TABLE OF CONTENTS Lesson 1 - INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOSHOP 7 ................................................................1 What is Photoshop? ........................................................................................................

1 Adobe Photoshop 7 .....................................................................................................................................1 Content .......................................................................................................................................................1 Delivery .......................................................................................................................................................1 Opening and Saving Files ..............................................................................................1 Working with files .......................................................................................................................................1 Opening files ................................................................................................................................................1 Importing a file ............................................................................................................................................2 Saving a file .................................................................................................................................................3 Choosing a file format ..................................................................................................................................3 General Preferences ........................................................................................................4 Using the General Preferences ......................................................................................................................4 Lesson 2 – PHOTOSHOP 7 INTERFACE ...............................................................................8 Photoshop Workspace ....................................................................................................8 Using the workspace ....................................................................................................................................8 Creating a new image file .............................................................................................................................8 Using the Canvas ........................................................................................................................................10 Using the Toolbox .......................................................................................................................................10 Using the Tool Options bar .........................................................................................................................11 Using the Main Menu .................................................................................................................................11 Using Floating Palettes ................................................................................................................................11 Using the Drag Palette ................................................................................................................................12 Using the Status Bar ...................................................................................................................................13 Lesson 3 – THE TOOLBOX ......................................................................................................14 Selection Tools ...............................................................................................................14 Using the Marquee Tools .............................................................................................................................14 Using the Move Tool ...................................................................................................................................15 Using the Lasso Tools .................................................................................................................................17 Using the Magic Wand Tool .......................................................................................................................17 Using the Crop Tool ....................................................................................................................................17 Using the Slice Tools ...................................................................................................................................18 Using the Eyedropper Tools .........................................................................................................................18 Painting Tools ................................................................................................................19 Using the Airbrush Tool .............................................................................................................................19 Using the Paintbrush and Pencil Tool ..........................................................................................................19 Using the Rubber Stamp and Pattern Stamp Tools .....................................................................................19 Using the History Brush and Art History Brush Tools ...............................................................................19 Using the Eraser Tools ................................................................................................................................20 Using the Gradient and Paint Bucket Tools ................................................................................................20 Using the Blur, Sharpen and Smudge Tools .................................................................................................20 Using the Dodge, Burn and Sponge Tools ....................................................................................................21 Path Tools ......................................................................................................................22 Using the Path Component Selection and Direct Selection Tools ...................................................................22 Using the Pen Tools ....................................................................................................................................22 Type Tool .......................................................................................................................23 Using the Type Tool ....................................................................................................................................23 Shape Tool ......................................................................................................................23 Using the Line Tool ....................................................................................................................................23 Using the Rectangle Tool .............................................................................................................................24 Using the Rounded Rectangle Tool ...............................................................................................................24 Using the Ellipse Tool .................................................................................................................................24 Using the Polygon Tool ................................................................................................................................25

Using the Custom Shape Tool .....................................................................................................................25 Viewing Tools .................................................................................................................26 Using the Notes Tool ..................................................................................................................................26 Using the Audio Annotation Tool ...............................................................................................................26 Using the Hand Tool ..................................................................................................................................27 Using the Zoom Tool ...................................................................................................................................27 Setting the Foreground Color Chip ...............................................................................................................27 Setting the Background Color Chip .............................................................................................................28 The Tool Options Bar ....................................................................................................29 Using the Tool Options Bar ........................................................................................................................29 Lesson 4 – PALETTES ...............................................................................................................35 Layers Palette .................................................................................................................35 Using the Layers Palette ..............................................................................................................................35 Channels Palette .............................................................................................................36 Using the Channels Palette ..........................................................................................................................36 Paths Palette ...................................................................................................................38 Using the Paths Palette ...............................................................................................................................38 History Palette ................................................................................................................39 Using the History Palette .............................................................................................................................39 Actions Palette ................................................................................................................40 Using the Actions Palette ............................................................................................................................40 Info Palette .....................................................................................................................40 Using the Info Palette ..................................................................................................................................40 Navigator Palette ........................................................................................................................41 Using the Navigator Palette .........................................................................................................................41 Color Palette ...................................................................................................................42 Using the Color Palette ................................................................................................................................42 Swatches Palette .............................................................................................................42 Using the Swatches Palette ...........................................................................................................................42 Styles Palette ...................................................................................................................44 Using the Styles Palette ................................................................................................................................44 Character Palette .........................................................................................................................45 Using the Character Palette .........................................................................................................................45 Paragraph Palette ...........................................................................................................46 Using the Paragraph Palette ........................................................................................................................46 Lesson 5 – LAYERS ....................................................................................................................48 Using Layer ....................................................................................................................48 Reordering Layers ........................................................................................................................................48 Hiding and Showing Layers ........................................................................................................................49 Removing Layers .........................................................................................................................................50 Working with Multiple Layers ........................................................................................51 Setting Layer Opacity ..................................................................................................................................51 Applying Layer Blending Modes ..................................................................................................................51 Linking Layers ...........................................................................................................................................58 Creating Later Sets .....................................................................................................................................58 Merging Layers ...........................................................................................................................................59 Flattening Layers ........................................................................................................................................60 Transferring layered images to ImageReady ..................................................................................................60 Using Layer Effects .....................................................................................................................................61 Lesson 6 – COLOR .....................................................................................................................62 Color Modes ...................................................................................................................62 Using the Bitmap and Grayscale .................................................................................................................62 Using the RGB Color .................................................................................................................................64 Using the Indexed Color ..............................................................................................................................64

Using the CMYK Color ..............................................................................................................................66 Color Models ..................................................................................................................67 RGB Model ................................................................................................................................................67 CMYK Model ............................................................................................................................................67 HSB Model ................................................................................................................................................67 CIE Lab Model .........................................................................................................................................67 Lesson 7 – ARTWORK ...............................................................................................................68 The Brush Palette ...........................................................................................................68 Using the Brush Palette ...............................................................................................................................68 Using the Brush Options Dialog Box ..........................................................................................................68 Setting Brush Options .................................................................................................................................69 Brushes ...........................................................................................................................69 Using the Airbrush .....................................................................................................................................69 Using the Paintbrush ...................................................................................................................................70 Using the History Brush ..............................................................................................................................70 Using the Eraser .........................................................................................................................................70 Using the Pencil ...........................................................................................................................................71 Drawing Graphic Shapes ................................................................................................71 Graphic Shapes ...........................................................................................................................................71 Drawing a Graphic Shape ...........................................................................................................................72 Editing a Graphic Shape .............................................................................................................................73 Lesson 8 – IMAGE MANIPULATION .....................................................................................75 Selecting Colors ..............................................................................................................75 Selecting colors with the Color Picker ...........................................................................................................75 Selecting colors with Color Palette ................................................................................................................76 Selecting a brush tool from the Toolbox ........................................................................................................76 Selecting colors with the Eyedropper Tool .....................................................................................................76 Blending .........................................................................................................................77 Blending images ...........................................................................................................................................77 Smudging .......................................................................................................................78 Smudging images .........................................................................................................................................78 Setting Smudge Options ...............................................................................................................................79 Focusing .........................................................................................................................79 Blurring images ............................................................................................................................................80 Sharpening images .......................................................................................................................................80 Dodging images ............................................................................................................................................80 Sponging images ...........................................................................................................................................80 Lesson 9 – TYPE ........................................................................................................................82 Type Tools ......................................................................................................................82 Using the Paragraph Palette ........................................................................................................................82 Entering Type .............................................................................................................................................83 Using Type Layers ......................................................................................................................................83 Rendering Type ............................................................................................................................................84 Shadows ..........................................................................................................................85 Using Shadows ............................................................................................................................................85 Adding Shadows to Text .............................................................................................................................85 Glow Effect .....................................................................................................................86 Adding Glows .............................................................................................................................................86 Bevel and Emboss Effects ..............................................................................................87 Creating Bevel and Emboss Effects ..............................................................................................................87 Warp Text .......................................................................................................................88 Warping Text .............................................................................................................................................88

Lesson 10 – PRINTING .............................................................................................................90 Printing Images ..............................................................................................................90 Setting Up the Page .....................................................................................................................................90 Printing the Page .........................................................................................................................................92 Lesson 11 – TRANSFORMATIONS ..........................................................................................94 Resizing ..........................................................................................................................94 Resizing an Image .......................................................................................................................................94 Resizing a Canvas .......................................................................................................................................95 Rotating ..........................................................................................................................97 Rotating a Canvas .......................................................................................................................................97 Flipping ..........................................................................................................................99 Flipping a Canvas .......................................................................................................................................99 Selection Transformations .............................................................................................100 Using Free Transform .................................................................................................................................100 Liquify ............................................................................................................................102 Using Liquify ..............................................................................................................................................102 Using Liquify options ..................................................................................................................................104 Freezing and Thawing Pixels ......................................................................................................................105 Reconstruct and Reverting ............................................................................................................................105 Lesson 12 – MASKS ....................................................................................................................107 Applying Masks ..............................................................................................................107 Using Masks ..............................................................................................................................................107 Using Selection Masking .............................................................................................................................108 Quick Mask ....................................................................................................................108 Using Quick Masks ...................................................................................................................................108 Layer Masks ...................................................................................................................111 Masking Layers ..........................................................................................................................................111 Locking Transparency .................................................................................................................................111 Creating and Removing Layer Mask ...........................................................................................................112 Editing Masks ............................................................................................................................................112 Masking Group of Layers ...........................................................................................................................113 Lesson 13 – INTERMEDIATE TYPE .......................................................................................115 Manipulating Type .........................................................................................................115 Cutting and Filling Type .............................................................................................................................115 Lesson 14 – PATHS ....................................................................................................................118 Creating Paths ................................................................................................................118 Creating Paths with Pen tools ......................................................................................................................118 Creating Selections with Pen tools ................................................................................................................119 Editing Paths ..................................................................................................................121 Using Path Tools ........................................................................................................................................121 Using Points and Segments ..........................................................................................................................121 Adding and Deleting Points and Segments ...................................................................................................123 Converting Points ........................................................................................................................................123 Reshaping Paths ..........................................................................................................................................124 Hiding and Showing Paths ..........................................................................................................................125 Deactivating Paths ......................................................................................................................................125 Using Paths ....................................................................................................................126 Turning Paths into Selections .......................................................................................................................126 Filling a Path ..............................................................................................................................................126 Stroking a Path ...........................................................................................................................................126 Lesson 15 – IMPROVING IMAGES WITH FILTERS .............................................................127 Sharpen Filters ................................................................................................................127 Applying Sharpen and Sharpen more filters .................................................................................................127

Applying the Sharpen Edges filter ...............................................................................................................128 Using the Unsharp Mask filter ...................................................................................................................128 Blur Filters ......................................................................................................................129 Applying Blur and Blur more filters ............................................................................................................129 Applying the Gaussian Blur ........................................................................................................................130 Applying the Radial Blur filter ....................................................................................................................131 Applying the Smart Blur filter .....................................................................................................................132 Applying the Motion blur filter ....................................................................................................................133 Lesson 16 – ALTERING IMAGES WITH FILTERS ................................................................135 Artistic Filters .................................................................................................................135 Using Artistic Filters ..................................................................................................................................135 Applying the Colored Pencil filter .................................................................................................................135 Applying the Cutout filter ............................................................................................................................136 Applying the Dry brush filter .......................................................................................................................136 Applying the Film Grain filter ....................................................................................................................137 Applying the Fresco filter .............................................................................................................................137 Applying the Neon Glow filter ....................................................................................................................138 Applying the Paint Daubs filter ..................................................................................................................138 Applying the Palette Knife filter ...................................................................................................................139 Applying the Plastic Wrap filter ..................................................................................................................139 Applying the Poster Edges filter ...................................................................................................................140 Applying the Rough Pastels filter .................................................................................................................141 Applying the Smudging Stick filter ..............................................................................................................141 Applying the Sponge filter ............................................................................................................................142 Applying the Underpainting filter ................................................................................................................142 Applying the Watercolor filter ......................................................................................................................143 Brush Stroke Filters ........................................................................................................144 Using Brush Stroke Filters ..........................................................................................................................144 Applying the Accented Edges filter ..............................................................................................................144 Applying the Angled Strokes filter ...............................................................................................................144 Applying the Crosshatch filter ......................................................................................................................145 Applying the Dark Strokes filter .................................................................................................................145 Applying the Ink Outlines filter ...................................................................................................................146 Applying the Spatter filter ...........................................................................................................................146 Applying the Sprayed Strokes filter ..............................................................................................................147 Applying the Sumi-e filter ............................................................................................................................147 Sketch Filters ..................................................................................................................148 Using Sketch Filters ....................................................................................................................................148 Applying the Bas Relief filter .......................................................................................................................148 Applying the Chalk and Charcoal filter .......................................................................................................149 Applying the Charcoal filter .........................................................................................................................149 Applying the Chrome filter ..........................................................................................................................150 Applying the Conte Crayon filter .................................................................................................................150 Applying the Graphic Pen filter ...................................................................................................................151 Applying the Halftone Patter filter ..............................................................................................................152 Applying the Note Paper filter .....................................................................................................................152 Applying the Photocopy filter .......................................................................................................................153 Applying the Plaster filter ............................................................................................................................153 Applying the Reticulation filter ....................................................................................................................154 Applying the Stamp filter ............................................................................................................................154 Applying the Torn Edges filter ....................................................................................................................155 Applying the Water Paper filter ...................................................................................................................155 Distort Filters .................................................................................................................156 Using Distort Filters ...................................................................................................................................156 Applying the Diffuse Glow filter ..................................................................................................................156 Applying the Displace filter .........................................................................................................................157

Applying the Glass filter ..............................................................................................................................158 Applying the Ocean Ripple filter ..................................................................................................................159 Applying the Pinch filter ..............................................................................................................................160 Applying the Polar Coordinates filter ...........................................................................................................161 Applying the Ripple filter ............................................................................................................................162 Applying the Shear filter ..............................................................................................................................163 Applying the Spherize filter .........................................................................................................................164 Applying the Twirl filter ..............................................................................................................................165 Applying the Wave filter ..............................................................................................................................166 Applying the Zigzag filter ............................................................................................................................167 Pixelate Filters ................................................................................................................168 Using Pixelate Filters ..................................................................................................................................168 Applying the Color Halftone filter ...............................................................................................................168 Applying the Crystallize filter ......................................................................................................................169 Applying the Facet filter ..............................................................................................................................170 Applying the Fragment filter ........................................................................................................................170 Applying the Mezzotint filter .......................................................................................................................171 Applying the Mosaic filter ............................................................................................................................172 Applying the Pointillize filter .......................................................................................................................173 Stylize Filters ..................................................................................................................174 Using Stylize Filters ....................................................................................................................................174 Applying the Diffuse filter ...........................................................................................................................174 Applying Emboss filter ................................................................................................................................175 Applying the Extrude filter .........................................................................................................................175 Applying the Fine Edges filter .....................................................................................................................176 Applying the Glowing Edges filter ...............................................................................................................177 Applying the Solarize filter ..........................................................................................................................177 Applying the Tiles filter ...............................................................................................................................178 Applying the Trace Contour filter ................................................................................................................178 Applying the Wind filter .............................................................................................................................179 Lesson 17 – INTERMEDIATE PRINTING .............................................................................180 Preparing the Image .......................................................................................................180 Setting the Working Spaces .........................................................................................................................180 Setting the Color Management Policies .........................................................................................................181 Setting the Conversion Options ....................................................................................................................181 Selecting Paper .............................................................................................................................................181 Printing the Image .........................................................................................................182 Printing the Page .........................................................................................................................................182 Lesson 18 – PHOTO REPAIR – BLACK AND WHITE ...........................................................184 Easy Fixes ......................................................................................................................184 Fixing images ..............................................................................................................................................184 Using the Eyedropper Tool ..........................................................................................................................184 Using the Clone Stamp Tool ........................................................................................................................185 Vignetting images ........................................................................................................................................187 Cleaning Pictures ...........................................................................................................189 Cleaning up a picture ...................................................................................................................................189 Appying Tints .................................................................................................................192 Duotones .....................................................................................................................................................192 Creating a Duotone .....................................................................................................................................192 Reproducing a Duotone ................................................................................................................................195 Editing individual Duotone Plates ...............................................................................................................195 Hand-Tinting photos ...................................................................................................................................196

Lesson 19 – PHOTO REPAIR – COLOR ..................................................................................198 Image Retouching ..........................................................................................................198 Fixing Red Eye ...........................................................................................................................................198 Using the Drag and Drop method ...............................................................................................................199 Cropping a picture .......................................................................................................................................199 Advanced Editing ...........................................................................................................200 Removing a person .......................................................................................................................................200 Lesson 20 – COMPOSITING .....................................................................................................201 Merging Pictures ............................................................................................................201 Creating one picture from two .......................................................................................................................201 Blending Layers ...........................................................................................................................................202 Making realistic composites ..........................................................................................................................203 Erasing Backgrounds .....................................................................................................203 Using the Background Eraser Tool ..............................................................................................................203 Alternative Composites ..................................................................................................205 Creating composites from nothing .................................................................................................................205 Lesson 21 – PHOTOSHOP FOR THE WEB ............................................................................208 Photoshop and ImageReady ..........................................................................................208 File Formats ...................................................................................................................208 Transparent Pixels ..........................................................................................................209 Making Colors Transparent ........................................................................................................................209 Saving and opening a GIF with Transparency .............................................................................................210 Optimizing Images ........................................................................................................211 Saving for Web ............................................................................................................................................211 Web Settings for Optimization .......................................................................................213 Optimizing a Web image .............................................................................................................................213 Optimizing sliced images ..............................................................................................................................217 Saving optimized files ..................................................................................................................................218 GIF Settings for Optimization .......................................................................................219 Optimizing a GIF Image ............................................................................................................................219 JPEG Settimg for Optimization .....................................................................................223 Optimizing a JPEG Image ....................................................................................................................223 Optimization Menu ........................................................................................................224 Using the Optimize Menu .....................................................................................................................224 Preview Menu .................................................................................................................226 Using the Preview Menu ..............................................................................................................................226 Output Settings ..............................................................................................................227 Applying Output Settings ............................................................................................................................227 Saving PNG Images .......................................................................................................229 Optimizing a PNG Image ..........................................................................................................................229 Lesson 22 – INDEXED COLOR ...............................................................................................231 Indexed Color Palette .....................................................................................................231 Using the Indexed Color Palette ..................................................................................................................231 Using Color .................................................................................................................................................234 Forcing Color ..............................................................................................................................................234 Setting the Transparency option ...................................................................................................................235 Setting the Matte option ...............................................................................................................................236 Setting the Dither option ..............................................................................................................................236 Setting the Amount option ...........................................................................................................................237 Preserving Exact Colors ..............................................................................................................................237 Editing Indexed Colors ..................................................................................................237 Edting Colors ..............................................................................................................................................237

Lesson 23 – WEB PAGE LAYOUT ............................................................................................239 Create Slices ...................................................................................................................239 Creating Slices .............................................................................................................................................239 Edit Slices .......................................................................................................................241 Editing Slices ..............................................................................................................................................241 Slice Options ..................................................................................................................243 Applying Slice Options ................................................................................................................................243 Save Slices .......................................................................................................................245 Saving Slices ................................................................................................................................................245

Lesson One
Introduction to Photoshop 7
This Chapter contains
What is Photoshop? Opening and Saving Files General Preferences

What is Photoshop?
Adobe Photoshop 7 This subject teaches the fundamentals of Adobe Photoshop 7. This is a graphics program, which allows you to manipulate elements of photographs from all sources. Content With Photoshop you can manipulate images and retouch photos. You can use Photoshop to create original art from scratch, or based on existing photographs. Delivery Photoshop files can be delivered using multiple file formats. The direct Photoshop Document file format is .psd.

Opening and Saving Files
Working with files Photoshop can open and save in various file formats. Formats are ways of saving the information in a file so the file can be used in other applications. Either for Printing or Web page usage. Opening files To open a file in Photoshop:

From the main menu, choose File > Open

OR press the Ctrl + O key combination

Lesson 1 - Introduction to Photoshop 7
Use the Open dialog box to locate the file that you wish to work with. Under the Files of type, you can select to view All Formats or specific file format only (Example: Photoshop file type):

• •

Select the file and double-click on it to open, or click the Open button.

Importing a file • Importing a file lets you open files that have been saved in formats that use plug-in Import modules. These include files saved with twain Interface, such as scanner programs and files, as well as Scitex files, PICT resources (Macintosh), and files Imported directly from any digital camera that has a Photoshop Plug-in import filter. • To access the import selection, from the main menu, choose File > Import. Saving a file

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• •

When saving your work using the Save or Save as dialog box, Name your document and select an appropriate Format to save your work in from the pull down menu. From the main menu, choose File > Save OR press the Ctrl + S key combination

Choosing a file format • While working on an image, you should save the file in .psd format (Photoshop Document). This file type retains the image layers and effects without flattening them so that you can go back and modify your image at any time. Once you are finished with your work, you can Save as the Photoshop file in a different format, depending on the purpose of the final image.

When utilizing images for the web use these file formats: .gif – If the picture is line art, has large areas of solid color and uses a limited color palette. .jpeg – If the picture is a photograph or continuous tone art (lots of color). .png - If the picture is a photograph or continuous tone art (lots of color). When printing a document use these file formats:

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.eps – For print using a Postscript compatible printer. .tif – For print using most printers and page layout programs.

If you want to Import a picture into another graphic program choose .bmp or .pict they are the two most generally compatible graphic formats.

General Preferences
Using the General Preferences • The General Preferences panel provides access to the most important environmental preference settings:

Using the Color Picker • When selecting the foreground or background color control icon in the toolbox, • Photoshop will display any Color Picker plug-ins that you may have installed as well as one of two standard color pickers: the Adobe Color Picker or the one provided by the operating system:

Using the Interpolation • To turn Photoshop’s Interpolation capabilities on, select Bicubic:

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Select Nearest Neighbor to turn them off.

The Bilinear setting is too slow for roughing out effects.

Using the Redo Key • The Redo-Key enables you to change the keyboard shortcuts assigned to the Undo, Redo, Step Back, and Step Forward commands:
]

Using History States • The History States via the History palette allows you to control how many steps you can undo. The right value depends on the amount of RAM you devote to Photoshop:

Exporting Clipboard • The Export Clipboard, when selected, tells Photoshop to transfer a copied image from the program’s internal clipboard to the operating system’s clipboard whenever you switch applications. This enables you to paste the image into another running program:

Turn this option off if you plan to use copied images only within Photoshop and you want to reduce time that occurs when you switch from Photoshop to another program.

Using Short PANTONE Names • Short PANTONE Names is a brand name assigned to a library of premixed spot-color printing inks. Photoshop supports the most recent Pantone naming conventions. Most modern publishing programs support these longer color names, but a few older versions do not. Photoshop has placed this feature in so that you have a choice:

Showing Tool Tips

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The Show Tool Tips option displays little labels and keyboard shortcuts when you place your cursor over a tool or palette option:

Using Keyboard Zoom Resizes Windows • The Keyboard Zoom Resizes Windows forces Photoshop to resize the image window when you zoom in or out on your image by selecting a Zoom command from the View menu or by using the keyboard shortcuts:

The shortcut keys for this feature are: Ctrl + plus

OR Ctrl + minus
Auto-updating open documents • The Auto-update Open Documents option creates and maintains a link between an open image and the image file on disk. Any time the image on disk updates:

Showing Asian Text Options • The Show Asian Text option determines whether the Character and Paragraph palettes include options related to working with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean type:

Beeping When Done • The Beep When Done can instruct Photoshop to beep at you whenever it finishes an operation that displays a Progress window:

Using Dynamic Color Sliders • The Dynamic Color Sliders option instructs Photoshop to preview color effects within the slider bars of the Color palette. When the option is turned off, the slider bars show the same colors regardless of your changes:

Saving Palette Locations • When the Save Palette Locations is selected; Photoshop remembers the location of the toolbox and floating palettes from one session to the next. If you turn off this check box, Photoshop restores the default palette positions the next time you restart the program:

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Showing Font Names in English • When the Show Font Names in English is selected Photoshop displays foreign fonts names in the Font menu on the Options bar and in the Character palette:

Using Shift Key for Tool Switch • The Use Shift Key for Tool Switch is selected allows two or more tools that share the same slot in the toolbox, to be able to press the keyboard shortcut associated with the tools to cycle through the tools:

Tip

It is recommend that you turn this option is turned off. One extra keystroke per function adds up.

Resetting All Warning Dialogs • The Reset All Warning Dialogs when selected Photoshop displays a warning dialog box to let you know that the course you’re on may have consequences you hadn’t considered:

Some dialog boxes include a check box that you can select to tell Photoshop that you don’t want to see the current warning any more.

Resetting All Tools • The Reset All Tools when selected Photoshop’s tools returns to their factory default settings. You also can mouse click the tool’s icon on the Options bar and choose Reset All Tools from the resulting pop-up menu. Choose Reset Tool to restore the defaults for the current tool only:

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Lesson Two
Photoshop 7 Interface
Photoshop Workspace
This Chapter contains
Photoshop Workspace

Using the workspace The workspace displays the Toolbox, Canvas, Tool Options bar, Menu bar, Palettes and Status bar. Creating a new image file To create a new Photoshop file: From the main menu, choose File > New to open the New File dialog box:

Lesson 2 – Photoshop 7 Interface
Name Field – The Name Field allows you to type in the name of your new image file. Image Size – The Image Size area allows you to set the width and height of the image. The unit value can be set in the drop-down menus beside their respective fields: Pixels, Inches, Centimeters, Points, Picas, and Columns. The Resolution field – The Resolution field allows you to select the number of pixels-per-inch (monitor or web) of your picture or dots (of-ink) per-inch (printing). The resolution will determine the quality of the image. The higher resolution will result in a high image quality, but the file size will be higher too. Mode button – The Color Mode allows you to select the color space that will be used within your new image: Contents selection – The Contents Selection allows you to select your Background Layer default setting that you would like to start your new image with. The background can be White, Background Color or Transparent:

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Using the Canvas • The Canvas is where your work is displayed:

Using the Toolbox • The Toolbox provides icons linked in a one-step click to access the various Photoshop tools:

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Using the Tool Options bar To select a tool, mouse click on an icon: • The Tool Options bar is located at the top of the workspace, under the main menu headings. This bar contains the tool controls that allow you to adjust and keep settings displayed while using the selected tool. Example: The Marquee Tool Options.

The Tool Options bar changes with each different tool selected.

Using the Main Menu • The Main Menu bar contains the various options and commands that you will be using within Photoshop: File, Edit, Image, Layer, Select, Filter, View, Window and Help. Using Floating Palettes • The Floating Palettes are typically miniature versions of elements that accompany any particular window. There are 12 offered in Photoshop 7. • Every palette has four specific features:

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Palette options – Each palette offers its own options. This may include icons, pop-up menus, or slider bars. Palette menu – Select the right-pointing arrowhead icon, on the top-right side of the palette, to display a menu of commands specific to the palette. These commands will allow you to manipulate the palette options and adjust preference settings:

Palette tabs – Select a palette tab and drag to move it to the front of the palette group:

Collapse button – Select the collapse button to decrease the amount of space taken by the palette: Using the Drag Palette • Palettes can be placed in the Drag Palette, which is the gray bar at the end of the Options bar at the top of the image window:

To attach a palette to the Docking Well: • Click and drag the palette to the docking well on the Options bar. • After placing the palette in the well, only the palette tab will be visible on the Options bar. • Click on the palette tab to display the palette. • Click outside of the palette to close.

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Using the Status Bar • The Status Bar gives you a detailed overview of the size of your file, the size of your viewing area on your canvas as well as a brief description of the Tool selected and key commands to acquire additional options:

Computer Literacy Program

Lesson Three
The Toolbox
Selection Tools
This Chapter contains
Selection Tools Painting Tools Path Tools Type Tool Shape Tool Viewing Tools The Tool Options Bar

Using the Marquee Tools There are four options for the Marquee Tool. Right-click on the Marquee Tool to view the pop-up option and select another marquee tool. The Rectangular Marquee tool allows you to drag and enclose a selection of pixels of the image in a rectangular or square portion. This is the default Marquee Tool in the Toolbox:

Lesson 3 – The Toolbox
The Elliptical Marquee tool allows you to drag and enclose a selection of pixels of the image in an elliptical or circular portion. The Single-row Marquee tool allows you to select an entire horizontal row of pixels stretching the entire width of the image. You can also drag to position the selection. The Single-column Marquee tool allows you select an entire vertical column of pixels stretching the entire height of the image. You can also drag to position the selection.

• • •

Using the Move Tool

The Move tool allows you to click and drag a selection or layer of your image. This is the only way possible to move and clone portions of an image.

To Clone the portion of your image: • Select the Move tool. • Go to your canvas and hold down the Alt key:

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Lesson 3 – The Toolbox

Then mouse click and drag to your desired location:

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Lesson 3 – The Toolbox

Using the Lasso Tools • There are three options for the Lasso Tool. Right-click on the Lasso Tool to view the pop-up option and select another lasso tool.

The Lasso tool allows you to click and drag to select a free-form portion of pixels within your image:

The Polygonal Lasso tool allows you to click and drag to select a straight-edged selection of pixels within your image. Each click will set a corner point in your selection:

• •

The Magnetic Lasso tool, when selected, as you drag will cause the selection outline to automatically stick to the edge of the foreground image. Points are also laid down automatically as you drag:

Using the Magic Wand Tool

The Magic Wand tool will allow you to select a contiguous area of the same-colored pixels. To select discontinuous areas, click in one area, then Ctrl +Click in another:

Using the Crop Tool

The Crop tool allows you to enclose a portion of the image that you want retained in a rectangular boundary. The area outside the boundary is tinted so you can see which areas will be cropped off. The handles on the boundary allow you to drag to resize the area. Press the Enter (Return) key to apply the cropping:

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Lesson 3 – The Toolbox

Using the Slice Tools • There are two options for the Slice Tool. Right-click on the Slice Tool to view the pop-up option and select another slice tool.

The Slice tool is used when creating web graphics. It allows you to cut images into rectangular sections in order for you to apply web effect, link links, rollovers and animations to different areas of the same image. Select the tool and drag over your image to define the area you want to slice:

The Slice Select tool, when selected, will cause handles to appear on the corners of your justdone slice, and you can drag to adjust the size, or relocate the entire slice.

Using the Eyedropper Tools • There are three options for the Eyedropper Tool. Right-click on the Eyedropper Tool to view the pop-up option and select another eyedropper tool.

With the Eyedropper tool selected, click on a color in the image window to make that color the Foreground color:

With the Color Sampler tool, select as many as four locations in an image to evaluate the colors of the pixels in the Info palette. After setting a point, move it by dragging to a different pixel. The Measure tool allows you to measure the distance and direction inside the image window. Select the Measure tool. Drag from one point to another and the measurement data will appear in the Info palette or the Options bar. Drag the endpoints of your line to take new measurements. To change the unit of measurement, from the main menu, choose Edit > Preferences > Units and Rulers, and then select the unit you require from the Rulers pop-up menu.

• • • • •

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Painting Tools

Using the Airbrush Tool

The Airbrush tool allows you to spray diffused strokes of color, with various levels of brush thickness.

Using the Paintbrush and Pencil Tool

The Paintbrush tool allows you to paint color in soft lines. Not as jagged as the pencil, not as fluffy looking as the airbrush. Right-click on the Paintbrush tool to view the pop-up option to select the Pencil tool. The Pencil tool allows you to draw/paint jagged, hard-edged lines. Typically used to clean areas of individual pixels.

• •

Using the Rubber Stamp and Pattern Stamp Tools
• • • • • • •

The Rubber Stamp tool allows you to copy one particular portion of an image onto another. Double-click the portion of the image that you wish to clone. Drag to select the area to clone to another picture. Right-click on the Rubber Stamp tool to view the pop-up option for the Pattern Stamp tool. The Pattern Stamp tool allows you to paint with a pattern. To define the pattern: Choose Edit > Define Pattern. Begin painting with a selected paint tool.

Using the History Brush and Art History Brush Tools

The History Brush tool allows you to revert an image to a multiple number of possible previous states throughout the recent history of the image.

To specify the state you want to revert to: • Click in the first column of the History palette. • Select the History Brush tool.
• •

Right-click on the History Brush tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Art History Brush tool. The Art History Brush tool allows you to paint with pixels from previous image states. There are a variety of brush options available to use for painting.

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Using the Eraser Tools • There are three options for the Eraser Tool. Right-click on the Eraser Tool to view the pop-up option and select another eraser tool.

The Eraser tool allows you to paint in the background color or erase areas in a layer to reveal layers below. You can also switch from the Erase to a History mode, which will revert the image to a previous state the same way as if using the History Brush. The Background Eraser tool allows you take away the background from an image. Select the Background Eraser tool. Drag the tool along the border between the background and foreground. The Magic Eraser tool is much like the Magic Wand tool, except that the eraser allows you to remove a range of similarly colored pixels.

• • • •

Be very careful with this tool, as it is very easy to end up erasing both the background and the foreground, wasting steps.

Using the Gradient and Paint Bucket Tools
• • •

The Gradient tool allows you to fill a selection of the image with a gradual transition of colors, or a gradient. Select the Gradient tool on the toolbar. Select a gradient style from the Options bar:

• •

Right-click on the Gradient tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Paint Bucket tool. The Paint Bucket tool allows you to fill a contiguous area of similarly colored pixels in the picture with the foreground color, or a selected pattern.

Using the Blur, Sharpen and Smudge Tools
• • •

The Blur tool allows you to decrease the contrast between neighboring pixels, blurring the focus of the image. Select the Blur tool. Drag the tool on the portion of pixels you wish to blur:

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• • • •

Right-click on the Blur tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Sharpen tool. The Sharpen tool allows you to increase the contrast between neighboring pixels, sharpening the focus of the image. Select the Sharpen tool. Drag the tool on the portion of pixels you wish to sharpen:

• • • •

Right-click on the Blur tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Smudge tool. The Smudge tool allows you to smear the colors of your picture, creating a blurry look to the image. Select the Smudge tool Drag the tool over the area on the picture where you want the colors to smear:

Using the Dodge, Burn and Sponge Tools
• • •

The Dodge tool allows you to gradually lighten pixels in the image. Select the Dodge tool. Drag the tool over the area that you want to lighten:

• • • •

The Burn tool allows you to gradually darken pixels in the image. Right click on the Dodge tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Burn tool. Select the Burn tool. Drag the tool over the area in the picture that you want to darken:

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• • •

The Sponge tool allows you to decrease the amount of color saturation in a picture so the color appears duller, and moves into a gray tone. To increase color saturation, change the setting in the Sponge Options palette from Desaturate to Saturate. Right click on the Dodge tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Sponge tool. Select the Sponge tool. Drag the tool over the area that you wish to saturate or de-saturate:

Path Tools

Using the Path Component Selection and Direct Selection Tools

The Path Component Selection tool allows you to click anywhere inside a path to select the entire path. Clicking inside a path containing multiple sub paths will cause Photoshop to select the sub path under the tool cursor. This tool can be used to select and manipulate lines and shapes drawn with the shape tools. Right-click on the Path Component Selection tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Direct Selection tool. The Direct Selection tool allows you to select and edit a segment in a selected path or shape.

• •

Using the Pen Tools • There are five options for the Pen Tool. Right-click on the Pen Tool to view the pop-up option and select another pen tool.

The Pen tool allows you to set points in the image window. Photoshop then draws an editable path outline, where you can convert to a selection outline or stroke with color. The Freeform Pen tool allows you to draw freehand paths or vector masks. Photoshop will automatically add points along the path. Select the Freeform Pen tool.

• •

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• • • • • • • • • • •

Drag to draw your path. The Add Anchor Point tool allows you to insert a point in a path. Select the Add Anchor Point tool. Click a path segment to add an anchor point. The Delete Anchor Point tool allows you to remove the point without interrupting the outline of the path. Photoshop will automatically draw a new segment between the neighboring points. Select the Delete Anchor Point tool. Click a point to remove that point without interrupting the outline of the path. The Convert Point tool allows you to change on kind of point to another. Select the Convert Point tool. Drag a point to convert it from a corner to an arc. Click a point to convert it from an arc to a sharp corner.

Type Tool
Using the Type Tool
• • • •

The Type tool allows you to add text to an image. Using the Option bar, you can select whether to enter horizontal or vertical rows of type. Select the Type tool. Click on the image where you want to add text. Type your text:

Shape Tool
Using the Line Tool • There are five options for the Shape Tool. Right-click on the Shape Tool to view the pop-up option and select another shape tool.

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• • • •

The Line tool allows you to create a straight line. The line thickness can be set at the Options bar, and arrows can also be selected for the ends of the line. Select the Line tool. Click and drag to create a straight line. Arrowheads Options can be selected on the Options bar, when the Line tool is selected. Place arrows on one or both ends of the line, as well as set the arrowhead dimensions:

Using the Rectangle Tool
• • •

The Rectangle tool allows you to draw rectangles filled with the foreground color. Select the Rectangle tool. Drag to create a rectangle. OR Click + Drag to create a square. When the Rectangle tool is selected, the Rectangle Options can be set within the Option bar:

Using the Rounded Rectangle Tool
• • • • •

The Rounded Rectangle tool allows you to draw rectangles with rounded, soft edges. Select the Rounded Rectangle tool. Click and drag to draw your shape. When the Rounded Rectangle tool is selected, the Rounded Rectangle Options can be set within the Option bar:

Using the Ellipse Tool
• •

The Ellipse tool allows you to draw oval or round shapes. Select the Ellipse tool.

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• • •

Click and drag to draw the ellipse. Press Ctrl and drag to draw a circle. When the Ellipse tool is selected, the Ellipse Options can be set within the Option bar:

Using the Polygon Tool
• • • •

The Polygon tool allows you to draw a 5-sided polygon shape. Select the Polygon tool. Click and drag to draw the polygon shape. When the Polygon tool is selected, the Polygon Options can be set within the Option bar:

Using the Custom Shape Tool

• • • •

The Custom Shape tool is where you can save any shapes that you’ve drawn and saved as a custom. You can then recreate the shape by selecting it from the Options bar and then dragging with the custom shape tool. Select the Custom Shape tool. Select a shape from the Options bar. Click and drag to draw the shape. When the Custom Shape tool is selected, the Custom Shape Options can be set within the Option bar:

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Viewing Tools

Using the Notes Tool

• • • •

The Notes tool allows you to create a sticky note where you can note thoughts, ideas and other info you wish to share with anyone who will be working with the image, or as something you want to remember the next time you open the picture. Select the Notes tool. Create your message. Photoshop will display a note icon in the image window. Double-click the icon to read the note:

Using the Audio Annotation Tool
• • • • • •

The Audio Annotation tool allows you to annotate your images with an audio clip. This is exactly like the Notes tool above, only you are using sound to make your notes. Right click on the Notes tool to view the pop-up menu containing the Audio Annotation tool. Select the Audio Annotation tool. Record your message. Photoshop will display an audio icon in the image window. Double click the icon to listen to the message.

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Using the Hand Tool
• • • • •

The Hand tool allows you to drag within the image window, and scroll the window to view a different portion of the image. Select the Hand tool. Drag to scroll through the window. Double click the hand tool icon to magnify or reduce the image to fit the screen. When the Hand tool is active, select button on the Options bar to display the image in it actual0pixels, fit-on-screen, or print-size view sizes.

Using the Zoom Tool
• • • • • •

The Zoom tool allows you to magnify an image to see the individual pixels more clearly. You can also zoom out to move back from the image for a broader view. Select the Zoom tool. Click an area of the image to “zoom in” or magnify a portion of the image. Ctrl + Click an area of the image to “zoom out” from the image. Drag with the Zoom tool to enclose a specific portion of the image that you wish to magnify. Double-click the Zoom tool icon to restore the image to 100 percent view size.

Setting the Foreground Color Chip • The Foreground Color chip (shown as the larger black box) allows you to change the foreground color of your image and/or image window:

Click once on the Foreground Color chip to view the Color Picker dialog box:

Select a color and press the Enter key to change the foreground color. This is used by the Pencil, Paintbrush, Airbrush, Gradient and Shape tools.

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By clicking on the double-arrow in the top right-hand corner of the Color Chip box, you can exchange the Foreground and Background colors.

Setting the Background Color Chip • The Background Color chip (shown as the larger white box) allows you to change the background color of your image and/or image window:

Click once on the Background Color chip to view the Color Picker dialog box:

Select a color and press the Enter key to change the background color. This is used by the Eraser and Gradient tools.

Clicking the smaller foreground and background icons in the lower lefthand corner, will cause your colors to return to the default foreground and background colors, black and white.

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Editing in Standard Mode • Standard Mode is the default edit mode in Photoshop. Selecting the Standard Mode button allows you to exit the Quick Mask Mode and view your selection outlines as animated dotted lines:

Editing in Quick Mask Mode • The Quick Mask Mode allows you to edit selection boundaries using painting tools. The Image will appear half-covered by a translucent layer or red. The red layer covers the deselected, or masked, portion of the image. Paint with black to extend the masked areas, subtracting from the selection. Paint with white to erase the mask, adding to the selection:

Using the Standard Screen Mode • The Standard Screen Mode button allows you to display the foreground image in a standard window. By default, every image appears in the standard window mode when first opened:

Using the Full Screen Mode with Menu Bar • The Full Screen Mode with Menu Bar button allows you to remove the title bar and scroll bars as well as any background windows. The menu bar and palettes will remain visible:

Using the Full Screen Mode • The Full Screen Mode button allows you to view your picture set against a black background. The menu bar will disappear, and only the toolbox and palettes are visible:

Jumping to ImageReady • The Jump to ImageReady button allows you to automatically open the ImageReady application:

The Tool Options Bar
Using the Tool Options bar • The Tool Options bar is located at the top of the workspace, under the main menu headings. This contains the tool controls that allow you to adjust and keep settings displayed while using the selected tool.

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The Marquee Tool Options bar

The Move Tool Options bar

The Lasso Tool Options bar

The Magic Wand Tool Options bar

The Crop Tool Options Bar

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The Slice Tool Options Bar

The Airbrush Tool Options Bar

The Paintbrush Tool Options Bar

The Clone Stamp Tool Options Bar

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The History Brush Tool Options Bar

The Eraser Tool Options Bar

The Gradient Tool Options Bar

The Blur Tool Options Bar

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The Dodge Tool Options Bar

The Path Component Selection Tool Options Bar

The Type Tool Options Bar

The Pen Tool Options Bar

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The Rectangle Tool Options Bar

The Eye Dropper Tool Options Bar

The Hand Tool Options Bar

The Zoom Tools Options Bar

The Drag Palette: The Drag palette is the docking station for the Palettes.

The Tool Options Bar changes with each different tool selected.

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Lesson Four
Palettes
Layers Palette
This Chapter contains
Layers Palette Channels Palette Paths Palette History Palette Actions Palette Info Palette Navigator Palette Color Palette Swatches Palette Styles Palette Character Palette Paragraph Palette

Using the Layers Palette The Layers Palette allows you to make changes to an image without altering your original image data. By default, a new image in Photoshop has a single layer. This is called a Background layer. All layers in a file have the same resolution, start with the same number of channels, and have the same color mode (RGB, CMYK, or Grayscale). From the main menu, choose Window > Show Layers to view the Layers palette:

Lesson 4 – Palettes

At the bottom of the Layers palette, you can access various layer options: Add a Layer Style Add a Mask Create a New Set Create New Fill or Adjustment Layer Create a New Layer Delete Layer

Channels Palette
Using the Channels Palette • The Channels palette displays the different channels of the color mode used in a page. The Channels palette; includes a thumbnail view of each channel, as well as any mask channels. Each Channel is an independent grayscale version of the colors that an image is comprised of. This allows you to edit each channel separately. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Channels to view the Channels palette:

To Switch to a Different Channel: • Click a channel name in the Channels palette. The channel name will go gray, showing that you can now edit it independently of other channels in the image:

To Edit more than one Channel: • Click one channel name, then Shift + Click another channel. Both will become highlighted:

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To View Multiple Channels: • Click on the far-left column of the Channels palette. Click on the eye icon, which will make it disappear, also hiding the channel. Click again, and the channel will be displayed again:

Channel Palette menu – Select the right-pointing arrowhead icon, on the top right side of the palette, to display a menu of commands: New Channel – Selecting this command will add a mask channel to the current image. The Channel Options dialog box will appear, asking you to name the new channel. You can also create a new channel by selecting the New Channel icon at the bottom of the Channels palette. Duplicate Channel – Selecting this command will allow you to create a duplicate of the selected channel, either inside the same document or within a new document. Delete Channel – Click the channel name in the palette and choose this command from the options menu. Only one channel can be deleted at a time. New Spot Channel – Allows you to add spot color channels to an image. Each spot color channel will print to a separate place. When selecting the New Spot color command, you have to specify a color and Solidity. Click on the color square to open the Custom colors dialog box, select a Pantone or other color. The Solidity option allows you to increase the opacity of the ink. Merge Spot Channel – Allows you to merge in a spot-color channel the spot color with the RGB, Lab or CMYK colors in an image. Color fidelity will be lost in the merge, as most spot colors do not have precise RGB or CMYK equivalents. This allows you to proof an image when using a typical midrange color printer.

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Channel Options – Selecting this command or double-clicking the channel name will change the settings assigned to a spot-color or mask channel. The Channel Options command will dim when a regular, everyday color channel is active. Split Channels – With this command, Photoshop will split each channel in an image to its own independent grayscale image window. The channel color will be appended to the end of the window name. Merge Channels – This command allows you to merge several images into a single multi-channel image. The images merging must be open, grayscale and equal in size – same number of pixels horizontally and vertically. When selecting Merge Channels, the Merge Channels dialog box will open; a color mode is assigned for the new image based on the number of open grayscale images that contain the same number of pixels as the foreground image. Once completed, the Merge CMYK Channels dialog box will open, where you can specify which grayscale image goes with which channel.

Paths Palette
Using the Paths Palette • The Paths Palette exists on the equivalent of a distinct, object-oriented layer, which sits in front of the bitmapped image. Once a path is set the way you want, it can be converted into a standard selection outline. The Paths palette allows you an easy way to save and organize various paths:

• •

From the main menu, choose Window > Show Paths to view the Paths palette. Tools used to created paths are Pen Freeform Pen Magnetic Pen Add Delete Anchor Points Convert Point

Along the bottom of the Paths palette are various tools to help in the creation and manipulation of paths, such as Fill Path, Stroke Path, Make Selection, Make Path, New Path and Delete Path.

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History Palette
Using the History Palette • The History Palette records every significant operation (not including preferences and settings) and stores them in a list. The oldest operation appears at the top of the list, and the most recent at the bottom of the list:

• •

• •

From the main menu, choose Window > Show History to view the History palette. Each item in the list is called a State. Each item in the palette represents a moment in the progression of the image development, one at a time. Each item is automatically named according to the tool or command used to arrive at that state. An icon is also placed next to the name. Clicking on a state will cause Photoshop to undo all operations performed after the state selected and takes you to that point so you can inspect in detail. To redo the operations, choose Edit > Undo State Change.

To Use the History Palette: • Changing the number of Undoes – By default, Photoshop will record the last 20 operations in the History palette. To adjust the number of operations recorded, choose Edit > Preference > General to open the Preferences dialog box. Enter the value you want to use in the History States field.

Undone States – When clicking on a state, every subsequent state will turn gray to show that it has been undone, as mentioned above. Redo a grayed state by clicking on it. But if you have performed a new operation, all grayed states will disappear. Working with Non-Sequential States – To not lose your undone states, select the History Options command, and select the Allow Non-linear History checkbox. Undone states will not drop of the list when a new operation is performed. They will remain available in the event that they may be needed again at a later point. Saving a State Permanently – To save a state permanently (between using the application, the history is wiped clean for the next use), choose File > New Document, or click the bottom lefthand icon in the History palette. Photoshop will duplicate the state to a new image window. Then save it to any format.

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Trashing States – To delete any state and any that follows, drag the state to the trash icon at the bottom of the palette. Your image will update accordingly. If the Allow Non-Linear History checkbox is selected, clicking on the trashcan will automatically delete the selected state.

Actions Palette
Using the Actions Palette • The Actions Palette allows you to record, play, edit, and delete individual actions. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Actions to view the Actions palette:

Info Palette
Using the Info Palette • The Info palette displays information about the color values beneath the pointer and, depending on the tool in use, other useful measurements. • The first section of the Info palette displays the color values of the image area beneath your cursor (R, G and B values). The second section shows the related CMYK colors (when used). When moving a selection, the other items in the palette will monitor the movement. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Info to view the Info palette:

X, Y – These values show the coordinate position of your cursor on the image window. The distance is measured from the upper-left corner of the image in the selected current unit of measure. W, H – these values indicate the width and height of your selection.

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Navigator Palette
Using the Navigator Palette • The Navigator palette is the best tool to use for zooming and scrolling needs when working with large pictures. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Navigator to view the Navigator palette:

• View Box – (red outline) Dragging the view box inside the image thumbnail will reveal hidden portions of the picture. Photoshop will track your adjustments in the image window. • Magnification Box – Enter a new zoom ratio and press Enter to increase or decrease your magnification. • Zoom Out – Select the zoom out button beside the magnification box, to reduce the view size in the same increments as the zoom tool. This does not alter the size of the image window. • Zoom Slider – Dragging the zoom slider to the left will zoom out, dragging to the right will zoom in. Photoshop will again track your adjustments in the image window. • Size Box – Dragging the size box will enlarge the palette and the thumbnail to a larger size if you have a larger monitor and wish to have a larger view. • Box Color – The View Box outline color can be changed by choosing Palette Options command from the Navigator palette menu (triangle in circle at top right-hand corner):

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Color Palette
Using the Color Palette • The Color Palette is a very useful and easy tool to use for selecting colors. • There are multiple elements and options contained in the palette to select from. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Color to display the Color palette:

Foreground Color/Background Color – Select either the foreground or background color icons to specify with color you want to edit. If selecting either icon when surrounded by a double-frame, the Color Picker dialog box will open. Sliders – Dragging the triangles under the Slider Bar allows you to edit the highlighted color. By default, red, green and blue are the colors represented when a color image is open. The slider bar colors can be altered easily, by selecting a different Color Model from the palette menu. Open the Palette Menu by clicking on the arrow in the circle at the top right-hand corner of the palette. Option Boxes – The Option boxes (fields) are located at the end of each slider bar. Entering numerical values in the boxes to adjust color. Alert Triangle – The Alert triangle appears when the selected color is outside of the CMYK color options. A color swatch appears next to the triangle showing the closest CMYK equivalent. Click the triangle or the color swatch to replace the current color with the CMYK equivalent. Alert Cube – The Alert Cube appears if you select the Web color sliders option from the palette menu, and the colors selected are not included in the Web-safe palette. To limit the palette so that it will only display Web-safe colors, select Make Ramp Web Safe from the palette menu. Color Bar –The Color Bar resides at the bottom of the Color Palette. This displays all of the colors contained in the CMYK spectrum. Click or drag inside the color bar to select a color and make it the current foreground or background color. The slides will update as you drag. You can adjust the color spectrum displayed by opening the palette menu and selecting a new spectrum from RGB, black-to-white gradation (Grayscale Ramp), or a gradation from the currently foreground color to the current background color (current Colors).

Swatches Palette
Using the Swatches Palette • The Swatches Palette allows you to collect colors for future use. A holding tank for favorite colors. The foreground and background colors can also be set with this palette. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Swatches to view the Swatches palette:

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Click a color swatch to change the foreground color. Alt + click a color swatch to change the background color. Click an empty swatch place to add the new foreground color to the palette. Your cursor will change to a paint bucket, and you’ll be asked to name the swatch. Shift + click a color swatch will allow you to replace one color with another. Double-click a swatch to see its name. Right-click to insert a new swatch anywhere in the palette. A drop-down menu appears, select Add New Color, and name the color. The other colors will move to make room. Ctrl + click on a color to delete that color from the panel. Your cursor will change to scissors. Select the New icon on the bottom bar of the palette, beside the trashcan. This allows you to add a new swatch in the current foreground color. Click and drag a swatch to the trashcan icon to delete it from the palette. Load Swatches – This option from the Palette menu allows you to switch swatches stored in a swatches file to the current set of swatches. Replace Swatches – This option from the Palette menu allows you to replace the current swatches with ones in the file. Save Swatches – This option from the Palette menu allows you to create a new swatch collection and save it to a disk file.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Swatch collections can be created and managed using the Preset Manager.

From the main menu, choose Edit > Preset Manager, and select Swatches from the Preset Type pop-up menu to display the Swatches presets panel:

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Styles Palette
Using the Styles Palette • With the Styles Palette you can save layer effects and blending options by creating layer styles. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Styles to view the Styles palette:

Click and drag a style onto your image window to use as a foreground or background color.

There are three ways to create a style: • Click on the New Style button – Only when working in the Layer Style dialog box, select the New Style icon to display the New Style dialog box. Name the style, select your desired settings and click OK. • Click in the Styles Palette – Open the Styles palette, and moving your cursor into the palette, it will change into a paint bucket. Click on the palette with the paint bucket, and the New Style dialog box will open. Name your style, save your settings, and click OK. • Drag and Drop a Layer – Have both Layers and Styles palettes open. Drag any layer (does not need to be active) from the Layers palette, and drop into the Styles palette. This will open the New Style dialog box. Name your style, save your settings, and click OK.

Styles collections can be created and managed using the Preset Manager.

From the main menu, choose Edit > Preset Manager, and select Styles from the Preset Type popup menu to display the Styles presets panel:

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Character Palette
Using the Character Palette • The Character Palette provides options for formatting characters. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Character to view the Character palette:

Font – This drop-down menu allows you to select the typeface. Very typical to other applications, with more selection. Style – This drop-down menu is very similar to all other applications in the choices. Some fonts have different selections: Faux Bold and Faux Italic – Allows you to apply bold and italic effects to letters when the font does not have them as a type style. Only use these if the pop-up menu doesn’t offer bold or italic setting. All Caps and Small Caps – Allows you to convert the case of the type. Capital letters cannot be converted to Small Caps if created by using the Shift or Caps Lock keys. Superscript and Subscript – Allows you to shrink selected characters and move them above or below the text baseline. Useful for mathematical equations. If they don’t position as you want, use the Baseline option mentioned below. Underline Left and Underline Right – This applies to vertical type only, and allows you to add a line to the left or right of the selected characters. When working with horizontal type, the option changes to Underline and only does that. Strikethrough – Allows you to draw a line through the middle of letters. Size – This drop-down menu allows you to select the size of your type characters. You can also manually enter any size, and Photoshop will adjust the sizing. The measurements can be points, pixels or millimeters, which you can adjust in the Units and Rulers panel in the Preferences dialog box. Leading – This is a line-spacing function, as it allows you to adjust the vertical distance between the baseline of one line of type and the baseline of the next line of type. The drop-down menu allows you to select several of spacing options. The leading is measured in the unit selected from the Type pop-up menu in the Preferences dialog box. Kerning – Kerning allows you to set the spacing between characters of type. This is especially useful as you can manually adjust spacing between particular characters that in certain fonts fit too closely together, or look further apart.

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Tracking – This pop-up menu allows you to affect character spacing, measured in spaces. Tracking can be applied to multiple characters at a time. A Tracking value can also be applied on top of either automatic or manual kerning. Horizontal and Vertical Scaling – These value fields allow you to alter the vertical or horizontal size of text in correlation with the baseline. If creating vertical type, the Vertical field will affect the width of the column of letters, and the Horizontal field will change the height of each character. Baseline – This value field will raise or lower selected text in respect to the baseline. Raising type will result in a superscript, and lowering type will result in a subscript. Color – Clicking on the color field will open the Color Picker dialog box. You can apply color on a per-character basis. The color selected will affect the next character typed and any selected text.

Paragraph Palette
Using the Paragraph Palette • There are multiple options to use within the Paragraph Palette, and all affect text created inside a bounding box. • From the main menu, choose Window > Show Paragraph to view the Paragraph palette:

Alignment – Allows you to control how lines of type will align with each other. Choose from left, center or right. These change depending if you’re formatting vertical or horizontal type:

Roman Hanging Punctuation – This option in the Paragraph Palette menu allows you to choose whether or not to have punctuation marks fall outside of the bounding box so that the first and last characters in all lines of type are letters or numbers. This causes a much cleaner and smoother look to the block of text. Justification – Allows you to adjust text so that it stretches evenly depending on which edge of the bounding box to choose to justify to: Left Justify will align the text to the left of the box: Right Justify will align the text to the right edge of the box: Center Justify will place the line equally between the left and right edges:

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Force Justify has Photoshop adjusting the spacing of the last line of text so that it fills the entire width of the bounding box, not matter what the length of the line is. This is not aesthetically pleasing, especially with short lines, as it will cause the huge spacing between words:

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Lesson Five
Layers
Using Layers
This Chapter contains
Using Layers Working Multiple Layers

Reordering Layers The order of layers can be changed once you view them in the Layers palette. This can be used if you want one layer to appear on top of another, but they weren’t created in that order. Click to the right of the thumbnail of the active layer and hold. The active layer will change color:

Lesson 5 – Layers

While still holding down the mouse button, drag the layer up to the top of the stack:

It has now become the top most layer:

Tip

To move a layer up or down one level, select the layer and press Ctrl + ] to raise the layer up one level, or press Ctrl + [ to lower the layer down one level.

Hiding and Showing Layers • Hiding and showing various layers allows you to concentrate on one part of an image at a time. To the left of the thumbnail picture in the Layers palette are small icons resembling eyes. • When you can see the eye icon, the layer is visible:

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If you click once on the eye, the eye icon will disappear and the layer is hidden:

Removing Layers • The easy way to remove a layer is to select layer to make it active, then click the trashcan icon at the bottom left-hand corner of the Layers palette:

The auto-warning dialog box will appear to confirm the delete:

Another way to delete a layer is to open the Layer Options Palette menu by selecting the triangle within the circle at the top right-hand corner of the Layers palette, and then select the Delete Layer command:

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Working with Multiple Layers
Setting Layer Opacity • The Opacity slider at the top of the Layers Palette allows you to control the opacity of the active layer. • To make the Slider Knob appear, mouse click the triangle to the right of the percentage window. Adjust opacity from 5% to 100% by dragging the slider. • You can also enter a value and not use the slider at all. 0 = 100%, 1 = 10%, 2 = 20%, etc. For more precise control, type in the digits of the measurement you want:

Slider Knob:

Applying Layer Blending Modes • The Layer Blending Modes control how the layers will blend with each other. • In the Layers Palette, click the Add a Layer Style icon to open a pop-up menu, and choose Blending Options:

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The Layer Style dialog box will appear, here you can set various Blending Options, such as Blend Modes:

Normal – This is the default mode. The blend color replaces the base color:

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Dissolve – A random amount of pixels become the blend color. Typically has a splattered or “dry brush” effect:

Multiply – Allows you to multiply the base color by the blend color, giving a darker resulting color. The effect is like drawing over a picture in marker:

Screen – Allows you to multiply the base color by the inverse of the blend color, giving a lighter resulting color:

Overlay – Allows you to either multiply or screen, depending on the originalbase color. This will preserves the highlights and shadows of the base color:

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Soft Light – Allows you to darken or lighten depending on the blend color. The effect is similar to shining a diffused spotlight on the image:

Hard Light – Allows you to multiply or screen the colors, depending on the blend color. The effect is similar to shining a bright spotlight on the image:

Color Dodge – Allows you to brighten the base color to match the value of the blend color:

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Color Burn – Allows you to darken the base color to match the value of the blend color:

Darken – This mode will evaluate the color information in each channel and assign either the base or blend color, whichever one is darker, as the result color. Lighter pixels will be replaced, but the darker ones are not affected:

Lighten – This mode will evaluate the color information in each channel and assign either the base or blend color, whichever one is lighter, as the result color. Darker pixels will be replaced, but the lighter ones are not affected:

Difference – This mode will compare brightness values in the base and blend colors, and subtracts whichever is the lighter. Overlaps will cancel the previous action:

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Exclusion – The same as the Difference mode, but with a softer effect:

Hue – The result combines the luminance and saturation of the base color and the hue of the blend color:

Saturation – The result is a color with the luminance and hue of the base color, and the saturation of the blend color. Unless the saturation of the blend color is reduced significantly, nothing will show:

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Color – This mode will combine the luminance of the base color with the hue and saturation of the blend color. This is useful for coloring monochrome images, as the Color mode will retain gray levels:

Luminosity – This mode will end up with a result color from the hue and saturation of the base color and the luminance of the blend color. This is the opposite effect of the Color Blend mode:

To Apply Blending Modes: • Apply them directly from the Layers palette:

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OR From the main menu, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options to open the
Blending Options dialog box. This dialog box gives you control over the way you’re blending will occur:

Linking Layers • To Link Layers that are not active, click in the box on the Layers palette next to the eye icon and a piece of linked chain will appear. • This means that the inactive layer is now linked to the active layer. If the contents of the active layer are moved, the linked layers will move with it:

Creating Layer Sets • Layer Sets aid you in organizing and managing groups of layers. Once a set of layers is defined, they can be collapsed or revealed when needed, without having to flatten the image. • Layer sets must be contiguous, meaning that you cannot make a set out of layers 1, 4 and 5 without moving layers 2 and 3 somewhere else first. To Create a Layer Set: • From the main menu, choose Layer > New > Layer Set to open the Layer Set dialog box OR From the Layers Palette menu, select New Layer Set option:

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Assigning a color to a layer set can make it easier to locate. All of the thumbnails in the Layers palette show the assigned color as a background.

Merging Layers • Merging Layers or flattening layers has to happen when you have multiple layers in an image and a large file. This file has to be merged or flattened to be able to use it for anything like publishing in print, or for the Web. • The only way that the multi-layered image can be saved without merging or flattening is in a Photoshop format (.psd), which is not useful if you want to do anything else with the file.

Merging – Merging groups of layers conserves memory space and still allow you to work on the layers not yet finished. If you don’t have any linked layers, from the main menu, choose Layer > Merge Down, or select Merge Down from the Layers Palette menu, to merge a selected layer with the one directly below it. If you have one or more linked layers, the Merge Down option will change into Merge Linked. This will merge the selected layer with all linked layers (the ones marked with the chain icon):

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You can also select Merge Visible to merge all visible layers (the ones marked with the eye icon).

Flattening Layers • Flattening – Flattening will compress all visible layers down to one layer. Any layers that were invisible at the time of flattening will be lost.

From the main menu, choose Layer > Flatten Image, or select Flatten Image from the Layers Palette menu, to flatten an image. Do not do this step unless you are completely finished editing the image. Transparency will be lost and all layers will be merged into the single, background layer:

Transferring layered images to ImageReady • When working on an image for Web use, you will want to complete initial work in Photoshop, moving to ImageReady to save the image for Web use. • Transfer layered images between Photoshop and ImageReady • Click on the Jump To Button at the bottom of the toolbox:

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All layers, layer masks, layer effects and adjustment layers are preserved.

Using Layer Effects • Both Photoshop and ImageReady contain layer effects, which are automated effects that can be applied to layers. These include Drop Shadows, Glows, Beveling, Embossing, as well as Color Fill Effect. ImageReady also has Pattern and Gradient Layer effects.

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Lesson Six
Color
Color Modes
Using the Bitmap and Grayscale The Bitmap mode only uses two color values, black and white, whereas the Grayscale mode has 256 shades of gray, which range from white to black. To convert an image to a Bitmap mode, from the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Bitmap:

This Chapter contains
Color Modes Color Models

A Bitmap dialog box will open asking for you to choose the Resolution and the Method. Note: If you are using multi-layered image, you will need to Flatten the image first:

Lesson 6 – Color

A Bitmapped image has very jagged edges, and no smooth quality. Shading details are lost:

A Grayscale image has a very smooth transition between values, smoothing edges and showing more definition. When working on a black and white image, it makes more sense to work on it in the Grayscale mode:

To convert a color photo to Grayscale, from the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Grayscale:

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• • •

A permission box will open asking for you to OK discarding the color information. Click OK. The picture has been converted to grays.

Using the RGB Color • RGB is the best color mode to use when working on pictures to be viewed only on a computer screen. This is for any pictures that will be inserted into a desktop presentation, a video or a Web page. If the picture is only going to be on the Web, it may be better to work on the color adjustments in RGB mode, and then convert the picture to Indexed Color when saving it in its final form.

From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > RGB Color to change your image color mode to RGB.

Using the Indexed Color • Indexed Color is a palette, or collection of 256 palettes. In this mode, you get exactly the color that you want, and can create your own if Photoshop does not contain a color you need. This is also the perfect color mode for any pictures to be used on the Web, as the Indexed Color mode includes a specific Web palette.

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From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Indexed Color to view the Indexed Color dialog box:

Palette Choices in the Indexed Color dialog box:

Exact – The colors that are in the RBG version of the image are taken for its palette. This only works if there are less than 256 colors in the original image.

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System – This option uses the Mac OS or Windows System palette. Web – The Web palette uses the colors that are used the most by Web browsers. This is the best palette to use if you are publishing your work on the Web, otherwise, there may be problems with incompatible colors dropping out when the image is viewed with a Web browser. Uniform – This option bases the colors in the palette on a strict sampling of colors across the color spectrum. Perceptual – This option will create a custom palette by giving priority to colors that the human eye has a greater sensitivity to. Selective – This option will create a color table similar to the Perceptual, but will favor broader areas of color and will preserve the Web colors. Adaptive – This option is the best companion to working in Indexed Color mode. During conversion, the most frequently used colors are sampled from the original. Adaptive will usually provide the closest match to the original picture color. Custom – This option allows you to build your own palette. Previous – This option will remember and revert to whatever option you chose the last time you did a conversion to Indexed color. Dithering – Certain colors are combined, or, adjacent pixels are interspersed, visually blending onscreen to create a new color, even though the pixels retain their original color when viewed at intense magnification. Using the CMYK Color • CMYK mode should only be used when your image will be printed commercially. • By converting to CMYK before you start to print, you can double-check that your colors are matching what you envisioned and designed.

From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > CMYK Color to change your image color mode to CMYK.

The term Gamut refers to the range of colors that the combination of CMYK inks can print. There are typically quite a few warnings that are triggered when working with oranges and greens, as they are out of gamut, and cannot be printed very accurately.

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Converting Between Modes • From the main menu, choose Image > Mode and select what you want to convert your picture to. In some cases you will need to Flatten the image before you can change the color mode:

Color Models
RGB Model • The RGB (Red, Green, Blue) model assigns color values on a scale of 0 to 255 for each of the RGB three primaries. Computer monitors and TV screens for display purposes typically use the RGB model. For example: • Pure Red has Green and Blue values of 0, and a Red value of 255. • Pure White has all three RGB values set at 255. • Pure Black has all three RGB values set at 0. CMYK Model • The CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) model defines colors according to the percentage of the colors contained. • These four colors are the four printing ink colors, for home inkjet printers as well as high-resolution color laser printers. HSB Model • The HSB model consists of three portions: Hue – This is the basic color from the color wheel, ex. Red, blue or yellow. The Hue is expressed in degrees (0-360) corresponding to the positions on the color wheel of the various colors. Saturation – Means the strength of the color, is a percentage of the color minus the amount of gray in it. Pure color pigment with no gray is 100% saturated. Neutral gray, without color, is 0% saturated. Saturated colors are at the edge of the color wheel and saturation decreases approaching the center of the wheel. Brightness – Means the relative tone or lightness of the color. Brightness is also measured in percentages, from 0% (black) to 100% (white). Brightness can be equivalent to the value used by the RGB model. CIE Lab Model • The CIE Lab model encompasses the most color definition of all the models. The color range that is defined is broader than the other models. Photoshop uses the CIE Lab model to convert from one color model to another. Lab color is defined as Luminance, plus the component that moves from green to red, and the b component that moves from blue to yellow. Lab color is designed to be device-independent, which means that the colors defined appear on-screen and in print as the same color.

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Lesson Seven
Artwork
The Brush Palette
This Chapter contains
The Brush Palette Brushes Drawing Graphic Shapes

Using the Brush Palette The Brush palette appears on the Options bar as a drop-down menu after a drawing tool has been selected:

Although each tool has its own set of options, the Brushes palette works with all art tools, from the Airbrush to the Dodge tool. You can select one of the preset brush shapes or create your own. Click to select a brush shape. The size and shape viewed in the thumbnail boxes are what the size and shape of your brush will be. The brushes with the numbers under them indicate the diameter of the brush in pixels. Using the Brush Options Dialog Box Double-click a brush shape to open the Brush Options dialog box. This is where Diameter, Hardness, Spacing, Angle and Roundness of the brushes can be set:

Lesson 7 – Artwork
Diameter – Allows you to set the diameter of the brush. Hardness – The harder a brush is (hard – closer to 100%, soft – closer to 0%), the more defined the edges of the paint will be. A setting at 20% produces a translucent appearance. Spacing – If left unselected, the speed of the mouse movement dictates the spacing of discrete drops of paint. Moving slowly, paint will appear in a continuous line, but moving quickly, circles of paint will appear with spaces between them. Selecting the Spacing checkbox will allow you to set a standard spacing of paint, no matter the speed of the mouse. Angle – Allows you to place an angle to the brush stroke, painting thinner and thicker depending on the angle of the brush. Roundness of Brush – Allows you to select varying rounded edges to your brush. Setting Brush Options • Photoshop also gives options for brush behavior. These behaviors are located on the Tool Options bar at the top of the screen, and the behavior options are set in the Tool Options bar, changing according to the tool being use.

Brushes

Using the Airbrush

The Airbrush tool sprays paint on the canvas. The paint can be applied with diffused edges, and you can control how fast the paint is applied, either in a constant stream, or fading after a specified period. The longer the Airbrush is held in a spot, the darker and more saturated a color will become.

To Paint with the Airbrush: • Select the Swatches tab to view Swatches palette on the left of the window OR from the main menu, choose Window > Show Swatch.

Select a color.

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• • • •

Select the Airbrush tool from the toolbox. Open the Brushes palette on the Option menu. Choose a Brush shape. On your image, press and hold down the mouse as you move the mouse over the page:

Using the Paintbrush

The Paintbrush tool behaves like the Airbrush tool, except that paint is applied more evenly. If the mouse is held in one position, the paint will not continue to flow onto the canvas.

To Paint with the Paintbrush: • Select the Swatches tab to view Swatches palette on the left of the window OR from the main menu, choose Window > Show Swatch.
• • • • •

Select a color. Select the Paintbrush tool from the toolbox. Open the Brushes palette on the Option menu. Choose a Brush shape On your image, press and hold down the mouse as you move the mouse over the page:

Using the History Brush

The History Brush is a useful for making changes in an image when you aren’t sure exactly how much change to make or where to make it. This tool allows you to selectively replace part of the picture where you’ve make a change, by selecting a brush size and painting out the new image with the old one.

To Use the History Brush Tool: • Click the box at the left side of the History palette next to the image or state you want to use as the source. • Choose a brush shape • Select the History brush in the toolbox. • Starting painting:

Using the Eraser

The Eraser tool can replicate the characteristics of the other tool, in that it can erase with soft edges like a paintbrush, in a single line of pixels like a pencil, or it can erase some of the density of a picture like an airbrush:

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The Options bar is where you determine the characteristics of the Eraser: Pressure Slider – Controls how much is erased. Useful for blending parts of images. Fade – After a certain number of steps, which you specify, the Eraser no longer erases. This is useful when creating feathering around irregularly shaped images. Erase to History – Allows the Eraser to work with the history palette, which means you are erasing to an earlier version of the picture. Before you begin to erase or make any other changes, you can take a snapshot of the picture by choosing New Snapshot from the History palette.

Tip

To undo an eraser movement, choose Edit > Undo to restore the portion you may have accidentally removed.

Using the Pencil
• • • •

The Pencil tool is very much like the Paintbrush tool, except that the lines created are hardedged. They don’t fade at the edges like a paintbrush line would. Right-click on the Paintbrush tool to see the drop-down tool menu, and select the Pencil tool. Set the diameter of the Pencil in the Brushes Options palette, but setting the hardness is not an option with the Pencil. When the Pencil tool is selected, a new option appears in the Tool Options bar, Auto Erase. When this is selected, when you start to draw on a part of the canvas that already has a pencil line, your current Pencil drawing will become an Eraser and will erase until you release the mouse button.

Drawing Graphic Shapes
Graphic Shapes • There are a multiple of preset graphic shapes provided by Photoshop. They can be used as paths and be filled or stroked when needed. The shapes can be resized, reshaped to a certain extent, and placed anywhere on the page: Rectangle Rounded Rectangle Ellipse Polygon Line Custom Shape Drawing a Graphic Shape

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Specify a foreground color, which you can use to fill the shape, if needed:

• •

Select the required Shape tool. If using the Custom Shape tool, click the Shape. Window on the Tool Options bar and select an available shape:

• •

Mouse click on the image window and hold down the mouse button. Drag the mouse on the stage to draw your shape:

• •

Release the mouse when you are finished drawing. Once the shape is drawn, releasing the mouse will cause the shape to fill with your earlier selected foreground color:

For a precisely sized shape: • Click the down arrow at the corner of the shapes window on the Tool Options bar. • The Shapes dialog box will open. • Depending on the shape chosen, set height, width, corner radius or the number of sides in a polygon or points on a star. • Use the Tool Options bar to specify a blending mode and opacity for the shape.

Holding down the Shift key as you drag will force a Rectangle or Rounded Rectangle into a square, and force the Ellipse into a circle. Dragging as you draw will determine the size and orientation of a shape.

Editing a Graphic Shape

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With the shapes on separate layers and the Shape tool selected, hold down the Ctrl key and choose either Add to Shape Area or Subtract from Shape Area options in the Tool Options bar: Add to Shape Area – When selected it will enable you to draw a second shape that is touching the first, both shapes will be filled.

Subtract from Shape Area – When selected it will enable you to cut out part of the filled shape.

With the shapes on the same layers and the Shape tool selected, hold down the Ctrl key and choose either Intersect Shape Areas or Exclude Overlapping Shape Areas options in the Tool Options bar: Intersect Shape Areas – When selected it will enable you to fill the shapes where they overlap.

Exclude Overlapping Shape Areas – When selected it will enable you to remove the color where two shapes overlap.

To manipulate the shape that you created select the Shape tool in your Toolbox and hold the Ctrl key down while selecting your shape and the nodes will appear:

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To select and move the shape around you will need to use The Path Component Selection tool. To select and manipulate the shape utilize The Direct Selection Tool and select only on the outer parts of the shape. To Add and Delete nodes you will have to use The Pen Tool

• • •

The Ctrl key has to be held down to select a shape on the canvas with the layer selected to acquire the nodes.

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Lesson Eight
Image Manipulation
Selecting Colors
This Chapter contains
Selecting Colors Blending Smudging Focusing

Selecting colors with the Color Picker The Color Picker allows you to select a foreground or background color to be used on the canvas. To get to the color picker, click on either the foreground or background color in the color chip:

Lesson 8 – Image Manipulation

There are several ways to pick colors the Color Picker: • Click the color spectrum to select a color.

OR Drag the triangle slider up or down to select a color. OR Click the large swatch (color field) to select a color. OR Enter numbers in any one of the color model fields.
• • •

The Color Picker opens in the HSB mode by default, this causes the color field to show you all of the possible saturation and brightness of the particular hue selected. Clicking anywhere in the color field, the Saturation and Brightness numbers may change, but the Hue setting will remain the same. Clicking the Saturation button will cause the color field to show all of the possible hues at the designated saturation value. Clicking anywhere in the color field will cause the other number to change, but the Saturation will remain the same. RGB mode can be selected to work from as well. Colors in the RGB mode are made from three components: Red, Green and Blue. The best way to learn to use the Color Picker in the RGB mode is to practice, and play with the color possibilities.

Selecting colors with the Color Palette • The Color palette has several advantages over the Color Picker; it can be left open on the desktop to make it easier to change colors without having to go through the multiple steps involved with the Color Picker. • The Color palette opens by default in whatever mode last used, but can be reset to Grayscale or any other model with the Options drop-down menu. • The color bar at the bottom of the Color palette can also be reset with the dropdown menu, to match the color model that is being used. If work is being printed, set the color bar to the CMYK spectrum and any color selected will be printable. • Clicking Make Ramp Web Safe will set the color bar with only the 216 colors that are available on all current Web browsers. Selecting colors with the Swatches Palette • The Swatch palette is the easiest way to choose colors. Select a brush tool from the Toolbox • Click on a color in the Swatch palette and begin to paint. • To choose a foreground color, click on color. • To choose a background color, select Alt + Click to select a color. Selecting colors with the Eyedropper Tool • The Eyedropper Tool is used to pick up a bit of the color that it’s touched to, making that the active color. • Click the Eyedropper on any spot in an image the color underneath its tip will become the new foreground color. • Press Alt + Click to select a background color. • Dragging the Eyedropper across an image will cause the swatch of color in the toolbox changes every time a new color is touched.

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Blending

Blending images • The Blending modes control the various factors involved in painting. Located on the Tool Options bar in a drop-down menu, Blending modes can be applied to all tools that can draw or paint, including the Pencil, Rubber Stamp and Gradient tools. • Working with two colors, a base color already in place, and a blend color, which is applied with each Blending mode enabled. The result is a third color, a result that will vary according to how you blend the first two. • The various options in the Blending Modes are: Normal – This is the default mode. The blend color replaces the base color. Dissolve – A random amount of pixels become the blend color. Typically has a splattered or “dry brush” effect. Behind – This only works on transparent portions of a layer. Behind is not available if nothing is transparent, or if there is only the background layer. Multiply – Allows you to multiply the base color by the blend color, giving a darker resulting color. Screen – Allows you to multiply the base color by the inverse of the blend color, giving a lighter resulting color. Overlay – Allows you to either multiply or screen, depending on the original base color. This will preserves the highlights and shadows of the base color. Soft Light – Allows you to darken or lighten depending on the blend color. Hard Light – Allows you to multiply or screen the colors, depending on the blend color. Color Dodge – Allows you to brighten the base color to match the value of the blend color. Color Burn – Allows you to darken the base color to match the value of the blend color.

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Darken – This mode will evaluate the color information in each channel and assign either the base or blend color, whichever one is darker, as the result color. Lighter pixels will be replaced, but the darker ones are not affected. Lighten – This mode will evaluate the color information in each channel and assign either the base or blend color, whichever one is lighter, as the result color. Darker pixels will be replaced, but the lighter ones are not affected. Difference – This mode will compare brightness values in the base and blend colors, and subtracts whichever is the lighter. Overlaps will cancel the previous action. Exclusion – The same as the Difference mode, but with a softer effect. Hue – The result combines the luminance and saturation of the base color and the hue of the blend color. Saturation – The result is a color with the luminance and hue of the base color, and the saturation of the blend color. Unless the saturation of the blend color is reduced significantly, nothing will show. Color – This mode will combine the luminance of the base color with the hue and saturation of the blend color. This is useful for coloring monochrome images, as the Color mode will retain gray levels. Luminosity – This mode will end up with a result color from the hue and saturation of the base color and the luminance of the blend color. This is the opposite effect of the Color Blend mode.

Smudging
Smudging images • The Smudge tool looks and works like a finger rubbing across your picture. • Color is picked up from where you start dragging the tool, and moved in the direction of dragging. Each stroke starts with the foreground color:

Right-click on the Blur tool to select the Smudge tool in the drop-down menu:

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Setting Smudge Options • Use the Tool Options bar to set the Pressure of the smudge. At 100% the paint is wiped away. At 25% the smear is much smaller. • Click and hold the arrow next to the pressure setting to access the setting slider, and drag the slider to set the pressure.

OR

Type a single digit in the Pressure field to set it to a multiple of 10. Typing 5 will set the pressure to 50%:

• •

Check Finger Painting if you want to use the Smudge tool to add some smudged color while dragging. Blending modes are available on the Mode drop-down menu:

The Smudge tool is considered a brush, therefore the width of the smudge can be selected by choosing a brush size from the Brush palette:

Focusing
The Focus Tools allow you to increase or decrease the contrast between neighboring pixels, sharpening or blurring the image.

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Blurring images

The Blur tool allows you to create blurs in images. This is a softening or evening out of pixel values.

To Use the Blur Tool: • Select the Blur tool from the toolbox. • Select the options for the Blur tool in the Tool Options bar. • Drag the cursor over the portions of the image you want to blur.

The Sharpen tool can temporarily be selected when using the Blur tool by pressing the Alt key. The Use All Layers option is only available if the image has more than one layer. Options for the Blur and Sharpen tools are basically the same for the Smudge tools.

Sharpening images

The Sharpen tool is the opposite of the blur tool. This tool will harden pixel values and bring them into greater detail by increasing the contrast between adjacent pixels. Going over a section too much, or with the pressure set too high, the color can be burned out of an image.

To Use the Sharpen Tool: • Right-click on the Blur tool in the toolbox to view and select the Sharpen tool. • Select the options for the Sharpen tool in the Tool Options bar. • Drag your cursor over the areas of the image you want to sharpen. Dodging images

The Dodge tool allows you to lighten an area of an image. There are three options for the Dodge tool in the Tool Options bar: Shadows – Allows you to adjust the shadows, like making them lighter and leaving the lighter pixels untouched. Midtones – This is the default option. Allows you to affect the mid-tone pixels, or when you’re unsure of how to proceed. Highlights – Allows you to lighten already light-colored areas, leaving the darker areas untouched.

To Use the Dodge tool: • Select the Dodge tool in the toolbox. • Select the options for the Dodge tool in the Tool Options bar. • Drag your cursor over the areas of the image you want to lighten. Sponging images

The Sponge tool allows you to either increase or decrease the color saturation in the area that it is applied to.

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To Use the Sponge tool: • Right-click on the Dodge tool in the toolbox to view and select the Sponge tool. • Select the options for the Sponge tool in the Tool Options bar. • Drag your cursor over the areas of the areas that you want to increase or decrease color saturation in.

Computer Literacy Program

Lesson Nine
Type
Type Tools
The Character palette gives you control over letter spacing, kerning, tracking and shifting the baseline. As well as the typical options of the font, style, color and size options. (Also found on the tool bar):

This Chapter contains
Type Tools Shadows Glow Effect Bevel and Emboss Effects Warp Text

Type options can be set with the Character palette before type is set on the page, or the palette can be used to reformat type already entered. Using the Paragraph Palette The Paragraph palette allows you to set options relating to the entire paragraph, such as alignment, justification, indentation and line spacing:

Lesson 9 – Type

Entering Type There are two ways to set type: • Select the Type tool in the toolbox. • Click on the page where you want the type to appear. • Select a text flow from the Paragraph palette: Flush Left – Text will stream right from the insertion point. Centered – Text will center on the insertion point. Flush Right – Text will align to the right side of the insertion point.

OR
• • • •

Create a bounding box when you have a lot of type to set, or when you need to fill a specific area. Select the Type tool, click on the corner point of the window, or where you want the type to be set, and drag until the box is the required size and shape. The box can be resized after type has been entered. Enter text by typing or by copying and pasting from another program.

Using Type Layers • Type will always appear on a new layer. A large letter T in the Layers palette indicates Type layers:

Type layers will be named according to the first word typed in a line:

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To Edit a Type Layer: • Double-click the Type layer in the Layers palette that you want to edit. This will also select the Type tool and the Tool Options set for that line. • Make sure that you select the correct layer you want to edit, if you have several type layers. • You can edit the text, insert new text or delete text. All options can be applied from font to the paragraph spacing. You can also move layers, change the layer options, and apply Layer Effects. Rendering Type • The type must be rendered before it becomes a part of your page, or picture. • You also cannot apply the full range of filters to the type until it has been rendered. • Rendering – Sticks the type to its layer. Type cannot be edited after it has been rendered. To Render a Type: • Select the type layer to render and from the main menu, choose Layer > Rasterize >Type

OR
• •

Select the type layer in the Layers Palette, right-click on the layer’s name and choose Rasterize Layer. Type layers can be rendered individually, or all together.

After placing the type on the screen you can now apply filters, pour paint into selected letters, distort type, etc.

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Shadows
Using Shadows • A Drop Shadow is basically a shadow that has been placed behind text to give more emphasis and an added dimension to direct the eye to a specific line. • An Inner Shadow is a shadow that has been placed inside text to give text some depth – or illusion of being pushed-in. • The Drop and Inner Shadow are tools, along with Glow, Bevel, Emboss, Satin and Overlay tools, and can also be used on objects:

Remember that it can only be used on something that is its own layer. Painting on the background, and then trying to add the effect will not work.

Adding Shadows to Text • Create a new Photoshop document with a white background. • Select the Type tool and enter some words on the document. • Double-click on the type layer in the Layer palette to open the Layer Style dialog box, where you can select Drop Shadow or Inner Shadow options:

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• • • • • • • • •

Check the Preview box to view your work while creating. Set the Blend Mode to Normal, Multiply or Darken to be able to see the shadow. Click in the color swatch next to the Mode menu to change the color of the shadow. This will also open the Color Picker. Adjust the shadow’s Opacity and Angle as needed. Click the slider and drag on the clock face to change the angle, or type numbers into the fields. Set the Distance to how far away you want the shadow to be from the word or object. Set the Size according to the amount of shadow you want to see. Set the Spread according to how distinct you want the edges of the shadow to be. Click OK when completed. The shadow options can be changed even after this point. Only after the layers have been merged or rendered the type, are you unable to change any options.

Glow Effect
Adding Glows • The Glow effect adds emphasis around a portion of text and can make it stand out from a busy picture background:

Double-click on the type layer in the Layer palette to open the Layer Style dialog box, where you can select Outer Glow or Inner Glow options:

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Bevel and Emboss Effects
Creating Bevel and Emboss Effects • Bevel affects the edges of the type, producing a raised, but flat letter surface. • Double-click the type layer in the Layer palette that you want to Bevel or Emboss, to open the Layer Style dialog box:

Inner Bevel

Outer Bevel

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Emboss – Causes the letters to appear curved or rounded.

Warp Text
Warping Text • From the main menu, choose Layer > Type > Warp Text OR click on the • Warp Text icon in the Tool Options bar to open the Warp Text dialog box.

There are 15 preset paths to select from to warp text.

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Use the sliders to increase the amount of Bend applied to the text path. Moving to the slider to the right will bend words up; moving to the slider to the left will bend words down. Distortion will cause the line of type to flare out on one end or from the top to bottom.

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Lesson Lesson Ten
Printing
Printing Images
This Chapter contains
Printing Images

Setting Up the Page From the main menu, choose File > Page Setup to open the Page Setup dialog box:

Lesson 10 – Printing

• •

Printer – Allows you to select the appropriate installed printer under the Name drop-down menu. Properties – Allows you to access a dialog box, where you can change items like paper size, layout, and printer resolution and halftone settings. Paper Size – Allows you to select the size of paper that you are printing on. Paper Source – Allows you to select the paper source you want to use if the printer has multiple paper trays. Orientation – Allows you to select how you want the printed image to be placed on the page. Portrait – prints lengthwise on the paper. Landscape – prints width-wise on the paper. Screens – The Use Printer’s Default Screens is the default selection, and when selected, will not let you change anything else. Un-checking this option will allow you to customize the other halftone options. It is usually better advised to leave this on the default setting. Transfer – Allows you to change the transfer functions, usually used to improve the dot quality when an image is transferred to film, as a preparation for PostScript printers. Background – Allows you to print a background color around your image. Selecting this button will open the Color Picker. The color selected is used only for printing and will not affect the image file. Border – Allows you to print a border around your image. Selecting this button will open the Border dialog box. Here, you can set the width of the printed border in inches, millimeters, or points. The border will always be black, and this cannot be changed. Bleed – Bleeding means that a part of the image will run right off the edge of the paper. There is no border or empty space between the image and the edge of the page. Selecting the Bleed button allows you to define the bleed area of an image in inches, millimeters, or points. Higher values will move the crop marks within the boundaries of the image so that less of the image will get printed. An image cannot bleed more than an eighth of an inch. Caption – Select this box, and on the printed page you will see the text that appears in the Caption area of that File Info dialog box for that file. To open the File Info dialog box choose File > File Info and make sure that Caption is selected in the top pull-down menu. Calibration Bars – Selecting this box will print Calibration and Color bars next to your image. A Calibration bar is a row of 22 gray squares of different values, and a Color bar is a row of 11 colors. These bars will help when you’re trying to calibrate to a specific printer or if you want to see how a specific printer is printing. This option is only available when using a PostScript printer. Registration Marks – Activating this feature will allow you to print a variety of registration marks around the image. Depending on your printer, you may get bull’s-eyes, star targets (two crossed lines in a circle), and/or precise pinpoint marks (two crossed lines). These marks can be helpful when aligning color separations. Corner Crop Marks – Allows you to add crop marks around each corner of your image, defining where it should be trimmed. They appear as horizontal and vertical lines.

• •

• • • •

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Center Crop Marks – Allows you to add crop marks centered along each side of the image, defining the exact center of the image. They will appear as two crossed lines. Labels – Selecting this box will allow you to print the filename next to the image. If printing color separations, the name of the appropriate color channel is also printed on each color plate. Negative – Selecting this box will cause the printer to reverse the values of the image. White will become black, black becomes white and everything between changes accordingly. This makes your image end up as a negative image. This option can be useful when printing to film for commercial offset printing, as these images will usually need to be negatives. Emulsion Down – Selecting this setting will print your image as a horizontal mirror image of the original. Everything will be flipped left-to-right. Interpolation – Interpolation refers to some printers’ capability to resample an image as they print it. Any PostScript Level 2 printer can take a lo-resolution image and resample it, improving the resolution so that the printout is a better quality. This is a good tool only when dealing with lowresolution images. Interpolation is available only on PostScript printers.

Printing the Page • From the main menu, choose File > Print to open the Print dialog box:

This dialog box looks different depending on the type of Printer being used, what platform the program is running on, and the mode of the image. Every dialog box requires same basic information to be entered.

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Print Range – Allows you to specify the range of pages to be printed. This is irrelevant if there is only one page to be printed. Print Quality (Can also be called Mode) – Allows you to specify a printer resolution, usually from 300 up to 1200 dpi. Copies – Allows you to select the number of copies to print of the document. Destination – Besides print to a Printer, you can also Print to File. This will save the printed output as a PostScript or EPS file, or as and Adobe Acrobat PDF. This option will only work if you’ve selected a PostScript-compatible printer. Encoding (May also be a checkbox for ASCII format) – This area is where you tell Photoshop which encoding methods to use when it send the image data to the printer. ASCII is understood by all PostScript printers. Binary encoding is more compressed and can be faster, but does not work on all printers. JPEG encoding is even faster, but it’s results in some lost data because of a messy compression scheme. JPEG encoding will only work with PostScript Level 2 printers.

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Lesson Eleven
Transformations
Resizing
This Chapter contains
Resizing Rotating Flipping Selection Transformations Liquify

Resizing an Image When resizing an image for printing, a higher resolution will translate into a sharper image with a much greater clarity. To Alter the Resolution of an Image: From the main menu, choose Image > Image Size to open the Image Size dialog box:

Lesson 11 – Transformations

• • •

Adjust the Height and Width fields as required to either enlarge or shrink the image. Adjust the Resolution box, to determine how many pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter you want your image to be displayed in. A good option is to leave the Resample Image check box unselected. When selected, Photoshop may add or subtract pixels automatically. When unselected, this will instruct Photoshop to leave the pixels as is, and will merely change how many of them print per inch:

The Resolution setting is saved with the image.

Resizing a Canvas • The Canvas Size dialog box allows you to scale the canvas that the image rests on, separately from the image itself. • From the main menu, choose Image > Canvas Size to open the Canvas Size dialog box:

When enlarging the canvas, the image will be surrounded with a white background (if the background color is white):

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When reducing the canvas, the image will be cropped:

Click inside the Anchor Grid in the Canvas Size dialog box to specify the placement of the image on the new canvas:

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The Anchor grid has arrows that show how the canvas will shrink or grow:

Rotating
Rotating a Canvas • From the main menu, choose Image > Rotate Canvas to view the submenu with the rotation options:

180° - Will spin the image half of the way:

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90° CW – Will rotate an image scanned on its side, clockwise:

90° CCW – Will rotate an image scanned on its side, counter-clockwise:

Arbitrary – Allows you to enter a specific rotation value.

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When using Arbitrary, Photoshop has to expand the canvas size to avoid clipping any portions of the image. This will result in backgroundcolored wedges at each of the four corners of the image. To remove these, either clone portions of the image with the rubber stamp tool to fill in the wedges, or clip them away with the crop tool.

Flipping
Flipping a Canvas • From the main menu, choose Image > Rotate Canvas > Flip Horizontal to flip the image from left to right:

From the main menu, choose Image > Rotate Canvas > Flip Vertical to flip the image upside down:

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Selection Transformations
Using Free Transform • The Free Transform submenu allows you to scale, flip, rotate, slant, distort and move a selection or layer in one continuous operation. This one command allows you to apply transformations exactly right before having to press Enter which will apply the final changes. • From the main menu, choose Edit > Free Transform or press the Ctrl + T key combination, the layer or selection will be surrounded with an eight-handle marquee. This is the Free Transform mode, and there are a multiple of transformations that can be done in this mode:

To Scale – Drag one of the eight square handles to scale the image inside the marquee. To scale proportionally, Shift + drag a corner handle. To scale about the central transformation origin (by default – this is at the center of the marquee), Alt + drag a corner handle:

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To Rotate – Select a corner handle and drag in the direction that you want the image to rotate to. Your cursor will appear as a curved double-ended arrow:

To Skew – Press Ctrl and drag a side handle (including the top or bottom sides) to slant the image. To constrain the slant (perspective effects) press Ctrl + Shift then drag a side handle:

To Distort – Pressing Ctrl and dragging a corner handle, you can stretch the image in any of the four directions. To stretch two opposite corner handles in symmetrical directions, press Ctrl + Alt and drag either of the corner handles:

Perspective – For a one-point perspective effect, press Ctrl + Shift and drag a corner handle. To move two points in unison, press Ctrl + Shift + Alt and drag a corner handle:

Move – Click and drag inside the marquee to move the image. This is useful when tying to align the selection or layer with a background image, and matching transformations. Undo – To undo the last modification without leaving the Free Transform mode, press Ctrl + Z:

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Zoom – Alter the view size by either using one of the commands in the View menu, or shortcuts: Ctrl + Spacebar + click to zoom in, Alt + Spacebar + click to zoom out, or Ctrl + Plus symbol to zoom in and Ctrl + Minus symbol to zoom out. Apply – Press Enter to apply the final transformation and to interpolate the new pixels. Doubleclicking inside the marquee will accomplish the same thing.

Liquify
Using Liquify • The Liquify command allows you to paint and erase distortions inside a separate window. The image can be dragged to warp, shift, twirl, expand, contract and even copy pixels. Liquify allows you to distort pixels by pushing them around with a brush. • From the main menu, choose Image > Liquify OR press the Ctrl + Shift + X key combination to open the Liquefy image window.

There are seven tools to choose from:

Warp – Dragging will shove the pixels under your cursor around the image:

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Twirl clockwise – Click or drag to spin pixels under your cursor in a clockwise direction, to the right:

Twirl counter-clockwise – Click or drag to spin pixels under your cursor in a counterclockwise direction, to the left. Pucker – Drag to send pixels moving toward the center or the tool cursor. Holding the mouse button down, without dragging, will cause Photoshop to steadily increase the extent of the distortion the mouse button is released:

Bloat – Drag or mouse down and the pixels under the brush cursor will move outward. As in Pucker, the longer the mouse button is held down, the more bloating that happen:

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Shift pixels – Drag to move pixels under the cursor in a direction perpendicular to the drag. Reflection – Drag to create a reflection. While dragging, Photoshop will copy pixels from the area perpendicular to the direction the cursor is moving in. So if dragging down, pixels to the left of the cursor will be coned onto the area underneath the cursor.

• •

Using Liquify options • All tools will respond to the Brush Size setting on the right side of the Liquify window. Press the right ( ] ) and left ( [ )bracket keys to raise and lower the brush size from the keyboard by one pixel. The cursor will reflect the approximate brush size. Most distortions will affect the pixels at the center of the cursor more quickly than those on the perimeter:

The Brush Pressure option controls tool impact; higher values will produce more pronounced effects. If working with a pressure-sensitive table, select the Stylus Pressure check box to adjust the tool pressure based on the amount of pressure placed on the pen stylus. Using screen-resolution data, Photoshop will distort the image in the dialog box to speed up the performance of the Liquify filter. When clicking OK or pressing Enter, the program will apply the warp to the full resolution image. This design will not allow you to zoom in or out on the image in the Liquify window. To get a closer look at the image, exit the dialog box, and select the area to alter, Photoshop will then display only the selected area at a larger size inside the Liquify window when you re-open the Liquify dialog box. Any deselected areas of the image are considered frozen, with mean that they will be unaffected by the distortion tools. Thawing a portion of the image means that you are making that area available to be distorted. You can freeze, and then thaw portions of the image. By default, frozen regions are covered with a red translucent coating, just like the quick mask mode. The appearance of the overlay can be adjusted by selecting a new color from the Freeze Color pop-

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up menu at the bottom of the Liquify window. Deselect the Show Frozen Areas checkbox if you don’t want to see the coating at all.

Select the Show Mesh checkbox to display gridlines on top of the image. The gridlines can be used as a guide for applying very precise distortions. Deselect (unchecked) the Show Image checkbox to distort an image while viewing only the grid. Select the Mesh Size and Mesh Color options to set the grid size and color.

Freezing and Thawing Pixels • When the Liquify dialog box is opened, Photoshop will automatically freeze selected pixels. Any distortions applied will not affect them. Additional areas can be frozen at any time, and pixels can be thawed so they can be altered with the distortion tools.

Press the F key to select the Freeze tool, and drag over areas that you want to protect during the distortion process. The brush size and pressure can be adjusted the same as when working with the distortion tools, except that the pressure setting will determine how deeply frozen the pixels will become. Less than 100% and the pixels will become partially distorted when dragging over them with a distortion tool. A 50% setting will cause a distortion to be applied with half the pressure as in unfrozen areas:

If a mask channel was created before choosing the Liquify command, the masked area can be frozen, by selecting that masked channel from the Channel pop-up menu. To thaw frozen areas, paint over them with the Thaw tool. The Brush Pressure setting will affect this tool the same as it does to the freeze tool.

Reconstruct and Reverting • In the Reconstruction section of the Liquify window is a Mode popup menu with two buttons, Reconstruct and Revert. These options can be used to revert an image to the way it looked before a distortion was applied, as well as redo a distortion so that it affects the image differently:

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Reversion Possibilities: • To undo your last drag, press Ctrl + Z. Press again to undo the undo. • To return everything to its original setting before the Liquify window was opened, Alt + click the Cancel button, which will turn into the Reset button, then Alt +click the Reset button. • To revert unfrozen areas to their original appearance, select the Revert button in the Mode menu on the right side of the Liquify window. Reconstruction Possibilities: • The Reconstruct button will affect all unfrozen areas, but dragging with the reconstruct tool will alter only the pixels under your cursor, subject to the limits of the Brush Pressure setting. • Select one of the following options from the Mode menu in the Liquify window will allow you to reconstruct a distortion so that it extends from a frozen area into neighboring unfrozen pixels. Rigid – Will extend the distortion only as needed to maintain right angles in the mesh where frozen and unfrozen areas collide. Any unaffected unfrozen areas will revert to there original appearance. This result in unfrozen areas that look almost but not exactly as they originally did. Stiff – Will interpolated the distortion so that the effect lessens as you move farther from the boundary between the frozen and unfrozen areas. Smooth and Loose – Both will extend the distortion from the frozen areas fully into the unfrozen areas. With Loose – there is a little more continuity in the distortion between the frozen and unfrozen regions. Displace, Amplitwist, and Affine – These work only with the reconstruct tool. With these, one or more distortions can be applied that are in force at a specific reference point in the image. Click to set the reference point and then drag through unfrozen areas to distort them. Displace mode will move pixels to match the displacement of the reference point. Amplitwist mode will match the displacement, rotation and scaling at the reference point. Affine mode will match all distortions at the reference point.

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Lesson Twelve
Masks
Applying Masks
This Chapter contains
Applying Masks Quick Mask Layers Masks

Using Masks A Mask is a selection outline expressed as a grayscale image. With a mask, you can create free-form selections, select areas of color and generate precise selections. A mask is essentially an independent grayscale image, which can be editing using paint and edit tools, filters, color correction options, and almost every other Photoshop feature available. Masks are the most accurate selection mechanism within Photoshop. Selected areas will appear white:

Deselected areas will appear black:

Lesson 12 – Masks
Partially selected part of the image will appear in gray color. Feathered edges are also expressed in shades of gray. Light gray near the selected area to dark gray near the deselected area.

Using Selection Masking • All selection outlines act as a mask, no matter what tool is used: Marquee, Lasso, Magic Wand or Pen. This allows you to paint or edit only in the selected area. The paint can’t enter the deselected (protected) portions of the image, so there is no worry about painting outside of the lines:

Quick Mask
Using Quick Masks • The Quick Mask mode is the fastest and most straightforward environment for creating a mask. A selection in the quick mask mode is expressed as a rubylith overlay, which means that the deselected areas will appear to be coated in red, and the selected area will appear without the red coating:

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The mask can be edited as desired and exiting the quick mask mode will return you to the standard selection outline. The quick mask mode is fast and convenient, with none of the extras or permanence of the more conventional masks. Click on the Quick Mask mode button in the toolbox OR press the Q key to Edit in Quick Mask Mode:

The selection outline will disappear when entering the quick mask mode because the outline will actually temporarily cease to exist. Any operations applied will affect the mask itself and leave the underlying image untouched. Select the Standard mode button next to the Quick Mask button in the toolbox to have Photoshop convert the mask back into a selection outline, which will allow you to edit the image:

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When in quick mask mode, you can edit the mask in a multiple of ways: • Subtracting from a selection – Paint with black to add red coating, which will deselect areas of the image. This allows you to selectively protect portions of your image by merely painting over them:

Adding to a selection – Paint with white to remove the red coating, which will add to the selection outline. Assuming the background color is set to white, you can use the eraser tool to whittle away at the masked area. Or swap the foreground and background colors to paint in white with one of the painting tools. Adding feathered selections – Paint with a shade of gray to add feathered selections. Feather an outline by painting with black or white with a soft brush shape:

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Layer Masks
Masking Layers • Layers offer special masking options in their own regard. You can paint inside the confines of a layer like it was a selection mask, a special mask can be added for a single layer, or multiple layers can be grouped and the bottom layer in the group can serve as the mask.

Masks can be added to a layer to make certain pixels in the layer transparent. When erasing, pixels are deleted permanently, whereas by creating a layer mask, the pixels can be made temporarily transparent. This allows you to return at a later time and be able to bring those pixels back by simply adjusting the masks.

Locking Transparency • The Lock Transparency checkbox is one of the most useful lock options, as when it is selected, you are prevented from painting inside the transparent portions of a layer. With a two-layered image, a picture sitting on top of a different layer background, a permanent selection outline is set around the top image, telling Photoshop which pixels are transparent and which are opaque.

This is a Transparency Mask and one accompanies each layer created. The transparent areas outside the mask appear as a checkerboard pattern in the layer thumbnail in the Layers palette. When the Lock Transparency check box is turned off (unchecked), it is possible to paint anywhere inside the layer. Selecting the Lock Transparency checkbox will activate the transparency mask and place the checkerboard area off limits:

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Creating and Removing Layer Mask To Create a Layer Mask: • Select the layer you want to mask. • From the main menu, choose Layer > Add Layer Mask > Reveal All OR click the layer mask icon at the bottom of the Layers palette.

A second thumbnail preview will appear to the left of the layer name, and a second outline around the preview indicates that the layer mask is active:

If the second outline is hard to see, look at the icon directly to the left of the layer name. If the icon is a paintbrush, the layer is active – not the mask. If the icon is a dotted circle, the mask is active.

To Remove a Layer Mask: • Select the layer mask thumbnail that you want to remove. • From the main menu, choose Layer > Remove Layer Mask OR click and drag the layer mask thumbnail to the trashcan icon.
• •

An Alert box will open asking whether you ant to discard the mask, or permanently apply it to the layer. Click on the button that relates to what you want to do with the layer mask.

Editing Masks • To edit the mask, simply paint in the image window. • Painting with black will make pixels transparent as black represents deselected pixels in an image. • Paint with white to make pixels opaque. • The default foreground color in a layer mask is white and the default background is black. This ensures that painting with the paintbrush or airbrush will make pixels opaque, and painting with the eraser will make them transparent. There are various functions in the layer mask options: • Reveal Selection – When selecting a portion of your layer, Photoshop will automatically convert the selection to a layer mask when you click on the layer mask icon at the bottom of the palette. The area outside of the selection will become transparent.

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Choose Layer > Add Layer Mask > Reveal Selection.

Hide Selections – Allows you to reverse the prospective mask, making the area inside the selection transparent and the area outside opaque. Choose Layer > Add Layer Mask > Hide Selection OR press Alt and click the layer mask icon in the Layers palette.

Hide Everything – Allows you to begin with a black mask that hides everything. Choose Layer > Add Layer Mask > Hide All OR press Ctrl + D to deselect everything, then press Alt and click the layer mask icon.

View the Mask – Photoshop considers a layer mask as a layer-specific channel. It is listed in italics in the Channels palette. To view the mask as a black and white image on its own, press Alt and click the layer mask thumbnail in the Layers palette. Press Alt and click again to view the image instead. Layer Mask Rubylith – To view the mask as a red overlay, press Shift + Alt and click the layer mask icon, OR press the backslash key ( \ )above the Enter key. You can hide the mask by pressing the backslash key again ( \ ) or you can hide the layer ad view only the mask by pressing the tilde key (~). Change the Overlay Color – Double-click the layer mask thumbnail to open the Layer Mask Display Options dialog box, which allows you to change the color and opacity of the rubylith. Turn off the Mask – Temporarily disable the mask by pressing Shift and clicking on the mask thumbnail. A red X will cover the thumbnail when it’s disabled, and the masked pixels in the layer will appear opaque. Press Shift and click again to turn the mask back on. Switch between Layer and Mask – This will occur once familiarity with layer masks is achieved, and you’ll switch back and forth between layer and mask to edit the layer, then to edit the mask. Switching between layer and mask is as easy as clicking on their respective thumbnails. Look to the icon to the left of the layer name to see whether the layer or the mask is active. Press Ctrl + tilde (~) to make the layer active, and press Ctrl + backslash ( \ ) to switch to the mask Link Layer and Mask – A small link icon appears between the layer and mask thumbnails in the Layers palette. When the link icon is visible, the mask and layer can be moved or transformed as one. Click the link icon to turn it off and the layer and mask will move independently. Convert Mask to Selection – With all masks, a layer mask can be converted to a selection. Press Ctrl and click the layer mask icon. Use the Shift key to add or the Alt key to subtract the layer mask with an exiting selection outline. With Photoshop 7, a mask can be applied to a set of layers. Set the set and click the layer mask icon. The mask will affect all layers in the set. If a layer in the set already contains its own mask, Photoshop will mix them together. See below for more information.

.

Masking Groups of Layers • Multiple layers can be grouped into something called a clipping group, where the lowest layer in the group will mask the other. When the lowest layer is transparent, the other layers are hidden, and when the lowest layer is opaque, the contents of the other layers are visible.

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• •

Press Alt and click the horizontal line between any two layers to group them into a single unit. The cursor will change to the group cursor when you press Alt:

• •

The horizontal line will become dotted after clicking. To break the layers apart again, press Alt and click the dotted line to make it solid.

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Lesson Thirteen
Intermediate Type
Manipulating Type
This Chapter contains

Manipulating Type

Cutting and Filing Type Type cannot only be filled with color, but also with pictures. Start with a picture on your screen that you want to have the letters filled with:

Select the Type tool, and select the outline icon on the Tool Options bar. Select a font that will be large enough to see the portions of the picture in the type. Select any style you want the type to appear as:

Lesson 13 – Intermediate Type

Position your cursor on the image, and start to place your letters. The screen will move into Quick Mask mode, and turn pink. After the type has been entered and you deselect the Type tool, the letters turn into paths and the temporary mask will go away. The type will be outlined as active selections:

From the main menu, choose Edit > Cut OR press the Ctrl + X key combination to cut out the letters:

Open a new page and paste the letters on the new page. You should have letters filled with the picture you typed them on top of:

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Choose Image > Adjust to use the various options to work on the letters and have them appear as you would like:

You can also copy and paste them back onto the original picture over the area you had cut out to show a white shadow:

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Lesson Fourteen
Paths
This Chapter contains

Creating Paths
Creating Paths with Pen tools When drawing with the regular Pen tool, a path is built by creating individual anchor points. Photoshop then automatically connects the points with segments, which are straight or curved line. All paths in Photoshop are called Bézier Paths, they rely on the same mathematical curve definitions that make up the core of the PostScript printer language. The Bézier curve model allows for zero, one or two levers to be associated with each point in a path. These levers are called Bézier control handles, or more simply, handles. Each handle can be moved in relation to a point, allowing you to bend and tug at a curved segment like a piece of soft wire. Adding segments – To build a path, create one point after another until the path is the desired length and shape. Photoshop will automatically draw a segment between each new point and its predecessor. Closing the path – If planning to convert the path to a selection outline, the outline needs to be completed by clicking again on the first point in the path. Every point will then have one segment entering it and another segment exiting it. This is called a closed path because if forms one continuous outline. Leaving the path open – If planning to apply the Stroke Path command, you may not want to close a path. To leave a path open, meaning that it has a specific beginning and ending, deactivate the path by saving it. Choose Save Path command from the Paths palette menu.

Creating Paths Editing Paths Using Paths

Lesson 14 – Paths

Extending an open path – To reactivate an open path, click or drag one of its endpoints. Photoshop will draw a segment between the endpoint and the next point created. Joining two open subpaths – To join one open subpath with another, click or drag an endpoint in the first subpath, then click or drag an endpoint in the second. Specifying path overlap – The path tools can be set to one of four settings, which control how Photoshop will treat overlapping areas in a path when the path is converted to a selection. Add – Allows you to have all areas, overlapping or not, to be selected. Subtract – Allows you to draw a subpath that will eat a hole in an existing path. And areas enclosed the subpath are not selected. If a path is selected and the Make Selection command is dimmed in the Paths palette, it’s probably because the path was drawn with the subtract option selected. Restrict path area – Allows you to select only over-lapping areas. Invert – The opposite of Restrict, any overlapping regions are not included in the selection.

Creating Selections with Pen tools • Draw your path with the Pen tool or other Shape tool. You are drawing the outline of your prospective selection. To select multiple areas of the image, draw outlines around all of the area. A path can include as many separate segments as required:

Edit the path if adjustment is required. Reshape using the other path tools:

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Save the path either by choosing Save Path command from the Paths palette menu, or by doubleclicking the Work Path item in the scrolling list:

Convert the path to a selection by choosing the Make Selection command from the Paths palette or by pressing Enter on the numeric keypad when a path or selection tool is active.

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Editing Paths
Using Path Tools • After creating a path, it can be selected or editing by using two tools on the fly out directly above the Pen tools fly out:

Path component selection tool (black arrow) – Allows you to select an entire path. Click inside the path to select it. If sub paths were created, this tool selects only the one underneath your cursor. Direct selection tool (white arrow) – Allows you to drag point and handles to reshape a path. Press and hold Ctrl when any other path tool is active to access this tool. Pen – Allows you to draw path one point at a time. Click to create a corner in a path, drag to make a smooth point that will result in a continuous arc. Freeform Pen – Allows you to drag to create a path that automatically follows the twists and turns of your drag. Very simple, as well as very little control is contained with this tool. Magnetic option – Select the Freeform Pen tool, and then select the Magnetic check box on the Options bar. This allows you to click on the edge of the foreground element you want selected and move the cursor along the edge of the shape. Photoshop will automatically assign point as appropriate. Add anchor point – Click on an existing path to add a point. Delete anchor point – Click on an existing point in a path to delete the point without creating a break in the path’s outline. Convert point – Click or drag a point to convert it to a corner or smooth point. You can also drag a handle to convert the point. Press Alt when the pen is active, or press Ctrl + Alt when an arrow tool is active.

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Using Points and Segments • Points in a Bézier path act as road signs. Each point steers the path by specifying how a segment enters it and how another segment exits it. The identity of ach is specify by clicking, dragging, or Altdragging with the pen tool: • Corner point – Click with the pen tool to create a corner point, representing the corner between two straight segments in a path:

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Straight segment – Click at two different locations to create a straight segment between two corner points. Shift and click to draw a 45-degree-angle segment between the new corner point and its predecessor:

Smooth point – Drag to create a smooth point with two symmetrical Bézier control handles. A smooth point ensures that one segment meets with another in a continuous arc:

Curved segment – Drag at two different locations to create a curved segment between two smooth points:

Curved segment followed by straight – After drawing a curved segment, press Alt and click the smooth point just created to delete the forward Bézier control handle. This will convert the smooth point to a corner point with one handle. Click at a different location to append a straight segment to the end of the curved segment:

Straight segment followed by curved – After drawing a straight segment, drag from the corner point just created to add a Bézier control handle. Drag again at a different location to append a curved segment to the end of the straight segment:

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Cusp point – After drawing a curved segment, press Alt and drag from the smooth point just created to redirect the forward Bézier control handle, which will convert the smooth point to a corner point with two independent handles, known as a cusp point. Drag again at a new location to append a curved segment that proceeds in a different direction than the previous curved segment:

Adding and Deleting Points and Segments • Appending a point to the end of an open path – If a path is open, one of its endpoints can be activated by clicking or dragging it with the Pen tool. This depends on the identity of the endpoint and whether you want the next segment to be straight or curved. Photoshop will automatically draw a segment between the endpoint and the next point created.

Closing an open path – Select one endpoint, click or drag it with the Pen tool to activate it, then click or drag the opposite endpoint. Photoshop will draw a segment between the two endpoints, closing the path and eliminating both endpoints by converting them to interior points, which means that the points are bound on both sides by segments. Joining two open sub paths – To join two open sub paths to create one longer open path, activate an endpoint of the first sub path, then, using the Pen tool, click or drag an endpoint of the second sub path. Inserting a point in a segment – Click anywhere along an open or closed path with the add point tool, to insert a point and divide that segment into two separate segments. Photoshop will automatically insert a corner or smooth point, depending on how it reads the path. If the point is not what you needed, use the Convert Point tool to alter it. Deleting a point and breaking the path – Select the point with the white arrow and press Delete or Clear. You can also choose Edit > Clear. When deleting an interior point, both of the segments associated with that point are deleted as well, which results in a break in the path. If deleting an endpoint from an open path, only the single segment associated that that point is deleted. Removing a point without breaking the path – Select the Remove Point tool and click a point in an open or closed path to delete the point and draw a new segment between the two points that neighbor it. The Remove Point tool is what ensures that no break will occur in the path. When using one of the pen tools, to access the Remove Point tool, select the Auto Add/Delete checkbox on the Options bar, and hover your cursor over a selected interior point in an existing path. A minus sign will appear next to the cursor, indicating the remove point tool is active. Clicking the point will remove it.

Converting Points • Smooth to Corner – Click an existing smooth point to convert it to a corner point with no Bézier control handle. • Smooth to Cusp – Drag one of the handles of a smooth point to move it independently of the other, converting the smooth point to a cusp.

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Corner to Smooth – Drag from a corner point to convert it to a smooth point with two symmetrical Bézier control handles. Cusp to Smooth – Drag one of the handle of a cusp point to lock both handles back into alignment, converting the cusp to a smooth point.

Press Alt to access the Convert Point tool temporarily when one of the three Pen tools is active and positioned over a selected point. To access the Convert Point tool when an Arrow tool is active, press Ctrl + Alt.

Reshaping Paths • The white Arrow tool (direct selection tool) is the foremost path-reshaping function in Photoshop. Press Alt and click on the black arrow in the toolbox to select this tool. There are many functions that can be completed with the white arrow: Selecting points: • Click a point to select it independently of other points in a path. • Press Shift and click to select an additional point, even if the point belongs to a different sub path than the other selected points. • Press Alt and click a path to select all of its point in one move. • Points can also be marquee by dragging in a rectangle around them. • No commands from the Select Menu can be applied to the selection of paths:

Drag Selected points: • To move one or more points, select them and then drag one of the selected points. All selected point will move the same distance and direction. • When moving a point while a neighboring point remains stationary, the segment between the two points will shrink, stretch and bend to accommodate the change in distance. • Segments located between two selected or deselected points will remain unchanged during a move. • Move selected point in 1-pixel increments by pressing the arrow keys. If both a portion of the image and points in a path are selected, the arrow keys will move the points only:

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Drag a straight segment: • Reshape a path by dragging its segments. • When dragging a straight segment, the two corner points on either side of the segment will move as well. • The neighboring segments will stretch, shrink or bend to accommodate the drag. • This works best with straight segments drawn with the default pen tool. • Segments created by pressing Alt ad clicking with the freeform or magnetic option may include trace control handles, which could make Photoshop think the segment is actually curved:

Drag a curved segment: • When dragging a curved segment, you stretch, shrink or bend that segment. • When dragging a curved segment, drag from the middle of the segment, approximately equidistant from both its end points. This method provides the best leverage and ensures that the segment does not move into an unanticipated direction:

Drag a Bézier control handle: • Select a point and drag either of its Bézier control handles to change the curvature of the corresponding segment without moving nay of the points in the path. • If the point is a smooth point, moving one handle will move both handles in the path. • To move a smooth handle independently of its partner, use the convert point tool:

Hiding and Showing Paths • Press Ctrl + H to hide paths from view, along with selections, guides and other screen elements. • From the main menu, choose View > Show > Show Options to select which items you want to hide when using Ctrl + H OR choose View > Show > Target Paths to toggle the path display on and off. Deactivating Paths • Click the check-mark button at the right end of the Options bar, or press Enter to dismiss, or deactivate, the path. Photoshop will hide the path from view. • To retrieve the path – click the path’s name in the Paths palette.

If an unsaved path is dismissed, and you start to draw a new path, the dismissed one can be lost.

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Using Paths
Turning Paths into Selections • Choose the Make Selection command in the Paths palette menu OR press Alt and click the Make Selection icon to open the Make Selection dialog box.
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Specify whether to anti-alias, or to feather the selection and to what degree. Specify if Photoshop should combine the prospective selection outline with any existing selection in the image.

Other Methods: • Press Ctrl + Enter – If a Path, Shape or Selection tool is active, this shortcut will convert the path to a selection. • Press Ctrl and click the path name – If anything other than a Path, Shape or Selection tool is active, pressing this in the paths palette will convert the path to a selection. The path does not need to be active. • Press Ctrl + Shift + Enter or Ctrl + Shift and click – To add the path to an existing selection, press Shift with one of the previous techniques. • Press Ctrl + Alt + Enter or Ctrl + Alt and click – To remove the path from an existing selection, press Alt with one of the previous techniques. Filling a Path • The Fill Path command and/or icon allow you to paint the interior of a path. • After drawing a path, it can be converted to a selection outline, or it can be painted. • After drawing a path, choose the Fill Path command from the Paths palette menu OR press Alt and click on the fill path icon in the lower-left corner of the Paths palette (filled circle), to open the Fill Path dialog box.
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Enter a value in the Feather Radius option box to blur the edges of the fill. Select the Anti-aliased checkbox to soften the outline of the filled area. If selecting one or more subpaths, the Fill Path command will change to the Fill Subpaths command, allowing you to fill the selected subpaths only. The fill path icon will also affect only the selected subpaths. When applying the fill, Photoshop will adhere to the overlap option used when the path was created.

Stroking a Path • The Stroke Path command and/or icon allow you to paint the outline of a path. • After drawing a path, choose the Stroke Path command from the Paths palette menu OR press Alt and click on the stroke path icon (unfilled circle) at the lower-left corner of the Paths palette, to open the Stroke Path dialog box.
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Choose the paint or edit tool require to stroke the path. (Basically, drawing a brush stroke along a path). Photoshop will drag the selected tool along the exact route of the selected path, retaining any tool or brush shape settings that were set when the tool was selected. If one or more subpaths are selected, the Stroke Path command will becomes a Stroke Subpath command. Photoshop will stroke only the selected path, and not all the paths saved under the current name.

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Lesson Fifteen
Improving Images with Filters
Sharpen Filters
This Chapter contains
Sharpen Filters Blur Filters

Applying Sharpen and Sharpen More filters The Sharpen and Sharpen More filters allow you focus blurry images by increasing the contrast of adjacent pixels. Basically, both commands focus on an image and improve the clarity of the image. The Sharpen More filter applies a stronger sharpening effect than the Sharpen. From the main menu, choose Filter > Sharpen > Sharpen to apply the Sharpen filter:

From the main menu, choose Filter > Sharpen > Sharpen More to apply the Sharpen More filter:

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Applying the Sharpen Edges filter • The Sharpen Edges filter allows you to sharpen certain areas in the image where significant color changes occur. The Sharpen Edges filter will only sharpen edges, while at the same time preserving the overall smoothness of the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sharpen >Sharpen Edges to apply the Sharpen Edges filter:

Using the Unsharp Mask filter • The Unsharp Mask filter allows you to adjust the contrast of edge detail and produce a lighter and darker line on each side of the edge. This process will emphasize the edge and create the illusion of a sharper image. Using this filter allows you to vary the thickness of your edges. • With the Unsharp Mask filter you can sharpen only the edges of an image, but also sharpen any portion of an image according to your specifications, even if there is no edge. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask to open the Unsharp Mask filter dialog box:

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Amount – Allows you to specify the degree that you want to sharpen the selected image to. Higher value will produce a more pronounced effect. Values from 1 to 500 can be entered. Radius – Allows you to determine the thickness of the sharpened edge. Low values will produce crisper edges. High values will produce thicker edges with more of a contrast throughout the image. Threshold – Allows you to control how Photoshop will recognize edges in an image. Entering a value between 0 and 255 will indicate to Photoshop the numerical difference between the brightness values of two neighboring pixels so that the pixels can be sharpened. A low value will sharpen a lot of pixels; a high value will exclude most pixels from the sharpening. The dialog box also contains a Preview option, which allows an essential visual aid to watch your image while applying the filter.

Blur Filters
Applying Blur and Blur more filters • The Blur filters allow you to smooth transitions within an image by averaging the pixels next to the hard edges of defined lines and shaded areas. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Blur to apply this filter:

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The Blur More filter allows you to produce a blurring effect up to three or four times stronger than the Blur filter. From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Blur More to apply this filter:

Both are tools used to eliminate jagged edges where significant color transitions occur in an image. Applying the Gaussian Blur • The Gaussian Blur filter allows you to blend a specified number of pixels incrementally. Gaussian refers to the bell-shaped curve that is generated when Photoshop has applied a weighted average to the pixels. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur to open the Gaussian Blur dialog box:

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Under Radius, enter a value from 0.1 to 250.0. Values of 1.0 and smaller will blur an image slightly, and the higher the value, the blurrier the image. At the highest value, the image will be unrecognizable:

Applying the Radial Blur filter • The Radial Blur filter allows you to imitate the blur of a zooming or rotating camera to produce a soft blur. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Radial Blur to open the Radial Blur dialog box:

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You specify the origin of the blur by dragging the pattern in the Blur Center box:

Blur Methods: • Spin – Allows you to blur along concentric circular lines. Also, allows you to specify the degree of rotation. • Zoom – Allows you to blur along radial lines, the effect being of zooming in or out of the image. Also, allows you to specify the blur amount from 1 to 100. Blur Quality: • Draft – Allows you to apply quality ranges for the fastest but grainy results. • Good – Allows you to apply quality ranges for a smoother result than Draft. • Best – The same as Good, allows you to apply quality ranges for smoother, but only visible as being better than Good in a large selection. Applying the Smart Blur filter • The Smart Blur filter allows you to blur an image in a much more precise manner. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Smart Blur to open the Smart Blur dialog box:

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Radius – Allows you to specify a radius to determine how far the filter will search for dissimilar pixels to blur. Threshold – Allows you to determine how different the pixels' values should be before they are eliminated. Blur Quality – Allows you to select the quality of the blur from a drop-down menu of Low, Medium and High. Mode – You can set the mode for the entire selection by choosing Normal. Edge Only and Overlay are applied for the edges of color transitions. When there is a significant contrast, Edge Only will apply black-and-white edges, and Overlay Edge will apply white edges.

Applying the Motion Blur filter • The Motion Blur filter allows you to blur the image in a particular direction (from -360º to +360º), as well as set the blur to a specific intensity (from 1 to 999). The results of this filter are similar to taking a picture of a moving object with a fixed exposure time. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Blur > Motion Blur to open the Motion Blur dialog box:

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Lesson Sixteen
Altering Images with Filters
Artistic Filters
This Chapter contains
Artistic Filters Brush Stroke Filters Sketch Filters Distort Filters Pixelate Filters Stylize Filters

Using Artistic Filters Artistic Filters allow you to achieve a feeling of a natural painting, or apply a special effect to an image. These filters replicate natural or traditional media effects. Various Controls within Artistic Filters: Scaling slider – Dragging on the slider will enlarge or reduce the effect on the image surface. Relief slider – Dragging on the slider will adjust the depth of the texture's surface. Invert – Selecting the Invert checkbox will reverse the surface's light and dark colors. Light Direction – Select a direction from this drop-down menu to indicate the direction of the light source on the image. Applying the Colored Pencil filter The Colored Pencil filter will draw an image using colored pencils on a solid background. Important edges are retained and given a rough crosshatch appearance. The solid background color shows through the smoother areas. From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Colored Pencil to open the Colored Pencil dialog box.

Lesson 16 – Altering Images with Filters

Set the Pencil Width, Stroke Pressure and Paper Brightness options as required:

Applying the Cutout filter • The Cutout filter will portray an image as though it were made from roughly cutout pieces of colored paper. High-contrast images will appear as if in silhouette, while colored images are built up as if from several layers of colored paper. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Cutout to open the Cutout dialog box. • Set No. of Levels, Edge Simplicity and Edge Fidelity options as required:

Applying the Dry Brush filter • The Dry Brush filter will paint the edges of an image by using what is called a dry brush technique (between oil and watercolor). This filter simplifies an image by reducing its range of colors to areas of common color. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Dry Brush to open the Dry Brush dialog box.

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Set the Brush Size, Brush Detail and Texture options as required:

Applying the Film Grain filter • The Film Grain filter will apply an even pattern to the shadow tones and midtones of an image. The image's lighter areas receive a smoother, more saturated pattern. This filter is useful for removing banding in blends, and visually unifying elements from multiple sources. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Film Grain to open the Film Grain dialog box. • Set the Grain, Highlight Area and Intensity options as required:

Applying the Fresco filter • The Fresco filter will paint an image in a coarse style, with short, rounded, and quickly applied dabs. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Fresco to open the Fresco dialog box. • Set the Brush Size, Brush Detail and Texture options as required:

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Applying the Neon Glow filter • The Neon Glow filter will add various kinds of glows to the objects in an image. • This filter is useful in colorizing an image while softening its look. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Neon Glow to open the Neon Glow dialog box. • Set the Glow Size, Glow Brightness and Glow Color options as required. • To select a Glow Color, click on the colored box glow box and select a color from the color picker:

Applying the Paint Daubs filter • The Paint Daubs filter allows you to select from various brush sizes (from 1 to 50) and types for a definite painterly effect. Brush types include simple, light rough, light dark, wide sharp, wide blurry, and sparkle. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Paint Daubs to open the Paint Daubs dialog box.

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Set the Brush Size, Sharpness and Brush Type options as required:

Applying the Palette Knife filter • The Palette Knife filter will reduce detail in an image, in order to give the effect of a thinly painted canvas that reveals the texture underneath. Essentially, like paint was spread on with a paint knife. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Palette Knife to open the Palette Knife dialog box. • Set the Stroke Size, Stroke Detail and Softness options as required:

Applying the Plastic Wrap filter • The Plastic Wrap filter will appear to coat the image in shiny plastic, bringing forward the surface detail.

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From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Plastic Wrap to open the Plastic Wrap dialog box. Set the Highlight Strength, Detail and Smoothness options as required:

Applying the Poster Edges filter • The Poster Edges filter will reduce the number of colors in an image (posterizes) according to the Posterization option set in the dialog box. This filter will also find the edges of the image and draws black lines on them. Large broad areas of the image receive simple shading while fine dark detail is distributed throughout the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Poster Edges to open the Poster Edges dialog box. • Set the Edge Thickness, Edge Intensity and Posterization options as required:

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Applying the Rough Pastels filter • The Rough Pastels filter will cause an image to appear as if stroked with a colored pastel chalk on a textured background. In areas that have bright color, the chalk will appear thick with a little texture; in darker areas, the chalk will appear scraped off to reveal the texture. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Rough Pastels to open the Rough Pastels dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Stroke Detail, Texture, Scaling, Relief and Light Direction options as required:

Applying the Smudge Stick filter • The Smudge Stick filter will soften an image by using short diagonal strokes to smudge or smear the darker areas of the images. Lighter areas will become brighter and tend to lose detail. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Smudge Stick to open the Smudge Stick dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Highlight Area and Intensity options as required:

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Applying the Sponge filter • The Sponge filter will assist in creating images that have highly textured areas of contrasting color. Those images will appear to have been painted with a sponge. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Sponge to open the Sponge dialog box. • Set the Brush Size, Definition and Smoothness options as required:

Applying the Underpainting filter • The Underpainting filter will paint the image on a textured background, and then paint the final image over the first image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Underpainting to open the Underpainting dialog box. • Set the Brush Size, Texture Coverage, Texture options, Scaling, Relief and Light Direction options as required:

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Applying the Watercolor filter • The Watercolor filter will paint the image in a watercolor style. Meaning that it will simplify details in an image, using a medium brush loaded with water and color. Where significant tonal changes occur at edges, the filter will saturate the color. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Artistic > Watercolor to open the Watercolor dialog box. • Set the Brush Detail, Shadow Intensity and Texture options as required:

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Brush Stroke Filters
Using Brush Stroke Filters • The Brush Stroke Filters allow you to apply various brush and ink stroke effects to give your image a painterly or fine-arts look. Many of the filters add grain, paint, noise, edge detail, or texture to an image. Applying the Accented Edges filter • The Accented Edges filter, when applied, will accentuate the edges of an image. Setting the edge brightness control to a high value and the accents will resemble white chalk. Setting the same control to a low value will cause the accents to resemble black ink. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Accented Edges to open the Accented Edges dialog box. • Set the Edge Width, Edge Smoothness, Brightness options as required:

Applying the Angled Strokes filter • The Angled Strokes filter will repaint an image by using diagonal strokes. The lighter areas of the image are painted in strokes headed in one direction while the darker areas are painted in strokes headed the opposite direction. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Angled Strokes to open the Angled Strokes dialog box. • Set the Direction Balance, Stroke Length and Sharpness options as required:

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Applying the Crosshatch filter • The Crosshatch filter will preserve details and features of an original image while adding texture and roughening the edges of the colored areas in the image, using a simulated pencil hatching. The Strength option controls the number of hatching passes, from 1 to 3. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Crosshatch to open the Crosshatch dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Sharpness and Strength options as required:

Applying the Dark Strokes filter • The Dark Strokes filter will paint dark areas of an image closer to black with short, tight strokes, and will paint lighter areas of the image with long, white strokes. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Dark Strokes to open the Dark Strokes dialog box.

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Set the Balance, Black Intensity, White Intensity options as required:

Applying the Ink Outlines filter • The Ink Outlines filter will redraw an image with fine narrow lines over the original details, in pen-and-ink style. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Ink Outlines to open the Ink Outlines dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Dark Intensity, Light Intensity options as required:

Applying the Spatter filter • The Splatter filter will duplicate the effect of a spatter airbrush. Increasing the options will simplify the overall effect. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Spatter to open the Spatter dialog box. • Set the Spray Radius and Smoothness options as required:

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Applying the Sprayed Strokes filter • The Sprayed Strokes filter will repaint an image, using its dominant colors with angled, sprayed strokes of color. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Sprayed Strokes to open the Sprayed Strokes dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Spray Radius, Stroke Direction options as required:

Applying the Sumi-e filter • The Sumi-e filter will paint an image in Japanese style, as if with a wet brush full of black ink on rice paper. The effect shows as soft blurry edges filled with rich blacks. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Brush Strokes > Sumi-e to open the Sumi-e dialog box. • Set the Stroke Width, Stroke Pressure and Contrast options as required:

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Sketch Filters
Using Sketch Filters • Sketch Filters are used to add texture to images, often for a 3D effect. These filters are also used in creating a fine-arts or hand-drawn look. Many of the Sketch filters use the foreground and background color as they redraw the image. Applying the Bas Relief filter • The Bas Relief filter will alter an image to appear as if carved in low relief and lit to accent the surface variations. The dark areas of the image will take on the foreground color, and the light colors of the image will use the background color. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Sketch > Bas Relief to open the Bas Relief dialog box. Set the Details, Smoothness and Light Direction options as required:

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Applying the Chalk and Charcoal filter • The Chalk and Charcoal filter will redraw the highlights and midtones of an image using a solid midtone gray back-ground drawn in coarse chalk. • Shadowed areas are replaced with black diagonal charcoal lines. The charcoal is drawn in the foreground color, the chalk in background color. • From the main menu, choose Filters > Sketch > Chalk and Charcoal to open the Chalk and Charcoal dialog box. Set the Charcoal Area, Chalk Area and • Stroke Pressure options as required:

Applying the Charcoal filter • The Charcoal filter will redraw an image in order to create a posterized, smudged effect. Major edges are boldly drawn while midtones look simply sketched with a diagonal stroke. The charcoal is set as the foreground color, and the paper the image is on is the background color. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Charcoal to open the Charcoal dialog box. • Set the Charcoal Thickness, Detail and Light/Dark Balance options as required:

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Applying the Chrome filter • The Chrome filter will alter the image to look as if it were a polished chrome surface. Highlights are high points and shadows are low points in the reflecting surface. After applying the filter, the Levels dialog box is used to add more contrast to the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Chrome to open the Chrome dialog box. • Set the Detail and Smoothness options as required: Applying the Conté Crayon filter • The Conté Crayon filter will replicate the texture of dense dark and pure white Conté crayons on an image. This filter will use the foreground color for dark areas and the background color for light areas. For a truer effect, change the foreground color to one of the common Conté Crayon colors (black, sepia or sanguine) before applying the filter. For a muted effect, change the background color to white with some foreground color added before applying the filter. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Conté Crayon to open the Conté Crayon dialog box.

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Set the Foreground Level, Background Level, Texture options, Scaling, Relief and Light Direction options as required:

Applying the Graphic Pen filter • The Graphic Pen filter utilizes fine, linear ink strokes to capture details in an original image and is especially striking with scanned images. This filter will replace color in the original image, using the foreground color for ink and background color for paper. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Graphic Pen to open the Graphic Pen dialog box. • Set the Stroke Length, Light/Dark Balance and Stroke Direction options as required:

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Applying the Halftone Pattern filter • The Halftone Pattern filter will simulate the effect of a halftone screen while maintaining the continuous range of tones. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Halftone Pattern to open the Halftone Pattern dialog box. • Set the Size, Contrast and Pattern Type options as required:

Applying the Note Paper filter • The Note Paper filter will create an image looking like it is constructed of handmade paper. This filter will simplify an image and combines the effects of the Texture > Emboss and Grain filters. The darker areas of the image will appear as holes in the top layer of paper showing portions of the background color. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Note Paper to open the Note Paper dialog box. • Set the Image Balance, Graininess and Relief options as required:

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Applying the Photocopy filter • The Photocopy filter will simulate the result of photocopying an image. Large areas of darkness will tend to copy only around their edges, and midtones will fall away to become either solid black or white. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Photocopy to open the Photocopy dialog box. • Set the Detail and Darkness options as required:

Applying the Plaster filter • The Plaster filter will seem to mold an image from 3D plaster; then it will colorize the result using the foreground and background color. The darker areas are raised, and the lighter areas are sunken (or reverse the effect by choosing the Invert option). • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Plaster to open the Plaster dialog box. • Set the Image Balance, Smoothness and Light Direction options as required:

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Applying the Reticulation filter • The Reticulation filter will simulate the look of controlled shrinking and distorting of film emulsion. This creates an image that appears clumped in the shadow areas and lightly grained in the highlights. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Reticulation to open the Reticulation dialog box. • Set the Density, Black Level or White Level options as required:

Applying the Stamp filter • The Stamp filter will simplify an image to appear as if stamped with a rubber or wood stamp. This filter has the best effect with black-and-white images. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Stamp to open the Stamp dialog box. • Set the Light/Dark Balance and Smoothness options as required:

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Applying the Torn Edges filter • The Torn Edges filter will reconstruct an image as ragged, torn pieces of paper. • The image is then colorized using the foreground and background colors. This filter is useful for images that consist of text or high-contrast objects. • Choose Filter > Sketch > Torn Edges to open the Torn Edges dialog box. • Set the Image Balance, Smoothness and Contrast options as required:

Applying the Water Paper filter • The Water Paper filter applies blotchy daubs of paint on the image, which appear as having been painted onto fibrous, damp paper. This filter will cause the colors to flow and blend. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Sketch > Water Paper to open the Water Paper dialog box. • Set the Fiber Length, Brightness and Contrast options as required:

Computer Literacy Program

Lesson 16 – Altering Images with Filters

Distort Filters
Using Distort Filters • Distort Filters are used to distort an image, to create 3D or other reshaping effects. Keep in mind that these filters in particular can take up quite a bit of memory. Various Controls within Distort Filters: • Wrap Around – Fills the undefined space of the image with content from the opposite edge of the image. • Repeat Edge Pixels – Will extend the colors of pixels along the edge of an image in the direction specified. Banding may result if the edge pixels are different colors. • Set to Background (Offset filter only) – Fills the selected area of the image with the current background color. • Texture - Select a texture type or choose Load Texture to specify an outside Photoshop file to use. • Scaling slider – Drag to enlarge or reduce the effect on the image surface. • Relief slider (if available) – Drag to adjust the depth of the texture's surface. • Invert – Select to reverse the surface's light and dark colors. • Light Direction – Allows you to indicate the direction of the light source on the image. Applying the Diffuse Glow filter • The Diffuse Glow filter will make an image look as though it is being viewed through a soft diffusion filter. The filter adds what is called “see-through white noise” to an image, and the glow faded from the center of a selection. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Diffuse Glow to open the Diffuse Glow dialog box. • Set the Graininess, Glow Amount and Clear Amount options as required:

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Applying the Displace filter • The Displace filter uses an image, called a displacement map, to determine how to distort a selection. For example, using a parabola-shaped displacement map, you can create an image that appears to be printed on a cloth held at its corners. • This filter will create displacement maps, by using a flattened file that has been saved either in Photoshop format (except Bitmap mode images) or with the Include Composite Image With Layered Files option selected in the Saving Files preferences. You can also use the files included with your software (search for the Displacement Maps folder). To use the Displace filter: • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Displace to open the Displace dialog box:

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Enter the scale values to specify the size of the displacement. When the horizontal and vertical scales are both set to 100%, the greatest displacement is 128 pixels (because middle gray produces no displacement). Choose Stretch to Fit to resize the map, or Tile to fill the selection by repeating the map in a pattern if the displacement map is not the same size as your selection. Choose Wrap Around or Repeat Edge Pixels to define how the undistorted areas of the image will be treated. Click OK. Select and open the displacement map. The distortion is applied to the image. The Displace filter will shift a selection using a color value from the displacement map - 0 is the maximum negative shift, 255 the maximum positive shift, and a gray value of 128 produces no displacement. If a map has one channel, the image will shift along a diagonal, which is defined by the horizontal and vertical scale ratios in the dialog box. If the map has more than one channel, the first channel is what controls the horizontal displacement and the second channel is what controls the vertical displacement.

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Applying the Glass filter • The Glass filter will cause an image to appear like it is being viewed through various types of glass. Either choose a glass effect or create your own glass surface as a Photoshop file and apply it to the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Glass to open the Glass dialog box. • Set the Distortion, Smoothness, Texture, and Scaling options as required:

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Applying the Ocean Ripple filter • The Ocean Ripple filter will add randomly spaced ripples to the image's surface, making the image look like it is under water. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Ocean Ripple to open the Ocean Ripple dialog box. • Set the Ripple Size and Ripple Magnitude options as required:

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Applying the Pinch filter • The Pinch filter will basically squeeze a selection. Entering a positive value in the Amount field up to 100% will shift a selection toward its center; a negative value up to -100% will shift a selection towards the edges. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Pinch to open the Pinch dialog box. • Set the Amount option as required:

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Applying the Polar Coordinates filter • The Polar Coordinates filter will convert a selection from its rectangular to polar coordinates, and vice versa. This filter can be used to create a cylinder anamorphous - art popular in the 18th century - were the distorted image will appear to be normal when viewed in a mirrored cylinder. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Polar Coordinates to open the Polar Coordinates dialog box. • Set the Options: Polar to Rectangular or Rectangular to Polar as required:

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Applying the Ripple filter • The Ripple filter will create an undulating pattern on a selection or image, creating a look like ripples on the surface of a pond. For greater control, use the Wave filter. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Ripple to open the Ripple dialog box. • Set the Amount and Size options as required:

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Applying the Shear filter • The Shear filter will distort an image along a curve. Drag the line in the box at the top of the dialog box, to form and specify a curve for the distortion effect. • You can adjust any point along the curve. Click Default to return the curve to a straight line. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Shear to open the Shear dialog box. • Set the Undefined Areas options as required:

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Applying the Spherize filter • The Spherize filter will give objects and images a 3D effect by wrapping a selection around a spherical shape, thus distorting the image and stretching it to fit the selected curve. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Spherize to open the Spherize dialog box. • Set the Amount and Mode options as required:

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Applying the Twirl filter • The Twirl filter will rotate a selection more sharply in the center than at the edges, causing a hurricane funnel effect. Specify an angle to produce a twirl pattern. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Twirl to open the Twirl dialog box. • Set the Angle option as required:

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Applying the Wave filter • The Wave filter is similar to the Ripple filter, but with much greater control as mentioned above. The Wavelength – defines the distance from one wave crest to the next. The Amplitude – defines the height of the wave. The Type – defines the type of wave: Sine (rolling), Triangle, or Square. The Randomize option applies random values. You can also define undistorted areas. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > Wave to open the Wave dialog box. • Set the Number of Generators, Wavelength, Amplitude, Scale, Type, and Undefined Areas options as required:

Computer Literacy Program

Lesson 16 – Altering Images with Filters

Applying the ZigZag filter • The ZigZag filter will distort a selection radically, depending on the set radius of the pixels in your selection. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Distort > ZigZag to open the ZigZag dialog box. • Set the Amount, Ridges and Style options as required:

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Ridges – Sets the number of direction reversals of the zigzag from the center of the selection to its edge. Pond Ripples – Displaces pixels to the upper left or lower right Out From Center – Displaces pixels toward or away from the center of the selection. Around Center – Rotates pixels around the center.

Pixelate Filters
Using Pixelate Filters • The Pixelate Filters are used to sharply define a selection by clumping pixels of similar color values in cells. Applying the Color Halftone filter • The Color Halftone filter shows the effect of using an enlarged halftone screen on each channel of the image. For each channel, the filter divides the image into rectangles and replaces each rectangle with a circle. The circle size is proportional to the brightness of the rectangle. To apply the Color Halftone filter: • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Color Halftone to open the Color Halftone dialog box. • Enter a value in pixels for the maximum radius of a halftone dot, from 4 to 127:

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Enter a screen-angle value (the angle of the dot from the true horizontal) for one or more channels: For Grayscale images – Use only channel 1. For RGB images – Use channels 1, 2, and 3, which correspond to the red, green, and blue channels. For CMYK images – Use all four channels, which correspond to the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black channels.

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Click Defaults to return all the screen angles to their default values. Click OK:

Applying the Crystallize filter • The Crystallize filter will clump pixels into a solid color in a polygon shape. The colors will be separated into blocks of color throughout the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Facet to open the Crystallize dialog box. • Set the Cell Size as required:

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Applying the Facet filter • The Facet filter will clump into blocks of like-colored pixels, any pixels of solid or similar colors. This filter can be used to make a scanned image look like it is hand painted or to make a realistic image resemble an abstract painting. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Facet to apply the Facet filter:

Applying the Fragment filter • The Fragment filter will create four copies of the pixels in the selection, average them, and offset them off of each other. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Fragment to apply the Fragment filter:

Computer Literacy Program

Lesson 16 – Altering Images with Filters

Applying the Mezzotint filter • The Mezzotint filter will convert an image into a random pattern of black-andwhite areas or into fully saturated colors in a color image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Mezzotint to open the Mezzotint dialog box:

Choose a dot pattern from the Type menu:

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Applying the Mosaic filter • The Mosaic filter will clump pixels into square blocks. All of the pixels in a given block are the same color, and the colors of the blocks represent the colors in the selection. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Mosaic to open the Mosaic dialog box. • Set the Cell Size option as required:

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Applying the Pointillize filter • The Pointillize filter will break up color in an image into randomly placed dots, as in a pointillist painting, and will use the background color as a canvas area between the dots. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Pixelate > Pointillize to open the Pointillize dialog box. • Set the Cell Size option as required:

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Stylize Filters
Using Stylize Filters • Stylize filters produce a painted or impressionistic effect on a selection by displacing pixels and by finding and heightening contrast in an image. After using filters like Find Edges and Trace Contour that highlight edges, you can apply the Invert command to outline the edges of a color image with colored lines or to outline the edges of a grayscale image with white lines. Applying the Diffuse filter • The Diffuse filter will shuffle the pixels in a selection in order to make that selection look less focused, according to the option selected: Normal will simply move pixels randomly, ignoring color values; Darken Only will replace any light pixels with darker pixels; and Lighten Only will replace darker pixels with lighter pixels. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Diffuse to open the Diffuse dialog box. • Set the Mode as mentioned above, and as required:

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Applying the Emboss filter • The Emboss filter will cause a selection to appear raised or stamped, by converting the fill color to gray and tracing the edges with the original fill color. Options include an embossing Angle (from -360° to lower (stamp) the surface, to +360° to raise the surface), Height, and setting the percentage (1% to 500%) to set the Amount of color within the selection. To retain color and detail when using this filter, use the Fade command after applying the Emboss filter. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Emboss to open the Emboss dialog box. • Set the Angle, Height and Amount options (as mentioned above) as required:

Applying the Extrude filter • The Extrude filter will apply a 3D texture to a selection or layer. To apply the Extrude filter: • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Extrude to open the Extrude dialog box:

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Choose a 3D Type: Blocks – Will create objects with a square front face and four side faces. Pyramids – Will create objects with four triangular sides that meet at a point.

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Enter a value in the Size text box to determine the length of any side of the object's base, from 2 to 255 pixels. Enter a value in the Depth text box to indicate how far the tallest object appears to protrude from the screen, from 0 to 255. Choose a Depth option: Random – Will give each block or pyramid an arbitrary depth. Level-based – Will make each object's depth correspond to its brightness--bright will be more apparent than dark. Solid Front Faces Selected – When selected, this option will fill the front face of each block with the average color of the blocks. Solid Front Faces Deselected – When deselected, this option will fill the front face with the image.

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Select Mask Incomplete Blocks to hide any object that is extended beyond the selection. Click OK:

Applying the Find Edges filter • The Find Edges filter will locate the areas of the image that have significant transitions and will emphasize the edges. The Find Edges filter will outline the edges of an image with dark lines against a white background, and is very useful in creating a border around an image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Find Edges to apply the Find Edges filter:

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Applying the Glowing Edges filter • The Glowing Edges filter will identify the edges of color and add a neon-like glow to them. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Glowing Edges to open the Glowing Edges dialog box. • Set the Edge Width, Edge Brightness and Smoothness options as required:

Applying the Solarize filter • The Solarize filter will blend a negative and a positive image together. This is similar to exposing a photographic print briefly to light during development. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Solarize to apply the Solarize filter:

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Applying the Tiles filter • The Tiles filter will break up an image into a series of tiles, causing the selection to be off-set from its original location. Choose either: Background Color, the Foreground Color, Inverse version of the image, or an Unaltered version of the image to fill the area between the lines. This will place the tiled version on top of the original and reveal part of the original image underneath the tiled edges. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Tiles to open the Tiles dialog box. • Set the Number of Tiles, Maximum Offset and Fill Empty Area With options as required:

Applying the Trace Contour filter • The Trace Contour filter locates the transitions of major brightness areas and thinly outlines them for each color channel for an effect similar to the lines in a contour map. To apply the Trace Contour filter: • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Trace Contour to open the Trace Contour dialog box:

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Choose an Edge option to outline areas in the selection: Lower – Allows you to outline where the color values of pixels will fall below the specified level. Upper – Allows you to outline where the color values of pixels will fall above the specified level.

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Enter a threshold (Level) for evaluating color values (tonal level), from 0 to 255. Experiment to see what values bring out the best detail in the image. Use the Info palette in Grayscale mode to identify a color value that you want traced. Then enter the value in the Level text box. Click OK:

Applying the Wind filter • The Wind filter will create tiny horizontal lines in the image to simulate a wind effect. Blast has a more dramatic effect and Stagger will offset the wind lines in the image. • From the main menu, choose Filter > Stylize > Wind to open the Wind dialog box. • Set the Method and Direction options as required:

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Lesson Seventeen
Intermediate Printing
This Chapter contains

Lesson 16 – Altering Images with Filters

Preparing the Image
Setting the Working Spaces The Working Spaces settings in the Color Settings dialog box are not very complicated:

Preparing the Image Printing the Image

}

The RBG field will ask you for what kind of monitor you are working on from the drop-down menu, or by selecting the monitor profile you made using the Adobe Gamma control panel. If not sure of what to select, choose Generic RGB. The CMYK field will ask you to choose what kind of printer you are working on. Again, if not sure, select Generic. If using a home inkjet, try U.S. Sheet fed Uncoated. To set the Gray field, select 2.2, as this is the basic setting for the method that the system will use to display grayscale image. Spot refers to any pages printed with black and one or two spot colors, like duotones, or illustrations with black and white and limited PANTONE colors. The standard setting is Dot Gain 20%.

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Setting the Color Management Policies • The Color Management Policies refer to how Photoshop will handle files created in another application or in an earlier version of Photoshop:

The choices are: To preserve the color management profiles embedded in the file To convert to your active mode To turn-off color management.

Photoshop can also be directed to warn when a color management mismatch occurs when opening a file and will ask you what to do.

Setting the Conversion Options • If selecting the Advanced mode, there are additional choices to be made. • Engine – Refers to the color conversion engine that Photoshop will use to send you r file to the printer. Choose Adobe as it’s designed specifically to work with Photoshop and other Adobe graphics applications. • Intent – Selecting Perceptual will give the most pleasing colors, rather than the most mechanically accurate ones. It will also allow you to print a wider range of colors than a selection like Absolute Colorimetric would. • Check both Blackpoint Compensation and Dither for better-looking color.

Usually, you will not need the advanced options. This can de-saturate your monitor or change to color-blending gamma, and only expert users of Photoshop will use this mode.

Selecting Paper • What you print on is just as important as what you are printing, and can make a big difference. There are specific papers for ink jet and laser usage. • To have the picture resemble a photograph, use “photo weight” glossy paper. • Using coasted paper for printing color on inkjet printers will give photo-quality prints with a matte surface rather than glossy as mentioned above. • Transparency paper is clear acetate film, specially treated to accept ink. This is used to make overhead projection slides and overlays.

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Sample with various “Art” paper, as different printers may not accept the heavier stocks. Fine art paper like Somerset Smooth and Somerset Velvet are ideal to printing pictures, which have been converted to imitate watercolors, pastel drawings, etc. When using a heavier paper, feed one page at a time, and if the printer has the option, set it for thicker paper. Label stock paper comes in various sizes and shapes. There are hundreds of different weights and kinds of paper for inkjet and laser printers. Iron-on transfer paper allows you to print your image, and then place it on materials like shirts, bags, etc.

Printing the Image
Printing the Page • From the main menu, choose File > Print to open the Print dialog box:

The dialog box looks different depending on the type of printer being used, what platform the program is running on, and the mode of the image. Example: Copies – Allows you to select the number of copies to print of the document. Print Range – Allows you to specify the range of pages to be printed. This is irrelevant if there is only one page to be printed. Media Type – enter what kind of paper or transparency film that you are printing on. This setting determines how much ink will be applied as different papers have different absorbency rates. Ink – Choose Color or Black. Print Quality (Can also be called Mode) – Allows you to specify a printer resolution, 300 up to 600 dpi.

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Destination – You cannot only print to Printer, but also to a File. This will save the printed output as a PostScript or EPS file, or as and Adobe Acrobat PDF. (This option will only work if you’ve selected a PostScript-compatible printer): You can also choose an encoding scheme – ASCII is best for PostScript files, and Binary will speed things up on printers that accept binary data. Level 1 Compatibility means that the file will print on all PostScript printers. Level 2 Only means that the file will work only on PostScript Level 2 printers. The PDF options can also be selected. Lastly, you can specify whether you want font information to be embedded in the file, and for which fonts.

Print Selected Area – When the box is selected and there is a rectangular area selected in your image, just that area can be printed. This will only work with rectangular selections created with the Marquee tool, and will not work for feathered selections. Encoding (May also be a checkbox for ASCII format) – This area is where you tell Photoshop which encoding methods to use when it send the image data to the printer. ASCII is understood by all PostScript printers. Binary encoding is more compressed and can be faster, but does not work on all printers. JPEG encoding is even faster, but it results in some lost data because of a messy compression scheme. JPEG encoding will only work with PostScript Level 2 printers.

Print In – Allows you to decide how to print the image, either in Grayscale, RGB color or CMYK colors. For some desktop printers, RGB will give a better result. If unsure, try both and see which is preferred. Print Separations – This option will appear in place of the Print In option only if the image is currently in CMYK or Duotone mode and the composite color channel is active. When selecting this option, Photoshop will print each channel as a separate color plate. E.g. – A CMYK document would print as four separate pages, one for each color. Options – This is not always available for you to choose from. Only on a non-PostScript printer will this option button appear. You can select: Intensity Half-toning Color Matching.

If printing a photograph, choose Photographic from the Color Matching menu to get the best possible color reproduction, otherwise, leave the options at Auto.

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Lesson Eighteen
Photo Repair – Black and White
Easy Fixes
This Chapter contains
Easy Fixes Cleaning Pictures Applying Tints

Fixing images Photoshop is the best tool to fix old, torn, and faded photographs, and can fix almost all flaws in photographs. You can edit out any items that spoil the landscape of a picture, or even remove people from it. Using the Eyedropper Tool The Eyedropper Tool allows you to select any color from an image, either to fill in scratches, or even to remove lines or spots:

Click the Eyedropper Tool on any shade of gray in the image that you want to replicate, and the color selected will become the foreground color. Apply this with the Paintbrush, Airbrush or any chosen painting tool:

Holding down the Alt key when a painting tool is selected will turn it temporarily into an Eyedropper, allowing you to change colors while painting.

Lesson 18 – Photo Repair – Black and White

Click and hold the Eyedropper Tool to open the Eyedropper Options toolbar, where a pop-up menu will give you a choice of using a single pixel color sample with a Color Sampler Tool:

OR select the Measure Tool to take an average color from either a 3x3 or 5x5 pixel samples:

Using the Clone Stamp Tool • The Clone Stamp Tool allows to sample an area of a picture and use it to apply the sample image over the top of the same image or over another image:

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Sample from a chosen point in the image and duplicate the selection to fill in portions where it would be appropriate. You can choose a brush shape, blending mode, and opacity for the Clone Stamp tool:

With the Aligned checkbox selected, when selecting a reference point, the Clone Stamp will create a duplicate of the image where you start to paint, expanding on the duplicated portions of the image as you paint:

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To define a pattern and stamp it: • Select the Rectangular Marquee tool, and select a piece of an image to use as a pattern. • From the main menu, choose Edit > Define Pattern. • Name your pattern in the Pattern Name dialog box:

Select the Pattern Stamp Tool and select the Aligned checkbox in the options bar, the pattern will be tiled from the upper left corner of the document, no matter where the stamp is dragged:

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When you deselect the Aligned box it will cause the pattern to tile from wherever you start dragging:

When using the Rubber Stamp tool to retouch, it is advised to choose a soft-edged brush in a size only a little larger than the scratch or blemish that is being hidden. Retouching is typically easier if the image is enlarged first.

Vignetting images • Vignetting allows you to apply a “look” to a picture; making photo’s surrounding edges feathered. It applies a cameo look to the photo with the main focus in the photo coming to the front, and the background fading to nothing. • Draw an oval marquee around the portrait subject:

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Press the Ctrl + Shift + I key combination to invert the selection, causing the background to be selected:

Set the Background color to white:

Set the Style mode to Normal:

Press the Ctrl + Alt + D key combination to open the Feather Selection dialog box:

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OR go to the Option Bar and enter the amount of Pixels in there:

Then press the Backspace or Delete key to delete the selected parts of the image, until the edges of the oval is all that shows:

Cleaning Pictures
Cleaning up a picture • Pictures that have been folded, ripped, faded and just old can not only be fixed, but portions can also be recreated within Photoshop. To Restore a Badly Damaged Photograph: • Scan the photograph using the high resolution. • Crop the scanned image to remove the border and any unnecessary portions of the image. Simply put – anything removed will not have to be retouched. • Select the Crop tool from the toolbox:

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• •

Drag it across the picture, while holding down the mouse button. Use the handles on the Crop bounding box to fine-tune the selection, and when finished, doubleclick inside the bounding box to crop the image, or press the Enter key:

From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Grayscale to set the mode to Grayscale, and remove any colored stains:

From the main menu, choose Image > Histogram to open the Histogram dialog box. This dialog box allows you to see what needs to be done in terms of equalizing the contrast in the picture. This is done in the Levels window:

From the main menu, choose Image > Adjust > Levels to open the Levels window. Adjust the levels by dragging the various points. Drag the dark point to the right until the point is just under the beginning of the dark peak of the histogram. Drag the white point to the left until the point is just

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under the beginning of the white peak:

From the main menu, choose Filters > Noise > Dust & Scratches to use the Dust & Scratches filter. This is your choice in terms of what you want to do with the picture. Sometimes using this filter will remove more detail than you want:

If the Dust & Scratches filter does not work as you want, remove the dust and scratches with the Clone Stamp tool.

Select the Clone Stamp tool from the toolbox.

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From the Options Bar, choose a small brush and set the Opacity to 90%, and uncheck the Aligned option. Choose an area to be cloned, pick the dark tone closest to the scratch, and begin stamping it out. To remove scratches from across faces, use the Paintbrush tool and repaint each face, rather than stamping them. Select the Magnifying Glass tool in the toolbox to enlarge the picture to at least 200% to ease the task. Select the Eyedropper tool and click on the closest gray beside the scratch. Select a small Paintbrush and paint over the scratches, adjusting the shades of gray with the Eyedropper as needed. Use the Smudge tool to remove any light spots and to fill in the background between any Clone Stamp impressions. Apply the Dodge and Burn tools to bring out any details, as you may need. Dodging will lighten the image, and burning will darken it. Sponging will increase or decrease the saturation of the gray colors:

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Select the Dodge tool and set the exposure to 25%, and this will make the effect gradual:

Applying Tints
Duotones • The Duotone mode allows you to create a richer tone in the image, as it combines the grayscale image with a colored ink. Duotones will extend the gray rage for a photograph. Creating a Duotone • From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Duotone to open the Duotone Options dialog box. • Monotone is the default active Type option, and the Ink 2, Ink 3, and Ink 4 options will be dimmed:

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Select Tritone from the Type drop-down list to access the Ink 2 and 3 option:

Select Quadtone from the Type drop-down list to access the Ink 2 to Ink 4 options:

Choose the color of each ink that you want by clicking the color box associated with the ink option selected. When defining colors for the first time, Photoshop will display the Color Picker dialog box:

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Define colors either in the Color Picker, OR click Custom to select a color from the Custom Colors dialog box. Photoshop will preview the settings in the image window when the Preview checkbox is selected. The preview may not match your output exactly when certain Pantone inks are used. Photoshop will always display the same colors defined from the last visit to the Duotone Options dialog box. When creating a duotone, priorities the inks in order from the darkest at the top to the lightest at the bottom. This is because Photoshop will print inks in the order they appear in the dialog box. After choosing a color, use one of two methods to specify exactly how the different colored inks will blend: Click the curve box associated with the desired ink option. Photoshop will display the Duotone Curve dialog box, which allows you to emphasize specific inks in different portions of the image relative to the brightness values:

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Click the Overprint Colors button to open the Overprint Colors dialog box. This dialog box shows you how each pair of colors will mix when printed. This method is not highly effective as it complicates the editing process. Photoshop will not actually change any of the ink colors or curve setting according to your new specifications. It will only apply the new overprint colors without any logical basis. Also, all changes will be lost when made with the Overprint Colors dialog box when adjusting any of the ink colors or any of the curves:

Reproducing a Duotone • When having a commercial printer reproduce your duotone image, the image must first be printed to color separations, just like a CMYK image. • Choose the printer being used. • Set the page size, orientation and printer marks options. • Adjust the halftone screens, if needed. • From the main menu, choose File > Print. Editing individual Duotone Plates • From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > CMYK Color to convert the Duotone image to the CMYK mode. • The duotone shades will remain intact, and you have the advantage of being able to tweak colors and add color by using Photoshop’s standard colorcorrection commands and editing tools. • If the duotone includes Pantone or other spot colors, converting to CMYK is not an option, but you are still able to access and edit the individual color channels. • From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Multichannel to separate the duotone inks into channels. Each ink will appear as a separate spot color inside the Channels palette.

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Hand-Tinting photos • After the image you want to hand-tint has been cleaned and ready to further adjustments, change the mode back to color, either RGB or CMYK. • Make a new layer, setting the layer Opacity to anywhere between 10% and 30%:

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Set the brush Opacity to 100% and begin to paint your tints. If there is a large and relatively uncomplicated area to be tinted, use either the Lasso or Magic Wand tools to select the entire area:

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Select a foreground color and from the main menu, choose Edit > Fill to open the Fill dialog box. In the Contents Use pop-up menu select Foreground Color:

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Set the Opacity to 25% and choose Multiply from the Blending Mode option. Click OK, and all the selected areas will be filled with the chosen color at that opacity:

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Adjust by reopening the Fill window and applying again, or undoing and setting either higher or lower percentages.

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Lesson Nineteen
Photo Repair - Color
Image Retouching
This Chapter contains
Image Retouching Advanced Editing

Fixing Red Eye There are times when you have a great picture of a special event, or pet, and the red eyes staring back at you ruin the entire effect. Photoshop can be used to remove this offending feature very easily. Open the image that you want to fix the red eyes on. Selecting the Magnifying Glass tool and zoom in on the eye region. Use the Magic Wand tool to select the areas that you want to correct. Select the Paint Bucket tool, and set the Foreground color to black. Double-click on the Magic Wand tool icon to open the Tool Options bar. Set the Paint mode to Darken and the Opacity to about 80%. These settings will darken the eye, but will still maintain the detail. Pour the paint very carefully into the selected areas in the eyes, being careful not to hit any white or colored areas in the pupil. You may need to click other selected parts of the pupil in order to cover the area as carefully as you want. To accent the highlights more, simply use a single pixel pencil and touch up as required. Press the Ctrl + H key combination to hide the selection so you can evaluate the effect of the change:

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Using the Drag and Drop method • This method is good to use when you have a perfect photograph, with one glaring item standing out in the photo that really doesn’t belong there. This technique works well when you have enough area in the photograph that you can use to cover the offending item. • Select the Lasso tool from the toolbox. • Open the Feather dialog box from the options bar and set the feather Radius to between 3 and 6 pixels. • Select an area elsewhere in the picture that you want to replace the original image with. • When the dotted line Marquee is flashing, choose the Move tool and press the Alt key while dragging. • Repeat as required, selecting various different pieces of the picture to drag over what you want to cover. • Press the Ctrl + D key combination to deselect the selection:

Cropping a picture • There are times when there is a larger selection in the photograph that you want to remove, and it can’t be done simply by covering it from the rest of the photograph. • Select the Crop tool from the toolbox and drag a rectangle to include the area that you want to cut out of the photograph. • From the main menu, choose Image > Crop to remove the non-selected portion of the photograph. • Use the various tools to manipulate the remaining items in the photograph, altering as required:

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Advanced Editing
Removing a person • Sometimes a person has appeared in a photograph that you would consider perfect, without that person. With Photoshop, you can remove the person from the picture and it’s like they were never there! • Crop out any portions of the photograph that may not need to be there, like a table in front of a group of people. • Place a selection rectangle around just the one person you want to crop out of the image. For example, the person in the middle. • Delete the selection. • Cut the people on the left of where the person was cut out, and Paste the new layer. Slide the layer over to match with the next person, who was on the right of the cut-out person. • Use various tools as the Clone Stamp, copying and pasting to fix the details in the image. Use the Airbrush tool to even out any differences left by the Clone Stamp:

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Table

20 Lesson Twenty
Merging Pictures
Creating one picture from two You can combine two pictures to create one picture, adding a certain element to another picture. Example – placing a person in one photograph onto a beach in another photograph. Open the first picture that has the element you want to place into the second picture. Separate the image from its background with a selection tool:

Compositing
This Chapter contains
Merging Pictures Erasing Backgrounds Alternative Composites

Open the second picture, copy the image, and paste it into the second picture where you want it to appear:

Lesson 20 – Compositing

Now apply various tools, filters and shadows to blend the image into its new background.

Blending Layers • When you can combine multiple pictures into one, you can change the compositing effect by blending layers. There are two ways to control the way the layers blend: Opacity Slider – Set any degree of opacity from 100% to 0%. At 0% the image on that layer will have completely disappeared:

Blending Modes Menu – Apply different modes to different layers to control the way each layer will overlay the others:

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Making realistic composites • Creating a realistic composite can be quite difficult, as you are trying to make a fake picture with multiple images look real. There are some simple tasks to consider while creating a composite: Keep the background simple. Isolate the individual elements on different layers to make editing easier. Make sure the pieces being combined are in the proper scale of each other. When completed, merge layers to create a smaller file.

Erasing Backgrounds
Using the Background Eraser Tool • Use the Background Eraser tool for an image when the edges of an image are too complicated to remove with the Magic Wand, or to erase slowly bit by bit. The Background Eraser tool makes this erasing process much simpler. • Go to the Layers palette and select the layer that contains the areas you want to erase:

Right-click on the Eraser tool icon to view and select the Background Eraser tool:

Set your required brush size and shape in the Brush menu in the tool Options bar:

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Select an erasing Limits mode from the drop-down list:

Discontiguous – Will erase the sampled color wherever it appears in the layer. Contiguous – Will erase the areas containing the sampled color and are connected to one another. Find Edges – Will erase any connected areas that contain the sampled color, and will better preserve the sharpness of the object’s edges.

Set the Tolerance either by entering a value in the field, or dragging the slider. A low tolerance setting will limit erasing to only areas that are similar to the sampled color. A high tolerance setting will allow you to erase a broader range of colors:

Select a Sampling option to determine how the erased colors will be treated:

Continuous – Will sample colors continuously while you are dragging. Use this option when you want to erase adjacent areas that are different colors. Once – Will allow you to erase areas that only contain the color that was clicked first. This option is used to erase a solid-colored area. Background Swatch – Will allow you to erase only the areas that contain the current background color.

Check Protect Foreground Color to protect the areas that match the foreground color in the toolbox:

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Drag the eraser through the area that you want to erase. If the Brush Size Cursors were set in the Preferences box, the cursor will appear as a brush shape with a crosshair to indicate the tool’s hot spot. If not, the cursor will appear as a block eraser with a pair of scissors on the top – just like its relative icon.

Alternative Composites
Creating composites from nothing • Photoshop can be used to create art “from scratch”, and a composite can also be created from nothing, not just by combining images being worked on. • Select the Gradient tool to apply a gradient background on a new page:

Choose a linear blend, which will apply colors in a straight line from one point to another. Then select a simple dark-to-light gradient from the pull-down menu in the tools Options bar:

Set the foreground color to a medium dark color, and the background color to white:

• •

Position the crosshair cursor at the top of the screen and drag a line straight down. From the main menu, choose Filter > Render > Clouds to add a cloudy sky, which will cover up the gradient:

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From the main menu, choose Edit > Fade Filter to fade out the effect. Set the fade to 25%:

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Place any image you would like above the sky portion of the image:

Paste the image on the background and use the various tools and filters toadjust the image to your requirements:

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Lesson Twenty-one
Photoshop for the Web
This Chapter contains
Photoshop and ImageReady File Formats Transparent Pixels Optimizing Images Web Settings for Optimization GIF Setting for Optimization JPEG Setting for Optimization Optimization Menu Output Settings Saving PNG images

Photoshop and ImageReady
ImageReady is the Adobe application designed to prepare and optimize images for the web environment. Starting with Photoshop 5.5, Adobe incorporated the features from ImageReady 1.0 and combined them directly with Photoshop. Photoshop 7 establishes itself more with ImageReady by introducing tools for creating and editing image slices as well as broader control over image output through the upgraded Save For Web dialog box. To open the ImageReady from within the Photoshop: From the main menu, choose File > Jump to > Adobe ImageReady 7.0 OR click on the Jump to ImageReady button on the bottom of the Toolbox:

This will open the ImageReady application and all currently opened documents from inside the Photoshop will now be opened inside the ImageReady as well.

File Formats
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) • The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) compression creates smaller file sizes with less impact than reducing the color palette and saving in GIF. • This format is used mostly for photographic images - where you will have a high range of colors.

Lesson 21 – Photoshop for the Web

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) • The GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) format was created when individuals owned 1200-bps modems. • GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) supports a maximum of 8 bits per pixel (256 colors), and it uses LZW compression. • GIF comes in two varieties, 87a and 89a. GIF 89a supports transparent pixels. • This format is used mostly for the clip art and logo images - where you will use mostly limited number of solid colors. • The PNG (Portable Network Graphics) (pronounced ping) format uses 8-bit color. • Like the GIF format, PNG compresses solid areas of color while maintaining sharp detail.

Transparent Pixels
Making Colors Transparent • Colors can be made transparent within the GIF file setting. • After indexing colors in an image, from the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Color Table to open the Color Table dialog box and make all occurrences of one specific color transparent. • Select the Eyedropper tool in the Color Table dialog box:

Click a color within the palette or in the image itself. The color will become transparent:

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The Color Table command has the limitation of only being able to make one color transparent at a time. To make a second color transparent, press Enter to exit the dialog box, then from the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Color Table to open the dialog box again.

Saving and opening a GIF with Transparency • The GIF format available in the Save As and Save For Web dialog boxes offers the same functions that were available with the earlier GIF89a Export. When saving to GIF, the program will automatically disable most of the options that save nonessential image data. Saving a GIF image with transparency: • Specify the required transparency using the Indexed Color command. It is also possible to make additional colors transparent using the Color Table commands. • From the main menu, choose File > Save As, select the As a Copy check box. This option will replace the step of the Save a Copy command:

From the Format pop-up menu, select CompuServe GIF. It is important to turn off any image previews, icons and thumbnails. This will then assume that the Image Previews option was set to Ask When Saving inside the Preferences dialog box. Press Save and Photoshop will display the GIF Options dialog box, offering two options:

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Normal – Displays the image without Interlacing, and appears normal. This is typically the best method to use. Interlaced – Allows the Web browser to display the image in step-by-step passes.
• •

Press Save again and Photoshop will save the GIF file to disk. If a file is saved to the GIF format before the colors are indexed, you don’t have to cancel out and backtrack your steps. The indexing is done as part of the save process. The on-screen image will remain an RGB image, however; the image will not be completely converted to the indexed mode until the file is closed. After the GIF file is created, the open image window will still have the name and extension as before. This is because a copy of the image was saved; not the open version of the file. If any changes are made to the image, the GIF copy needs to be resaved so it can be updated. When opening a GIF file containing transparency, the transparency will be displayed as a checkerboard pattern:

• •

Optimizing Images
Saving for Web • The Save for Web command allows you to compare different settings to find which provides the best quality and size that you need. • From the main menu, choose File > Save for Web and this will allow you to index colors, add transparency, and save an image to GIF or JPEG at the same time. With this command, there is no need to use the Indexed Color or Color Table commands. • Save for Web will work best if starting from a full-color, RGB image:

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Save for Web also allows you to save image slices, which can be created using the Slice tool in Photoshop, as well as ImageReady:

When saving the image, Photoshop will save each slice as an individual image file within the Slice options pop up window. This will generate the HTML file for your browser to rebuild the image on a Web page:

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Web Settings for Optimization
Optimizing a Web image • From the main menu, choose File > Save for Web OR press the Ctrl + Shift + Alt + S key combination to open the Save for Web dialog box:

Select one of the four tabs for the display you want to use:

Original – Will simply show you the original image:

Optimized – Will show you the image as it will appear if saved by using the current optimization settings:

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2-Up – Will show you the original and optimized images beside each other:

4-Up – When you select 4-Up it will show you two additional optimized images, generated from settings that will create smaller versions of the files. The settings for these two additional previews are created based on the settings selected for the primary optimized view:

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To get a closer look of your image in the dialog box previews, use the Zoom and Hand tools to zoom and scroll through the previews. The zoom ratio can also be used with the zoom pop-up menu in the bottom-left corner of the window:

Zoom Tool

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Hand Tool

Mouse click on a preview and choose the optimization settings you want to apply. The settings down the right side of the dialog box will change according to the file format selected. Most options are the same as the ones in the JPEG and GIF Options dialog boxes:

After a setting is changed, Photoshop will rebuild the preview to show the result. To compare the results with another group of settings, click on another preview and apply the new settings. You can keep adjusting the settings until you are satisfied with the outcome of your image. If your image contains slices, only selected slices can be optimized. With the slice preview turned on, click the Slice Select tool, and click on the slice you want to optimize. Press the Shift key and click to select additional slices.

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If your image does contain slices, click the Output Settings button to open the Output Settings dialog box. In this dialog box, specify how you want to create the required HTML code, set up automatic naming of the slice files, select the folder where the slices will go, and more. Preview the image in your Web browser to confirm that the settings are correct before saving the image, by selecting the browser from the Browser Preview pop-up menu, then click on the Browser Preview button:

Optimizing sliced images • If your image contains slices, only selected slices can be optimized. With the slice preview turned on, click the Slice Select tool, and click on the slice you want to optimize. Press the Shift key and click to select additional slices.

If your image does contain slices, click the Output Settings button to open the Output Settings dialog box. In this dialog box, specify how you want to create the required HTML code, set up automatic naming of the slice files, select the folder where the slices will go, and more. Preview the image in your Web browser to confirm that the settings are correct before saving the image, by selecting the browser from the Browser Preview pop-up menu, then click on the Browser Preview button:

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Saving optimized files • From the preview window, click on the preview image you like best to select it. • Click the OK button OR press the Enter key to open the Save Optimized As dialog box, a variation of the Save As dialog box:

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Specify whether you want to create an image file, an HTML page, or both, from the Save as Type pop-up menu:

• • •

If the image has slices, choose to save only selected slices or all slices from the bottom pop-up menu. Lastly, name the image and select a storage location. Click Save OR press the Enter key to finish the process.

GIF Settings for Optimization
Optimizing a GIF Image • When GIF is selected from the Format pop-up menu, most of the options are similar to the Indexed Color and GIF Options dialog boxes, but there are a couple of new options. In this dialog box, the option labeled Dither works with the Amount option in the Indexed Color dialog box, while the pop-up menu to the left corresponds to the Dither pop-up menu in the dialog box. Options exclusive to the Save For Web dialog box:

Lossy - GIF files rely on “lossless” compression, which means that no data is lost when saving a file. By raising the Lossy value, the pixels can be rearranged in an image so they compress better. Values as high as 30 will bring down the file size and cause little damage to the appearance of an image. Higher values are rarely acceptable, so watch your image preview carefully:

Web Snap - This option allows you to replace a set percentage of colors in an image with colors from the 216-color Web-safe palette. You are able to lock down some colors so they’re compatible with older 8-bit monitors and permit other colors to roam free so that the image still looks great on 24-bit screens:

Color Table - This option will show all the colors in an image. Below the colors, are four small icons:

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The first icon will change a selected color to the nearest Web-safe equivalent. The second icon will lock the selected color so it can’t be changed. The third icon will add a color that is selected with the Eyedropper tool to the palette. The fourth icon will delete a selected color. Using the Color Table: • Click on the original image preview (upper left by default):

Select the Eyedropper tool:

Click on the color you want to add to the palette:

Switch back to the preview that you want to change:

Click the third Color Table icon:

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• •

The fourth icon will delete the selected color. Double-click on a color to display the Color Picker, which will have three Webspecific options:

Select the Only Web Colors check box to select only from the 216-color Websafe palette. When the check box is turned off, the cube icon will alert you that the selected color is not included in the Web-safe palette. Click on the color swatch below the color you have chosen to replace the color with its nearest Websafe equivalent:

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Color Table menu - With this tab selected, you can modify selected colors, sort colors, and load and save palettes from commands in this menu. Click the arrowhead to the right of the tab to set your requirements:

Image Size - This tab allows you to make an image smaller if it is too large to fit well on the Web page, by adjusting the Width, Height, and Percent values:

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JPEG Settings for Optimization
Optimizing a JPEG Image • Most of the JPEG controls in the Save For Web dialog box are also found in the JPEG Options dialog box. • The following options are only available if using Save for Web: ICC Profile - This check box allows you to embed a color profile with the JPEG image. This will add about 3K to the file size, which will mean extra time downloading. It is usually better to leave this option off. Optimized - This option allows you to optimize the compression built into a JPEG image. It has very little impact on file size, and can make the image incompatible with some other image editors, so it is recommended to leave this option off. Quality - This Quality pop-up menu allows value ranges from 0 to 100. If your image contains a mask channel, click on the channel icon to the right of the Quality menu to apply compression selectively. In the resulting dialog box, select the channel to display the channel thumbnail. Adjust the Minimum and Maximum values, either by entering values into the option boxes or dragging the sliders above.

Where the mask is white, Photoshop will apply the Maximum quality setting, resulting in the minimum amount of compression. Where the mask is black, the Minimum quality setting will be applied, resulting in the maximum amount of compression. Gray areas of the mask receive treatment somewhere in the middle of the two. Blur - This option is best set to 0, as it will blur your image to reduce file size, destroying the detail of your image. Color Table - This tab allows you to modify selected colors, sort colors, and load and save palettes from commands in the color table menu. Image Size - This tab allows you to change the image size and resolution, just like working with GIF images.

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Optimization Menu
Using the Optimize Menu • The Optimize Menu has some new options allowing you to optimize your image to it’s best possible final look:

Save Settings - This setting will save the current optimization settings as a preset. The same settings can then be applied by selecting the preset from the Settings pop-up menu:

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Delete Settings - This setting will delete the current preset:

Optimize to File Size - This setting allows you to enter a target file size:

After selecting this command, a dialog box will open where you can specify the following:

Current Settings – To use the currently selected file format Auto Select GIF/JPEG – Allows Photoshop pick the best option Current Slice – If the image contains slices, this allows you to optimize just the selected slice. All Slices Separately – Allows you to optimize each slice to the same file size. All Slices Together – Allows you to optimize all of the slices so that all of the slices together will add up to the chosen file size.

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Repopulate Views – When making optimization changes, this option allows you to update the two alternative previews in the 4-UP preview.

Preview Menu
Using the Preview Menu • The Preview Menu icon is located at the top of the Save For Web dialog box, and its options allow you to control the appearance and feedback provided by the previews. Click the arrowhead in the Save For Web dialog box to open the Preview menu to view its three sections:

Browser Dither - This option allows you to see how a selected preview will look when displayed on an 8-bit monitor. This is a very useful method to use when determining if you need to go with a Web-safe palette and to gauge the performance of the Web Snap value:

Color Compensation - The default setting for this option is Uncompensated Color, which means that you cannot see what the colors may look like on a different system or monitor. The Standard Windows Color or Standard Macintosh Color settings allow you to see how the colors might look on another platform. The Use Document Color Profile setting will show you the colors as they normally appear when opening in your version of Photoshop, using your defined color-profile settings:

Download Rate - These final commands will change the modem speed on which Photoshop calculates the estimated download times listed below each preview. These commands are unusual in that they affect all previews, not just the selected one:

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Output Settings
Applying Output Settings • Select the Output Settings button under the Cancel button in the Save For Web dialog box to open the Output Settings dialog box. Within the various panels in this dialog box, you can control how Photoshop saves slices as individual graphic files, generates code related to links and HTML text that is added to slices, and other options.

Click on the Next and Prev buttons on the right side of the dialog box to move between panels, or simply choose the panel from the pop-up menu in Settings. HTML - Only if you’re an experienced HTML user can you use this panel to get specific about how you want Photoshop to generate the HTML page. It is recommended that you use the default settings:

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Background - This option allows you select and have a background image or solid color appear behind the selected slice or image on the Web page:

To use an image as a background, click on the Choose button to select the file. Photoshop will automatically create a tiled background based on the image selected, and will set it as the Web page background. To use a solid color as a background, select a color from the Color pop-up menu or choose Custom to select a color from the Color Picker. You can also select both a background color and image. The color will appear while the image is loading and will fill the transparent areas when done. Saving Files - This panel contains a couple of important options:

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Filename Compatibility - Leave these check boxes turned on. When files are named by Photoshop, this option will ensure that it uses names that can be recognized on Windows, Mac, and UNIX systems. You can use the nine pop-up menus in the File Naming section to specify exact image information and punctuation you want Photoshop to use when naming the files. Put Images in Folder - When selected, this option will allow you to keep all images related to an HTML page within a separate subfolder. Copy Background Image When Saving - When selected, this option will allow you to save a copy of the background image selected along with the other images. If the option is off, the HTML code for the background will point to the original file location. It is recommended to leave this option checked, as it makes copying all files associated with a page much easier. Include Copyright - When selected, this option will embed any copyright information into the File Info dialog box for both GIF and PNG images.

Slices - If specific names have not been assigned to your slices in the Slice Options dialog box, Photoshop will automatically name each slice. Choose how the program generates the names by using the pop-up menus in this panel:

Saving PNG Images
Optimizing a PNG Image • The Portable Network Graphics format, or PNG format, was designed to outperform and ultimately replace the GIF format.

PNG format supports 8-bit and 24-bit images, it allows you to include mask channels for gradual transparency control, and is not patented:

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PNG files are typically larger than comparable JPEG or GIF images because a PNG file does not include JPEG’s lossy compression, and can contain more colors than a GIF image. Because of this, the PNG format is best suited for small images with fine details that you don’t want mangled by JPEG compression. Photoshop will support any RGB, grayscale, or indexed image in the PNG format. PNG doesn’t support layers, but will permit you to include a single mask channel. If the browser supports extra PNG channels, the mask will define the opacity and transparency of the image on the page. PNG graphics can also be translucent; the gray areas in the mask channel; a great advantage over GIF and JPEG, which cannot. When saving a PNG image, a small dialog box will open to give you the option of applying interlacing or not.

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Not all browsers may support the PNG format. If including a PNG image on your page, visitors may have to install a third-party plug-in, such as Siegel and Gale’s PNG Live.

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Lesson Twenty-two
Indexed Color
This Chapter contains
Indexed Color Palette Editing Indexed Colors

Indexed Color Palette
Using the Indexed Color Palette The Indexed Color Palette allows you to tell Photoshop how to compute the colors in the look-up table, with multiple options:

Exact - This option appears by default if the image already contains less than 256 colors. This will only occur if an extremely high-contrast image is created, like a screen shot, or if you are working from an image that originally began as a grayscale. If Exact is selected, press the Enter key and let the command work:

Lesson 22 – Indexed Color

System - There are two System options, and selecting either of these options allows you to add some imagery to the system. It is recommended to select the System (Windows) option when creating a background pattern, a wallpaper image, or another item appearing at the desktop level:

Web - Web browsers subscribe to their own variety of color palette. The Web palette includes 216 colors whose R, G, and B values are divisible by 51. This means that each primary color can be set to 0, 51, 102, 153, 204, or 255. When calculating all possible combinations, you will get 216 colors. When an image is displayed on an 8-bit screen, the browser will change all colors to match those in the Web palette. Converting colors to the Web palette will make sure that what you see on your screen is what visitors will see as well. When indexing an image, it makes sense to use an adaptive palette, as it will look far better on 16-bit and better monitors:

Uniform - This option will only retain a uniform sampling of colors from the spectrum. Technically, not a widely used option:

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Adaptive - This option allows you to select the most often used colors in your image, which tends to deliver the best possible results. As all system and Web palettes are ignored, images downsized with Adaptive look best on high-color monitors. Adaptive allows you two choices: Local - Will have Photoshop to consider the colors only in the current image. Select an area of your image before choosing the Indexed Color command, and this will influence the performance of Adaptive by causing Photoshop to favor the selected area when creating the palette:

Master - Allows you to have several images open and create a palette based on all the images. Photoshop will consider the selection in the active image and the entire palettes in the other images.

Perceptual and Selective - These two options are variations on Adaptive, Perceptual will sample the colors that produce the best transitions, and Selective will try to maintain key colors, including those in the 216 Web-safe palette. It is recommended to select Perceptual for images when smooth transitions are more important than color values, and choose Selective when an image contains bright colors or sharp, graphic transitions. If an image contains only a few colors and you want to maintain those colors as closely as possible, select Adaptive. Custom - Choosing this option will open the Custom Table dialog box, where a look-up table can be loaded from disk, or you can create and save a custom table. This is a recommended tool for when you are creating multimedia content, but not necessarily for Web graphics:

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Lesson 22 – Indexed Color

Previous - This option allows you to create a series of high-contrast graphics by using the last lookup table created by the Indexed Color command. The Previous option will not be accessible (dimmed) unless the Indexed Color command has been used at least once during the current session:

Using Color • Photoshop measures color in terms of bit depth, and as mentioned before, an 8-bit image translates to 256 colors. Photoshop computes this by taking the number 2 and multiplying it by the number of times specified by the bit depth. 24-bit means 2 to the 24th power, which is 16 million; 4-bit means 2 to the 4th power, which equals 16. Simply enter the actual number of colors into the Colors option box:

It is recommended to begin with 64 colors, and with the Preview check box turned on, you can see the effect of this palette in the image window. It is typically a matter of getting the colors as low as they can go without getting ugly, and still conforming to what you want.

Forcing Color • When using Custom, you can select the colors and lock them in. Select Custom to open the Forced Colors dialog box. A color swatch appears for each color locked by the previously selected setting:

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Lesson 22 – Indexed Color

To add another color: • Click on an empty swatch in the Forced Colors palette:

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Select a color from the Color Picker dialog box. Click an existing swatch to replace it with another color.

Setting the Transparency option • Selecting the Transparency checkbox will maintain the transparency of an image set on a layer against a transparent background. However, transparency in a GIF file is either on or off; there are no soft transitions available as they are in a Photoshop layer:

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Lesson 22 – Indexed Color

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Apply the Indexed Color command with the Transparency check box selected, and a checkerboard pattern will appear in the transparent portion of the image. Photoshop will flatten the file when the Indexed Color command is first chosen, and you cannot add new layers to the file. This makes an indexed image the only kind of Photoshop document that can accommodate transparency without layers.

Setting the Matte option • The Matte option works with the Transparency check box. If there is no transparency in an image, the Matte option will be dimmed. • When Transparency is selected and on, the set Matte color will fill the translucent pixels in the image. • When Transparency is off, the Matte color will fill all translucent and transparent areas. • Select the Matte color that best matches the background color of your Web page to ensure smooth transitions:

Setting the Dither option • The Dither option allows you to control how Photoshop will mimic the several million colors that you ask it to remove from an image:

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Lesson 22 – Indexed Color

None - This option will have Photoshop map each color in the image to its closest equal; in the look-up table, pixel for pixel. This will result in a very harsh color transition. However, it is frequently the preferable option. Diffusion - This option will dither colors randomly in order to create a natural effect. Pattern - This option will dither colors in a geometric pattern, which can be very ugly. Noise - This option will mix pixels throughout the image, not only in areas of transition. Setting the Amount option • When Diffusion is selected as the dithering mode, the amount of dithering can be modified by raising or lowering the Amount value.

Lower values will produce harsher color transitions, but lower the file size. It depends on what you are looking for.

Preserving Exact Colors • The Preserve Exact Colors check box can be used only when the Diffusion option has been selected from the Dither pop-up menu.

When selected and on, this option will turn off dithering inside areas of flat color that match a color in the active palette exactly. You may have better-looking images if you don’t apply any dithering, but if you do decide to dither, turn Preserve Exact Colors on. The difference may not be visible to you, but it could be to others.

Editing Indexed Colors
Editing Colors • Adaptive is typically the best choice for creating Web graphics because each image is scanned for its most essential colors. Yet the Adaptive option doesn’t always get things 100-percent right, because every once and awhile, Photoshop can select some colors that look very off-base. Because of this, colors can be edited manually within the Color Table dialog box.

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From the main menu, choose Image > Mode > Color Table, OR choose Custom from the Palette pop-up menu in the Indexed Color dialog box to open the Color Table dialog box:

This will allow you to replace all appearances of one color in an indexed image with a different color.

To edit a color: • Click on the color to display the Color Picker dialog box. • Select a different color and press the Enter key to go back to the Color Table dialog box. • Press the Enter key again to close the Color Table dialog box; this will change every pixel of the old color to the new color. • The Color Table dialog box will also allow you to open and save palettes and select predefined palettes from the Color Table pop-up menu.

The Color Table dialog box doesn’t allow you to identify a color from the image. If you’re trying to fix a color in your image, you can’t display the Color Table dialog box, so click on the color in the image, and have the dialog box show you the corresponding color in the look-up table.

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Lesson Twenty-three
Web Page Layout
Create Slices
This Chapter contains

Creating Slices Select the Slice tool from the toolbox, OR press the K key:

Create Slices Edit Slices Slice Options Save Slices

The Slice Select tool shares the space with the Slice tool, the difference being that the Slice Select tool includes an arrow cursor:

WHEN CREATING SLICES IT IS ALWAYS A GOOD RULE TO TURN ON THE GRID PRIOR TO BEGINNING. As all images are rectangular, all slices are rectangular. Draw a rectangle Marquee around the shape that you want to slice:

Press the Shift key and drag an edge to constrain the slice to a square.

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For each slice created, a slice number will appear in the upper-left corner of the slice. You can turn the numbers off by deselecting the Show Slice Numbers check box on the Options bar:

Here are a few points relating to slice drawing: • Choose Fixed Size from the Style pop-up menu on the Options bar to set the slice tool to create a fixed size slice. Enter required values into the Width and Height option boxes:

Choose Constrained Aspect Ratio to draw a slice using a specific width to height ratio. Simply enter values into the Width and Height options boxes to set the slice ratio:

To create a slice that surrounds everything on a particular layer: • Select the layer in the Layers palette:

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From the main menu, choose Layer > New Layer Based Slice. If the layer’s contents are changed later on, Photoshop will redraw the slice boundary if new pixels need to be included. This technique should be used when saving slices that contain layer effects, such as drop shadows, as you will be able to edit the effect without having to worry about redrawing the slice manually if the new effect takes up more space.

While drawing borders around buttons, graphics, and other page elements, Photoshop will automatically fill in the gaps with spacer slices. To tell the automatic slices from the user slices, the auto slices have dotted lines for a border, and the user slices have a solid line.

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Use the Line Color pop-up menu on the Options bar to set the color for user slices. This same color scheme is used on the slice numbers:

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Press the Ctrl + H key combination to hide and show the slice boundaries, and the on-screen aids, including guides and selection outlines. From the main menu, choose View > Show > Slices to toggle the slice boundaries on and off independently. From the main menu, choose View > Show > Show Extras Options to specify which on-screen aids you want Photoshop to display at all times:

If slice boundaries overlap, the slices will be stacked according to the order that they were drawn, with the most recent slice at the top. Only the top slice can be edited, but the stacking order can be rearranged to access a lower slice. From the main menu, choose View > Lock Slices to make your slices uneditable after you are done creating them. By locking them, it won’t be possible to accidentally alter a slice boundary. From the main menu, choose View > Unlock to unlock the locked slices.

Edit Slices
Editing Slices To change to a slice boundary: • Choose the Slice Select tool and click on the slice to select it:

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Press the Shift key and click to select additional slices:

Use the following editing techniques to adjust the slices: • Press and hold down the Ctrl key to temporarily access the Slice tool while the Slice Select tool is active. • Pressing and holding down the Ctrl key when the Slice tool is active, will allow you to access the Slice Select tool:

Click on the handles around a slice to modify the size or shape of the slice boundary:

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Drag a handle on the slice to change the shape of the slice. Drag the boundaries in the Save For Web dialog box, as well as in the image window to adjust the slice. Simply click the Slice Select tool button within the dialog box and drag.

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To duplicate a slice, put the tool cursor on the slice boundary, then press the Alt key and drag the slice. Click on the Slice Options button on the Options bar to name the slice, add a link, and apply other slice attributes. This dialog box can also be accessed from inside the Save For Web dialog box; by selecting the slice and double-clicking the Slice Select tool icon:

If overlapping slices were created, access the top most one with the Slice Select tool. Use the four stacking order buttons near the left end of the Options bar, to change the stacking order. You can move a selected slice to the bottom of the stack, the top of the stack, or up or down individual levels:

Slice Options
Applying Slice Options • After a slice is created, you can give the slice a specific name, create a link to a Web page, etc. These functions were only available in ImageReady before, now the data can be entered within Photoshop. • Select the slice you want to format:

Click the Slice Options button on the Options bar, OR double-click on the slice with the Slice Select tool to open the Slice Options dialog box:

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Slice Type - Allows you to either fill a slice with an image or with HTML text:

The No Image option for the HTML text. The dialog box options will change, giving you only a text-entry box into which you can type HTML text. The text can be formatted using standard HTML tags. The text cannot be previewed in Photoshop; the browser has to be used to view the text. The Image option will save the image data for the slice along with any linking data or alternative text assigned to the graphic.

Name - The slices are automatically named in the order they appear. To override the automatic naming system, enter your slice names in this option. This option and the following four only apply when Image is selected as the slice type:

URL - This option allows you to enter a URL that you want to link a button to, and will turn a slice into a button. A simple file name is enough to link to a page stored in the same folder as the slice. For files inside other folders, enter the path name. To link to an outside Web page, enter the full URL name:

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Target - Enter the appropriate frame tag into this option box if your page includes frames:

Message Text - This field allows you to enter a message, which will appear at the bottom of the browser window when a visitor hovers the cursor over the button:

Alt Tag - This field allows you to provide a text alternate for a button. Simply enter text into the field:

Dimensions - These fields allow you to specify the exact placement and size of a slice boundary. Enter the pixel coordinates into the X and Y options and the dimensions into the W (width) and H (height) options. Access to these options is available even when No Image is selected as the slice type. When using the Save For Web dialog box to save your image, two additional options will appear. Inside the dialog box, double-click the slice with the slice select tool. You will get the same options as just described plus the two below:

Save Slices
Saving Slices To save your original image with all slice information intact: • From the main menu, choose File > Save As and select either the Photoshop or TIFF format. • Select the Layers check box, or the slice data will get dumped:

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When reopening the image, choose the Slice Select or Slice tool to redisplay the slice boundaries and make any further changes.

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