with the Optional Protocol. OFF Text: The United States federal government should . treatment and prosecution of alleged child soldiers. detention.their solvency advocate ACLU 08 .org/files/pdfs/humanrights/crc_report_20080513. No Child Left Behind Act • Eliminatethe military recruitment provision (Section 7908 of Title 20 U. Military Recruitment and Failure to Protect Child Soldiers.amend section 7908 to create an opt-in procedure and clarify local education agencies’ responsibility to inform parents and students of the right to opt out .

o Require that the Department of Defense give notice to every youth whose name is entered into JAMRS recruitment databases that their information has been entered. including recruitment practices that violate the Optional Protocol or Department of Defense recruitment guidelines. Section 7908 to create an effective opt-in procedure. online. • In the alternative. o Clarifylocal education agencies’ responsibility to inform parents and students of their right to opt out of the provision of their directory information to military recruiters. sources of information. as detailed in the Selective Service Act. • Applymeaningful punishments to recruiters who engage in abusive. and monies spent on data acquisition. requiring quarterly reporting to Congress detailing the number of persons entered into the JAMRS database. and prohibit the use of racially and ethnically targeted recruitment advertisements. o Require that all recruitment materials and advertisements printed. o Prohibit the Department of Defense from collecting data on potential recruits’ race and ethnicity. and notify them of their right to opt out and instructions on how to do so.S. build in safeguards that protect children from military recruitment in violation of the Optional Protocol: o Requirethat the Department of Defense cease collecting information about youth under 17 for recruitment purposes.C. process by which information is obtained. rather than an opt-out procedure that places the onus on individual school districts to inform parents. on television. JAMRS • End the JAMRS database data mining program. o Create a reporting requirement for the Department of Defense. harassing. and on parents and students to submit opt-out forms. and in other media include prominent information on the opt-out procedure. Return the military’s data collection power to levels set forth in the Selective Service program.o Amend Title 20 U. or deceptive recruitment practices. Recruiter Abuse • Create readily accessible grievance procedures for recruiter abuses. Delayed Entry Program (DEP) • Require that all Delayed Entry Program materials include prominent notice that there is no obligation to enlist and require DEP program participants to sign a statement that prominently informs signers that there is no obligation to enlist. . o Create a military “do not call list” that includes an online and telephone opt-out procedure. o Lessen the “stick” in this provision of the No Child Left Behind Act by removing the threat of loss of federal education money to the state for failure of the school or the school district to provide recruiters access and information. o Explicitly state that military recruiter access refers only to youth age 17 and above.

or deceive potential recruits about the DEP and other enlistment factors. . more prominent. • Strengthenthe penalty against recruiters who coerce. and more readily accessible grievance procedures for recruiter abuses.• Create clearer. lie to.

93 and accountability for those participating in the education system. that every school in New York City would have the resources necessary for providing the opportunity for a sound basic education. In so ordering. The this Note. "school and classrooms. State of New York. the fundamental right can be implied. *. . Issue 509." 18 6 Although education the court noted that a sound basic arising from this provision. Education challenges based on a “fundamental right” create system restructuring – New York proves. 185 alleged New York City's school financing system violated the New York Constitution's Education Article . and the perceived nature of education as the dominion of the states. Michael Salerno – graduate of the Benjamin N. 192 Note that although funding is addressed (as it must be).cplpej. Reforms to the current system of financing school funding and managing schools should address the shortcomings of the current system by ensuring. has always been a primary concern of the Court195 - alleviate the concern The federal government's permeation of state education judicial overreaching . equal emphasis is placed on the provision of other resources. the United States state's 194 Again. equal fund distribution is not necessarily the goal. which states. culminating in 2003. ("CFE") against the State of New York.. OFF Text: The United States Supreme Court should rule that all persons have a constitutional right to an adequate education in the United States using the adequacy definition established in CFE v."'9 Since "sound basic education" implies a different responsibility than merely equalizing funding. Having found that the state's education system did not provide New York City students with a "sound basic education. http://www.pdf <APY> A question that arises in the adequate education context is: What is the nature of the relief a court can award if an adequate education challenge is made? In its complaint. Cardozo School of Law.." " of learning. Constitution does not contain any education clause However that can be interpreted in any of the above fashions to find a fundamental right to education. ." the court ordered the The State [must] ascertain the actual cost of providing a sound basic state to change its education system. the new scheme should ensure a system of accountability to measure whether the reforms actually provide the opportunity for a sound basic training and curriculum in high school including the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps in primary and secondary education institutions violates the right to an adequate education in the United States. The United States Supreme Court should rule that all military recruiting. but also . "The legislature shall provide for the maintenance New York does not recognize a fundamental right to and support of a system of free common schools. as a part of that process. A refocus on an adequate education ed emphasis to the output of would -which. Finally. wherein all the children of this state may be educated. Supreme Court has been reluctant to do so because of potential judicial overreaching into the legislature's power to spend raised funds. the court's remedy addressed more than finances. 188 In CFE.” Cardozo Public Law. as it did for the Pauley court. CFE This question was addressed in a decade-long legal battle. A court can easily implement this remedy because its multi-faceted approach addresses not solely the legislature's financing scheme. such as the "inputs" discussed above. '89 "Input" include finances teachers facilities does not solely and instrumentalities funding is . brought by Campaign for Fiscal Equity. regardless of whether education is a fundamental right. Inc. Pages 534-36.' l90 While prerequisite to provide these other inputs inputs should be calibrated to student . and Supreme Court action is necessary Salerno 7. but also the duty imposed by a education clause. 187 the New York Court of Appeals has interpreted the Education Article to guarantee a sound basic education. Policy & Ethics Journal. “READING IS FUNDAMENTAL: WHY THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT NECESSITATES RECOGNITION OF A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO EDUCATION. education comprises the quality of both the "input" and the "output" of the education system. rather " need. the court stated the following: education in New York City. Volume 5. as discussed in Part I of there need not be an explicit right-granting clause.' 96 resulting from No Child Left Behind should alleviate the latter concern as well.



ence across generations is not ethically defensible. to ensure the health of children who do not yet exist. For instance. Cowen (1992). I Parfit (1984). Johns Hopkins University (Jason G.ting the intergenerational discount rate to future lives less than current ones (“intergenera. However. But even supposing individuals exhibit time preference within their own lives. Because there is . a life today would have greater intrinsic value than a billion lives 400 years hence (Cowen & Parfit.extinction impacts necessarily discounts the lives of future generations and assigns them less meaning—that framing is bad and should be rejected Matheny. whatever their temporal distance from us. http://users. I will argue that none of these justifications applies to the benefits of delaying human extinction. uncer. than a good enjoyed now.pdf) NTT DISCOUNTING An extinction event today could cause the loss of thousands of generations.. it may be that people’s time preference ap. “Reducing the Risk of Human Extinction”. In practice.tainty about future existence. it would be difficult to design an experiment in which time prefer. A common justification for dis- counting economic goods is that their abundance generally increases with time. discounting the value of future lives would lead to results few of us would accept as being ethical.plies only to instrumental goods. Vol. Bloomberg School of Public Health. In. 07. intrinsically. such as screening for genetic diseases. but on how much they matter.harvard. Risk Analysis.fiable and agree that ethical impartiality requires set.6 Valu. 1NC – Framing Reject their ethics framework . No. then. is separated from the other forms of discounting discussed below. 2000). if we discounted lives at a 5% annual rate. whatever their physical distance from us.Prioritizing non. 27. it is not clear how this would ethically justify discounting across different lives and generations (Frederick. In fact. and opportunity costs.tional discounting”) has been justified by arguments about time preference. if we reject spatial discounting and assign equal value to contemporary human lives. 1992). and Blackorby et al. whose value predictably decreases in time. a good enjoyed in the future is worth less.Is a professor in the department of Health Policy and Management. Under time This matters to the extent we value future lives. like money. Society places some value on future lives when it accepts the costs of long-term en. rather than an instrumental good (like money). we have similar reasons to reject temporal discounting. growth in consumption. After all. Schelling. Broome (1994) suggests most economists and philosophers recognize that this pref. 5. Disagreement. does not center on whether fu.vironmental policies or hazardous waste storage. The typical justification for time preference is descriptive—most people make decisions that suggest that they value current goods more than future ones. 2006.ence for an intrinsic good (like happiness).erence for ourselves over our descendents is unjusti.ture lives matter.7 There could still be other reasons to discount future generations. 2007. (1995) have similarly argued that time prefer. and assign equal value to human lives.dividuals place some value on future lives when they adopt measures.physics.

2000).ture generations may gain less satisfaction from a dollar than we will (Schelling. which corresponds to an annual discount rate of 0. This could be an argument for investing in stocks rather than extinction countermea.9 Because of nuclear and biological weapons. A last argument for intergenerational discount. if. If we dis. such as research on biodefense. the probability of human extinction could be lower then than it is today.tion countermeasures (assuming we survive the cen. until we become extinct.99% certain of not surviving the next 1. In any case.pected value of humanity’s future from that moment forward. they would affect the average market rate of return (Cowen & Parfit. Funding extinction countermeasures would require spending large sums. which includes the probabilities of extinc. Even Rees’s (2003) pessimistic 50-50 odds on hu. 1992). a constant annual discount rate of 1% implies that we are more than 99.) As Ng (1989) has pointed out.sures if: the rate of return on capital is exogenous to the rate of social savings. There is no diminishing marginal utility from having ever existed.000 years hence than it does to a person 10 years hence. the average rate of return on capital is higher than the rate of technological change in extinction countermeasures. pp.counted the expected value of humanity’s future. Discounting could be justified by our uncertainty about future generations’ existence. (If we are 100% certain of a good’s existence in 2007 but only 50% certain of a good’s existence in 2100.jected. it would not make sense for us to spend money on asteroid de- fense. But it is unnecessary—an analysis of extinction risk should equate the value of averting extinction at any given time with the ex. then the expected value of the good decreases by 50% over 94 years. since learning tends to accelerate as a knowl- . Dasgupta and Heal (1979. we would count future extinction risks twice—once in the discount rate and once in the undiscounted expected value—and underestimate the value of reducing cur. 2003). This reasoning could be extended indefinitely (as long as we survive). we would always invest our money rather than spend it now on important projects (Broome.ity colonizes other extinction by 2100 would be equivalent to an annual discount rate under 1% for this century. in a century we will have 130 times more money to spend on is from opportunity costs: without discounting.vival (Ponthiere. 1994).000 years. 261–262) defend discounting on these grounds—we are uncertain about humanity’s long-term survival. as the probability of human extinction is unlikely to be uniform in risks.fers of existence. There is no reason to believe existence matters less to a person 1. the assumption of exogeneity can be re. It would make more sense to live it up. First. fu.75%. Second. if we invest our money now in a stock market with an average 5% real annual return. and if human. some spending on countermeasures. If we knew for certain that we would all die in 10 years. A discount scheme would be justified that devalued (to zero) anything beyond 10 years.tion in all subsequent periods (Ng. This principle makes sense for intergenerational transfers of most economic goods but not for intergenerational trans. has its own rate of return.tury). so planning too far ahead is imprudent. 2005).8 Discounting is an approxi. instead. and the marginal cost effectiveness of extinction countermeasures does not decrease at a rate equal to or greater than the return on capital. the probability of human extinction could be higher today than it was a century ago. Such pessimism seems unwarranted. Dasgupta and Heal’s argument does not justify traditional discounting at a constant rate. For in- stance.mate way to account for our uncertainty about sur.diminishing marginal utility from consumption. we invested those sums in the stock market.

as cost effectiveness is probably not constant. .” But here is the upside of this insight: if there are no conditions that in and of themselves prevent war. poor health. nor secularism. He concluded that war causes economic inequality and scarcity of resources as much as it stems from them. socialism. Islam. the cost effec. War outweighs and re-entrenches structural violence *No root cause for war – prefer specific scenario *War fuels structural violence *Resisting war creates conditions for positive peace Horgan 12 (John Horgan. In 2010. if the proba. imperialism. Some scholars. I thus assume that the value of future lives cannot be discounted. we will have more resources to devote to other problems that plague us. over the past half century Costa Rica’s government invested in education. The Waorani. And once we have escaped from the shadow of war. or any other single cause. He felt so strongly about this thesis that he and his wife limited their son’s exposure to violent media and contact sports. I later show how acceptance of discounting would af. like the political scientist Joshua Goldstein. carried out by an American think tank. Kindle p. on the surveys. capitalism. The End of War.” then set out to test whether existence should be represented by expected val.tiveness of countermeasures. Discounting would be a crude way of accounting for opportunity costs. The contagion of war can infect any kind of society. Time preference is not justifiable in intergenerational problems. and environmental destruction.” He admits that all his research has left him “somewhat more pessimistic about how quickly or easily war may end. and market returns. war has in part fueled and sustained these and other injustices. Since this position is controversial. that factored in the nation’s impact on the environment. 1600-1659) Throughout this book. are a case in point. respectively. He questioned many of his initial assumptions about the causes of war.ues. Not small government nor big government. there may be a small window of reducible risk: the period of maximum marginal cost effectiveness may be limited to the next few centuries. who gathered information on the self-reported happiness of people around the world.edge base expands.fect our conclusions. whose abandonment of war led to increased trade and intermarriage. patriarchal attitudes caused armed violence. “War is not a product of capitalism. The choice is ours. Christianity. innate aggression. Instead of spending on arms. A more precise approach would identify the optimal invest-and-spend path based on estimates of current and future extinction risks.” Goldstein writes. in and of themselves. Not democracy. either. no matter what kind of society we live in. there are none that make peace impossible. there are good reasons not to dis.count the benefits of extinction countermeasures. Early in his career Goldstein investigated economic theories of war. Buddhism. So is Costa Rica. But by the time he finished writing his 522-page book War and Gender in 2001. like economic injustice. inoculate a society against militarism. and tourism. we can have it. environmental conservation. this Central American country was ranked number one out of 148 nations in a “World Database of Happiness” compiled by Dutch sociologists. gender. Third. But there seem to be no conditions that. This is the source of John Mueller’s optimism. Costa Rica also received the highest score in another “happiness” survey. and uncertainties about hu. This rate could be higher than the average rate of return on capital. Chapter 5. find this conclusion dispiriting. If we want peace badly enough. Goldstein had rejected the thesis. although all of these influence wars’ outbreaks and outcomes. including those of Marx and Malthus. there is no diminishing marginal utility from having ever existed. He never gave credence to explanations involving innate male aggression—war breaks out too sporadically for that—but he saw no clear- cut evidence for non-biological factors either. The United States was ranked twentieth and 114th.bility of human extinction significantly decreases after space colonization. Goldstein. Not giving equal rights to women or minorities nor reducing poverty. I’ve examined attempts by scholars to identify factors especially conducive for peace. “ Rather. In summary. as well as healthcare. and mine. which war often exacerbates. 2012. all of which helped make the country more prosperous. a self-described “pro-feminist. Director of the Center for Science Writings at the Stevens Institute of Technology.

Predictions are accurate and key to effective policymaking – low probability isn’t a reason to reject our research *Most don’t know basics/complexities *hide behind lack of knowledge. work for justice. Johnson. actions that are made under these circumstances are at an increased risk of being inappropriate or costly (Dunning. 2003. Epistemic uncertainty compromises our ability to predict the future (Hogg. 2009). Thereis no single way to peace. and other scholars yields one essential lesson. Those of us who want to make the world a better place—more democratic. Davidson. The research of Mueller. because peace can help bring about many of the other changes we seek. ” If you want less pollution. it is apparent that a solid grasp of the basics (let alone the complexities) of these domains elude many people. Approximately half of surveyed adults did not know what an increase in gross domestic product meant and thought that “money holds its value well in times of inflation” (National Council on Economic Education. even though this information can be of critical importance to the self (or society as a whole). Worse still. 2008). 2. 264 –280. psychological defense * bad predictions about future (they are optimists. 2005). No. Aaron. Goldstein. and almost certainly affected some substantial portion of those surveyed. This formula turns on its head the old social activists’ slogan: “If you want peace. and can also be psychologically stressful. Furthermore.” I say instead. Vol. Forsberg. Research has powerfully illustrated that a lack of knowledge in domains such as energy and the environment can lead to bad decisions and erroneous beliefs that hinder a society’s ability to create change in domains that require it (Attari. more money for healthcare and education.healthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association 2012. & Kruger. On the Perpetuation of Ignorance: System Dependence. equitable. both in terms of how they operate at a societal level and how people should act on them. The need . in a national survey of American adults. Duke University (Steven. Nearly one third could not identify a renewable energy source and incorrectly believed that solar energy contributes to global warming. In the case of energy. we default experts) Shepard & Kay 12 . DeKay. This kind of unfamiliarity can be problematic for day-to-day functioning.pdf) Individuals are often confronted with information that they do not know how to comprehend or evaluate.* Department of Psychology. work for peace. but peace is the way to solve many other problems. as 89% of respondents worry about increasing fuel costs. The economy serves as another example. Larrick & Soll. Ehrlinger. & Bruine de Bruin. http://www. 1984. 54% of respondents did not know what a subprime mortgage was (Center for Economic and Entrepreneurial Literacy. University of Waterloo. 2007) and our ability to act and engage in relevant issues. 1995). despite the fact that the subprime mortgage crisis was a significant contributor to the economic recession that began in 2008. 102. In short. and there appears to be a discrepancy between how much people know about social issues and their importance and relevance to one’s day-to-day life. 2010. “ If you want This lack of knowledge should be of concern to these individuals. and happy. nearly 40% of respondents in a Public Agenda (2009) survey could not identify a fossil fuel. an improved legal and political system—work for peace. Energy and the economy represent just two self-relevant domains that people can feel uncertain about. and the Motivated Avoidance of Sociopolitical Information. Sinkavich.apa. Maki & Berry. and 71% worry about global warming. cleaner—should make abolishing the invention of war our priority. healthier. System Justification. **Department of Management & Organizations and Department of Psychology & Neuroscience.

may breed a unique form of psychological coping— one that holds the potential to powerfully undermine individual action. which can then be protected by the intentional avoidance of the issue at hand. 2007.e.. 2007. A considerable amount of research. processes when confronted with uncertainty (Hogg. therefore. Kruglanski & Webster. increase trust in the government and the status quo. then. 1996. we propose a novel way in which this defensiveness may manifest itself. feeling unknowledgeable should instigate feelings of dependence on those who manage the system (i. The logic underlying each of these links is explained below. Mann. suggests that people often engage in more psychologically defensive. 1996. & West. 2010). Kruglanski & Webster. we contend. and less workintensive. van den Bos. Feeling unknowledgeable in the context of broad social issues. when they find themselves unfamiliar or unknowledgeable about a specific domain? Logically. How do people react. 2009). . McGregor. has been identified as a critical motive that determines behavior (Hogg. & Phills. 1997. however. thereby making themselves familiar and knowledgeable. in turn. Namely. Drawing our inspiration from system justification theory. Neuberg. Nash. one might imagine they would simply try to learn more . manage uncertainty. the government) and.

The Army on Tuesday announced that the coordinator of a sexual assault prevention program at Fort Hood.” ABC News. .go. abusive sexual contact. The incident at Fort Hood involves a sergeant first class who was serving as an equal opportunity adviser and coordinator of a sexual harassment-assault prevention program in a battalion belonging to the Army's 3rd Corps headquarters. Accessed 9/14/2017. Their evidence cites malls and recruiting offices. "to address the broader concerns that have arisen out of these allegations and other recent events. The new law.” Mother Jones. " Furthermore.000 sexual assaults went unreported in the military last year. Goodwin 2 (David Goodman is a contributing writer for Mother Jones. Accessed 9/15/2017.motherjones. they say. and disappointment over these troubling allegations and the breakdown in discipline and standards they imply. assault and maltreatment of subordinates. http://abcnews. which is based at the Army post located in eastern Texas. is under investigation "for credential-all-sexual-assault-prevention-coordinators/. http://www." Little said. including San Francisco and Portland. “No Child Unrecruited. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel ordered that all the Pentagon's sexual assault prevention coordinators and military recruiters be retrained. 2013.000 the year before. The unprecedented move comes a week after the Air Force's sexual assault prevention officer was arrested for allegedly groping a woman. "I cannot convey strongly enough his frustration. The Pentagon last week released new statistics showing a 6 percent rise over the past year in the number of reported sexual assaults to 3. re-credentialed and rescreened. The report estimated that another 26. Hagel met with Army Secretary John McHugh and directed that the case be fully investigated and "to discover the extent of these allegations. even without access to every school. Martinez 13 (Luis Martinez. Officials in both cities now say they will grant recruiters access to their schools and to student information — but they also plan to inform students of their right to withhold their records. The lieutenant colonel in charge of the Air Force's Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office was arrested for the alleged sexual battery of a woman in a parking lot near the Pentagon. 1NC – SQUO Solves Status quo is getting better – recruiters were retrained and re-credentialed. Texas. In a statement. Kent Denver-jKIM) WASHINGTON . which they don’t solve. the military will still sufficiently meet quotas. that have barred recruiters from schools on the grounds that the military discriminates against gays and lesbians. undercuts the authority of some local school districts. Secretary Hagel is directing all the services to re-train. an increase from the estimated 19. 2002. Pentagon Press Secretary George Little said Hagel was informed of the Fort Hood allegations yesterday. " Even without school recruitment. May 14. and re-screen all sexual assault prevention and response personnel and military recruiters.374. Oregon. “Military to Retrain Sexual Assault Prevention Staff. Kent Denver-jKIM) Educators point out that the armed services have exceeded their recruitment goals for the past two years in a row. and to ensure that all of those who might be involved are dealt with appropriately. re-credential.After a second sex crime scandal in the military in the past week." He has been suspended from all duties while his case is investigated by the Army's Criminal Investigative Command.

NCLB reflects an assumption of “far more powerful and competent state education governance than exists” (Fuhrman. and. education secretary and other ED officials from exercising “any direction. 2004. If state agencies are not effective implementers of federal policy it is difficult for school districts to “get it right” (Cross. 1987). The federal government relies on states and localities to implement federal education policy. it may be difficult morally and politically for the federal government to withhold funds since doing so may impact innocent students.8 The second lawsuit was filed by the National Education Association (NEA). Although the federal role in education has expanded. The federal government has often lacked both capacity and will to enforce its education policies fully . states and localities have taken various steps to protect their perceived interests under NCLB. I examine recent cases of education policy implementation that support these claims.S.S. The extent to which states and school districts implement federal education policy in a robust manner also varies according to their political interests and technical capacities .6 For example. 2009). However. States offered vigorous resistance to threats to their legal. education secretary was violating an alleged prohibition on unfunded mandates in NCLB by requiring states and school districts to comply with NCLB mandates in the absence of sufficient federal funding to pay for the compliance. nine school districts in three states. inadequate capacity. (b) a state may lack will and/or capacity to hold its school districts accountable for robust policy implementation.S. or personnel of any educational institution. Supreme Court declined to hear the case in 2010. 96-88. The law declared congressional intention “to protect the rights of State and local governments . State and Local Responses to Federal Activism Today’s Cabinet-level U.2 In cases where states and districts are not complying with federal regulations. § 103). program of instruction. 145).3 Congress recognized state legal interests and concerns about the new department by including several provisions in Public Law 96-88. fiscal. Additional events in 2005 included two federal lawsuits over NCLB implementation and costs. and NCLB each include sections specifying limits on federal power. Utah adopted a law permitting state officials to give priority to state academic standards over federal ones and to avoid implementing NCLB provisions that cost the state money. 2008). As experienced implementers of federal education policy. Weak implementation in a given state may be due to lack of will. and NEA affiliates in 10 states.7 The first case fits Nugent’s category of a universal state interest and the collective action focused on protecting states’ legal authority. Department of Education (ED) is just over three decades old. Yet the federal government needed state and local cooperation to implement NCLB effectively. staffing at the U. implementation is shaped by interests and capacities of agencies and administrators at all three levels of government . and administrative interests during the initial implementation of NCLB.S. “The Limits of Federal Activism in Education Policy”. A great deal of action occurred in 2005.S. the Marshall Project. state administrative discretion exists along a continuum of almost no discretion to substantial freedom. 154). or both. supervision. the New Republic.S. She contributes to Slate. Department of Education has not . 1983.” and that establishment of the new department “shall not increase the authority of the Federal Government over education or diminish the responsibility for education which is reserved to the States and the local school systems and other instrumentalities of the States. L. A product of heated political struggle. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit upheld dismissal of Connecticut v. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has emphasized changing not only state policies but also relationships between states and school districts. the National Conference of State Legislatures 20 Educational Policy 26(1) (2005) raised questions about the constitutionality of NCLB. Next. or school system . In the case of NCLB. school. Mazmanian & Sabatier. In relying on states to influence districts and schools. and other publications.associate professor in Education at State University of New York (Sandra Vergari. Across federal policies. The preceding discussion leads to the following claims: (a) implementation of federal education policy requires state and local cooperation.4 Controversy over the balance of governmental power over education policy during the struggle to establish the Cabinet-level ED has endured to the present day. A suit brought by the State of Connecticut challenged NCLB’s testing requirements and alleged costs to the of The Teacher Wars. The Utah case is an example of a state acting individually to protect its administrative and fiscal interests. p.S. the appeals court also indicated that the state could pursue some of its claims through the venue of administrative proceedings . These circumstances make it difficult for federal officials to ignore state assertions about a policy and give states power in their interactions with the federal government (Nugent. Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994. McLaughlin. Duncan in 2010 and the U. p. Nugent. 2009. administration. ED was created by Public Law 96-88 in 1979 and opened its doors in 1980. . and (f) states are not at the mercy of the federal government and can often change the original shape of federal education policy during implementation. states act to protect their interests.” (Pub. state and local resistance to various components of NCLB provided leverage in securing bargains and waivers from the federal government (Dinan. Accessed through Sage Journals)//ET Policies often change during implementation. 2008. or control over the curriculum.5 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Both individually and collectively. “Will Trump Overhaul Public Education?” .” The law also prohibited the U. . state and local officials engaged in aggressive lobbying of the federal government. Supreme Court declined to hear the case in 2011. 1NC – Circumvention No capacity or will for enforcement and loopholes outweigh the aff Vergari 12 --. The Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. The plaintiffs lost as the case made its way through the federal court system and the U. Federal education policy States enjoy more freedom when implementing other programs so long as they comply with basic features of the enabling legislation and regulations (Nugent. state and local officials have special claims to knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of a given policy. (c) in the face of federal threats to state fiscal and administrative interests.9 States and localities have been more successful at protecting their fiscal and administrative interests by exploiting NCLB loopholes and Even if trump doesn’t reverse the aff. The plaintiffs argued that the U. Thus. (e) state and local experience and knowledge pertaining to education policy provide bargaining power in negotiations with the federal government. they may do the minimum necessary for compliance. Education Policy. This is due to practices and political demands of policy Policy Implementation implementers and responses from policy makers and administrators who rely on others to implement policies (Fuhrman. The plaintiffs lost as the case made its way though the federal court system. . Federal programs such as Social Security disability benefits reflect a strong preference for uniform implementation. Shelly. 2004. . 2004. The U. he can just not enforce it Goldstein 2016 Dana Goldstein -. (d) when states do not like a federal policy but want the attached funding. 2009).

slate.) In addition. as well as private school vouchers. Rotherham says he’ll be watching how aggressively the administration deals with LGBTQ issues in education. It is unlikely Trump and DeVos would emphasize such efforts. There are two other options for securing a smaller tranche of federal funding for vouchers. she will inherit a department that spends $68 billion per year. to investigate how more than 200 colleges handled accusations of sexual assault. Under Obama. “Almost surely. the Department of Education Office for Civil Rights published national data that showed how widespread these tactics are and how children of color are disproportionately punished. and there is no evidence that Trump or DeVos disagrees with these critics. Pre-K: Under President Obama. Secretary of Education King announced that when considering applications for federal grants. One option is atrophy. and it is here where we can expect to see the biggest and fastest policy shift. School segregation: Social science shows that children learn more in racially and socio-economically integrated classrooms. many families in poverty do not pay income taxes. Arne Duncan.” Rotherham says. Career and technical education: On the campaign trail. Still. During the campaign. The law is now called the Every Student Succeeds Act and represents a rare bipartisan achievement of President Obama’s second term. is the founder of a charter high school whose theme is careers in the aviation industry. since they were accomplished through executive regulation and letters of guidance. a federal anti–gender discrimination law. “It would be a nice sign of the ability to govern. “I think there is a lot of potential for this to get done quickly. DeVos is affiliated with all three camps. President-elect Donald Trump announced a strongly ideological pick for secretary of education: Michigan philanthropist Betsy DeVos. Andrew Rotherham is the founder of Bellwether Education Partners. As an advocate and donor. For the Trump administration to increase access to pre-K. At least one other member of Trump’s inner circle seems to favor tax credits as a social policy approach. Getting to consensus was a long slog for lawmakers. What could happen to President Obama’s legacy on education. The new administration could await the outcome of a pending federal lawsuit that could invalidate Obama’s approach. Amway heir Dick DeVos. so they would not be eligible. To enact Trump’s voucher plan at the scale he envisions. between one-third and one-half of American 4-year-olds remain unenrolled in preschool. where DeVos has essentially no record. Under a principle known as disparate impact theory. The Department of Education directed colleges to use a lower standard of proof—“preponderance of the evidence” instead of “clear and convincing evidence”—when determining whether a student was guilty of sexual misconduct. the Department of Education also worked to collect new data on bullying. And even if Trump and DeVos don’t take decisive action to overturn Obama regulations. the Department of Education Conservatives tend to talk about desegregation as social would weigh whether schools and districts had plans to diversify their classrooms. including how often religious minorities and LGBTQ students are targeted. “We’ll see what faction is really driving things. The second would be for Congress to pass a law providing tax credits that families could use to pay for private school tuition or home-schooling costs. a center-right education think tank.” Rotherham says. He’s never said where the funds would come from. As I wrote last week. Fordham Institute. from Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. engineering. DeVos will certainly try to direct federal education dollars toward vouchers that parents could use at any school. shut down the Office for Civil Rights. Trump would need to find an enormous pool of federal money. the new administration will just undo that. and it is due to be reauthorized. a process for which there may be little appetite. She and her husband. Dick DeVos. “We don't do it anymore.” As governor of Indiana. encompassing a number of areas. singled out the Office for Civil Rights for ridicule. They are beloved by home-schoolers. but the details are up to the administration. Trump ran as a law-and-order candidate. Vouchers are a unifying issue across the Republican Party. all of which have disappointing academic track records—but to choice as a good in and of itself.http://www. Congress would need to appropriate new money. from school discipline to campus sexual assault to pre-K. and both said that many of Obama’s education worked for President Bill Clinton from 1999 to 2000 as a special assistant for domestic policy.” according to Petrilli. DeVos’ husband.html Last week. even among Republicans. are some of the possibilities: The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights: This office drove President Obama’s efforts on campus sexual assault and student discipline reform. and physical restraint. while DeVos has essentially no record on the issue.” Petrilli says. who want government funding for parochial education.” Petrilli says. Here there is a rare opportunity for bipartisan action. But what is actually likely to happen? To game out the possibilities.” Vouchers: To enact his $20 billion school voucher plan. But Washington . Pence expanded state-funded preschool. Obama used a broad interpretation of Title IX. Congress reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2015 and did not include vouchers. The first would be to ask Congress to appropriate new money for the effort. and from 2001 to 2005 he worked for the Department of Education under President George W. such as whether transgender students can use the bathroom of their choice. the department told school districts that racial inequities in discipline would be interpreted as potential evidence of discrimination and could trigger federal investigations and lawsuits. through new legislation. calling it “self-perpetuating absolute nonsense. and what would require action from Congress? The most radical outcome would be a federal government that vastly increases profit-making opportunities in public education while declining to investigate discrimination in schools. Unlike the current secretary. have funded anti–gay marriage and anti–affirmative action efforts. and the Trump administration will almost definitely end the department’s nascent overtures in this area. the federal government used stimulus and ESSA funding to help states expand access to public pre-K and improve its quality.” Petrilli says. Trump will have the opportunity to appoint at least seven other high-level officials to the Department of Education. it could mean Vice President–elect Mike Pence and other social conservatives in the administration are wielding a lot of influence. They priorities could be easily reversed.” Washington Republicans have discussed shutting the office down or moving it to another agency. If Trump takes early executive action to limit transgender rights. a nonprofit consulting firm.”) Here. (“You can ignore some regulations. there is a major political obstacle to Trump’s plan.” He promised to “expand vocational and technical education” in his first 100 days in office. policy area by policy area. a strategy Pence used as governor of Indiana. A more proactive option would be for DeVos to write a letter of guidance to universities. which emphasized civil rights and school accountability? What can the Trump administration do on its own.” The Obama administration was deeply concerned about the overuse of punitive school discipline strategies. Trump said. not necessarily as a driver of improved student achievement—she has supported for-profit and virtual charter schools.” Rotherham says. such as suspensions. Mike Petrilli is president of the Thomas B. “Vocational training is a great thing” and lamented. “It’s been a war between the real ideologues and other folks. uniting Congress and the executive branch. annually. Both Democrats and Republicans are eager to pass a bill. “That happens a fair amount. or the previous _education. “Tax credits for education are not a good way to help the poor. the Obama administration changed course this year. those measures could end up withering on the vine. who could use vouchers to pay for online classes. (This was also Hillary Clinton’s campaign slogan. which could accept vouchers as tuition. who in turn will hire dozens of political appointees. After downplaying the problem of school segregation for its entire first term and much of its second term. the work of the Department of Education is much broader than that. Trump surrogate Carl Paladino. expulsions. John King. The Perkins Act provides more than $1 billion annually to career and technical education programs. If she is confirmed. but existing Republican voucher proposals show $15 billion of it flowing. for the first time. and religious conservatives. telling them that Obama’s interpretation of Title IX no longer applies. I spoke to two experts with deep knowledge of how federal education policy is crafted. private or public. businesses that own for-profit schools. Still. Congressional Republicans and even some liberals concerned with the rights of the accused have opposed Obama’s efforts. which would disproportionately help the middle-class and affluent. Bush. In 2012. How? “They could just not make similar grants going forward. “There’s a While DeVos and Trump may not statutory requirement to do the civil rights data collection. DeVos is also a social conservative. Congress did not cooperate. Congress would need to crack open ESSA and relitigate it. DeVos has never led a state education department or school district. it is easy to imagine it becoming a much quieter place over the next four years. which is likely. a New York Republican and former Buffalo school board member. The Ivanka Trump child care proposal was based on income tax credits. she has been committed to the concept of school choice. not legislation. Trump’s transition website promises to “advance policies” such as “high-quality early childhood. a right Obama sought to protect. a stance usually associated with support for more punitive school discipline. However. The president requested funding from Congress for a school desegregation program called Stronger Together.

Volume 1 Issue 3. in K-12 education. Ironically then. Department of Education 2012).3. As its website notes. “In fact. http://www.associate professor of political science and education at Drew University.S. December 2015.S.7758/RSF. The ED has long lacked the staff. “Will she be hawkish on quality control? We just don’t know.rsfjournal. and it’s going to be hard to find serious new money with the current Congress. Congressional Republicans see these changes as unwanted intrusions on the free market.Republicans. and technical expertise to provide sustained supervision and guidance of state compliance with federal education programs. he signed a law that reduced the role of for-profit middlemen in the federal student loan business.” The fed gov doesn’t have the capacity to enforce McGuinn 15 --. the new executive allowing the government to offer low-interest loans directly to students.2015. ED's staff is 44 percent below the 7.199. the department itself has not. when the Department was created” (U. Separately. with a planned fiscal year 2010 level of 4.” Petrilli says. Likewise. Obama shut down hundreds of predatory for-profit colleges whose alumni had a track record of failure on the job market.1. but it costs serious money. could draft laxer regulations governing for-profit colleges. through his “gainful employment” regulations. the only existing federal pre-K program.” Petrilli says—after all. (Patrick McGuinn. Department of Education”. In 2010. renewing their access to federal funds. “It seems like a safe bet that Betsy DeVos will have a very different attitude toward for-profit colleges. chief among them Speaker of the House Paul Ryan. she has sought to expand the role of for-profit schools. and local education departments present a formidable challenge to the current ambitious education reform agenda. Higher education: President Obama racked up several huge victories on college policy. and although Trump campaigned promising to ease student loan burdens. are skeptical and have proposed deep cuts to Head Start. “Schooling the State: ESEA and the Evolution of the U. Although its programs and grant expenditures have grown dramatically in the past thirty years. state. ongoing administrative capacity deficits within federal. That legislation also increased loan forgiveness and income-based repayment for borrowers. Russell Sage Journal for Social Science. the department's push to expand states’ administrative capacity to implement education reform may ultimately be undone by the lack of adequate administrative capacity at the federal level.04)//ET Nonetheless. led by the founder of Trump University.528 employees who administered Federal education programs in several different agencies in 1980. resources. “You can certainly find Republicans at the state level who are supportive of expanding pre-K. . Congress would need to pass a new law to repeal the 2010 loan reforms. it’s difficult to imagine him caring much about the role of the financial industry in educational lending.