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EUTROPHICATION

Of Lakes INTRODUCTION OF EUTROPHICATION

CAUSES

EFFECTS

CONTROL
Eutrophication is an enrichment of water by nutrient salts
that causes structural changes to the ecosystem such as
:increase production of algae and aquatic plants, depletion
of fish species, general deterioration of water quality and
other effects that reduce and preclude use”
STATES OF LAKE

Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Eutrophic


TYPES OF EUTROPHICATION

NATURAL

CULTURAL
 Causes
 This problem occurs when farmers use artificial chemical
fertilizers on their land.
 These fertilizers contain large amounts of Potassium,
Phosphorus and Nitrogen.
 It’s the nitrogen which causes all the problems, in the form of
nitrates.
 An excess of these will be washed out from the fields by the
rain in a process called “run-off ”, where the nitrates then
accumulate in nearby rivers and ponds.
 Natural runoff of
 Inorganic fertilizers
 Erosion
 Discharge of detergents
 Discharge of partially treated or untreated sewage
 Domestic and industrial waste
 Animals wastes and sediments entering into water
Effect of eutrophication
 Water plants really increase in biomass with
the due so the increase in nutrients in the
water. This causes the death of other, smaller
plants which are covered by these plants
increasing the amount of dead matter in the
water.
 Bacteria use the dead matter to respire,
thereby using oxygen from the water.
 Lack of oxygen leads to the death of sensitive
organisms unable to carry out gas exchange.
EUTROPHICATION is
harmful for ME……
HOW IT CAN BE OVERCOME

• Improvement of purifying performance of waste water treatment


plants , installing tertiary treatment systems.
• Implementation of effective filter ecosystems to remove nitrogen
and phosphorus present in the runoff water.
• The most important thing is to use organic fertilisers. These
breakdown a lot slower and so not all the nutrients are released at
once reducing the plant bloom.
• Spraying fertilisers at appropriate times of year is also important
when it is not likely to washed off by rain into water ways.
Presented by - Group D1 (4)

- Jyoti Kanwar
- Kamlendra Singh
- Kalpesh Sompura
- Kamaldeep Meena

THANK YOU
MBM ENGINEERING COLLEGE
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

GROUP – D(2)
PRESENTED BY – PRESENTED TO-
KARUNA RATHI
KARTIK PARIHAR VARUN MATOLIA SIR
KAUSHAL RAMDEO
KAVITA GANGWANI
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUE
EARTH: NEAR TO ITS END
 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
o Global environmental issues are defined as the problems with the planet’s system
that have developed as a result of human interference or mistreatment of the planet.
o It is related to the major problems of the present scenario, which harms the
environment a lot, like:-
* Global warming
* Acid rain
* Ozone layer depletion
* Hazardous waste, etc.
o These issues are interconnected, means one accelerate the other e.g.:-water
pollution accelerate the rate of air pollution which cause global warming.

By- karuna rathi


 MAJOR CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES

o THE MAJOR CAUSE BEHIND ALL THESE ISSUES IS THAT WE ONLY TAKE OUT
FROM NATURE AND AT THE TIME OF PAYING BACK TO NATURE WE GET OUR
FEET BACK. THESE INCLUDES-
o *Unbalanced population growth,
*Unsustainable resources use,
*Ecological ignorance: we don’t deeply understand how the earth works,
*Lack of public and worldwide thinking, etc.

By- karuna rathi


 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

฀ Natural calamity:- flood, tsunamis, volcanic eruption, earthquake, etc.


฀ Due to human activities natural resources are depleting day by day like
deforestation, marine also affected, there life is threatened very much.
฀ Ozone layer is depleting day by day this creates problem for both animals and plants.
฀ Human health might be at the receiving end as a result of the environmental
degradation.

By- karuna rathi


 PRECAUTIONS TO CONTROL
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
฀ Organic waste should be dumped in places far from residential
areas.
฀ Industries should use fuel with lower sulphur content.

By- karuna rathi


By- kartik parihar
OZONE
฀ A molecule containing ฀ Ozone play vital role in
three atom of oxygen is atmosphere.
called ozone
฀ Ozone is very rear in
atmosphere,averaging ฀Ozone protect us from
about three molecule of harmful Ray of of sun ex.
ozone for every 10 million UV Ray
of air molecule

By- kartik parihar


WHERE IS
OZONE LAYER
FOUND

Ozone Layer is found


in stratosphere in
atmosphere

By- kartik
parihar
ROLE OF OZONE LAYER AND HOW ARE
HUMAN AFFECTED BY IT?

฀ Ozone is the gas in atmosphere that protects everything living on


the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. Without
the layer of Ozone in the atmosphere, it would be everything
difficult to survive on the surface.
฀ Fossil fuel causes huge amount of damage ozone layer, which is
depleting very quickly. The ozone layer is getting depleted by the
chemicals and air pollution causes by human activities

By- kartik parihar


DAMAGE OF THE OZONE LAYER CAN
CAUSE THE FOLLOWING FOR HUMAN

฀ Skin cancer
฀ Cataracts

By- kartik parihar


CAUSES OF OZONE HOLE
฀ The primary causes of ozone depletion is the presence of
chlorine containing source gases
฀ For example, chlorofluorocarbons, tetrachloride, etc.

฀ By- kartik parihar


HOW TO PROTECT OUR
OZONE LAYER
• Avoid the use of aerosol sprays
containing CFCs.
• Avoid the use of fire
extinguisher with halogenated
hydrocarbon

• Don't cut the tree and grow


more tree to save ozone layer

By- kartik parihar


ACID RAIN
Acid rain refers to a mixture of deposited material, both wet and dry, coming from the
atmosphere containing more than normal amounts of nitric and sulphuric acids. Simply
put, it means rain that is acidic in nature due to the presence of certain pollutants in the
air due to cars and industrial processes. It is easily defined as rain, fog, sleet or snow
that has been made acidic by pollutants in the air as a result of fossil fuel and industrial
combustions that mostly emits Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

By- kaushal ramdeo


CAUSES OF ACID RAIN
1. Natural Sources─ The major natural causal agent for acid rain is volcanic
emissions. Volcanoes emit acid producing gases to create higher than normal
amounts of acid rain precipitation to an extent of affecting vegetation cover
and health of residents.
2. Man-made sources─ Human activities leading to chemical gas emissions
such as sulphur and nitrogen are the primary contributors to acid rain. The
activities include air pollution sources emitting sulphur and nitrogen gases
like factories, power generations facilities, and automobiles. 

By- kaushal ramdeo


HARMFUL EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN
(i) Effects on aquatic life
฀ The pH of the surrounding or medium is very important for
metabolic processes of aquatic organisms. The eggs or sperms
of fish, frogs and other aquatic organisms are very sensitive to
pH change. Acid rain kills their gametes affecting the life cycles
and productivity.

฀ (ii) Effect on terrestrial life


฀ Acid rain damage cuticle of plant leaves resulting etiolating of
foliage. This in turn reduces Photosynthesis. Reduced
photosynthesis accompanied by leaf fall reduces plant and crop
productivity.

By- kaushal ramdeo


(iii) Effect on buildings and monuments
฀ Many old, historic, ancient buildings and works of art/textile
etc. are adversely affected by acid rain. Limestone and marble
are destroyed by acid rain. Smoke and soot cover such objects.

(iv)Effect on Public Health


฀ When in atmosphere, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gases
and their particulate matter derivatives like sulphates and
nitrates, degrades visibility and can cause accidents, leading to
injuries and deaths. 
 
By- kaushal ramdeo
SOLUTIONS TO ACID RAIN
฀ 1. Cleaning up Exhaust Pipes and Smokestacks,
฀ 2. Restoring Damaged Environments,
฀ 3. Alternative Energy Sources,
฀ 4. Individual, National/State, and International Actions.

By- kaushal ramdeo


By-kavita gangwani
WHAT IS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT?
The temperature surrounding the earth has been rising during
the recent past. This is due to the ‘green house effect’.
A green house is a glass chamber in which plants are grown to
provide them warmth by trapping sun light. Sunlight (a form of
energy) passes through the glass and it gets absorbed inside
releasing heat radiations unlike sunlight, heat radiation can not
escape through glass the heat generated there from, cannot
escape out of the glass chamber. Thus, even on a cold winter day,
the inside of a green house can become quite warm to support
plant growth. The phenomenon of heat build up inside a glass
chamber from the absorption of solar radiation is called green
house effect.
By-kavita gangwani
WHAT IS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT?

By-kavita gangwani
GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE
EFFECT

The green-house effect is a natural phenomenon and has been occurring for
millions of years on the earth. Life on the earth has been possible because of
this natural green house effect which is due to water vapour and small
particles of water present in the atmosphere. Together, these produce more
than 95 percent of total green-house warming. Average global temperatures
is maintained at about 150C due to natural green house effect. Without this
phenomenon, average global temperatures might have been around –170 C
and at such low temperature life would not be able to exist.

By-kavita gangwani
Before industrialization, simple human activity did not cause any significant increase
in the atmospheric temperature. What is particularly worrisome is the increase in the
emission of green house gases due to urbanization and industrialization. These green
house gases have increased significantly in the atmosphere in recent years.
Some important green house gases and their major sources are listed in table below.

By-kavita gangwani
IMPACT OF GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
Environment.
• Overall average annual temperatures are expected to increase.
• Global Warming will decrease snow, sea ice & glacier 
coverage, resulting in rising sea levels & increase coastal 
flooding.
• Rising temperatures will also thaw permafrost in the artic.
• Storm & heat waves are likely to increase in frequency & 
severity.
• Many wild species will have difficulty adapting to a warmer 
climate  &  will likely experience greater stress from disease 
and invasive species. 
By-kavita gangwani
STRATEGIES TO COPE WITH GREEN HOUSE
EFFECT
We must take immediate steps to minimize global warming by reducing emission of
greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxides. Following steps would be useful in reducing
emission/release of green house gases into the atmosphere:
฀ Increased fuel efficiency of power plants and vehicles;
฀ Development/implementation of solar energy/non-fossil fuel alternatives;
฀ Halting deforestation;
฀ Supporting and undertaking tree-planting (afforestation);
฀ Reduce air-pollution.

By-kavita gangwani
THANK YOU
What Is Eutrophication
Harmful changes in water caused by too much
fertilizer getting into the water.

KHETARAM
KHETARAM
KHETARAM
Eutrophication process in 6 stages

ADDITION OF NITRATES

GROWTH OF PLANTS

DEATH OF PLANTS

GROWTH OF BACTERIA

LACK OF OXYGEN

SUFFOCATION
KHETARAM
KHETARAM
sewage
fertilisers (liquid domestic
and industrial waste)

Eutrophication
The process of
minerals minerals
esp. nitrates esp. phosphates

organic material
eutrophication

algal bloom

competition consumers can't


for light consume fast enough

dead plants dead algae

detritus
KHETARAM
 Natural  Artificial
Eutrophication Eutrophication

KHETARAM
KHUSHBU
KHUSHBU
KHUSHBU
KHUSHBU
Benefits of eutrophication

KHUSHBU
EFFECT OF EUTROPHICATIONS

KHUSHBU
KHUSHBU
KETAN
KETAN
KETAN
KETAN
KETAN
KETAN
BY:
1. KHUSHWANT SINGH
AKHERAJOT
2. MAHENDRA JAJORIA
3. KHUSHI MUNDOTIA
4. KIRTI BANSIWAL
 Nuclear waste is the material that nuclear fuel
becomes after it is used in a reactor. From
the outside, it looks exactly like the fuel that
was loaded into the reactor — assemblies of
metal rods enclosing fuel pellets.
 The waste, sometimes called used fuel, is
dangerously radioactive, and remains so for
thousands of years. When it first comes out
of the reactor, it is very toxic that can be
lethal.
 When removed from a reactor, the fuel will be
emitting both radiation, principally from the
fission fragments, and heat. It is unloaded
into a storage pond immediately adjacent to
the reactor to allow the radiation levels to
decrease.
 The gaseous waste is released to the
environment after treatment via the stack.
 The liquid waste is mixed and diluted with
the effluent from the plant after treatment
before discharging into the sea.
 . Low-level waste (LLW) consists of paper, gloves,
plastic containers, disposable overalls and
overshoes with low radioactive contamination.
 Intermediate-level waste (ILW) consists of
radioactive resin and chemical sludge, spent filter
cartridges etc. collected from waste treatment
process and maintenance work.
 High-level waste (HLW). The HLW contains
highly-radioactive fission products and
radionuclide with long-lived radioactivity..
 Nuclear fuel cycle
 Medical
 Industrial
 Naturally occurring
radioactive material (NORM)
 Coals, gas and oil
THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE
 The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of industrial
processes which involve the production of
electricity from uranium in nuclear power
reactors.
 Uranium is a relatively common element that is
found throughout the world. It is mined in a
number of countries and must be processed
before it can be used as fuel for a nuclear
reactor.
 Fuel removed from a reactor, after it has
reached the end of its useful life, can be
reprocessed so that most is recycled for new
fuel.
MEDICAL
 Radioactive medical waste tends
to contain beta particle and
gamma ray emitters .
 Y-90, used for treating
lymphoma (2.7 days) -
 1-131, used for thyroid function
tests and for treating thyroid
cancer (8.0 days)
 Sr-89, used for treating bone
cancer, intravenous injection (52
days)
INDUSTRIAL
 Industrial source waste can contain alpha,
beta, neutron or gamma emitters. Gamma
emitters are used in radiography while
neutron emitting sources are used in a
range of applications, such as oil well
logging.
Naturally occurring radioactive
material (NORM)
 ALPHA RADIATION  BETA RADIATION

 NEUTRON RADIATION  GAMMA RADIATION

 X-RAY RADIATION
COAL , GAS, OIL
 Coal contains a small amount of
radioactive uranium, barium, thorium and
potassium, but, in the case of pure coal,
this is significantly less than the average
concentration of those elements in the
Earth's crust.
 Residues from the oil and gas industry
often contain radium and its decay
products.
 ACCIDENTS
Nuclear wastes can be spread over the biodiversity
accidently by agents beyond human curb , such as
dust storms or cyclones....
 SCAVENGING
People willingly expose themselves
to dangerous levels of radiations in
order to make money or get
benefited materialistically....

 HEALTH
Long term interaction with radiation can cause fatal
diseases like cancer and paralysis or coma. It can
even manipulate DNA and distort
repair cells....
 TRANSPORTATION
Transporting radiating material
from one place to another is a
task of immense care. A single
bump can spread radiations capable
enough to destroy a whole city....

 EXPENSE
First of all , a lot of money is spent on the
safety of such nuclear plants ; moreover in
case of accident , huge amount of money will
be required to compensate the loss!
 SOMATIC AND GENETIC/HERITABLE
EFFECTS
 Acute somatic effects of radiation includes skin
burns, vomiting, hair loss, temporary sterility, blood
changes etc.
 Chronic somatic effects result in eye cataracts and
cancer.
 Heritable damages appear in future generation of the
affected person due to damage in his/her
reproductive cells.
 LONG HALF LIFE
The products of nuclear fission have long ‘half
lives’. They will continue to be radioactive for
thousands of years! This will affect soil and
vegetation adversely!
Stored nuclear waste can be extremely dangerous
and volatile if not handled properly.
AFFECT ON NATURE
 Plants and cattle consume toxins which will ultimately
harm humans in infinite ways.
 If explosion takes place, radioactive clouds are formed
which not only contaminates the affected area but can travel
too!
 Seabed contamination is also a major issue for aquatic life
as well.
 One of the major
issue is storage.
Storage of spent
fuel  Store waste in only
approved bags and
container.
 Bags- Yellow with
Radiation label.
 DO NOT use anything
that can be mistaken
for a ordinary trash
container.
 DO NOT use coke
bottles, milk bottles
and etc. for liquid
waste..
Spent fuel pools storage
Spent fuel pools (SFP) are storage pools for
spent fuel from nuclear reactor.
The nuclear waste is stored at least 20 feet
under the water.
Underground storages in
world
 Kalpakkam , India
.
 Olkiluoto,
Finland- Largest
repository.
 Yucca mountain,
USA
Waste containers
Waste containers
Sequence of operations beginning with generation
to the disposal of waste.

 Deep geological repositories


 Ocean dumping and sea bed burial
 Tectonic plates waste disposal method
 Transmutation of HLRW by ADS reactors
 Dispatching to sun
Sustainable
development

From- Mahipal bhado(D-2), Komal(D-3)


,Komal kanwar shekhawat (D-3)
Sustainable development

 Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human


development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural
systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon
which the economy and society depends . The desired result is a state of
society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human
needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system.
Sustainable development can be classified as development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations.

Komal Shekhawat
Mahipal Bhado
What is sustainability ?

Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced fashion, in which the


exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological
development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current
and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations

Komal Shekhawat
Domain
Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts.
(2006)
Sustainable development, or sustainability, has been described in terms of three spheres,
dimensions, domains or pillars, i.e. the environment, the economy and society. The three-
sphere framework was initially proposed by the economist René Passet in 1979. It has
also been worded as "economic, environmental and social" or "ecology, economy and
equity". This has been expanded by some authors to include a fourth pillar of culture,
institutions or governance, or alternatively reconfigured as four domains of the social -
ecology, economics, politics and culture, thus bringing economics back inside the
social, and treating ecology as the intersection of the social and the natural.

Komal
a) Social components:

• Workers health and safety


• Impact on local communities, quality of life
• Benefits to disadvantaged groups

b) Economic components:

• Creation for new markets and opportunities for sale growth


• Cost reduction through efficiency and improvements and
reduced energy and raw material inputs
• Creation of additional value

c) Environmental components:

• Reduce waste, effluent generation, emission into environment


• Reduce impact on human health
• Use of renewable raw material
• Elimination of toxic substances

Komal
Economic sustainability

Komal
Komal
History
For the past 30 years or so, world leaders, supranational
organizations, and national governments, as well as private and In 2012, the U.N. further refined the concept
public organizations, have embraced sustainability as the of sustainable development (see U.N., “The
cornerstone in their search for development and long-term Future We Want”), and in 2013 the United
growth. Sustainable development, conceptualized as the Nations Sustainable Development Solution
means to achieve sustainability, was defined in 1987 by the
Network (UNSDSN) extended it with the
United Nations’ Brundtland Report as “development that meets
the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
inclusion of good governance as a fourth
future generations to meet their own needs.” Also known as Our pillar. In parallel, public, private, and
Common Future, the report was the outcome of work by the nongovernmental organizations have been
World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD), directly involved in the attempt to
which was sponsored by the U.N. and chaired by Norwegian coordinate efforts regarding the
Prime Minister Gro Harlem Bruntland. sustainability agenda (see, e.g., the U.N.
General Assembly resolution in 2010, “United
In the years following the release of the Brundtland Report,
Nations Millennium Declaration— General
various institutions and international bodies have further
Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/2”). This
attempted to identify the core elements of sustainable
development. With the intention to address the numerous issues process was consolidated in 2015 when the
broadly referred to as the domain of sustainable development U.N. General Assembly adopted the 2030
(such as water emergency, health, climate change, pollution, Agenda for Sustainable Development,
social inequalities, access to energy, extreme poverty, and accompanied by a list of Sustainable
hunger), several major events and initiatives have taken place Development Goals (17 objectives and 169
globally. For example, at the Johannesburg World Summit in targets) that all countries of the world are
2002, sustainable development was defined as embracing encouraged to achieve by 2030.
social inclusion and economic development as well as
environmental aspects. Komal Shekhawat
Komal Shekhawat
Sustainable development goals

 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)


 In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted
the "universal, integrated and transformative" 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development, a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The
goals are to be implemented and achieved in every country from the year
2016 to 2030.

Komal shekhawat
Mahipal bhado
Mahipal Bhado
Mahipal Bhado
Need of sustainable development
There are several challenges that need attention in the arena of economic
development and environmental depletion. Hence the idea of Sustainable
development is essential to address the following issues.
1. To curb or prevent the environmental degradation
2. To ensure a safe human life
3. To check the exploitative technology and find alternative sources
4. To check the over exploitation and wastage of natural resources
5. To regenerate renewable energy resources

Komal Shekhawat
Concept of sustainable development:
The most frequently used definition of Sustainable development is from the Brundtland Report
“Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present (people)
without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”. In other words
it is improving the quality of life of the present generation without excessive use or abuse of
natural resources, so that they can be preserved for the next generation.
The term was first coined in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on Human Environment at
Stockholm. The most important piece of writing on Sustainable development is in the
publication by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987 titled
„Our Common Future”. In 1992 at the Earth summit at Rio-de-Janerio, 170 countries signed
many important documents on sustainable development pledging preservation of
environment.
Sustainable development is often referred as the marriage of economy and ecology. i.e. to
attain economic development without compromising the ecological balance. It can be
attained by rigorous 215 policy change, taking action and altering practices.

Komal Shekhawat
The concept of Sustainable development is based on following principles:

1. Integration of environment and economic decision


2. Stewardship or humans as the caretaker of the environment
3. Shared responsibility, accountability and decision making
4. Prevention and mitigation
5. Conservation
6. Waste minimization
7. Enhancement of productivity, capability, quality of nature and human life
8. Rehabilitation and reclamation 216 Scientific and technological
innovations.

Komal Shekhawat
There are three aims of sustainable development :-

1. Economic- to attain balanced growth


2. Ecological- to preserve the eco system
3. Social-guarantying equal access to resources to
all human communities.

The objective laid down in the Brundtland report is as follows:

1. Dividing growth
2. Changing the quality of growth
3. Meeting essential needs of all in terms of job, food, energy, water
and sanitation.
4. Ensuring a sustainable population
5. Conserving and enhancing the resource base.
6. Reorienting technology, building technology that‟s less Exploitative
7. Managing environment and economics in decision making.
Komal Shekhawat
Mahipal Bhado
Mahipal bhado
Mahipal Bhado
Mahipal Bhado
Mahipal Bhado
Mahipal Bhado
GREEN
BUILDING

By - Jahnvi Chouhan

Jahnvi Chouhan
IS THIS GREEN BUILDING ??

Jahnvi Chouhan
INTRODUCTION
 GREEN BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS GREEN
CONSTRUCTION OR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING)
EXPANDS AND COMPLEMENTS THE BUILDING
DESIGN CONCERNS OF ECONOMY, UTILITY,
DURABILITY, AND COMFORT.
 A GREEN BUILDING IS ONE WITCH USES LESS WATER ,
OPTIMIZES ENERGY EFFICIENCY, CONSERVES
NATURAL RESOURCES, GENERATES LESS WEAST AND
PROVIDES HEALTHIER SPACE FOR OCCUPANTS AS
COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL BUILDING.

Jahnvi Chouhan
WHAT IS GREEN
BUILDING ?

Jahnvi Chouhan
DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF
GREEN BUILDING​
 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY​
 2. WATER EFFICIENCY​
 3. ENVIRONMEMTALLY PREFERABLE
BUILDING MATERIALS​
 4. WASTE REDUCTION​
 5. TOXIC REDUCTION​
 6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY​

Jahnvi Chouhan
Goals
of Green
Building

By – Jatin Balwani

Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
Jatin Balwani
BENEFITS
OF
GREEN
BUILDING

By-Jatin Relwani

Jatin Relwani
 ENVIORNMENTAL
BENEFITS.
 SOCIAL BENEFITS

 ECONOMIC
BENEFITS

Jatin Relwani
ENVIORNMENTAL
BENEFITS
 PROTECTBIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM.
 IMPROVE AIR AND WATER QUALITY.
 REDUCE WEAST STREAMS.
 CONSERVE NATURAL RESOURCES.

Jatin Relwani
ECONOMIC BENEFITS
 REDUCE OPERATING COSTS.
 CREATE, EXPAND, AND SHAPE MARKETS
FOR GREEN PRODUCT AND SERVICES.
 IMPROVE OCCUPANT PRODUCTIVITY.

Jatin Relwani
SOCIAL BENEFITS
 ENHANCE OCCUPANT COMFORT
AND HEALTH.
 HEIGHTEN AESTHETIC QUALITIES.

Jatin Relwani
INDIAN GREEN BUILDING
COUNCIL
 THE INDIAN GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL
(IGBC) WAS FORMED IN THE YEAR 2001 BY
CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN INDUSTRY
(CII).
 THE AIM OF THE COUNCIL IS TOBRING
GREEN BUILDING MOVEMENT IN INDIA
AND FACILITATE INDIA TO BECOME ONE
OF THE GLOBEL LEADERS IN GREEN
BUILDINGS BY 2015.
Jatin Relwani
“IGBC” RATING
SYSTEM
 EACH RATING SYSTEM DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF CERTIFICATION ARE AS FOLLOWS :
 ‘CERTIFIED’ TO RECOGNISE BEST PRACTICES.
 ‘SILVER’ TO RECOGNISE OUTSTANDING
PERFORMANCE.
 ‘GOLD’ TO RECOGNISE NATIONAL
EXCELLENCE.
 ‘PLATINUM’ TO RECOGNISE GLOBEL
LEADERSHIP.
Jatin Relwani
GREEN
BUILDING
EXAMPLES

By – Jaivardhan Singh

Jaivardhan Singh
1.Council house 2 , Australia

 The council house 2 Melbourne,


Australia was the first to be awarded
the Six Green Star Rating.
The features include gas-fired
cogeneration plants that reduce
carbon emission,85% reduction in
energy consumption by 48m2 of solar
panel installation and technology T5.

Jaivardhan Singh
ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES
 Reduce electricity consumption by
85%
 Reduce gas consumption by 87%
 Produce only 13% of the emission
 Reduce water main supply by 72%
 Features also include LCD
computers which will consume 77%
less energy, and new 5Tlight fitting
which should consume 65% less
energy. The building also houses a
cogeneration plant which provide
40% building's overall electricity and
heating it produces 65kW of
electricity and 130kW hot water.
Jaivardhan Singh
2. Shanghai Tower, China.
 It is the second tallest building
and it is also Shell Platinum and
LEED Core certified.
 The construction of tower was
done from locally sourced
materials some of it was
recycled materials.
 The design of the building is
1200 curved to optimize wind
load. The double skin facade
further allows additional
insulation. All of this topped
with sky gardens, vertical wind
turbine, rainwater harvesting
black water treatment and
more. Jaivardhan Singh
Jatin Balwani
Global
Environmental
Issues
Presented By :
• Jay Dabi
• Jay Satija
• Jayant Jain
• Jeet Agnihotri

2
INTRODUCTION - JAY SATIJA
The Earth does not belong to us, we belong
to the Earth.
Our past was full of greenery but
The temperature of our own Mother present is full of darkness.
Earth is increasing day-by-day at a This is the future to which we are
very fast rate. leading to…

4
So what exactly are Global
Environmental Issues ?
Environmental Issues are any such problems
created due to human activities and they
cause harm to the environment.
Redefining Environmental Issues…
• Problems on a worldwide level
• Related to “GIVE & TAKE” principle
• Caused by human beings
• Affect natural environment
• Catastrophic consequences
• Severe ecological damage
• Unfortunate happenings all over the globe
• Alarming current scenario
• Requirement of immediate response on every level

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Some Statistics…
(Provided by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

• 70% disasters are climate


related
• 2.4 billion people affected
• Since 1895, the U.S.
average temperature has
increased from 1.3 °F to
1.9 °F.
• The carbon dioxide
equivalent of greenhouse
gases (GHG) in the
atmosphere has already
exceeded 400 ppm.

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VARIOUS GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Pollution
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Land Pollution
Global Warming
Land Degradation
Ozone Depletion
Climate Change
Loss of Biodiversity
Natural Calamities

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AIR POLLUTION
10
WATER POLLUTION

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LAND POLLUTION

12
GLOBAL WARMING

13
LAND DEGRADATION

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OZONE DEPLETION

15
CLIMATE CHANGE

16
LOSS OF
BIODIVERSITY
17
NATURAL CALAMITIES

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INDIA in 2050 : Environmental Paradise or
Ecological Nightmare ?
Animation

19
Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s
needs, but not every man’s greed.

When Mother Earth


sees its creations
suffering because of
their own activities,
she starts crying. She
always wants to see
them in good state,
thereby sacrificing
herself for the sake of
their happiness.

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CAUSES AND SOURCES - JAY DABI
A brief analysis of various causes of these severe
problems…
• Emission of CFCs from refrigerators and perfume cans
• Discharge from industries
• Generation and disposal of hazardous wastes
• Deforestation and animal extinction
• Emission of any impurity into the air, such as smoke (including tobacco
smoke), dust, cinders, solid particles, gases, mists, fumes, odours and
radioactive substances
• Greenhouse gases (ex. Carbon dioxide)
• The biggest cause is WE.

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WARNING : ATTENTION REQUIRED !
Deforestation
It is the removal of a forest or
stand of trees where the land is
thereafter converted to a non-
forest use. Examples of
deforestation include conversion
of forestland to farms, ranches,
or urban use. The most
concentrated deforestation
REASONS
occurs in tropical rainforests. • Trees used as fuel
About 31 percent of Earth's land • Timber used in building
surface is covered by forests. material
• Overpopulation and
urbanization

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Sources of Environmental Problems
Air Pollution : Global Warming and Ozone Depletion :
 Fossil fuel power stations  Increased concentrations of greenhouse
gases
 Motor vehicles, marine vessels, and aircraft
 Aerosols present in the atmosphere
 Smoke and carbon dioxide from wildfires
 Methane and nitrous oxide emissions
Water Pollution :
 Melting of glaciers and rise in sea level
 Discharges from a sewage treatment plant
 Deforestation
 Human and animal waste
 Population growth
 Fertilizers
Climate Change :
Land Pollution :
 Variations in solar radiation
 Oil spills
 Variations in the Earth's orbit
 Dumping of garbage and other waste
products  Human influences

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Greenhouse Effect
The greenhouse effect is the process
by which radiation from a planet's
atmosphere warms the planet's
surface to a temperature above what
it would be without its atmosphere.

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Be a part of the SOLUTION
Not a part of the POLLUTION

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EFFECTS AND
CONSEQUENCES - JAYANT JAIN
An overview of the catastrophic consequences of
environmental problems...
• Drop in improving status of human health
• Worse agricultural impacts
• Adverse climatic conditions
• Decreased quality of water
• Creation of some vacant places in food chain
• Extinction of several wildlife species
• Lack of food security
• Severe loss of life and wealth
• Persistence and accumulation of certain pollutants
• Above all – “Disturbance of worldwide PEACE”

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Some serious problems require immediate action...
Protection of Endangered species
Acid rain

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Some unfortunate
happenings all around
the globe...

KEDARNATH
TRAGEDY

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Series of
disasters in
JAPAN
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Every Action
has a Reaction
We Have
One Planet
One Chance

At least do not ruin the life of those trees, depending on


whom we live. Let’s prove that we are humans.
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POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
AND CONCLUSION - JEET AGNIHOTRI
Sadly, it’s much easier to create a desert than a forest.

Awareness through Films & Television :


Scott Derrickson’s 2008 Upcoming movie on
Al Gore's 2006 movie movie ‘The Day the Earth
‘An Inconvenient Truth’ stood still’ Kedarnath tragedy

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CARBON FOOTPRINT
Your carbon footprint is the
sum of all emissions of CO2
(carbon dioxide), which were
induced by your activities in a
given time frame.

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Green Environment means
Always Remember 3R’s contributing towards maintaining the
natural ecological balance in the
environment, preserving the planet
and its natural systems and resources.

Concept of
GREEN
ENVIRONMENT

36
Let’s have a quick look over the conclusion...
• Sustainable Development
• Environmental Organisations
 The largest international agency, set up in 1972, is the United Nations Environment
Programme.
 International non-governmental organizations include Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and
World Wide Fund for Nature.
 Environmental laws and policies
• Spreading Awareness through Mass Media
• Use of Renewable Sources of Energy
• Ban on Killing and Poaching of Endangered Species
• Most importantly.... Change in HUMAN MENTALITY

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Efforts we can make on an individual’s level

Video

38
DEMONSTRATION
What will happen if the present state of
affairs continues ?
The Earth will be
cooked...
We are responsible.
So...

WE WILL
WE WILL
SAVE EARTH
PERSENTATION : -ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL IN
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

GROUP :- D 1
MEMBERS NAME
1) JITESH KANWARIYA
2) JITENDRA KUMAWAT
3) JITENDRA SINGH
4) JONHY
jITENDRA SINGH
As the human population is growing continuously, the
consumption of natural resources is also increasing. With
the increase of industrialization and urbanization of the
modern human society, the use of all these resources in
increasing day by day. If these resources are not properly
managed and used, there will be a serious scarcity of
these resources. So, we need to conserve the natural
resources.

Conservation is the proper management of a natural


resource to prevent its exploitation, destruction or
degradation.....

jITENDRA SINGH
The Government of India has undertakenmany
measures for the conservation of the resources

Regulations and reforms for proper housing and


infrastructure development to avoid land acquisition
problems.
Mass media public service messages to educate the
people on the importance of conservation of resources.
Increase the wildlife and forest reserves in thecountry.
Schemes to do a proper inventory of the resources and
monitor changes in the environment.
Various projects and schemes that promote
conservation of resources.
• India as country is blessed with rich natural
resources. But from our research on the usageof
natural resources in our country, we found that
the resources are depleting every day. For
example:
– Forest and arable land is being depleted due to
urbanization, overpopulation and overconsumption
– Wild life resources are being lost due toillegal
poaching, hunting and industrialization.
– Water resources are being contaminated are drying
up due to industrialization.
Soil
Water

Biodiversity

Forests

JOHNY
The measures to conserve
water resources include
Not keeping water taps
running
Check water leak and
repair
Adopt minimum water
use patterns
installing water saving
toilets that use optimum
water per flush
Adopting rain water harvesting devices in your
house to conserve water for future use
Collect waste water in your home and use it for
watering kitchen garden
Filling water in washing machine to the level
required for the cloths to be washed
Watering lawn and kitchen garden plants in the
evening to minimise evaporation losses and not
watering them in the mid day
Cooperate beach clean up activities in coastal
areas
 Save wetlands ,lakes,ponds,wells,etc.
Observe march 22 as
world water day
Observe February 2
as world wetland day
Join youth water
team or any such NGO
engaged in water
conservation
The measures to conserve forests ,save trees, and
planting new trees include-
Not felling the trees in forests ,farms,roads,or houses
if they are green
Not uprooting the existing trees while constructing
a house but planting fast growing plant species in
open area of the house
Planting ornamentals,herbs,shurbs,or suitable trees
in and around the house
maintain lawn and garden in open place in your
house ,if possible
Participating in community
plantation programmes
Encourage mass scale tree
plantation programmes
Cooperate with NGOs
engaged in saving trees
Plant trees generously in
barren fields
Tag tree plantation with year
ceremonies such as birth day,
marriage anniversary etc.
Observe July 1-7 as
vanmahotsava week
•Observe December 11
as mountain day –
mountains being a
souses of fresh water
•Encourage ‘adopt a
tree programme’ ie,
‘each one tree one’
•Observe march 21 as
forest day
•Discourage using paper
for correspondence and
promote use of paper
Some of the measures to conserve minerals are
•Minimise the use of minerals which are likely to
be depleted or exhausted
•Minimise use of jewellery to conserve scarce
minerals
•Recycle and reuse minerals and glasses
•Buy durable products that lasts long
•Buy efficient vehicles
•Repair and reuse bicycles
•Use recyclable utensils
• JITENDRA
 Some of the measures to achieve food security
are
 Sustainable use of food and not wasting it
 Eating only as much as required for sustenance of life
 Consuming local and seasonable vegetables and so as
to save energy on their transportation, storage and
preservation
Buy only organically grown
food
Discourage packed ,canned
and preserved food
Shift from non vegetarian
to vegetarian
Observe October 16 as
world food day and
November 21 as world
fishery day
Some of the measures are
Turning off lights ,fans, or
other electric appliances when
not in use
Replacing tube lights with
CFLsand LED s
Construct buildings in such a
way that maximum amount of
sunlight can be obtained
Try to dry cloths in sunlight
instead of drier of washing
machine
Using solar cookers for cooking food
Buying energy efficient appliances,
always checking energy consumption
figure
Minimise use of automobiles by using
bicycles, public transport, carpooling etc.
Trying to reside near the place of work, if
possible
Keeping vehicles tuned for low
consumption of fuel
Checking fuel consumption data while
buying a new vehicle
Following the advice given by petroleum
conservation research association
Wearing adequate woollen clothes during winter
instead of using heat convector
Growing deciduous trees at proper place out side
the house. they will cut off intense heat during the
summers ,cut off electricity consumption and will
provide a cool breeze
Observe December 14 as world energy conservation
day
JITESH

 As we know that nature provides all the basic


needs which are necessary to us but, we are
overexploiting or overusing these resources.
if we go on overexploiting the nature, there
will be no more resources available in the future.
 So there is an urgent need to conserve the
nature. Here are some needs:
 To maintain ecological balance for supporting
life.
 To preserve different types of biodiversity.
 To preserve the natural resources for the
present and future generations.
Legislation for conservation
 Various laws and acts have been passed in Indian
constitution for the protection and conservation of
various natural resources. Some of them are:
 Environment Protection Act,1986.
 Forest Conservation Act,1980.
Chipko Movement, 1988.
And many more...
EUTROPHICATION
Of Lakes INTRODUCTION OF EUTROPHICATION

CAUSES

EFFECTS

CONTROL
Eutrophication is an enrichment of water by nutrient salts
that causes structural changes to the ecosystem such as
:increase production of algae and aquatic plants, depletion
of fish species, general deterioration of water quality and
other effects that reduce and preclude use”
STATES OF LAKE

Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Eutrophic


SUBMERGED ALGAE AND PLANTS DIE DUE TO

A.DEATH OF FISH ON WHICH THEY FEED


B.DECREASE IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS ACTIVITY
C.LESS OXYGEN IN WATER
D.BLOCKAGE OF SUNLIGHT DUE TO PROFUSE GROWTH
TYPES OF EUTROPHICATION

NATURAL

CULTURAL
 Causes
 This problem occurs when farmers use artificial chemical
fertilizers on their land.
 These fertilizers contain large amounts of Potassium,
Phosphorus and Nitrogen.
 It’s the nitrogen which causes all the problems, in the form of
nitrates.
 An excess of these will be washed out from the fields by the
rain in a process called “run-off ”, where the nitrates then
accumulate in nearby rivers and ponds.
 Natural runoff of
 Inorganic fertilizers
 Erosion
 Discharge of detergents
 Discharge of partially treated or untreated sewage
 Domestic and industrial waste
 Animals wastes and sediments entering into water
EUTROPHICATION BY SEWAGE POLLUTION REFERS TO
THE

A) NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT OF FRESHWATER BODIES


B) NUTRIENT DEPLETION OF FRESHWATER BODIES
C) TOXIC CHEMICAL ACCUMULATION IN FRESHWATER BODIES
D) HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN FRESHWATER BODIES
Effect of eutrophication
 Water plants really increase in biomass with
the due so the increase in nutrients in the
water. This causes the death of other, smaller
plants which are covered by these plants
increasing the amount of dead matter in the
water.
 Bacteria use the dead matter to respire,
thereby using oxygen from the water.
 Lack of oxygen leads to the death of sensitive
organisms unable to carry out gas exchange.
EUTROPHICATION is
harmful for ME……
Blue baby syndrome is due to the presence of

a) excess sulphate in drinking water


b) excess chlorine in drinking water
c) excess heavy metals in drinking water
d) excess nitrates in drinking water
HOW IT CAN BE OVERCOME

• Improvement of purifying performance of waste water treatment plants


, installing tertiary treatment systems.
• Implementation of effective filter ecosystems to remove nitrogen and
phosphorus present in the runoff water.
• The most important thing is to use organic fertilisers. These breakdown
a lot slower and so not all the nutrients are released at once reducing
the plant bloom.
• Spraying fertilisers at appropriate times of year is also important when
it is not likely to washed off by rain into water ways.
THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS TO USE ORGANIC FERTILISERS. THESE
BREAKDOWN FASTER AND SO NOT ALL THE NUTRIENTS ARE RELEASED
AT ONCE REDUCING THE PLANT BLOOM.

A) True

B) False
Presented by - Group D1 (4)

- Jyoti Kanwar
- Kamlendra Singh
- Kalpesh Sompura
- Kamaldeep Meena

THANK YOU