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Introduction to Writing Across All Disciplines

Objective
At the end of the lesson, you will be able to identify the characteristics of texts across different
academic disciplines. Page |
What kinds of academic writing assignments do your professors require you to do? 1
What are some of the differences you have noticed in the writing assignments your teachers
give?
Do you use the same writing conventions (e.g., style, vocabulary, organization) for all your
academic papers?
Lesson Quiz

Learn about it!


As a student, you will be asked to write different kinds of academic texts by your professors. It is
important that you know the basic text types or genres in various disciplines. In
writing, genre refers to any category of written text that has a particular set of rules or
conventions. Some examples of writing genres are critical reports, essays, case studies, book or
film reviews, reflective diaries, and research proposals. Equally, you need to understand the
writing conventions that are common across disciplines. Such knowledge can help you prepare
for the typical writing tasks that you will face in your chosen field or discipline.
The following are the three general disciplines that require academic writing:

 Sciences
 Humanities
 Business

Sciences
Sciences are generally divided into four main branches: natural sciences, social sciences, formal
sciences, and applied sciences. The following table shows some specific disciplines that fall under
each main branch:

Academic writing in the sciences is mainly done to inform the readers or to persuade them (by supporting
a claim). For whatever reason, the information you will present must be based on verifiable data gathered
through research or experimentation. Writing in the sciences requires precision in the use of
terminology, simple and direct language, objectivity, and clarity. All information must be well
supported by evidence and reliable sources. Some examples of writing genres in the sciences are
laboratory reports, research papers, and journal articles.
Example:
The size of microbe A increased by 1.2 mm, which positively correlated with the increased pH
level of solution T-90. Therefore, the use of a more alkaline solution at pH level 8 is effective in
stimulating microbial growth by 21%.
Explanation:
The example is a scientific report that gives the result of an experiment. Notice that it uses
precise words (e.g., increased by 1.2 mm, positively correlated) to present the information.

Humanities
This discipline deals with the study of the human culture and experience. Some of the
specific disciplines under the humanities are literature, languages, philosophy, music,
history, art,and theology. The common writing genres in the humanities include literature
reviews, book reports, literary analyses, essays, critical reviews, and argumentative
papers.
Writing in the humanities usually requires you to analyze works or texts and to draw
conclusions and make your own interpretations about them. Using a subjective tone in writing
which reveals your thoughts, opinions, attitudes, and feelings on the topic is typical in this Page |
discipline. 2
Example:
The movie 300 has received a lot of criticisms for its historical inaccuracy and overuse of visual
effects. Perhaps those critics should see the movie as it is—pure entertainment. Personally, I
think it was imaginative. Zack Snyder, the director of the film and one of the writers of the
screenplay, adapted the graphic novel of the same title by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley.
Faithful to the novel, the movie with its stunning visuals retells the Battle of Thermopylae, the
famous battle between the Greeks and the Persians.
Explanation:
The example is an excerpt from a review of the movie 300. Observe the subjective nature of the
text through the use of the first person pronoun “I." Also, facts about the movie are given.

Business
Business writing is often audience-centered and action-oriented. Business papers aim to
motivate a specific audience to perform an action. Writing in business includes documents (e.g.,
memos, claim letters), economic research papers, résumés, school application essays, scholarship
application letters, and business proposals.
Writing in business requires you to have a specific purpose and target audience in mind. It
uses straightforward and concise sentences to deliver the message quickly and clearly. Usually,
business papers are structured or formatted for proper organization and optimal readability.
Example:
Dear Mr. Raymundo,
I am writing this letter to apply for the University of Manila Scholarship. I came to hear about it
through an advertisement on campus, and I believe that I am qualified for it. I graduated with
honors from Ramon Magsaysay High School. As a student, I actively participated in various
school activities. I was the president of our student council; I served as captain of our debate
team; and I was the editor in chief of our school paper.
Explanation:
The example shows the first paragraph of a scholarship application letter. The sender aims to
convince the addressee why the scholarship should be granted to him or her. The letter has a
clear purpose and target audience in mind. Also, it uses straightforward statements.

Key Points
 Different disciplines require certain writing genres and writing conventions.
 Academic writing in the sciences requires precision in the use of terminology, simple and direct
language, objectivity, and clarity. The common writing genres in this discipline are laboratory reports,
research papers, and journal articles.
 In humanities, academic writing is usually done by analyzing works or texts, drawing conclusions,
and then making interpretations about them. The common writing genres in the humanities include
literature reviews, book reports, literary analyses, essays, critical reviews, and argumentative papers.
 Writing in business requires you to have a specific purpose and target audience in mind. The common
writing genres in business include memos, economic research papers, résumés, school application
essays, scholarship application letters, and business proposals.

Quiz:

Question 1 Page |
What do you call a category of written text that has a particular set of rules or conventions? 3
In writing, genre refers to any category of written text that has a specific set of rules or conventions.

Question 2
Which of the following disciplines requires precision in the use of terminology, simple and direct language,
objectivity, and clarity in writing?
Select your answer.
1science2music3literature4art
Science is based on verifiable data gathered through research or experimentation. Writing in the sciences
requires precision in the use of terminology, simple and direct language, objectivity, and clarity.

Question 3
What is the main purpose of business writing?
Select your answer.
1network with people2sell goods and services3call readers to action4respond to questions
Business writing is often audience-centered and action-oriented. Its main purpose is to call the readers to
action or to urge them to take immediate action (e.g., to buy/sell a product, to subscribe, to
download/register).

Question 4
Identify the academic discipline of the following text:
A Chinese ethnic group called the Mosuo practices zouhon, which translates as “walking marriage” in English.
At the age of 13, the young men go through a coming-of-age ceremony. According to tradition, they who have
gone through the ceremony are allowed to choose their own relationship. In this union the men visit their women
at night by walking to them; then the men leave in the morning.
Select your answer.
1humanities 2 journalism 3business 4sciences
The topic of the text deals with the study of a particular group of people and their culture. Thus, the text
falls under the field of humanities.

Question 5
Choose the phrase that best completes this sentence from a business letter.
It is with regret that we inform you that your employment with this company has been terminated .
Select your answer.
1resulting in 75% increase in the company's profit margin
2because you are shackled to your beliefs
3but we assure you that “all is fair in love and war"
4because of your unsatisfactory performance over the last three months
The statement uses clear, precise, and tactful words that express the purpose of the letter.

Question 6
Which set of words is most commonly used in the sciences?
Select your answer.
1media, dyadic, nonverbal, intrapersonal
2intonation, pitch, rate, volume
3hypothesize, genetics, equation, experiment Page |
4currency, demand, export, earnings 4
The answer consists of words that are most commonly found in scientific papers.

Question 7
Which is not an example of an output under the humanities?
Select your answer.
1review of the novel Dekada 70
2clinical analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
3book report on the Harry Potter series
4review of the film Heneral Luna
A clinical analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease falls under the sciences. On the other hand,
the other three choices fall under the humanities.

Passage
(1) FindMe™ is a small GPS tracking device that can be clipped on any object like a phone, wallet, or even a
person. (2) Location data from the gadget’s chip is uploaded to the Web in real-time, allowing you to find lost
items easily. (3) At our company, we believe that the best way to find what you are looking for in life is to serve
other people, which is why we are serving you with our latest innovation. (4) If you are interested in investing
in this product, visit our fundraising page at www.crowdfund.org/findme.

Question 8
Which sentence can be improved to reflect an effective business writing?
Select your answer.
13rd sentence 22nd sentence 31st sentence 44th sentence
The 3rd sentence is wordy. Business writing should be brief and straightforward. "Our company’s goal is
to create and develop technology that brings security to everyone” is more precise and purposeful.

Passage
Richmond (test subject A), a rat, was exposed to a bit of radiation for a while before it became observably
disoriented. Preexposure, Richmond found its way out of the maze quite fast. However, it could not find the
exit postexposure. It stopped and took a nap in quadrant 3, cell A9 (lower leftmost corner) for some time.

Question 9
How can this text from a laboratory report be improved?
Select your answer.
1It should use more descriptive words.
2It should be supported with quantitative data and use formal language.
3It should have information on the taxonomy of rats.
4It should be more convincing and appealing.
The text should have quantitative data as scientific basis. Also, it should use formal language with clear
and precise words.
Quiz

Question 10
Match the following statements to their correct discipline. Page |
Drag the items in the correct category box below. 5

People who eat fast food may be ingesting potentially harmful chemicals called phthalates based on a study
conducted by public health researchers at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C.

Although the film has a great cast, the script is weak and predictable. Also, it is deeply disturbing for children
and too sentimental for adults.

Support FindMe now and be one of the first to have it at a very limited special price. What’s more, you can use
it forever WITHOUT MONTHLY FEES!

We are pleased and honored to inform you that you have been promoted from Associate Editor to Managing
Editor effective March 14, 2016.

sciences
humanities
business

Answer
sciences

People who eat fast food may be ingesting potentially harmful chemicals called phthalates based on a

study conducted by public health researchers at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C.

humanities

Although the film has a great cast, the script is weak and predictable. Also, it is deeply disturbing for

children and too sentimental for adults.

Support FindMe now and be one of the first to have it at a very limited special price. What’s more, you can

use it forever WITHOUT MONTHLY FEES!

business

We are pleased and honored to inform you that you have been promoted from Associate Editor to

Managing Editor effective March 14, 2016.

The two statements under business use straightforward and concise sentences to deliver the message quickly
and clearly; the statement under the sciences is clear and objective, and the information presented is based on
verifiable data; and the statement under the humanities uses a subjective tone.
Properties of a Well-Written Text: Language

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Page |
6
 Write using direct language and well-balanced statements
 Differentiate properly punctuated texts from poorly punctuated ones
 Explain how language use and mechanics affect the meaning of the text

How can you make sure that your text is well-written?

Learn about it!


Language Use
It is important that you make good choices when it comes to language use because how you use
language affects the tone of the text and the readers’ interpretation of it. Before writing, you have to
think about and consider your target audience.

Determine when it is appropriate to use formal language or when informal language is


acceptable.

Informal language is usually used in writing for oneself or in writing to family, friends, and
colleagues. On the other hand, formal language is used in writing academic, business, and official
texts.

Examples:

 We asked the secretary to call the professor and get her permission for us to continue our research.
 We requested that the secretary contact the professor and obtain her permission for us to continue our
research.

Explanation:
In the first sentence, the writer used casual words such as asked, call, and get permission, which made
the sentence informal. The second sentence used more serious words such as requested instead of
asked, contact instead of call, and obtain permission instead of get permission. This sentence is
formal and is appropriate to use when talking or writing to a person of authority.

When you write, you should also make sure that the language you use is
**direct and simple rather than complicated so that readers would easily understand the text.** If
your readers are the youth, then you should use words that are familiar to young people.

Example:
Why Sunglasses Are a Must-Have for Kids (An Excerpt)

(NewsUSA) Most parents know how damaging the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can be to
our skin, which is why they dutifully slather sunscreen on their kids during the summer. But one
thing that often gets overlooked is protecting their children’s eyes. According to vision-care experts,
kids receive three times more UV exposure than adults annually, yet less than 30 percent of parents
currently protect their children’s eyes with sunglasses. The reason for concern is that children and
adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the sun’s rays because their ocular lenses are not mature
enough to filter UV light as effectively as adults, causing damage to the retina.

“Everyone buys into what happens to your skin when it comes to sun damage, but many parents are
really surprised to learn about the cumulative UV damage to the eyes,” Dawn Hartman, an
Page |
optometrist at Columbus Ophthalmology Associates in Columbus, Ohio, told the Wall Street Journal
7
in an interview. But the right sunglasses can help, as parents become more aware that protection
from the sun is not just skin deep.

Source:
(USA, NEWS USA, 2016)
http://www.copyrightfreecontent.com/health/why-sunglasses-are-a-must-have-for-kids/

Explanation:
The entire text uses simple words. This lets readers easily understand the significance of letting kids
wear sunglasses. There were a few technical scientific terms that were necessary to mention in the
text, such as ultraviolet radiation, ocular lenses, and retina. However, the message of the text is still
easy to grasp.

You should also be sensitive enough to use unbiased language so that you will not
offend any individual or any particular group of people. Unbiased language is language that
is free of racial bias, free of religious bias, and free of gender bias.

Examples:

 A teacher should make it a point to motivate her students.


 Teachers should make it a point to motivate their students.

Explanation:
In the first sentence, the pronoun used is she, but teachers may also be male, so the statement shows
gender bias. The second sentence, on the other hand, makes use of the gender-neutral pronoun their,
making it unbiased.

Mechanics
Mechanics are conventions that have to be considered in writing. Some of these conventions
are spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. It is important to know and observe these
conventions in writing to avoid confusion.

Spelling
When you write, always make sure that you are consistently using one standard with regard to the
spelling of your words. Remember that there are slight differences in American English spelling and
British English spelling.

Examples:
Explanation:
Before writing, think of your target audience. Whether you write using the British or American
spelling, it is important to be consistent in spelling. If you are unsure of the spelling of a word, consult
a dictionary or a spell checker.

Punctuation Page |
Punctuation is the act of using a system of symbols such as the comma, period, quotation marks, 8
question marks, etc. that are used to give structure to and organize a text. The use of punctuation
guides the reader regarding how the text should be read.

Examples:

 I love to paint portraits I would paint one every day if I had the time
 I love to paint portraits. I would paint one every day if I had the time.
 This book is dedicated to my parents, Noel and Corazon.
 This book is dedicated to my parents, Noel, and Corazon.

Explanation:
The first example does not make use of proper punctuation marks, while the second example presents
two sentences that are correctly punctuated. In the third example, the sentence denotes that the
author’s parents are Noel and Corazon. In the fourth example, the use of the serial comma denotes
that the book is dedicated to four persons: the author’s mom, the author’s dad, Noel, and Corazon.
The simple act of adding a comma completely changed the meaning of the statement.

Capitalization
Capitalization is the act of writing the first letter of a word in uppercase while the rest of the letters are
in lowercase. There are rules in capitalization that one has to remember. Below are a few examples of
words that require capitalization:

 proper nouns
Alex, Manila
 proper adjectives

Canadian

 days of the week

Sunday

 months of the year

January

 specific course titles

Theater 101

 kinship names used in place of personal names and are followed by personal names

Grandma, Dad, Aunt Paz, Uncle Alvin


 adjectives, verbs, adverbs, nouns, and pronouns in a title and the first and last word in a title

Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (literature)

And I Am Telling You I’m Not Going (song)


Page |
 historical periods, events, documents
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Great Depression, the Renaissance, the Constitution

Keypoints
 Informal language is used in writing for oneself and to family, friends, and colleagues,
while formal language is used in writing academic, business, and official texts.
 Using simple, direct, and familiar language rather than choosing complicated words would
make a text easier to understand.
 Using unbiased language could prevent offending any individual or any particular group of
people.
 Mechanics are conventions that have to be considered in writing. Some of these conventions
are punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.

Question 1
Which words describe the language of a well-written text?
Select multiple answers and then press Answer.
1familiar 2 complicated 3direct 4obscure
Using direct, simple, and familiar language rather than using complicated words would help readers easily
understand the text.\

Question 2
What do you call conventions that have to be considered in writing?
Mechanics are conventions that have to be considered in writing. Some of these conventions are spelling,
punctuation, and capitalization

Question 3
It is the act of using a system of symbols such as the comma, period, quotation marks, question
marks, etc. that are used to give structure to and organize a text.
Punctuation is among the mechanics of writing. It is the act of using a system of symbols such as the comma,
period, quotation marks, question marks, etc. that are used to give structure to and organize a text.

Question 4
Which of the following should be used in writing an academic text?
Select your answer.
1formal language 2biased language 3informal language 4complicated language
When it comes to language use in writing academic texts, one should use unbiased language, familiar language, and
formal language.
Question 5
Which of the following does not fall under mechanics as an aspect of a well-written text?
Select your answer.
1punctuation 2capitalization 3spelling 4grammar
Mechanics are conventions that have to be considered in written text and some of these
conventions are punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. Grammar is considered as a different Page |
aspect of writing. 10

Question 6
Which of the following statements are true of a well-written text?
Select multiple answers and then press Answer.
1It is written in a language appropriate to its target audience.
2It is written in a language that shows bias toward a certain group of individuals.
3It is written in such a way that words are spelled both in British and American spelling.
4It is written in such a way that all proper nouns are capitalized.
Writing using biased language is offensive, and spelling words in a text using the British and American spelling
simultaneously would be confusing to the reader so both these choices are not true of a well-written text. The
other two choices are true of a well-written text.

Question 7
Which of the following sentences is not properly punctuated?
Select your answer.
1How will I be able to accomplish all the things I have to do.
2How I will get through this very hectic week, I have no idea.
3How he was able to finish the race despite being sick still amazes me!
4How this works is something that I have studied for a long time.
The sentence “How will I be able to accomplish all the things I have to do” is a question and should be
punctuated with a question mark rather than a period.

Answer
Question 8
Identify which of the following sentences use formal language and which use informal language.
Drag the items in the correct category box below.
Formal language
Kindly inform the management as soon as possible.The model apologized to the director for

causing a delay in the photo shoot.


Informal language
The little boy said sorry to his mother for breaking her antique jar.Only a few people told their

boss that they are unhappy with their workload.


The sentences with the words apologized and kindly inform are formal. The use of the words sorry,
told, and boss makes the two other sentences informal.

Passage
Wellness Travel Is on the Rise (An Excerpt) Page |
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(News USA) So, what is wellness travel? The trend covers all aspects of health, including nutritious menu options
spa offerings and fitness activities. Across the globe tourism professionals are responding to growing demands by
introducing whole food vegetarian and vegan menus, spa packages and active excursions. Hiking, cycling, paddle
boarding, and kayaking continue to gain popularity.

Source: News USA, 2015


http://www.copyrightfreecontent.com/fashion/wellness-travel-is-on-the-rise/

Question 9
Read the following and identify two sentences that contain errors.

Incorrect!
1So, what is wellness travel?
4Hiking, cycling, paddle boarding, and kayaking continue to gain popularity.
The second and third sentences contain errors in punctuation. The correct way of writing these sentences are the
following:

 The trend covers all aspects of health, including nutritious menu options, spa offerings, and fitness activities.
 Across the globe, tourism professionals are responding to growing demands by introducing whole food,
vegetarian and vegan menus, spa packages, and active excursions.

2The trend covers all aspects of health, including nutritious menu options spa offerings and fitness
activities.

3Across the globe tourism professionals are responding to growing demands by introducing whole food
vegetarian and vegan menus, spa packages and active excursions. -

Passage
Poor Posture Takes a Toll (An Excerpt)
Source: News USA, 2016
http://www.copyrightfreecontent.com/human-interest/poor-posture-takes-a-toll/
Question 10
The underlined sentence in the given paragraph contains gender bias. Which of the following revisions makes it
gender-neutral?
Incorrect!
2A chiropractor has been specifically trained, as part of its minimum seven years of higher education, to
provide drug-free, hands-on care that helps to naturally align and strengthen the spine, as well as advise
on healthy lifestyle habits.

The use of the plural form chiropractors and its corresponding pronoun their makes the sentence unbiased and
gender-neutral.
1A chiropractor has been specifically trained, as part of her minimum seven years of higher education, to
provide drug-free, hands-on care that helps to naturally align and strengthen the spine, as well as advise
on healthy lifestyle habits.
3A chiropractor has been specifically trained, as part of them minimum seven years of higher education,
to provide drug-free, hands-on care that helps to naturally align and strengthen the spine, as well as advise
Page |
on healthy lifestyle habits.
12
4 Chiropractors have been specifically trained, as part of their minimum seven years of higher education,
to provide drug-free, hands-on care that helps to naturally align and strengthen the spine, as well as advise
on healthy lifestyle habits.

Considerations in Academic and Professional Writing


At the end of the lesson, you will be able to determine the factors to consider in writing an academic
or professional paper.
What is a academic writing? What is professional writing?

What is the difference between an academic and a professional style of writing?


What are the factors to consider as one writes an academic and professional paper?

Learn about it!


Academic Writing and Professional Writing
Before writing a paper, one must determine the purpose of writing. It can either be for academic Page |
purposes, business or professional purposes. There are two styles of writing, and it 13
includes Academic Writing and Professional or Business Writing.
Academic writing is a style practiced by teachers or students as they produce
educational materials. Professional writing, also known as ‘business writing,' is a style used
in the workplace. The factors to consider in writing an academic and professional paper are the
format, focus and style. Use the table below as a quick reference of the lesson.

Considerations in Professional Writing


Formats
Professional writing is the standard of writing used in journalism, advertising, military and
technical writing to name some. Different formats that can be used in professional writing are letter,
memo, business e-mail, press release and resume writing.
Focus
The focus of professional writing is on giving opinion, since this type of writing style is used in
workplace communication. It is advisable to focus on state of action (e.g. recommend, endorsed)
rather than the mental state (e.g. think, believe).
Example:
We recommend Mr. John Smith to provide an appropriate response to the issue raised by the
committee.
Explanation:
This example shows that the focus is on giving opinion or recommendation.
Style
A professional or business paper is a less formal type of paper. The sentence should be short or
not more than twenty five words. It can also use first, second and third point of view (e.g. I, me, you,
yours, he, she, it and they). The writer should also avoid qualifiers such as would be, maybe and
probably because these weaken the tone of the paper. Use active voice rather than passive voice.
Active voice describes a sentence where the subject carries out the action verb (e.g. Active Voice - I
would like to remind you of the company policy. Passive Voice – The company policy was reminded
by him.)
Example:
I would like to apply for the Editorial position posted on your website.
Explanation:
The sentence is short, less formal but still in its professional tone, uses first person point of view, does
not have any qualifier and is in active voice.
There are number of factors to consider in writing academic and professional papers, but always keep
Page |
in mind that both are used to convey information. That is why it must be written clearly and
14
accurately.

Tips
 In academic writing, it is best to outline the topics to be included in your paper. Note that
critical thinking and reasoning must be done to produce quality academic paper.
 In professional or business writing, it is best to construct sentences that have lesser adjective
and adverb. It must be direct to the point, without losing the essence of what the writer wants
to express.
 It is recommended to use MLA writing style in English academic paper and APA in Psychology
and Science academic paper. Chicago Writing Style is commonly used and is recommended in
writing any business document.

Question 1
What style of writing is used by teachers or students in producing educational materials?
Select your answer.
1business paper 2academic writing 3professional writing 4university paper
Academic writing is used by teachers or students in producing educational materials.

Question 2
What style of writing is used in the workplace?
Select your answer.
1business paper 2academic writing 3
professional writing 4university paper
Professional Writing is the style of writing used in the workplace.

Question 3
The other term for professional writing is .
Select your answer.
1academy writing 2business writing 3practiced writing 4expert writing
Business Writing is the other term for professional writing.

Question 4
Which of the following is not a major factor to consider in academic and professional writing?
Select your answer.
1format 2focus 3paper size 4style
Style, format, and focus are all major factors to consider in writing academic and professional paper.

Question 5
The following are styles to consider in writing an academic paper except: .
Select your answer.
1use precise words in writing academic paper
2jargon, slang words are not allowed
3first, second, and third person point of view
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4have short or long sentences 15
Remember that an academic paper must be written in third person point of view only.

Question 6
Which of the following style must be considered in writing a professional paper?
Select your answer.
1use passive voice at all times
2use the third person point of view
3use of "may be, probably, would be" are allowed
4use less than twenty-five words per sentence
A professional or business paper must have less than twenty-five words per sentence. It can also use the first,
second and third person point of view. The use of "may be, probably and would be" are not allowed. Use active
voice only.

Question 7
What makes a good academic and professional paper?
Select your answer.
1It must contain jargon and slang words.
2It must be in active voice.
3It must convey clear and accurate information.
4It must use first and third person point of view.
A good academic and professional paper must convey clear and accurate information.

Question 8
Categorize the following according on its appropriate style of writing.
Drag the items in the correct category box below.
Academic Writing
Book Report Dissertation Essay
Professional Writing
Press Release Application Letter Resume Writing
Academic Writing formats are abstract, book report, conference paper, thesis or dissertation, essay,
and research paper. Professional Writing formats are letter, memo, business e-mail, press release,
resume writing.
Question 9
Categorize the statements based on its focus of writing.
Drag the items in the correct category box below.
Stating Facts and Issues
Pavlov recommends Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT as treatment of choice.The author suggests the use of

vocabulary
Giving to easily understand the newly presented topic.
Opinion

Your paper has been endorsed to the Human Resources Department.The Board of Directors suggests full
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implementation of this program. 16

The focus of the academic writing is on stating facts and issues, not on the opinion of the writer. The focus of
professional writing is on giving opinion, since this type of writing style is used in workplace communication.

Question 10
Categorize the statements based on its style of writing.
Drag the items in the correct category box below.
Academic Writing

The purpose of this study is to determine how political affiliation affects their political standing.The paper solely

focus on its counterclaim that an additional two years of education is not necessary to improve the quality of

education.

Professional Writing

This is to acknowledge receipt of your e-mail. For your perusal, please see the list of our branches.Thank you for

granting our request. We hope to work with you soon.

Academic Writing is commonly used by educators or students and focuses on facts and issues. Professional writing is
used in workplace and focuses on giving opinion or recommendation.

Patterns of Development
Question 1
Which of the following describes a definition?
Select your answer.
1It relates an incident or a series of events.
2It appeals to the reader’s senses.
3It gives information of what something or someone is like.
4It explains a concept, a term, or a subject.
A definition explains a concept, a term, or a subject. It tells what something is.

Question 2
Using this pattern of development, a writer can tell the reader when, where, and what happened. Which pattern is it?
Select your answer.
1definition 2persuasion 3narration 4description
A writer can use narration to tell a story, which contains details of when, where, and what happened.

Question 3
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What kind of details does a description have?
Select multiple answers and then press Answer. 17

1specific 2general 3factual 4concrete


Answer
A description has concrete and specific details, which are carefully chosen by a writer to paint a picture in the mind
of the reader.

Question 4
Which pattern of development is appropriate to use in writing the product specifications of a new smartphone
model?
Select your answer.
1definition 2description 3narration 4elimination
Using description, you can give the features of the given product.

Question 5
Identify the pattern of development used in this paragraph.
The gray swivel chairs are on display. They have adjustable backrests. With these, users can easily recline on the
chairs and take a quick nap. Also, the chairs are cushioned with memory foam. This material molds to the user’s
body and helps relieve back pain.
Select your answer.
1description 2 definition 3 narration 4 exemplification
The paragraph describes the physical appearance of the chairs including their color, type, and features.
\
Question 6
Suppose a witness is making a report on the fire that broke out in a footwear factory. Which pattern of development
can he or she use in writing the report?
Select your answer.
1classification 2
narration 3
description 4comparison
The witness can use narration to give the exact details of the fire incident. In the report he or she can tell when
and where the fire began and what caused it.
The Short-Story (An Excerpt)
By W. Patterson Atkinson, A. M.
The short-story—Prof. Brander Matthews has suggested the hyphen to differentiate it
from the story which is merely short and to indicate that it is a new species—is a
narrative which is short and has unity, compression, originality, and ingenuity, each
in a high degree. The notion of shortness as used in this definition may be inexactly though easily
grasped by considering the length of the average magazine story. Compression means that nothing
must be included that can be left out. Clayton Hamilton expresses this idea by the convenient phrase
"economy of means." By originality is meant something new in plot, point, outcome, or character.
(See Introduction III for a discussion of these terms.) Ingenuity suggests cleverness in handling the
theme. The short-story also is impressionistic because it leaves to the reader the reconstruction from
hints of much of the setting and details.

Question 7
The first sentence of the paragraph gives the concept being defined, its general class, and its
characteristics. Identify the parts.
Drag the items in the correct category box below.
short-story has originality narrative short
CONCEPT
GENERAL CLASS
CHARACTERISTICS
The first sentence of the paragraph gives the concept being defined, its general class, and its
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characteristics. Identify the parts.
18
This station received a phone call about a shooting incident that allegedly happened along Fireside
Avenue of Barangay San Jose of this municipality. Two on-duty officers of this station together with
the investigator on duty went to the scene immediately. In the scene they found a dead man with
gunshots on his head and body. He was found lying beside a white van with the plate number HEY-
789. A witness saw a group of men wearing black masks, and they opened fire on the victim.
-An excerpt from a police report
Specific times can make the report more accurate. For instance, the time of the phone call and the time that the
witness heard the gunshots are important.

Of Gardens (An Excerpt)


By Francis Bacon
For gardens, speaking of those which are indeed princelike, as we have done of buildings, the
contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground, and to be divided into three parts: a
green in the entrance; a heath or desert in the going forth; and the main garden in the midst;
besides alleys on both sides. And I like well, that four acres of ground be assigned to the green, six to
the heath, four and four to either side, and twelve to the main garden. The green hath two
pleasures: the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn;
the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst; by which you may go in front upon a
stately hedge, which is to inclose the garden. But because the alley will be long, and in great heat of
the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the garden by going in the sun through the green;
therefore, you are, of either side the green, to plant a covert alley, upon carpenter’s work, about
twelve foot in height, by which you may go in shade into the garden.
Which of these does Bacon manage to do in his description?
Select your answer.
1Define garden. 2Instruct readers about gardens in general.
3Narrate his life in the gardens. 4Give information about the gardens he likes.
n the first sentence, Bacon right away tells the reader what he wants for gardens. He says “the contents ought not
well to be under thirty acres of ground.” Then he affirms it in the sentence that follows, saying “And I like well, that
four acres of ground be assigned to the green...”
1Define garden. 2Instruct readers about gardens in general.
3Narrate his life in the gardens.
Question 10
Which of these does the author manage to do through definition?
Incorrect!
2describe what one perceives and thinks as ideas
1distinguish between perceptions and ideas
4give the meaning of ideas
Through definition, the author manages to explain what perceptions and ideas in the first and second paragraphs,
respectively. Then using the same order or arrangement of the paragraphs, he is able to emphasize the difference
between perceptions and ideas.