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D.

Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Homework Assignment Number Three Solutions


Assigned: Wednesday, January 27, 1999
Due: Wednesday, February 3 1999 BEGINNING OF CLASS.

Problem 1. Geankoplis, problem 2.6-4, page 106

 y 
2
v x ( y ) = v max 1 − 
y 
  for − y o < y < y o

  o 

yo W yo

∫∫vdA ∫ ∫v x ( y )dzdy W ∫v x ( y )dy


− yo 0 − yo
v= A
= =
∫∫dA yo W 2y o W
A ∫ ∫dzdy
− yo 0
y
yo   y 2    y 3  o
∫ v max 1 − y  dy v max y − 3 y 2 
v=
− yo   o  =   o − y o
2y o 2y o
  y o 3 
2v max y o −  
  2
 3 y o  = 2v max
v ==
2y o 3

Problem 2. Geankoplis, problem 2.6-6, page 107


If we consider a tank as shown in Figure 2..6-5 on page 54, we can write the total mass balance:

acc = in − out + / − gen / con

Draw the system. Define the control volume.


If we assume no reaction:
Constant flow rates in and out.

acc = in − out

dm( t ) &
= min − m
& out
dt
m( t ′
=t) t′
=t
) = ∫(m
∫dm(t ′ & in − & out )dt
m
m( t ′
= 0) t′
=0

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D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

m( t ) − m( t = 0) = (m & out )t
& in − m

m( t ) = (m & out )t + m( t = 0)
& in − m

For the problem specifications:

m( t ) = (900 − 600 )t + 500 = 300 t + 500 kg

Now look at the weight fraction of salt in the tank by writing a salt balance.
acc = in − out

dm( t )w s ( t )
=m
& in w s,in − m
& out w s,out
dt

dm( t ) dw s ( t )
w s (t ) + m( t ) =m
& in w s,in − m
& out w s,out
dt dt

Substitute our result from above for the mass in the tank and the change in mass in the
tank.
dm( t ) &
= min − m
& out
dt

m( t ) = (m & out )t + m( t = 0)
& in − m

w s ( t )(m & out )+


& in − m [(m& in − & out )t + m(t = 0)] s = m
m
dw ( t )
& in w s,in − m
& out w s,out
dt

[(m& in − & out )t + m( t = 0)] dw s ( t ) = [


m (m& in w s,in − m& out w s,out )− w s (t )(m& in − m& out )]dt
dw s ( t ) dt
=
[(m& in w s,in & out w s,out )− w s (t )(m
− m & out )] [
& in − m (m& in − m& out )t + m( t = 0)]
w s (t′
=t) t′ =t
dw s ( t ′
) dt
∫ [(m& w & out w s,out )− w s ( t ′
− m )(m
& in − m
= ∫
& out )] t ′= 0 [
(m& in − m& out )t + m( t = 0)]
w s (t ′
=0 )
in s,in

Assume tank is well mixed so:

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D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

w s, out = w s ( t ′
)

w s ( t′
=t) t′
=t
dw s (t ′) dt
∫ [ = ∫
= 0 ) min w s,in − w s ( t )min ] t′=0 [
(m& in − m& out )t + m(t = 0)]
ws ( t′
& ′&

− 1  w s,in − w s (t )  1 (m & out )t + m( t = 0 ) 


& − m
ln  = ln in 
& in w s,in − w s ( t = 0 )  (m
m & in − m& out )  m( t = 0) 

 −m & in

 w s,in − w s ( t )  (m & out )t + m( t = 0) (m& in − m& out )
& in − m
ln  = ln  
w − w ( t = 0 )   m ( t = 0 ) 
s,in s

 

−m & in
w s,in − w s ( t ) (m & out )t + m( t =
& − m 0) (min − m& out )
&
=  in 
w s,in − w s ( t = 0)  m(t = 0) 

m& in
 m( t = 0) (m& in − m& out )
w s ( t ) = w s,in − (w s,in − w s ( t = 0 ))
(m 

&
 in − &
m out )t + m( t = 0 ) 

From the problem specifications:

900
 500 300
w s ( t ) = 0.1667 − (0.1667 − 0.05 ) 
300 t + 500 

3
 5 
w s ( t ) = 0.1667 − 0.1167 
3t + 5 
3
 5 
w s ( t = 2) = 0.1667 − 0.1167  = 0.1557 weight percent salt
3( 2) + 5 
Problem 3. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-2, page 107

 2
y 
v x ( y ) = v max 1 − 
y 
  for − y o < y < y o

  o 

3
D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

3
2v 8v
v = max , v 3 = max
3 27
yo W yo yo
3 3 3
∫∫v
3
dA ∫ ∫v x dzdy W ∫v x dy ∫v x dy
− yo 0 − yo − yo
v3 = A
= = =
∫∫dA yo W 2y o W 2y o
A ∫ ∫dzdy
− yo 0

 y 
2
y  y  
4 6
3
v x = v max
3
1 − 3
y 
 + 3
y 
 −   
y 

  o  o  o 

y
3   3   5   7  o
v 3 y 3 y 1 y
v 3 = max y −  2  +  4  −  6 
2y o  3      
 y o  5  y o  7  y o 
 − y o

v max 
7 
3 yo  3 yo  1 yo 
3 3 5
v =
3
y o −   +   −   = 16 v max 3
yo  3 2   4   6
 y o  5  y o  7  y o 
 35
 
3
8 v max
3
v 27 35
α= = =
v 3 16 v 3 54
max
35
Problem 4. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-4, page 107

  v2 
∂ρV 
U + + zg 
 
 
 2 
  v2    v2 

= ρvA H + + zg  + zg & ∑F
∂t α  − ρvA H +
α  + Q − Ws +

  2 
in 
  2 
out

Neglect Kinetic energy. Assume Steady state. Neglect friction.


kg m3 kg kg
& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1000
m ⋅0.189 = 189 = 3.15
m3 min min s
z 2 − z1 = 15.24
Q = − 704kW = − 704,000J / s

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D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

W& = − 1.49kW = − 1490J / s


s
H1 = 390,582J / kg from steam table, linear interpolation
Overall energy balance becomes:

0 = − 3.15[ (H2 − 390582 + 9.8(15.24))]− 704000 + 1490


H2 = 167414
From the steam tables, linear interpolation, the outlet temperature is: T2 = 40.0
The enthalpy gain due to the work is: 1490 J/s

1490J / s J
= 473
kg kg
3.15
s
Problem 5. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-8, page 108

3
ft 3  m
kg  kg
& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1150
m ⋅0.2   = 6. 513
m 3 s 3.2808 ft  s
&
m 6. 513 m
v1 = = = 0 . 8879
ρA 1 π  0.0254m 
2 s
1150 ⋅ ⋅3.548in ⋅ 
4  in 
m& 6.513 m
v2 = = = 2 . 616
ρA 2 π  0.0254m 
2 s
1150 ⋅ ⋅2.067in ⋅ 
4  in 
Energy balance just around pump--nothing but pressure, kinetic energy, and work terms:
∆p ∆v 2 &ˆ +
0=
ρ
+

+ g∆z + W s ∑ F̂
 ∆v 2 & 
ˆ
∆p = − ρ 2α + W 
s
 
Need the work. Solve mechanical energy balance around entire system:

∆p ∆v 2 ˆ
0=
ρ
+

& +
+ g∆ z + W s ∑ F̂
 
 
2.616 − 0.8879
2 2
 m  ˆ& ft ⋅lbf  J / kg 
0 = 0+ + 9.8(75 ft ) ⋅ + Ws + 18 ⋅ 2.9890
2 3. 2808ft  lbf  ft ⋅lbf 
 lbf 
 
W&ˆ = − 3.0275 − 224. 03 − 53.802 = − 280.86 Joules/kg done on system.
s

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D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

ˆ ˆ ˆ W&ˆ − 280. 86 J kg
& & &
Ws = ηWp so Wp = s = = − 401.3 ⋅6.513 = − 2613 Watts
η 0. 7 kg s
& = 2613 Watts ⋅ hp
ˆ
W = 3.50hp
p
745.70 W

Now, we can go back and determine what was the pressure developed across the pump:

∆v 2 &ˆ  2.616 2 − 0.8879 2 


∆p = − ρ
 2α + W 
s = − 1150
 + − 401. 3  = 458013Pa

   2 
1atm
∆p = 458013Pa ⋅ = 4.52atm
101325Pa

Problem 6. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-9, page 108


(a) horizontal flow
2
kg mπ  0. 0254m  kg
& = ρv 1A 1 = 998
m ⋅1. 676 ⋅3. 068in ⋅  = 7.978
m3 s 4  in  s

&
m 7.978 m
v2 = = = 3.693
ρA 2 π  0.0254m 
2 s
998 ⋅ ⋅2.067in ⋅ 
4  in 
Energy balance, neglect friction, pipe is horizontal:
∆p ∆v 2 ˆ
0=
ρ
+

& +
+ g∆ z + W s ∑ F̂
∆p ∆v 2
=−
ρ 2α

p 2 = p1 − ρ
∆v 2
= 68900Pa − 998
(
3.693 2 − 1. 676 2
= 63496
) Pa
2α 2

(b) vertical flow


∆p ∆v 2 &ˆ +
0=
ρ
+

+ g∆z + W s ∑ F̂
∆p ∆v 2
=− − g∆z
ρ 2α
 ∆v 2
p 2 = p1 − ρ + g∆ z
  2
(2  )
 = 68900 − 998  3.693 − 1.676 + 9.8 ⋅0.457  = 59027 Pa
 2α  2
   
Problem 7. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-11, page 109

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D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

kg m3 kg
& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1000
m ⋅0.800 = 800
m3 s s
z 2 − z1 = − 5 − 89.5 = − 94.5 m
p 2 − p1 = 89600 − 172400 = − 82800 Pa
2 2
v 2 − v 1 = 0.0
W& = 658000J / s = 739326 J / s
s
0. 89
∆p ∆v 2 ˆ
& + ∑ F̂
0= + + g∆ z + W s
ρ 2α
− 82800 739326J / s
0=
1000
+ 0 + 9.8 ⋅( − 94.5) +
800kg / s
+ ∑ F̂
∑ F̂ = 84.7 J/kg