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An Early Childhood Assessment Tool to Identify Young Gifted Children

Dr. Sally Beisser, Ph.D. Linda Moehring, M.A. M.S. Kala Sullivan, M.S.E.
sally.beisser@drake.edu linda.moehring@gmail.com kmbarre@iastate.edu
Drake University Greater Lisbon Christian Academy Iowa State University Child Development Lab
3206 University Ave. Lisbon, Portugal Ames, IA
Des Moines, IA 50311 Skype: lindamoehring 515-294-0789 (o)
515-271-4850 (o)

The following information is a research-based tool to identify young gifted children in 10 areas to assess preschool and Kindergarten students. This tool is based on 10 Descriptors of
High Potentiality. Activities and prompts for each descriptor are designed to support identification of students including diverse learners, ESL/ELL students, and children in poverty.
See Optimal use of the Early Identification Tool, page 9, for information regarding data collection suggestions.

10 Descriptors of High Potentiality in Young Children

Descriptors of Explanations of Descriptors Under-Resourced - Diverse Going Beyond the Continuum of the Gold
Potentiality Learners-ELL-ESL Assessment ©2014
Students

#1 Description: Asynchrony means uneven development; being out- Under-resourced- Diverse *Not able to locate Objectives related to
Intentional
of-sync within oneself or age mates and the expectations of the Learners-ELL-ESL Asynchronous asynchrony or self-critical behaviors
Activities for
classroom, having heightened emotions and awareness, known as behaviors in all cultures exist. Some in the Gold Assessments.
Descriptor #1
“overexcitabilities”, and being vulnerable, due developmental and cultures may view
Asynchronous psychological differences from the norm. May exhibit skills or “overexcitabilities” as being
development maturity usually associated with older children; is sensitive to “naughty” especially in a collectivist
and/or others’ feelings and shows distress at other children’s or adult culture (Cherry, 2014) where goals
Self-critical distress. Reads body language. High need for fairness. of the group exceed goals of the
behaviors Perfectionistic, hard on themselves, easily frustrated and critical of individual. Look for evidence of
self and others. social emotional imbalance such as
kids who clearly know behavioral
expectations but struggle with self
discipline and self regulatory
management.
a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Know that gifted kids
Intentional
experiences: have 3 different age levels: cognitive,
Activities for
b. Conversation Prompt: Ask: “What is something you do emotional, and chronological date of
Descriptor #1
really, really well? Tell me something you are nervous about birth (Silverman). For example, notice
trying or are trying to be better at?” when there is a disconnect between
Research application: Study Betts and Neihart (2010) Six Profiles emotional maturity or fine motor skills
of Gifted & Talented©. Does the child fit in one or more of the in comparison to verbal precocity,
categories: The Successful, The Creative, The Underground, The language skills, and cognition.
At-Risk, The Twice/Multi Exceptional, The Autonomous Learner.
See research on 5 descriptors of “overexcitabilities” in gifted Look for tendencies and traits of
children (see SENG site). perfectionism.
#2 Description: Correctly or creatively uses vocabulary and phrasings Under-resourced- Diverse *Listens to and understands
Early use of
adults would expect from older children; surprises adults and Learners- ELL-ESL increasingly complex language
advanced
children with big words or phrases they use; likes complex Child may use native language or mix Objective 8a: Comprehends Language
vocabulary,
communication and conversations. with English to express deep emotion, *Uses language to express thoughts
complexity,
Makes jokes, puns, plays on words, sees humor in situations. feelings, or humor. May tell stories in and needs Objective 9d: Tells about
and humor
Surprises adults! their native language. Respect oral another time or place.
story telling as a format for
communication. Use wordless
picture books with this population.
Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Uses advanced
Activities for experiences: vocabulary correctly, complex
Descriptor #2 b. Puppet Prompt with kids: Using puppets to encourage play statements, humor, elaborate details
through a 1:1 or small group conversation (e.g., families). with understanding not expected of age
c. Story Prompt with kids: Using a picture book, child selects peers.
one book and tells a story with elaborate details that relate to
the picture. E.g. Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice A level beyond: Using
Sendak (1964); The Lion and the Mouse by Jerry Pinkney imagination, ask students to tell
(2009); Pancakes for Breakfast by Tomie de Paola (2011). an elaborate story of what they
#3 Early literacy Description: Reads earlier than most children or learns to read Under-resourced- Diverse may
*Usesnot have experienced.
symbols and images to
skills; interest very quickly; likes to read rapidly to get the gist of a story even Learners- ELL-ESL Observe represent something not
in symbols though some words are skipped or mispronounced; interest in fascination of counting, patterning, present
copying or using letters, words, or numbers; uses computational money, stars on a flag, boats in a Objective 14a: Thinks symbolically.
skills earlier than peers, uses numbers and other math symbols, story, or finding faces in story, etc.
recognizes the alphabet and other universal symbols such as signs, Intense interest in numbers or *Explores and describes spatial
numeric, musical notation. Loves patterning and counting patterns. Early interest and ability to relationships and shapes
activities. Fascination with money-coins or currency. recognize print or read. Use familiar Objective 21a:
objects respective of child’s home or Understands spatial
culture. Some kids will be obsessed relationships
with symmetry as in tangrams.

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Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Develops own symbols
Activities for experiences: to express literacy or numeracy.
Descriptor #3 b. Multi-grain Cheerios© Prompt with kids: Spread Cheerios
out on a big cookie tray. Ask how many ways they can
organize the Cheerios into patterns.
c. Deck of Cards Prompt with kids: Use a “kids” deck of
cards. Give the deck to a small group of kids or individual and
ask them to make up the “rules” for the game.
d. Provide Tangrams: Ask kids to make a picture using tangram
shapes and tell about.
#4 Description: Good short and long-term memory; quick to provide Under-resourced- Diverse *Listens to and understands
Excellent
facts, details, or stories related to complex events; learns quickly Learners-ELL-ESL increasingly complex language
memory;
and recalls accurately words to songs, poems, stories or Might prefer to use dialect or 8b: Follows directions.
retention from
conversations; points out connections between ideas and events. first language and uses word or
varied sources
phrases that respective of home *Remembers and Connects
culture. Encourage story telling, experiences 12a. Recognizes and
sharing aloud, tell directions or recalls
steps. 12b. Makes connections
Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Problem solves,
Activities for experiences: develops and/or describes own
Descriptor #4 b. Memory Prompt with kids: What is one of your earliest multistep directions
memories…from when you were really little? Can share it with
friends, toys, act it out in a spontaneous playtime.
c. Memory Game© with Kids: Play Memory© card game with
kids. No more than two people. Follow game directions. There
are various versions of this game.
#5 Description: Asks questions incessantly especially once Under-resourced- Diverse *Demonstrates positive approaches
Keen
imagination has been aroused, pays close attention when learning, Learners-ELL-ESL Describe to learning
observation;
has enthusiastic need to know and explore, remembers things in the task in their language or in 11d. Shows curiosity and motivation.
curiosity and
great detail. Has enthusiastic need to know and explore, remembers gestures they understand. Use 11e. Shows flexibility and inventiveness
inquisitiveness
things in great detail. Loves to collect things. artifacts that are culturally in thinking.
familiar to the child. This
behavior might not be
considered appropriate in their
culture e.g., questioning an
adult.
Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Student is fascinated with a
Activities for experiences: topic or activity. May refuse to transition to
Descriptor #5 b. Observation Prompt with kids: Who can tell me what you the next activity. Wants depth, time to
see on the playground? Listen to what they say. Does the child explore, more information or resources. May
persist on an aspect of the playground, such as the bugs? need or demand teacher attention on a topic
Preoccupation with ants for example.
c. Observation Prompt with kids: Ask kids to play school with

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other children using dolls or stuffed animals;
d. Listening Prompt with kids: Ask kids to explain their ideas to
adults particularly a topic they are excited about.
#6 Description: Spends long periods of time exploring interesting Under-resourced- Diverse *Demonstrates positive approaches to
Intense
new things; likes to tinker with ideas, toys, manipulatives; might Learners-ELL-ESL learning
interests in
like to build new structures. Find student’s area of interest 11a. Attends and engages
specific topics;
or expertise (ask parents) and 11b. Persists
concentration;
Listens for long periods of time to stories and conversations; may let them share with you
perseverance;
sit patiently when reading or listening to books. Entertains self for individually. May use their
enjoys
long periods of time . native language. Possibly use
tinkering
photos, video, or record for
translation purposes.
Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Child is intensely interested in
Activities for experiences: For example, does the child show particular specific topics, especially in topics not included
Descriptor #6 fascination with bugs or nature? in the planned curriculum. May be fascinated by
b. iPad© Prompt with kids: Give kids an iPad© with various tools, machines, things that have working parts.
interactive apps. SEE list. Observe attention span, “moving” Loves to tinker.
applications from one platform to another. Observe individuals
or small groups sustain attention with various applications. (e.g. iPad Apps suggestions from 5 yr-old-boy:
students who download their own videos or photos into a Blog Flow; Clifford; PBS Kids; Super WHY; Angry
or use creative apps). Birds; DoodleDandy; Cars Match; Toy Story;
c. Tinkering Task with kids: Provide non-working hand Thomas the Tank Engine; Planes; Bob the
appliances to examine, take apart and reassemble. Builder; Heroes of the City; Build a Truck;
d. Conversation Prompt with kids: Ask the child: “If you could ChatterKid.
do ANYTHING you wanted to do today, what would it be?”
e. Animal Prompt with kids: Show book of animals. Flip
through pages together. Listen to what they know about any of
these animals. Ask “What would you want to know about any
of these animals?
#7 Description: Thinks in a nonlinear, open-ended, complex way; Under-resourced- Diverse *Demonstrates positive approaches to
Strong critical
provides multiple responses and perspectives, unspecified answers. Learners-ELL-ESL learning
thinking skills;
organizational Engages in independent inquiry. Allow time and attention for 11c. Solves problems
students to organize
skills
manipulatives. Seek items of *Classifies
Naturally organizes own belongings. May organize by size, color,
familiarity from child’s home. 13 Uses classification skills
collection type or other. Can explain arrangement and why.
Possibly use photos, video, or
recordings for observation
from home or school.

a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Groups objects by more than
Intentional
experiences of how they organize their room, their desk, toys, etc. one characteristic at the same time; switches
Activities for
b. Organization Prompt with Kids: Ask kids maniplatives such sorting rules when asked, and explains the
Descriptor #7
as Legos, blocks, marbles, assorted buttons, match box cars, etc. reasons (Gold, 2014).

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Watch how they categorize objects and explain why.
c. Design Prompt with Kids: Ask kids to design a new play area. Can compare and contrast or organize in
See how they arrange things differently and ask them why. multiple ways. Thinks critically
d. Dimensional Block Puzzle with Kids: Using puzzle block with
16 pieces with 6 different pictures, allow child to work at putting
the pieces together to make a picture.
e. Deck of Cards Prompt with kids: Use a “kids” deck of cards.
Give the deck to a small group of kids or individual and ask them
to make up the “rules” for the game
#8 Description: Makes ingenious or functional things from LEGO or Under-resourced- Diverse *Not able to locate Objectives specifically
Creativity;
other building toys; uses toys in unique or non-traditional ways; Learners-ELL-ESL related to creativity in the Gold Assessments
imaginative
plays with or carries on conversations with imaginary friends; Allow time, attention, and
capacity
(makes) up believable endings to stories. materials for students to create *Demonstrates positive approaches to
using items of familiarity from learning (2014)
child’s home. Possibly use
photos, video, or recordings 11e. Shows flexibility and inventiveness in
for observation from school or thinking. Research suggests flexibility is
home. broader than social interactions. Look for ways
that thinking, creativity and imagination are
beyond the norm of what is expected or
typically observed in early childhood.

Intentional a. Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior experiences such A level beyond: Probe for ways that the child
Activities for as imaginary friends. Ask parents for personal anecdotes exhibits creativity: fluency, flexibility,
Descriptor #8 b. Teacher Anecdotal Observations of child in play and creative elaboration, and originality in creative thinking
experiences. capacity in language and play activities.
c. Puppet Play prompt with kids: Have the child use toys such
as stuffed animals, puppets (one in each hand) and make up a
story. Could use finger puppets or draw faces on their fingers.
Listen to personalization of behaviors and details.
d. Prompt with “imaginary friends” with kids: Ask kids to tell
you all about their “imaginary friends” or ask parents to share
with you about the examples at home.
e. Set© Game Prompt with kids: Play Set© card game with 2-4
people. Follow game directions or make up your own directions
or outcomes of the game. Variations include color, number,
shading and shape. Observe.
f. Creativity Task with kids: What could you make out of
supplies (e.g., milk cartons, rubber bands, plastic drinking
straws, paper clips, scotch tape, toilet paper roll, etc.)
g. Kids Invent Structures with Goldieblox: See video and site
www.goldieblox.com

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#9 Description: Exhibits play and/or organizational interests that Under-resourced- Diverse * Uses symbols and images to represent
Ability to
resemble those of older children; likes to play board games Learners-ELL-ESL something not present
understand
designed for older children, more apt to be interested in cooperative Ask the parents about games
complex
play, complex play situations or sophisticated play activities. in their culture and in which 14a. Thinks symbolically
concepts;
Makes connections, perceives relationships. way the child participates or Level 10. Shows increasing ability to interpret and
thinks
interacts. record ideas and thoughts and to solve problems
abstractly
without concrete points of reference.

Level 12. Mentally manipulates information and


uses logical arguments with increasing regularity;
needs concrete points of reference for complex
concepts and text; reflects on his or her work
(Gold, 2014).

A level beyond: Existing 14a levels are listed


for third grade. Look for these Gold descriptions
that are above preschool-Kdg expectations.

Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior


Activities for experiences:
Descriptor #9 b. Prompt with kids: Can you make up a game? (any kind of
game)
c. Time or relationship prompt with kids: Can they tell a story
using “time” or “relationships?” e.g. yesterday, tomorrow,
next week? Can they figure out relationships such as “who is
your mother’s mother?” Not many kids can say “grandma” etc.
d. Time or relationship prompt with kids: Can they share
comments on who is sitting next to whom at the dinner table.
For example, daddy is ACROSS from me, Mommy is NEXT
to me. Ask child to use the words today, tomorrow, and
yesterday in a sentence.
#10 Description: Exhibits memory skills and keen awareness and Under-resourced- Diverse from The Arts-Gold Assessment (2010)
Early
appreciation of music, art, movement, dance, sports, or performing Learners-ELL-ESL 33. Explores Visual Arts
demonstration
arts. Music: Demonstrates increasing competency of various Be mindful that culturally 34. Explores musical arts
of talents in
components such as rhythm, phrasing, pitch (may have perfect respected music or expressive 35. Explores dance and movement concepts
music, art,
pitch), memorizes musical lyrics and notes easily. Art: Moved by arts may be very specific to a 36. Explores drama through actions and
athletics, or
aesthetic qualities and experience with art elements. Loves to draw. child’s background. Ask language
the performing
Athletics/Dance: Early coordination and memory of movements, parents about child’s talents in
arts
and eye-hand coordination. Body movement is natural. Expressive the areas of music, art, Not available in Gold Assessments (2014)
arts: Successfully assumes children’s roles in plays, musicals, athletics/dance, or expressive
drawn to dramatic opportunities. May enjoy performing or arts.
developing skills.

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Intentional a. Teacher or Parental Anecdotal Observations of prior A level beyond: Invite opportunities for
Activities for experiences: children to investigate music, movement, voice,
Descriptor #10 b. Music based prompt with kids: Do you play an instrument? expression, or performance in various areas
Give out a bucket of instruments (drum sticks, tambourine, from dance to drama or use of instruments.
marimbas, etc.). Piano keyboard? Show me ways you use these Encourage and enjoy free choice not driven by
instruments. Can students match a pitch? Can students match a sequenced lesson or planned activity.
rhythm that you model? Can they do it back for you to
replicate?
c. Arts based prompts with kids: Ask “Show me a piece of your
art work and tell me what you like about it.” Can you create
something else you like?
d. Athletic/Dance: Show me a movement you make when you
play your favorite sport. Show me how you can dance? Use
different kinds of music. Or “Who are your favorite performers
why do you like them so much?”

References

th
Beisser, S. R., Gillespie, C.W. & Thacker, V.M. (2013). An investigation of play: From the voices of 5-6 grade talented and gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(1)
1-14. DOI: 10.1177/0016986212450070 http://gcq.sagepub.com

Betts, George, & Neihart, Maureen (2010). Revised profiles of the gifted. Taken from 1998 Gifted Child Quarterly, 32(2)1-10.

Cherry, Kendra (2014). What are collectivistic cultures? See http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/fl/What-Are-Collectivistic-Cultures.htm

Dabrowski, K & Piechowski, M.M. (1977). Theory of levels of emotional development (Vols.1 & 2). Oceanside, NY: Dabor Science. (Out of print) -
See original research by Kazimierz Dabrowski and Michael Piechowski
http://www.sengifted.org/archives/articles/overexcitability-and-the-gifted
http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10102.aspx

Gadzikowski, Ann. (2013). Challenging Exceptionally Bright Children in Early Childhood Classrooms. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. (A textbook).

Kingore, Bertie W. (2001). Kingore Observation Inventory (2 ed.). See http://www.bertiekingore.com/koi.htm

nd
Kingore, B. W., & Higbee, G. (2001). We Care: A Curriculum for PreK-K, 2 ed.
http://www.professionalassociatespublishing.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=PAP&Product_Code=BK-49&Category_Code=BK Moehring,

L. (2011). Creative curriculum, Gifted programming that begins in kindergarten. Iowa Talented and Gifted Association Newsletter, 36(3), 10-16.

National Kindergarten Alliance [NKA] website at http://www.nkateach.org/Home.html


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Objectives for development and learning: Birth through Kindergarten (2014, March). Bethesda, MD: Teaching Strategies: Gold©

Rogers, Karen B. (2002). Re-forming Gifted Education: Matching the program to the child. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press. (A textbook).

Ruf, Deborah (2009). Five levels of gifted: Schools issues and educational options. Tucson, AZ: Great Potential Press.Sayler, Micheal, Ph.D. (1992). Gifted and Talented Checklist
for Teachers: Things this child has done. University of Texas mike.sayler@unt.edu
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/school/teachers/teachingresources/diversity/saylerteach.pdf

Sayler, Micheal, Ph.D. (1992). Gifted and Talented Checklist for Parents: Things my child has done. University of Texas mike.sayler@unt.edu
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/policies/gats/assets/pdf/cklpares1things.pdf

Schmidt, Otto: Parent Inventory, Accent on Skills Consulting (2013). Ontario, Canada

Silverman, Linda. (2013). Giftedness 101. New York, NY: Springer.

Slocumb, P.D., & Payne, R.K. (2000). Slocumb Payne Teacher Perception Inventory. A Scale for Rating Superior Students from Diverse Backgrounds.
http://www.cisd.org/cms/lib6/TX01917765/Centricity/Domain/162/slocumb%20payne%20teacher%20perception%20inventory.pdf

www. Goldieblox.com A website to invite young girls in the ideas of engineering.

Teaching Strategies: Gold (2010 and 2014). TeachingStrategies.com

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Sample Observational Tool of Opportunities for Intentional Activities
Indicate which descriptors may fit each child.
Describe the intentional activity provided and the child’s responses.

Early Ability to
Asynchronous Early use of Excellent Keen Intense Strong critical Creativity; Early
literacy understand
development advanced memory; observation; interests in thinking skills; imaginative demonstration
skills; complex
and/or vocabulary, retention curiosity and specific topics; organizational capacity of talents in
interest in concepts;
Self-critical complexity, from inquisitiveness concentration skills music, art,
symbols thinks
behaviors and humor varied perseverance; athletics, or the
abstractly
sources enjoys performing
tinkering arts

Aidan

Gia

Henry

Isla

Jonah

Seth

Simon

Solomon

Optimal use of the Early Childhood Identification Tool: Prompts must occur during frequent and multiple opportunities for exploration and observation. It is important to engage
students in a safe interactive or play environments, not necessarily in an adult pleasing environment. The observer/teacher would ideally consult and collaborate with parents, extended
family, and previous teachers or instructors for various observational data about the child. The 10 Descriptors are used to support the identification of the early childhood advanced
learner. This is not a checklist, a ranking scale, or rating scale. Children do NOT need to exhibit all 10 behaviors. Any ONE of these may be an indication that the child needs a
“qualitatively differentiated” classroom experience. The matrix above is a framework for data collection through anecdotal notes and observation of the student. The observer will take
notes and fill in the cells with appropriate information and possible reference to pictures and video somewhat similar to Karen Rogers’ Data Collector. Date the boxes for reference.

Future Research Goal: Increase suggestions from feedback from under-resourced, ESL/ELL, and diverse culture families. Recommendations include an analysis of results comparing
children to their peer groups within the identification process.

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Revised Profiles of the Gifted & Talented
Type

Feelings & Attitudes Behaviors Needs Adult/Peer Perceptions Identification Home Support School Support

Complacent Achieves To be challenged Liked by teachers Use many multiple criteria Parents need to let go Subject & grade accelerati
Dependent Seeks teacher approval To see deficiencies Admired by peers Grades Independence Needs more than AP, IB &
Good academic self-­­concept Avoids risks To take risks Generally liked & accepted by Standardized test scores Freedom to make choices Time for personal curricul
The Successful

Fear of failure Doesn’t go beyond the syllabus Assertiveness skills parents Individual IQ tests Risk-­­taking experiences Activities that push out of
Extrinsic motivation Self-­­ Accepts & conforms Creativity development Overestimate their abilities Teacher nominations Allow child to be distressed zone
critical Chooses safe activities Incremental view of intelligence Believe they will succeed on their Parent nominations Affirm child’s ability to cope with Development of independ
Works for the grade Gets good grades Self knowledge own Peer nominations challenges learning skills
Unsure about the future Becomes a consumer of knowledge Independent learning skills In-­­Depth Studies
Eager for approval Mentorships
Entity view of intelligence Cognitive Coaching
Time with Intellectual Pee

Highly creative Expresses impulses To be connected with others Not liked by teachers Ask: In what ways is this child Respect for their goals Tolerance
Bored & frustrated Challenges teacher To learn tact, flexibility, self Viewed as rebellious creative? Tolerate higher levels of deviance Reward new thinking
Fluctuating self-­­esteem Questions rules, policies awareness and self control Engaged in power struggle Use domain specific, objective Allow them to pursue interests Placement with appropr
Impatient & defensive Is honest and direct Support for creativity Creative measures (passions) teachers
Heightened sensitivity Emotionally labile Contractual systems Discipline problems Focus on creative potential rather Model appropriate behavior
The Creative

Direct & clear communi c


Uncertain about social roles May have poor self-­­control Less pressure to conform Peers see them as entertaining than achievement Family projects
Give permission for feeli
More psychologically vulnerable Creative expression Interpersonal skills to affirm others Want to change them Communicate confidence in their
Domain specific training
Strong motivation to follow inner Perseveres in areas of interest Strategies to cope with potential Don’t view them as gifted abilities
Underestimate their success
Allow nonconformity
convictions (passions) psychological vulnerbilities Affirm their strengths
Wants to right wrongs Stands up for convictions Want them to conform Recognize psychological Mentorships
High tolerance for ambiguity May be in conflict with peers vulnerability & intervene when Direct instruction in
High Energy necessary interpersonal skills
Coach for deliberate pract

Desire to belong socially Devalue, discount or deny talent Freedom to make choices Viewed as leaders or unrecognized Interviews Cultural Brokering Frame the concepts as soc
Feel Unsure & Pressured Drops out of GT & advanced classes Conflicts to be made explicit Seen as average & successful Parent nominations Normalize their dissonance phenomena
Conflicted, Guilty & Insecure Rejects challenges Learn to code switch Perceived to be compliant Teacher nominations College & career planning Welcoming learning envir
The Underground

Unsure of their right to their Moves from one peer group to the Gifted peer group network Seen as quiet/shy Be cautious with peer Provide gifted role models Provide role models
emotions next Support for abilities Seen as unwilling to risk nominations Model lifelong learning Help develop support gro
Diminished sense of self Not connected to the teacher or Role models who cross cultures Viewed as resistant Demonstrated performance Give freedom to make choices Open discussions about cl
Ambivalent about achievement the class Self understanding & acceptance Measures of creative potential Normalize the experience racism, sexism
Internalize & personalize societal Unsure of direction An audience to listen to what they Nonverbal measures of intelligence Don’t compare with siblings Cultural Brokering
ambiguities & conflicts have to say (to be heard) Provide cultural brokering Build Direct instruction of social
View some achievement behaviors multicultural appreciation Teach the hidden curricul
as betrayal of their social group Provide college planning
Discuss costs of success

© Maureen Neihart and George Betts 2010


Type

Feelings & Attitudes Behaviors Needs Adult/Peer Perceptions Identification Home Support School Support

Resentful & Angry Creates crises and causes Safety and structure Adults may be angry with them Individual IQ testing Seek counseling for familiy Don’t lower expectations
Depressed disruptions An “alternative” environment Peers are judgmental Achievement subtests Avoid power struggles Involvement Diagnostic testing
Reckless & Manipulative Thrill seeking An Individualized program Seen as troubled or irresponsible Interviews in extracurricular activities Non-­­traditional study skill
Poor self-­­concept Will work for the relationship Confrontation and accountability Seen as rebellious Auditions Assess for dangerous behavior In-­­depth Studies & Mento
The At-­­Risk

Defensive Intermittent attendance Alternatives May be afraid of them Nonverbal measures of Keep dialogue open G.E.D.
Unrealistic expectations Pursues outside interests Professional Counseling May be afraid for them intelligence Hold accountable Academic coaching
Unaccepted Low academic achievement Direction and short term goals Adults feel powerless to help them Parent nominations Minimize punishments Home visits
Resistive to authority May be self-­­isolating Teacher nominations Communicate confidence in ability Promote resilience
Not motivated for teacher driven Often creative to overcome obstacles Discuss secondary options
rewards Criticizes self & others Preserve relationships Aggressive advocacy
A subgroup is antisocial Produces inconsistent work

Learned helplessness Makes connections easily Emphasis on strengths Requires too many modifications Measure of current classroom Focus on strengths while Challeng in area of strengt
Intense frustration & anger Demonstrates inconsistent work Coping strategies because of accommodation functioning accomodating disability priority
Mood disorders Seems average or below Skill development Seen as “weird” Achievement test scores Develop will to succeed Acceleration in area of str
Twice/Multi Exceptional

Prone to discouragement More similar to younger students in Monitoring for additional disorders -­­ Underestimated for their potential Curriculum based assessment Recognize & affirm gifted abilities Accommodations for disab
Work to hang on some aspects of social/emotional especially ADHD Viewed as helpless Examine performance over time Challenge in strength areas Ask, "what will it take for
Poor academic self-­­concept functioning To learn to persevere Seen as not belonging in GT Look for pattern of declining Provide risk-­­taking opportunities to succeed here?"
Don't see themselves as successful May be disruptive or off-­­task Environment that develops Perceived as requiring a great deal performance paired with Assume college is a possibility Direct instruction in self-­­re
Poor academic self concept Are good problem solvers strengths of structure evidence of superior ability Advocate at school strategies
Don’t know where to belong Behavior problems To Learn to self-­­advocate Seen only for disability Do not rely on IQ scatter Family Involvement Give time to be with GT p
Thinks conceptually analysis or test discrepancy Nurture self-­­control Teach self-­­advocacy
Enjoys novelty & complexity analysis Teach how to set & reach realistic Teach SMART goal setting
Is disorganized goals
Slow in information processing
May not be able to cope with gifted
peer group

Self-­­confident Self-­­ Appropriate social skills More support not less Admired & Accepted Demonstrated performance Advocate for child at school & in Allow development of lon
accepting Works independently Advocacy for new directions & Seen as capable & responsible by Products the community integrated plan of study
Hold incremental view of ability Set SMART goals increasing independence parents Nominations Provide opportunities related to Remove time & space rest
Autonomous Learner

Optimistic Seek challenge Feedback about strengths & Positive influences Portfolios passion areas Develop multiple, related
Intrinsically motivated Strongly self directed possibilities Successful in diverse environments Interviews Allow friends of all ages studies, including mentors
Ambitious & excited Follows strong areas of passion Facilitation of continuing growth Psychologically healthy Standardized Test scores Remove time & space restrictions Wide variety of accelerate
May not view academics as one o Good self-­­regulators Support for risk-­­taking Positive peer relationships Awards for learning Mentors & cultural broker
their highest priorities Stands up for convictions On-­­going, facilitative relationships Help them build a support team Waive traditional school p
Willing to fail and learn from it Resilient Become more adept at managing Include in parent’s passions regulations
Shows tolerance and respect for A producer of knowledge themselves Include in family decision making Stay out of their way
others Possesses understanding & A support team Listen Help them cope with psyc
acceptance of self Stay out of their way costs of success

© Maureen Neihart and George Betts 2010


Great iPad Apps for
Young Children!
A1 Spelling App Match Animals
Activities Mathdoku +
Angry Birds MatrixMatch 1
Angry Birds RIO Meet Toby
AppMATes My Tom
Be BIG Number Maze
Bob the Builder PBS Kids
Branch Line Pet Rescue Saga
Bubble Witch Saga Planes
Build a Truck Power 4
Camouflage Puzzle Book
Cars 2 Puzzle Me
Cars Match R-Tap Drums
Cartoon HD Sand in a Box
ChatterPix Kids* Snowplow
Circle Game Spencer Lite
Clifford Spot the Animals 2
Day of Diesels Super WHY
Differences Talking Gina
DoodleDandy Talking Super Car
Elastic Tangram
Flow The Castle
Flow Free Thomas the Tank Engine
Heroes of the City TouchBand
Humpty Dumpty Toy Story
Look Again UNO Social
Mad Math
2015© Beisser and Moehring Apps from Seth Buxton, age 5