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for Wireless Communications

Onofrio Losito and Vincenzo Dimiccoli

Itel Telecomunicazioni srl, Ruvo di Puglia (BA)

Italy

1. Introduction

Microstrip antennas are one of the most widely used types of antennas in the microwave

frequency range, and they are often used in the millimeter-wave frequency range. Actually

as the demand for high data rates grows and microwave frequency bands become

congested, the millimeter-wave spectrum is becoming increasingly attractive for emerging

wireless applications. The abundance of bandwidth and large propagation losses at

millimeter-wave frequencies makes these bands best-suited for short-range or localized

systems that provide broad bandwidth. Automotive radar systems including cruise control,

collision avoidance and radiolocation with operation up to 10 GHz have a large market

potential in the near future of millimetre wave applications.

One advantage of the microstrip antenna is easy matching, fabrication simplicity and low

profile, in the sense that the substrate is fairly thin. If the substrate is thin enough, the

antenna actually becomes conformal, meaning that the substrate can be bent to conform to a

curved surface. Disadvantages of the microstrip antenna include the fact that it is usually

narrowband, with bandwidths of a few percent being typical. Also, the radiation efficiency

of the microstrip antenna tends to be lower than some other types of antennas, with

efficiencies between 70% and 90% being typical. A microstrip antenna operating in a

travelling wave configuration could provide the bandwidth and the efficiencies needed.

Travelling-wave antennas are a class of antennas that use a travelling wave on a guiding

structure as the main radiating mechanism. It is well known that antennas with open-ended

wires where the current must go to zero (dipoles, monopoles, etc.) can be characterized as

standing wave antennas or resonant antennas. The current on these antennas can be written

as a sum of waves traveling in opposite directions (waves which travel toward the end of

the wire and are reflected in the opposite direction). For example, the current on a dipole of

length l is given by:

(1)

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48 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Traveling wave antennas are characterized by matched terminations (not open circuits) so

that the current is defined in terms of waves traveling in only one direction (a complex

exponential as opposed to a sine or cosine). A traveling wave antenna can be formed by a

single wire transmission line (single wire over ground) which is terminated with a matched

load (no reflection). Typically, the length of the transmission line is several wavelengths.

The antenna shown in Fig. 1 above is commonly called a Beverage or wave antenna. This

antenna can be analyzed as a rectangular loop, according to image theory. However, the

effects of an imperfect ground may be significant and can be included using the reflection

coefficient approach. The contribution to the far fields due to the vertical conductors is

typically neglected since it is small if l >> h. Note that the antenna does not radiate

efficiently if the height h is small relative to wavelength. In an alternative technique of

analyzing this antenna, the far field produced by a long isolated wire of length l can be

determined and the overall far field found using the 2 element array factor. Traveling wave

antennas are commonly formed using wire segments with different geometries. Therefore,

the antenna far field can be obtained by superposition using the far fields of the individual

segments. Thus, the radiation characteristics of a long straight segment of wire carrying a

traveling wave type of current are necessary to analyze the typical traveling wave antenna.

Traveling-wave antennas are distinguished from other antennas by the presence of a

traveling wave along the structure and by the propagation of power in a single direction.

Linear wire antennas are the dominant type of traveling-wave antennas.

There are in general two types of traveling-wave antennas [1-2]. The first one is the surface-

wave antenna, which is a slow-wave structure, where the phase velocity of the wave is

smaller than the velocity of light in free space and the radiation occurs from discontinuities

in the structure (typically the feed and the termination regions). The propagation

wavenumber of the traveling wave is therefore a real number (ignoring conductors or other

losses). Because the wave radiates only at the discontinuities, the radiation pattern

physically arises from two equivalent sources, one at the beginning and one at the end of the

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 49

However, moderately directly patterns having a main beam near endfire can be achieved,

although with a significant sidelobe level. For these antennas there is an optimum length

depending on the desired location of the main beam. Examples include wires in free space

or over a ground plane, helixes, dielectric slabs or rods, corrugated conductors, ‘‘beverage’’

antenna, or the V antenna. An independent control of the beam angle and the beam width is

not possible.

The second type of the travelling wave antennas are a fast-wave structure as leaky-wave

antenna (LWA) where the phase velocity of the wave is greater than the velocity of light in

free space. The structure radiates all its power with the fields decaying in the direction of

wave travel.

A popular and practical traveling-wave antenna is the Yagi–Uda antenna It uses an

arrangement of parasitic elements around the feed element to act as reflectors and directors

to produce an endfire beam. The elements are linear dipoles with a folded dipole used as the

feed. The mutual coupling between the standing-wave current elements in the antenna is

used to produce a traveling-wave unidirectional pattern. Recently has been developed a

new simple analytical and technical design of meanderline antenna, taped leaky wave

antenna (LWA) and taped composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLHTL) LWA.

The meanderline antenna is a traveling-wave structure, which enables reduction of the

antenna length. It has a periodical array structure of alternative square patterns. With this

pattern, the extended wire can be made much longer than the initial antenna (dipole) length,

so that the selfresonance can be attained. The resonance frequency is then lower and

radiation resistance is higher than that of a dipole of the same length. This in turn implies

that the antenna is effectively made small.

In detail this type of wave radiates continuously along its length, and hence the propagation

wavenumber kz is complex, consisting of both a phase and an attenuation constant. Highly-

directive beams at an arbitrary specified angle can be achieved with this type of antenna,

with a low sidelobe level. The phase constant of the wave controls the beam angle (and

this can be varied changing the frequency), while the attenuation constant controls the

beamwidth. The aperture distribution can also be easily tapered to control the sidelobe level

or beam shape.

All kinds of open planar transmission lines are predisposed to excite leaky waves. There are

two kinds of leaky waves. Surface leaky waves radiate power into the substrate. These

waves are in most cases undesirable as they increase losses, cause distortion of the

transmitted signal and cross-talk to other parts of the circuit. Space leaky waves radiate

power into a space and mostly also into the substrate. These waves can be utilized in leaky

wave antennas. Leaky-wave antennas can be divided into two important categories,

uniform and periodic, depending on the type of guiding structure. A uniform structure has

a cross section that is uniform (constant) along the length of the structure, usually in the

form of a waveguide that has been partially opened to allow radiation to occur. The guided

wave on the uniform structure is a fast wave, and thus radiates as it propagates.

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50 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

As said previously leaky-wave antennas form part of the general class of travelling-wave

antennas which are a class of antennas that use a travelling wave on a guiding structure as

the main radiating mechanism [3], as defined by standard IEEE 145-1993: “An antenna that

couples power in small increments per unit length, either continuously or discretely, from a

travelling wave structure to free space”.

Fig. 2. Rectangular metal waveguide with a slit, aperture of the leaky wave antenna.

Leaky-wave antennas are a fast-wave travelling-wave antennas in wich the guided wave is a

fast wave, meaning a wave that propagates with a phase velocity that is more than the

speed of light in free space.

The slow wave travelling antenna does not fundamentally radiate by its nature, and

radiation occurs only at discontinuities (typically the feed and the termination regions). The

propagation wavenumber of the travelling wave is therefore a real number (ignoring

conductors or other losses). Because the wave radiates only at the discontinuities, the

radiation pattern physically arises from two equivalent sources, one at the beginning and

one at the end of the structure. This makes it difficult to obtain highly-directive singlebeam

radiation patterns. However, moderately directly patterns having a main beam near endfire

can be achieved, although with a significant sidelobe level. For these antennas there is an

optimum length depending on the desired location of the main beam. An independent

control of the beam angle and the beam width is not possible. By contrast, the wave on a

leaky-wave antenna (LWA) may be a fast wave, with a phase velocity greater than the speed

of light. Leakage is caused by asymmetry, introduced in radiating structure transversal

section (e.g.: aperture offset, waveguide shape, etc…), feeding modes or a combination of

them. In this type of antennas, the power flux leaking from waveguide to free space ( Pout in

Fig. 2 and Fig. 3), introduces a loss inside structure, determining a complex propagation

wavenumber kz [4-5]:

( kz j ) (2)

Where is the leakage constant and is the propagation constant . The phase constant

of the wave controls the beam angle (and this can be varied changing the frequency), while

the attenuation constant controls the beamwidth. Highly-directive beams at an arbitrary

specified angle can be achieved with this type of antenna, with a low sidelobe level.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 51

Moreover the aperture distribution can also be easily tapered to control the sidelobe level or

beam shape. Leaky-wave antennas can be divided into two important categories, uniform

and periodic, depending on the type of guiding structure.

Fig. 3. Example of periodic leaky wave antenna, using a dielectric substrate upon which are

placed rods of other material, even metal, in a periodic layout.

A uniform structure has a cross section that is uniform (constant) along the length of the

structure, usually in the form of a waveguide that has been partially opened to allow

radiation to occur [6]. The guided wave on the uniform structure is a fast wave, and thus

radiates as it propagates. A periodic leaky-wave antenna structure is one that consists of a

uniform structure that supports a slow (non radiating) wave that has been periodically

modulated in some fashion. Since a slow wave radiates at discontinuities, the periodic

modulations (discontinuities) cause the wave to radiate continuously along the length of the

structure. From a more sophisticated point of view, the periodic modulation creates a

guided wave that consists of an infinite number of space harmonics (Floquet modes) [7].

Although the main (n = 0) space harmonic is a slow wave, one of the space harmonics

(usually the n = −1) is designed to be a fast wave, and hence a radiating wave.

3. LWA in waveguide

A typical example of a uniform leaky-wave antenna is a rectangular waveguide with a

longitudinal slot. This simple structure illustrates the basic properties common to all

uniform leaky-wave antennas. The fundamental TE10 waveguide mode is a fast wave, with

k02 ( )2 lower than k0 . As mentioned, the radiation causes the wavenumber kz of

a

the propagating mode within the open waveguide structure to become complex. By means

of an application of the stationary-phase principle, it can be found in fact that [5]:

c

sin m (3)

k0 vph

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52 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

where m is the angle of maximum radiation taken from broadside. As is typical for a

uniform LWA, the beam cannot be scanned too close to broadside ( m 0 ), since this

corresponds to the cutoff frequency of the waveguide. In addition, the beam cannot be

scanned too close to endfire ( m = 90) since this requires operation at frequencies

significantly above cutoff, where higher-order modes is in a bound condition or can

propagate, at least for an air-filled waveguide. Scanning is limited to the forward quadrant

only (0 < m < ) for a wave travelling in the positive z direction.

2

This one-dimensional (1D) leaky-wave aperture distribution (see Fig. 4), results in a “fan

beam” having a narrow beam in the x-z plane (H plane), and a broad beam in the cross-

plane. Unlike the slow-wave structure, a very narrow beam can be created at any angle by

choosing a sufficiently small value of . From diffraction theory, a simple formula for the

beam width, measured between half power points (3dB), is:

const

(4)

L

cosm

0

“const” is a parameter which is influenced by the type of aperture and illumination; for

example, if at the aperture there’s a constant field, const = 0.88 and, if the structure is

uniform, const =0.91. As a rule of thumb, supposing:

1

(5)

L

cosm

0

antenna, and is expressed in radians. For 90% of the power radiated it can be assumed:

L 0.18

0

k0

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 53

k0

P( z ) P(0)e 2 z

Therefore, being L the length of antenna, if a perfectly matched load is connected at the end

of it, it’s possible to express antenna efficiency as:

P(0) P(L ) P( L )

rad 1 1 e 2 z L (6)

P(0) P(0)

Rearranging:

ln(1 rad )

L (7)

2 z

For most application, to gain a 90% efficiency, means that the antenna length is within

100 1000 interval.

Fixing the antenna efficiency, using (7), makes possible to express attenuation constant in

terms of antenna length, and vice versa. Using antenna efficiencies grater than 90%-95% is

not advisable; in fact, supposing constant antenna cross section and, as a consequence, fixed

leakage constant, the necessary length L grows exactly as zL , which increases

asymptotically, as shown in Fig 5. If we want a 100% efficiency ( rad 1 ) from (6):

P(L ) 0 e 2 z L 0 L

Substuting (7) in (5), being 0 2 / k0 :

4 z

ln(1 rad )cosm k0

4

z (8)

2 k0

ln(1 rad ) 1 z

k0

Since k02 kc2 kz2 and having supposed the attenuation constant much smaller than the

phase constant, kz z , getting:

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54 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

4

z (9)

ln(1 ) kc k0

rad

k0

2

L kc

c

(10)

L

(3) and (10), provided the approximations used to be valid, are a valid tool for describing the

main parameters of radiated beam.

Radiation properties of leaky wave antennas are well described by dispersion diagrams. In

fact since leakage occurs over the length of the slit in the waveguiding structure, the whole

length constitutes the antenna’s effective aperture unless the leakage rate is so great that the

power has effectively leaked away before reaching the end of the slit. A large attenuation

constant implies a short effective aperture, so that the radiated beam has a large beamwidth.

Conversely, a low value of results in a long effective aperture and a narrow beam,

provided the physical aperture is sufficiently long.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 55

Moreover since power is radiated continuously along the length, the aperture field of a

leakywave antenna with strictly uniform geometry has an exponential decay (usually slow),

so that the sidelobe behaviour is poor. The presence of the sidelobes is essentially due to the

fact that the structure is finite along z.

When we change the cross-sectional geometry of the guiding structure to modify the value

of at some point z, however, it is likely that the value of at that point is also modified

slightly. However, since must not be changed, the geometry must be further altered to

restore the value of , thereby changing somewhat as well.

In practice, this difficulty may require a two-step process. The practice is then to vary the

value of slowly along the length in a specified way while maintaining constant (that is

the angle of maximum radiation), so as to adjust the amplitude of the aperture distribution

to yield the desired sidelobe performance.

Radiation modes

Let us consider a generic plane wave, whose propagation vector belongs to plane (y-z),

directed towards a dielectric film grounded on a perfect electric conductor (PEC) parallel to

plane (x-z), as shown in Fig. 6 [8-9].

If the incident wave polarization is linear and parallel to the x axis, since both reflection and

refraction occur:

x

0

Ex B cos( ky y ) D sin( ky y ) t y 0

x

0 (11)

Ex D sin( ky y ) ty0

One constant can be expressed by the remaining two, as soon as continuity of tangent

components of electric field is considered in y = t. First equation of (11) contains an

exponential term which, diverging for y → ∞ , violates the radiation condition at infinite

distance. Therefore, C ≠ 0 only near plane y = t , at the incidence point. kz can assume any

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56 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

value from 0 to k0 (i.e.: radiating modes); above it, only discrete values of kz exist,

identifying the associated guided modes. Since separability condition must be satisfied, in

air:

For every kz , it’s now possible calculate ky0 . In fact, considering only positive solutions:

Obtaining:

Guided k z k0 ky0

Radiating k0 k z 0 k0 k y 0 0

Evanescent 0 k z j k y 0 k0

Thus, a spectral representation of electromagnetic field near the air-dielectric interface, must

contain all values of ky0 , from 0 to ∞: the associated integral is complex and slowly

convergent. Alternatively, a description, which uses leaky waves and guided modes, both

discrete, can well approximate such field.

It’s been observed that it’s often enough a single leaky wave to obtain a good far field

description.

Letting ky ky0 , from (2) and (12), in general:

k0 y2 z2 y2 z2

0 y y z z

alternatively

2

k 2 2

0

(13)

0

Having defined the attenuation and the phase vectors, respectively, as:

y y0 z z0

y y0 z z0

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 57

losses in z direction, z 0 , from (13):

0

describe a uniform plane wave passing the air-dielectric interface. On the other hand, if

y 0 , two types of superficial waves exist, depending on y 0 sign:

interface increases, when y is greater than 10 times radiation wavelength, electromagnetic

field practically ceases to exist. Improper superficial wave, whose amplitude increases

exponentially as distance from interface increases, are not physically possible because they

violate the infinite radiation condition.

Removing the hypothesis z 0, both y 0, and y 0.

Losses in Dielectric

Leaky Wave

When losses in dielectric occur, must point towards the inner part of dielectric to

compensate such losses (see Fig.8). In the other configuration, when points upwards,

even though a non-physical solution is described, the associated wave is useful to describe

electromagnetic field near air-dielectric interface.

4. LWA in microstrip

Microstrip antenna technology has been the most rapidly developing topic in antennas

during the last twenty years [10]. Microstrip is an open structure that consists of a very thin

metallic strip or patch of a width, w, separated from a ground plate by a dielectric sheet

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58 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

called substrate (Fig. 9). The thickness of the conductor, t, is much less than a wavelength,

and may be of various shapes. The height of the substrate, h, is usually very thin compared

to the wavelength (.0003 ≤ h ≤ 0.05 ) [11]. The substrate is designed to have a known

relative permittivity, r , that is homogeneous within specified temperature limits.

The antenna can be excited directly by a microstrip line, by a coaxial cable, or a combination

of the two. The antenna can also be fed from a microstrip line without direct contact through

electromagnetic coupling. Feeding by electromagnetic coupling through an aperture in the

ground plane tends to improve bandwidth. To maximize efficiency, the impedance of the

feed must be matched to the input impedance of the antenna. There are a variety of stubs,

shunts, and other devices used for matching. The major disadvantages of microstrip are

lower gain, very narrow bandwidth, low efficiency and low power handling ability. In

addition, antennas made with microstrip typically have poor polarization purity and poor

scan performance [12].

Operating above the cutoff frequency, the field lines of microstrip extend throughout the

substrate as well as into the free space region above the substrate, as seen in Fig. 10. The

phase velocity of the field in the free space surrounding the structure is the speed of light, c,

and the phase velocity of the field in the substrate is given by Equation (14)

c

vp (14)

r

This difference in phase velocity at the interface between the substrate and free space makes

the TEM mode impossible. Instead, the fundamental mode for microstrip is a quasi-TEM

mode, in which both the electric and magnetic fields have a component in the direction of

propagation. Likewise, a higher order mode in microstrip is not purely TE or TM, but a

hybrid combination of the two. The nth higher order mode is termed the TEn mode. The

fundamental mode of microstrip, as seen in Fig. 10, does not radiate since the fields

produced do not decouple from the structure. If the fundamental mode is not allowed to

propagate, the next higher order mode will dominate. Fig. 11 shows the fields due to the

first higher order mode, TE10 . A phase reversal, or null, appears along the centerline,

allowing the fields to decouple and radiate.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 59

Fig. 10. Field pattern associated with the fundamental mode of microstrip.

Fig. 11. Field pattern associated with the first higher order mode of microstrip.

Recently, there has been significant interest in the microstrip leaky-wave antenna which

utilizes a higher order radiative microstrip mode. Since Menzel in 1979, published the first

account of a travelling wave microstrip antenna that used a higher order mode to produce

leaky waves [13], many microstrip leaky-wave antenna designs incorporating various

modifications have been investigated. The design of Menzel antenna [13], can be seen in Fig.

12. Menzel’s antenna uses seven slots cut from the conductor along the centerline to

suppress the fundamental mode allowing leaky wave radiation via the first higher order

mode. Menzel’s antenna has been analyzed by a host of researchers over the past 25 years

[14] and its performance is known and reproducible. Instead of transverse slots, we can uses

a metal wall down the centerline of the antenna to block the fundamental mode. Symmetry

along this metal wall invites the application of image theory. One entire side of the antenna

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60 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

is now an image of the other side, making it redundant and unneeded. This property

allows to design the resulting antenna half of the width of Menzel’s antenna, as shown in

Fig. 13.

As mentioned the microstrip structures do not radiate for the fundamental mode, therefore,

a higher order mode must be excited to produce leaky waves. This method of producing

radiation by exciting higher order modes in a transmission line has been documented since

the 1950’s [6]. By the 1970’s, rectangular waveguides, circular waveguides, and coaxial

cables were in use as leaky traveling wave antennas. However, until Menzel, the jump to

microstrip had not been made. By looking at a cross section of microstrip excited in the

fundamental mode, the E field is strongest in the center and tapers off to zero at the sides, as

depicted in Fig 10. If the electric field down the centerline is suppressed, the fundamental

mode will be prohibited, forcing the energy to propagate at the next higher mode, TE10 . As

seen in Fig. 11, TE10 mode causes E to be strongest at the edges. Menzel attempted to force

the TE10 mode using several means. Feeding two equal magnitude waves 180° out of phase

with a “T” or “Y” feed produced TE10 as desired, but did not fully eliminate the

foundamental mode. Easier to produce and providing an even better response was given

using transverse slots down the centerline (Fig. 12). The multiple feeds were not necessary

to produce the TE10 mode when the fundamental mode was suppressed. Menzel

demonstrated that the beam angle can be predictively steered by input frequency if the

electrical length of the antenna is at least 3 . If the length is less than 3 , too little of the

incident wave is being radiated and a resonance standing wave pattern is forcing the beam

toward broadside. Qualitative analysis shows that the beamwidth of Menzel’s antenna is

not frequency dependent, however, it is inversely related to length. The 3 dB beamwidth

approaches 10° for electrical length of over 6 and approaches nearly 90° for fractions of a

wavelength. Menzel’s gain varied from 7 dB for l = 0.2 to 14 dB for l = 4 . 7 dB is

comparable to a similar sized resonant antenna. An antenna longer than l = 4 would have

an even higher gain as the radiation aperture increases. Lee notes that Menzel assumed that

his antenna should radiate simply because the phase constant due to his operating

frequency was less than k0 [15]. If Menzel had considered the complex propagation

constant, he would have realized that his antenna was operating in a leaky regime. The

length would need to be roughly 220 mm, or more than twice as long as his design, to

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 61

radiate at 90% efficiency. Radiation patterns in Menzel’s paper clearly show the presence of

a large backlobe due to the reflected traveling wave.

Now this class of printed antennas that is particularly well suited for operation at mm-

wave frequencies, alleviate some of the problems associated with resonant antennas since

they provide higher gain, broader bandwith performance, and frequency scanning

capabilities. These microwave and millimeter leaky wave antennas, have the same

properties of the waveguide leaky wave antennas described previously. In addition, when

opening a waveguide to free space, a discrete spectrum is not enough to express an

arbitrary solution [16].

In fact, when considering a closed region, all characteristic solutions, individuated by the

associated eigenvalues, constitute a complete and orthogonal set of modes, whose linear

combination can express any field satisfying boundary conditions. As soon as the region is

not perfectly bounded, an arbitrary field solution cannot be expressed only using discrete

eigenmodes but, generally, a continuous spectrum of modes, which don’t necessarily have

finite energy (e.g.: plane waves), must be considered, too.

Fortunately, for leaky wave antennas, an approximation that uses particular waves, called

leaky, can be used instead of the continuous spectrum. Moreover, leaky waves are well

described by dispersion constants (i.e.: leakage and phase constants) that strongly affect the

radiated beam width and elevation.

Dispersion curves, describing how attenuation and phase vectors, solutions of dispersion

equation (12), evolve, are a valid tool to study leaky waves.

LWA is attributed to a traveling wave instead of the standing wave as in patch antennas and

above cutoff frequency, where the phase constant equals the attenuation constant ( c = c ),

it is possible to observe three different range of propagation: bound wave, surface wave and

leaky wave [15]. At low frequency, below the cutoff frequency, we have the reactive region

due to evanescent property of LWA.

From (3) we can observe that the leaky mode leaks away in the form of space wave when

K 0 , therefore we can define the radiation leaky region from the cutoff frequency to the

frequency at which the phase constant equals the free-space wavenumber ( K 0 ) . For

( K s ) we have the bound mode region and for K 0 K s , exists a narrow frequency

1

range ( K s ), in which we can have surface-wave leakage, where K s is the surface

r

wavenumber.

Moreover the transition region between surface wave leakage and space wave leakage

including a small range in frequency for which the solution is non-physical, and it therefore

cannot be seen. For this reason, the transition region is called a spectral gap. Such a spectral

gap occurs commonly (but not always) at such transitions in printed circuits, but it also

occurs in almost all situations for which there is a change from a bound mode to a leaky

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62 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 14. The typical normalized attenuation constant, / k0 , and phase constant / k0 , in

the direction of propagation of the first higher order mode, TE10 . There are four frequency

regions associated with propagation regimes: Reactive, Leaky, Surface, and Bound.

mode, or vice versa. For example, a spectral gap will appear when the beam approaches

endfire in all leaky-wave antennas whose cross section is partly loaded with dielectric

material. It is necessary to employ a greatly enlarged scale, on which the dispersion plot is

sketched qualitatively. The transition region itself is divided into two distinct frequency

ranges, one from point A to point B and the second from point B to point C. Before point B, a

leaky wave occurs. As soon as frequency reaches f 1 (point B), an improper superficial wave

is solution of dispersion equation [9]. Because, both z and z cannot increase with

frequency between f 1 and f 2 , their trend will change until point C, from which a confined

superficial wave is an acceptable solution for increasing values of frequency.

To depict normalized constants behaviour around the spectral-gap, it’s necessary a very

precise numerical method since, leaving out particular structures, its width ( f ) is very

small compared to working frequencies.

The dispersion characteristics for microstrip has been investigated by a number of authors

using different full wave methods and evaluating different regimes of the dispersion

characteristic.

The spectral domain analysis has proven to be one of the most efficient and fruitful

techniques to study the dispersion characteristics of printed circuit lines [17]. As is explained

in literature, the Galerkin method in conjunction with Parseval theorem can be used to pose

the dispersion relation of an infinite printed circuit line as the zeros of the following

equation:

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 63

2

(15)

Cx

where T ( kx ) , is the Fourier transform of the basis function T ( kx ) used to expand the

longitudinal current density on the strip conductor as

J sz ( x , z) T ( x )e jkz z

The term G zz ( kx ; kz , ) is the zz component of the spectral dyadic Green’s function, and C x is

an appropriate integration path in the complex kx plane to allow for an inverse Fourier

transform non uniformly convergent function. The spectral dyadic Green’s function has the

following singularities in the complex kx plane: branch point, a finite set of poles on the

proper sheet and a infinite set of poles on the improper sheet. For a fixed frequency, the

function F( kz ) is not uniquely defined because of the many possible different C x integration

paths that can be used to carry out the integral (15) [18].

Fig. 15. Transition region between leaky wave and confined superficial wave showing the

spectral-gap occurring f 1 and f 2 .

The different C x paths come from the different singularities of the spectral dyadic Green’s

function, that can be detoured around. For complex leaky mode solution, an integration

path detouring around only the proper poles of the spectral dyadic Green’s function is

associated with an surface-wave leaky mode solution. If the path also detours around the

branch points, passing trough the branch cuts and, therefore, lying partly on the lower

Riemann sheet, the path will be associated with an space-wave leaky mode solution (see Fig.

16). This procedure, is not trivial. We shown in the next chapters how it is possible to extract

the propagation constant of a microstrip LWA more simply using an FDTD code with

UPML boundary condition, who directly solves the _elds in the time domain using

Maxwell's equations and with which the analysis is easy modifying the geometries of the

LWAs. The results are in a good agreement with transverse resonance approximation (a full

wave method) derived by Kuestner [19].

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64 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 16. Possible integration paths C . The three different are denoted as C 0 for the real-axis

path (bound mode solution), C 1 for the path that detours around only the spectral dyadic

Green’s function poles (surface-wave leaky modes solution), and C 2 for the path that also

passes around the branch points (space-wave leaky modes solution).

Nowdays, some applications especially with regard to communication applications like the

indoor wireless LAN(WLAN) actually are increasing the use of millimeterwave antennas

like leaky-wave antennas (LWA), suited for more purpose. In detail, the transmitting/

receiving antennas with relatively broadbeam and broadband can be obtained from the

curved and tapered leakywave structures. In fact, the microstrips (LWA), are very popular

and widely used in applications thanks to their advantages of low-profile, easy matching,

narrow beamwidth, fabrication simplicity, and frequency/electrical scanning capability. Is

well know that the radiation mechanism of the higher order mode on microstrip LWAs is

attributed to a traveling wave instead of the standing wave as in patch antennas. Moreover

the symmetry of the structure along this physical grounding structure, thanks to the image

theory, allows to design only half of an antenna with the same property of one in its

entirety, and reducing up to 60% the antenna’s dimensions. Using this tapered antenna we

can obtained a quasi linear variations of the phase normalized constant and than a quasi

linear variations of the its radiation angle. Moreover the profile of the longitudinal edges of

the LWA, was designed, by means of the reciprocal slope of the cutoff curve, symmetrically

to the centerline of the antenna, allows a liner started of leaky region.

Nevertheless the variation of the cross section of the antenna, allowing a non-parallel

emitted rays, such as happens in a non-tapered LWA. In fact, using the alternative

geometrical optics approach proposed in the tapering of the LWA, for a fixed frequency,

involves the variation of the phase constant and the attenuation constant , obtained as a

cut plane of 3D dispersion surface plot varying width and frequency. We can be determined

a corresponding beam radiation interval with respect to endfire direction. As mentioned

previously, for a tapered antenna with a curve profile (square root law profile) the radiation

angle in the leaky regions, vary quasi linearly whit the longitudinal dimension, so it is

possible to calculate the radiation angle of the antenna as a average of the phase constant

using the simple formula.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 65

Alternatively using the geometrical optics approach it is easy to determine the closed

formula to predict the angle of main beam of a tapered LWA.

The radiation mechanism of the higher order mode on microstrip LWAs is attributed to a

traveling wave instead of the standing wave as in patch antennas [13,20].

We can explain the character of microstrip LWAs trough the complex propagation constant

k j , where is the phase constant of the first higher mode, and is the leakage

constant. Above the cutoff frequency, where the phase constant equals the attenuation

constant ( c = c ), it is possible to observe three different propagation regions: bound wave,

surface wave and leaky wave.

The main-beam radiation angle of LWA can be approximated by:

cos 1 (16)

K0

where is the angle measured from the endfire direction and K0 is the free space

wavenumber. According to (16) we can observe that the leaky mode leaks away in the form

of space wave when K 0 , therefore we can define the radiation leaky region, from the

cutoff frequency to the frequency at which the phase constant equals the free-space

wavenumber ( K 0 ) . An example of tapered LWA was proposed in [21-22], using an

appropriate curve design to taper LWA.

In fact through the dispersion characteristic equation, evaluated with FDTD code, we can

obtain the radiation region of the leaky waves indicated in the more useful way for the

design of our antenna:

c fc r

fc f . (17)

2 weff r r 1

From equation (17) we can observe that the cutoff frequency increases when the width of the

antenna decrease, shift toward high frequencies, the beginning of the radiation region as

shown in Fig. 17. 1.

Therefore it is possible to design a multisection microstrip antenna [as Type I antenna in Fig.

17.a], in which each section able to radiate at a desired frequency range, can be

superimposed, obtaining an antenna with the bandwidth more than an uniform microstrip

antenna. In this way every infinitesimal section of the multisection LWA obtained

overlapping different section should be into bound region, radiation region or reactive

region, permitting the power, to uniformly radiated at different frequencies.

Using the same start width and substrate of Menzel travelling microstrip antenna (TMA)

[13], and total length of 120 mm., we have started the iterative procedure mentioned in [23]

to obtain the number, the width and the length of each microstrip section. From Menzel

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66 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

TMA width, we have calculated the f START (onset cutoff frequency) of the curve tapered

LWA, than, choosing the survival power ratio ( e 2 i Li ) opportunely, at the end of the

first section, we have obtained the length of this section. The cutoff frequency of subsequent

section ( f i ), was determined by FDTD code, while the length of this section was

determined, repeating the process described previously. This iterative procedure was

repeated, until the upper cutoff frequency of the last microstrip section.

80

70

60

50

[rad/m ]

40

30

20

10

0

5,94 6,85 8,03 9,51 11,52

Frequency [Ghz]

The presence of ripples in return loss curve and the presence of spurious sidelobes shows

the impedence mismatch and discontinuity effect of this multisection LWA that reduce the

bandwidth. A simple way to reducing these effects is to design a tapered antenna in which

the begin and the end respectively of the first and the last sections are linearly connected

together (as the Type II antenna in Fig. 17.a).

Alternatively the ours idea was to design a LWA using a physical grounding structure along

the length of the antenna, with the same contour of the cutoff phase constant or attenuation

constant curve ( c = c ), obtained varying the frequency (the cutoff frequency fc is the

frequency at which c = c ) , for different width and length of each microstrip section as

shown in Fig. 17.1, employing the following simple equation (18):

c c1 f 2 c 2 f c 3 (18)

The antenna layout (as the Type III antenna in Fig. 17.a), was optimized through an 3D

electromagnetic simulator, and the return loss and the radiation pattern was compared with

Type I antenna and Type II antenna.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 67

8. Simulation results

An asymmetrical planar 50 Ω feeding line was used to excite the first higher-order mode

while a metal wall down the centerline connecting the conductor strip and the ground plate

was used to suppress the dominant mode for Type I - III. The chosen substrate had a

dielectric constant of 2.32 and a thickness of 0.787 mm, while the total length of the leaky

wave antenna was chosen to be 120 mm.

The leaky multisection tapered antenna Type I was open-circuited, with a 15 mm start

width, and 8.9 mm of final width obtained according to [23]. For LWA layout Type I, we

used four microstrip steps, for layout Type II we tapered the steps linearly, while the curve

contour of the LWA layout Type III, was designed through equation (18).

Fig. 17.b shows the simulated return loss of three layouts. We can see that the return loss

(S11) of Type I is below -5 dB from 6 to 10.3 GHz, but only three short-range frequencies are

below -10 dB. S11 of Type II is below -5 dB from 6.1 to 9.1 GHz, and below -10 dB from 6.8 to

8.6 GHz. At last, S11 of Type III is below -5 dB from 6.8 to 11.8 GHz, and below -10 dB from

8.0 to 11.2 GHz. In Fig.17.c are shows the mainlobe direction at 9.5 GHz for the different

Type I to Type III. We can see a reduction of sidelobe and only few degrees of mainlobe

variation between Type I to Type III. Moreover, in Fig. 18 is shown the variation of mainlobe

of antenna Type III, for different frequency, while in Fig. 19 is shown the trend of gain

versus frequency of the same antenna. It is clear that, the peak power gain is more than 12

dBi, which is almost 3 dBi higher than uniform LWAs.

Finally the simulated VSWR is less than 2 between 8.01 and 11.17 GHz (33%), yielding an

interesting relative bandwidth of 1.39:1, as shown in Fig. 20, compared with uniform

microstrip LWAs (20% for VSWR < 2) as mentioned in [24].

Type I

Type II

Type III

Fig. 17a. Layout of leaky wave antennas Type I-III. A physical grounding structure was used

to connecting the conductor strip and the ground plane.

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68 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

These results indicate a high performance of Type III LWA: high efficiency excitation of the

leaky mode, increases of the bandwidth, improves the return loss and reduction of 19% of

metallic surface with respect to uniform LWA. Moreover, these results are in a good

agreement whit the experimental results of return loss and radiation pattern of a prototype

made using a RT/Duroid 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.787 mm and relative dielectric

constant of 2.32, as shown in Fig.21 and Fig.22.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 69

Fig. 17c. Radiation patterns of Electric field (H plane) of Type I-III, LWA at 9.5 GHZ.

a)

Fig. 18. a) Simulated radiation patterns of E field of LWA Type III for different frequency. b)

3-D radiation pattern of Electric field.

14

12

10

Gain [dBi]

8

6

4

2

0

6 6,7 7,2 8 8,2 9 9,5 10,5

Frequency [GHz]

\

Fig. 19. The gain versus frequency of the LWA Type III.

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70 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 21. A prototype of tapered LWA Type III with holes made in the centerline of the antenna.

a) b)

Fig. 22. a) Measurement set-up of LWA Type III. b) Experimental and simulated return loss

of LWA Type III.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 71

Moreover the use of a physical grounding structure along the length of the antenna, as

suggested in [21-22], allows the suppression of the dominant mode (the bound mode), the

adoption of a simple feeding, and due to the image theory, it is also possible to design only

half LWA (see Fig. 23) with the same property of one entire, as shown in Fig. 24 and in Fig.

25, reducing up to 60% the antenna’s dimensions compared to uniform LWAs [24].

Fig. 24. Measured return loss of full and half Leaky Wave Antennas

Fig. 25. The measured and simulated radiation patterns of E field of half tapered LWA at 8

GHz.

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72 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

9. Focusing-diverging property

As described in [21-22], the profile of the longitudinal edges of the LWA, was designed, by

means of the reciprocal slope of the cutoff curve, symmetrically to the centerline of the antenna,

allows a liner started of leaky region. Using this tapered antenna we can obtained a quasi linear

variations of the phase normalized constant and than a quasi linear variations of the its

radiation angle as we can see in Fig. 26 and in Fig. 27. Nevertheless the variation of the cross

section of the antenna, allowing a non-parallel emitted rays, such as happens in a non-tapered

LWA (see Fig. 28). In fact, as was described in the alternative geometrical optics approach

proposed in [24] the tapering of the LWA, for a fixed frequency, involves the variation of the

phase constant and the attenuation constant , as shown in Fig. 29, obtained as a cut plane

of 3D dispersion surface plot varying width and frequency (see Fig. 30).

Fig. 26. The variation of the main beam radiation angle versus length of the antenna, at f= 8

GHz, for linear, square and square root profile of the LWA.

Fig. 27. The variation of the phase constant versus length of the antenna, at f= 8 GHz, for

linear, square and square root profile of the LWA.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 73

From (16) can be determined in the leaky regions of the antenna, a corresponding beam

min max

radiation interval [ , ], , with respect to endfire direction.

As mentioned previously, for a tapered antenna with a curve profile (square root law

profile) the radiation angle in the leaky regions, vary quasi linearly whit the longitudinal

dimension, so it is possible to calculate the radiation angle of the antenna as a average of the

phase constant using the simple equation (19).

1 L

m sen1 ( z )dz (19)

K0L 0

Alternatively using the geometrical optics it is easy to determine the closed formula to

predict the angle of main beam of a tapered LWA. Through simple mathematical passages,

the main beam angle m can be obtained by the equation (20).

Asenmin

m sen1 (20)

1 (2 Asenmin )2 (L 2C cosmax )2

2

Where A and C are respectively the distance between real focus F and the beginning and

the end of the length of the antenna L . Therefore, if we know the begin width and the end

width of the antenna, from the curves of normalized phase and attenuation constant at fixed

frequency, we can determine the beam radiation range from (16), and the main beam angle

through (20).

Fig. 28. The ray optical model for a tapered Leaky Wave antenna.

pattern in a beam radiation range which is evident when the antenna length is increased

( L 500 ) [25].

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74 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 29. The curve of normalized phase and attenuation constants versus the width, at 8 GHz

for the LWA with the angular range [28°, 76°]. The leaky region start from 10.8 mm. (cutoff

frequency).

To obtain a broad beam pattern without the use of a longer LWA, we can bend a tapered

LWA (see Fig. 31), leading the electromagnetic waves to diverge. This, increases the beam of

the radiation pattern and reduce furthermore the back lobes as we can see compared the

curves of Fig. 32. Finally in Fig. 33 is shown the measured return loss of half bend LWA

Type III.

Fig. 30. The 3D normalized phase constant and attenuation constant of tapered LWA versus

frequency and width.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 75

a)

b)

Fig. 31. a)Layout of a bend tapered LWA. b) A prototype of bend half LWA Type III made

using Roger 5880 RT/Duroid.

a) b)

Fig. 32. a)The radiation patterns of E field of tapered LWA at f= 8 GHz. b) The radiation

patterns of E field of bend tapered LWA at f= 8 GHz.

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76 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 33. Experimental return loss of half bend LWA Type III.

wave antennas (LWAs)

Recently composite right/left-handed (CRLH) leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) have been

shown as one of the applications of the CRLH transmission line (TL) metamaterials thanks

to their advantages of fabrication simplicity and frequency/electrically scanning capability

without any complex feeding network. Neverthless the fixed geometrical size of a unit cell

of the CRLH-TL Leaky-wave antennas, prevents the possibility to improve the antenna

bandwidth “tapering” the geometrical size of unit cell.

It is well known as a composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL)

metamaterials, used for the leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) allow to obtain a superior

frequency scanning ability than its conventional counterpart [26-27]. The leaky-wave

antennas possess the advantages of low-profile, easy matching, fabrication simplicity, and

frequency/electrically scanning capability without any complex feeding network.

However, the conventional leaky-wave antennas suffer from major limitations in their

scanning capabilities. In fact the radiation pattern is restricted to strictly positive for

uniform configurations, or to a discontinuous range of negative or positive excluding

broadside direction, for periodic configurations. The CRLH LWAs have essentially

suppressed these limitations, being able to scans the entire space from = -90° to = +90°

and thereby paved the way for novel perspectives for leaky-wave antennas.

Although actually the designs of CRLH-TL for LWAs available in the literature, are

developed as a different number of unit cell with a fixed geometrical size for all the unit

cells of the entire antenna.

These design prevents the possibility to improve the antenna bandwidth “tapering” the

geometrical size of unit cell. In order to obtain an improvement of the antenna bandwidth a

novel design of CRLH LWAs was used in our work. The simulation results of the the CRLH

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 77

unit-cell with different size, obtained by a commercial 3D EM simulator has shown the good

performance of this antenna compared with the performance of the uniform CRLH TL LWA

antenna.

The good performance of this composite right/left-handed LWA are also demonstrated by

measured results, which shown a good agreement with simulation results paving the way

for the future applications of the antenna.

It has been shown that the leakage rate of the CRLH-TL LWA can be altered by using

different sizes of the unit-cell [27] as shown in Fig.34.

Fig. 34. Different size and number of fingers of CRLH-TL unit cell.

In detail the radiation resistance, of the unit-cell having four fingers and the unit-cell of six

fingers, both the unit-cells designed to have the phase origin at the same frequency, shows

two different bandwidth as mentioned in [27-28].

The radiation resistance of the four finger antenna is always higher than that of the six-

finger one, which implies faster decay of power (more leakage) along the structure for the

former.

Moreover it should be noted that increasing the number of fingers the size of the unit-cell

has to be reduced in order to have the same centre-frequency for the antenna antennas,

otherwise, the centre-frequency for the antenna with unit-cell which have the larger number

of fingers will shift down to a lower frequency [29-30].

As shown in [21-22] for a simple microstrip leaky wave antenna the radiation bandwidth is

governed by the line width once the substrate is fixed. The bandwidth can be improved by

adopting a tapered line structure (Fig.35), where, the radiation of different frequency

regions leaks from different parts of the antenna.

Fig. 35. A taper layout of LWA with a different frequency regions leaks from different parts

of the antenna.

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78 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

In fact from the propagation characteristics of the leaky wave antenna, we known that the

leakage radiate phenomena, can only be noted above the cutoff frequency of higher order

mode, and below the frequency such that, the phase constant is equal at the free space wave

number. Decreasing the width of the antenna for a microstrip leaky-wave antenna the cutoff

frequency increases shift toward high frequency. This behaviour allows to design a

multisection microstrip LWA according [21-22] superimposing different section, in which

each section can radiate in a different and subsequence frequency range, obtaining a

broadband antennas. In this way each section should be into bound region, radiation region

or reactive region, permitting the power, to uniformly radiated at different frequencies.

Following these idea in the our developed procedure we have applied a process to get the

dimension of the physical parameters of the unit cell shows in Fig. 36 whit different

optimized number of fingers (see Fig. 37). Naturally we have calculated the extraction

parameters of every cell of CRLH implementation: LR, CR, LL, and CL using the equation

mentioned in [26].

In the case of CRLH transmission line based LWA the amount of radiation by the unit cell

can be related to the beam shape required and thus can be used to determine the total size of

the structure as mentioned in [31].

Given the unit cell equivalent circuit in Fig. 36, we have the per unit length series impedance

and per unit length shunt admittance as follows [31]:

j

Z' R'a Rl' jL'R (21)

CL'

j

Y ' G' Rl' jC 'R (22)

L'L

Where R'a represents radiation resistance per unit length, Rl' represents the per unit length

resistance associated with transmission loss, L'R and C 'R denotes per unit length parasitic

inductance and capacitance respectively, CL' and L'L denotes times unit cell length left-hand

capacitance and inductance respectively.

Propagation constant and characteristics impedance are given by the following relations:

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 79

Z'

Zc (24)

Y'

From the above expression of propagation constant and line impedance we can find the

centre frequency of the CRLH LWA [31].

These procedure was applied for subsequency frequency range of interest able to obtain a

broadband antenna and a narrow-beam radiation pattern more than the uniform CRLH-TL

LWA.

Fig. 37. Layout of a single unit cell of CRLH-TL LWA were p is the length of the unit cell

period, lc, is the length of the capacitor w and ws represent, the overall width of its finger

and the width of the stub respectively.

The optimized antenna design as we can see in Fig. 38 was obtained considering the

sequence of 16 cells composed respectively by 4 cell with 12 fingers, 4 cells with 10 fingers,

Fig. 38. Layout of the 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA with cells of 10, 8 and 6 fingers.

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80 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

4 cell with 8 fingers and 4 cell with 6 fingers for the entire length of the antenna of 207.55

mm and width between 2.9 mm (cells with 12 fingers) and 5.9 mm (cells with 6 fingers).

In the following Fig. 39 and Fig. 40 are showing the simulation data of the return loss

obtained with a 3D EM commercial software, of the uniform 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA of

10 fingers compared with the results of tapered 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA. Instead in Fig.

41 and in Fig. 42, are shown the results of the radiation pattern of the uniform CRLH-TL

LWA compared with 16 unit-cell of 10 fingers and tapered 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA. It is

evident the good performance of the tapered 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA compared with

uniform CRLH-TL LWA in term of broadband and narrowbeam.

Fig. 39. Return loss (S11) of the uniform 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA with 10 fingers.

Fig. 40. Return loss (S11) of the 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA with cells of 12, 10, 8 and 6

fingers.

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 81

Fig. 41. Radiation pattern of the E field of the uniform CRLH-TL LWA for f=1.12 GHz (red

line), f=2.30 GHz (brown line), f= 3.20 GHz (blu line).

Fig. 42. Radiation pattern of the E field of the tapered CRLH-TL LWA for f=1.12 GHz (red

line), f=2.30 GHz (brown line), f= 3.20 GHz (blu line).

The simulation results were compared with experimental results made on a prototype of

CRLH-TL LWA (see Fig. 43) designed with 16 unit-cell on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 substrate

with dielectric constant εr = 2.2 and thickness h = 62 mil (loss tangent = 0.0009) showing a

quite good agreement with simulated results of tapered 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA as we

can see in Fig. 44 and Fig. 45.

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82 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 43. A prototype and its detail of Radiation patter of tapered 16 unit-cell CRLH-TL LWA

made on Rogers RT/duroid 5880.

Fig. 44. Experimental return loss (S11) of the 16 unit-cell prototype CRLH-TL LWA with

cells of 12, 10, 8 and 6 fingers.

Fig. 45. Experimental E field radiation pattern of tapered prototype CRLH-TL LWA for

f=1.12 GHz (red line), f=2.30 GHz (brown line), f= 3.20 GHz (blu line).

Nowadays, miniaturization of electronic devices is the main request that productions have

to fulfil. In this process, the reduction of the antenna size is the crucial challenge to face,

being its dimensions related to the working frequency.

The rapid developing of the modern society has become to a crescent interest for the

wireless communications. Nowadays, everybody wants to be connected everywhere

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 83

without the use of cumbersome devices. The current tendency goes towards portable

terminals that have to be light and hand pocket. A suitable antenna for the portable

terminals should be low cost, low profile, light weight and especially small size.

Printed antennas are commonly used for their simple structure and easy fabrication. As

applications are space limited, it is challenging to design an antenna of small size but with

simple tunable feature. For microstrip antennas, some techniques, such as making slots in

their structure or using high dielectric constant substrates, can be used to reduce the

antenna size. However, it results in the narrow bandwidths for its high Q factor and the low

radiation efficiency.

In the following sentences is described an antenna printed on a substrate with low dielectric

constant in order to get a reliable bandwidth. Moreover, the meander configuration allows

us to reduce the antenna size keeping good radiation performance.

Meander dipole antennas have been already designed through numerical techniques that

apply either time- or frequency-domain algorithms demanding high computational efforts

and long-time processing. The common approach in the design of meander antenna is to

draw a meander path with a suited length to the working frequency in commercial software

and run simulations. Nevertheless, This empirical approach may lead to several consecutive

trials and verifications. In order to decrease the long-time processing and avoid these cut

and try methods, it would be convenient to start simulations with a commercial software

having an antenna size close to its optimized dimensions. Thus, a good initial configuration

can strongly affect the numerical convergence efficiency and the design process would be

quicker.

This paper presents a transmission line model that provides an initial geometrical

configuration of the antenna that allows us a computational improvement in the design of

meander antennas. The dimensions obtained from the model have been used to run a

simulation with a commercial software and an antenna resonating very close to that

working frequency has been achieved. Finally, a quick optimization has been performed to

definitely tune the antenna according to the ISM band.

Commercial and military mobile wireless systems demand for high compactness devices.

An important component of any wireless system is its antenna. Whereas significant efforts

have been devoted towards achieving low power and miniaturized electronic and RF

components, issues related to design and fabrication of efficient, miniaturized, and easily

integrable antennas have been overlooked. In this paper a novel approach for antenna

miniaturization is presented. The meander topology is proposed as a good approach to

achieve miniaturization and a transmission line model for the analysis and synthesis of

meander antennas is developed.

Indeed, the miniaturization of an antenna can be accomplished through loads placed on the

radiating structure. [32-33]. For example, monopoles were made shorter through center

loaded (inductive) or top loaded (capacitive). Hence appropriate loading of a radiating

element can drastically reduce the size, however, antenna efficiency may be reduced as well.

To overcome this drawback, lumped elements of large dimensions can be created using

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84 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

distributed reactive elements. For this reason, we propose a meander topology that allows

us to distribute loading through short-circuited transmission lines.

In the past, meander structures were suitably introduced to reduce the resonant length of an

antenna without great deterioration of its performances [34-36].

To exploit the meander topology to miniaturize printed antennas and develop a

transmission line model for the analysis and the synthesis of this kind of antennas is

proposed an antenna shown in Fig 46. It is a meander printed on the same side of the chassis

of a circuit board on a FR4 substrate with r =3.38 and thickness 0.787 mm. The feeding is

between the meander structure and the ground plane. Even if the antenna is a printed

monopole, it can be studied as an asymmetric dipole and its input reactance has been

studied through a transmission line model. It is well known that the resonance condition is

obtained when the input impedance is purely resistive [37-39]. The antenna has been

modelled as a transmission line periodically loaded from inductive reactances Xm

represented by the half meanders shown in Fig 46. We have named half-meander the

shorted transmission line of length w/2.

Fig. 46. Meander antenna monopole printed on the same side of the ground plane of the

substrate.

The height b of each half meander and their total number 2n are related to the total length of

the monopole Lax with the following formula:

Each half meander was studied as a short transmission line w/2 long with a characteristic

impedance Zcm obtained as:

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Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 85

The inductance Lsc of the strip with the length b and width a was substituted by a line Lall

long terminating with a short circuit. The length Lall was properly chosen because this line

had the same inductance of the strip (Lsc ).

At the end, the inductance of each meander Xm was obtained by the formula (28):

The total characteristic impedance of the transmission line with a length Lax and loaded by

2n half meanders was:

Zc 120[ln(8Lax / a ) 1] (29)

In Fig. 47 the normalized length Lax of the printed monopole versus the normalized

thickness a according to the transmission line model for w / b = 1 is shown. It is pointed out

from the figure that, when b=w, the meander length is smaller than the conventional

monopole at its resonant frequency.

In Fig 48, for several values of the parameter x=w/, the resonant length Lax/ versus the

ratio w/b is plotted.

It can be seen that, for each value of w/b, a remarkable reduction of the antenna length

is obtained by increasing the values of w at the resonant frequency. Therefore, by

choosing a value of w/b, the model allows to detect the correspondent resonant length of

the antenna.

Fig. 47. The normalized length Lax of the printed monopole versus the normalized thickness

a according to the transmission line model for w / b = 1.

www.intechopen.com

86 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 48. Transmission line model for meander antenna printed on substrate with r =3.38 and

s = 0.81 mm for different x=w/ .

To test the validity of the model, simulations were run with full wave commercial software

CST Microwave Studio © at a frequency of 2.45 GHz with appropriate model as shows in

Fig 49.

Fig. 49. Top and bottom model of meander antenna monopole designed with CST

Microwave Studio ©.

The transmission line model (TLM) and the full wave simulation were in a good agreement

and the difference between the resonant length obtained by TLM and the full wave

www.intechopen.com

Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 87

simulations was within 250 MHz as it has been summarised in Table 2. Figs 47 and Fig. 48

show, respectively, the normalized length Lax versus antenna thickness a for different

values of w/b and the normalized length Lax versus w/b for different values of x=w/ .

w/b=1.4

model 1° run 2° run

w/ n Lax/ fr sim. Lax/ fr sim. Lax/ fr sim.

[GHz] [GHz] [GHz]

0.029 3 0.158 2.26 0.137 2.54 0.143 2.448

0.025 4 0.177 2.13 0.154 2.40 - -

0.021 5 0.185 2.12 0.162 2.37 0.157 2.430

0.017 6 0.180 2.23 0.159 2.49 - -

w/b=1

model 1° run 2° run

w/ n Lax/ fr sim. Lax/ fr sim. Lax/ fr sim.

[GHz] [GHz] [GHz]

0.029 2 0.155 2.43 - - - -

0.025 3 0.189 2.14 0.160 2.446 - -

0.021 3 0.160 2.45 - - - -

0.017 4 0.169 2.41 - - - -

Table 2. Resonant frequencies calculated with FIT method.

The antenna sizes derived from the model allow us to obtain a design very close to the final

project which can be quickly optimized by avoiding long simulations with commercial

software.

Table 2 shows that the antenna sizes derived from the model allow us to get antenna sizes

close to the final structure as the antenna resonates almost at 2.45 GHz. Moreover, in order

to get exactly 2.45GHz, a quick optimization has to be carried out by running few

simulations with a commercial software.

To validate the proposed TLM method, simulations and measurements have been

performed. The antenna has been printed on a Rogers R04003C with r =3.38 and

thickness 0.81 mm. A prototype is presented in Fig 50. The geometrical sizes chosen were

a=0.5 mm, b=8 mm and w=b that has led to a length Lax =56mm by considering 6 half

meanders (Fig 50). The board total size is L1=72mm and W1=32mm, by considering also

the chassis. The antenna is fed by a microstrip printed on the back of the chassis by

terminating with a stub for achieving good matching. The microstrip is 20mm length and

the stub is L2=8mm and W2= 4mm. The dimensions of the microstrip line has been

optimized using full wave software to provide better impedance matching for the

frequency antenna-resonance.

The simulated and measured return loss is shown in Fig 51. Simulation has been performed

by using CST Microwave Studio © 2009 and it has shown a value of -44dB at 2.45 GHz.

www.intechopen.com

88 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

Fig. 50. Meander antenna monopole printed on the Rogers R04003C substrate.

The measurements were carried out in an anechoic chamber by connecting the antenna at a

network analyser through coaxial cables.

The measured return loss in Fig 51 shows a slight shift of the antenna resonant frequency

towards lower frequencies from 2.45 GHz to 2.42 GHz. Nevertheless, a good matching

is still observed because the reflection coefficient assumes the value -26 dB instead of

-44 dB.

-5

S11 [dB]

-15

-25

-35

-45

1.5 1.66 1.82 1.98 2.14 2.3 2.46 2.62 2.78 2.94 3.1 3.26 3.42

Frequency [GHz]

Simulated Measured

Fig. 52 shows the E field radiation patterns of the antenna at 2.45 GHz on two principal

planes, xz plane (Ф=0°) and yz plane (Ф=90°). The comparison of the radiation patterns

shows that simulations and measurements are in a good agreement.

www.intechopen.com

Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 89

0°

E field [dBV/m] - = 90°

3,0E+04

2,0E+04

1,0E+04

0,0E+00

-1,0E+04

-2,0E+04

180°

Simulated Measured

a)

0°

E field [dBV/m] - = 0°

1,0E+04

0,0E+00

-1,0E+04

-2,0E+04

180°

Simulated Measured

b)

Fig. 52. Comparison of measured and simulated E-field at 2.45 GHz for a) = 0° and

b) = 90°.

Fig 53 shows the current distribution on the antenna. It can be observed that the current is

particularly intense at the end of each half meander. Full wave simulations confirm that

each half meander can be studied as a transmission line terminating in a short circuit.

www.intechopen.com

90 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

16. Reference

[1] T. Tamir, \Leaky-wave antennas", ch. 20 in Antenna Theory, Part 2, R. E. Colin and F. J.

Zucher, Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.

[2] A. A. Oliner, \Leaky-wave antennas", ch. 10 in Antenna Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed.,

R. C. Hansen, Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.

[3] C. H. Walter, \Traveling Wave Antennas", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.

[4] T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, \Guided complex waves, part I: _elds at an interface", Proc. Inst.

Elec. Eng., vol. 110, pp. 310-324, Feb. 1963.

[5] T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, \Guided complex waves, part II: relation to radiation patterns",

Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 110, pp. 325-334, Feb. 1963.

[6] L. O. Goldstone and A. a. Oliner, \Leaky-wave antennas I: rectangular waveguide", IRE

Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-7, pp. 307-319, Oct. 1959.

[7] A. Hessel, \General characteristics of traveling -wave antennas", ch. 19 in Antenna

Theory, Part 2, R. E. Colin and F. J. Zucher, Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.

[8] G. Gerosa and P. Lampariello, \Lezioni di Campi Elettromagnetici I", Edizioni

Ingegneria 2000, 1995.

[9] F. Frezza, Lezioni di Campi Elettromagnetici II, March 2004.

[10] Pozar, David M. and David H. Schaubert, \Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and

Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays", John Wiley, New York, NY, 1995.

[11] Pozar, David M., \Microwave Engineering", John Wiley, New York, NY, second

edition, 1998.

[12] Kumar, Girish and K. P. Ray, \Broadband Microstrip Antennas", Artech House, Boston,

MA, 2003.

[13] Menzel Wolfgang, \A New Travelling-Wave Antenna in Microstrip", Archiv fur

Elektronik und Ubertragungstechnik (AEU), Band 33, Heft 4, pp. 137-140, April 1979.

[14] Yau, D., N. V. Shuley, and L. O. McMillan, \Characteristics of Microstrip Leaky-Wave

Antenna Using the Method of Moments", IEE Proc. Microwave Antennas and

Propag, Vol. 146, No. 5, pp. 324-328, October 1999.

www.intechopen.com

Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications 91

[15] Lee, Kun Sam, \Microstrip Line Leaky Wave Antennas", Ph.D. thesis, Polytechnic

Institute of New York, 1986.

[16] N. Marcuvitz, \On _eld representations in terms of leaky waves or Eigenmodes", IRE

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[17] T. Itoh, R. Mittra, \Spectral domain approach for calculating the dispersion

characteristics of microstrip lines", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn., Vol.

MTT-21, pp. 496-499, 1973.

[18] Mesa, Francisco and David R. Jackson, \Investigation of Integration Paths in the

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Microwave Theory Techn., Vol.50, No. 10, pp. 2267-2275, October 2002.

[19] Kuester, Edward F., Robert T. Johnk, and David C. Chang, \The Thin-Substrate

Approximation for Reection from the End of a Slab-loaded Parallel-Plate

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Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-30, No.5, pp. 910-917, September 1982.

[20] A. Oliner, “Leakage from higher modes on microstrip line with application to

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[27] A. Rahman, Y. Hao, Y. Lee and C.G. Parini, “Effect of unit-cell size on performance of

composite right/left-handed transmission line based leaky-wave antenna”,

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[28] C. Caloz and T. Itoh, “Novel microwave devices and structures based o n the

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metamaterials,＂ in IEEE-APS Int. Symp. Dig., vol. 1, June 2003, p. 199.11.

[30] C. Caloz and T. Itoh, “Application of the transmission line theory of lefthanded (LH)

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[31] A. Rahman, Y. Lee, Y.Hao and C. G. Parini “Limitations in bandwidth and unit cell size

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Proceeding of EuCAP 2007 11 - 16 November 2007, EICC, Edinburgh, UK.

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92 Wireless Communications and Networks – Recent Advances

[32] L.C. Godara, Handbook on antennas in wireless communications, CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL, 2002, Ch. 12.

[33] C.W.Harrison, "Monopole with inductive loading", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation

Vol AP-11,pp 394-400, 1963.

[34] R.C. Hansen, "Efficiency and matching tradeoffs for inductively loaded short antennas",

IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-23, pp 430-435, 1975.

[35] H.Nakano, H. Tagami, A.Yoshizawa, and J. Yamauchi, "Shortening ratio of modified

dipole antennas", IEEE Trans . Antennas Propagation, Vol. AP-32, pp. 385-386, 1984.

[36] J. Rashed and C.Tai, "A new class of resonant antennas", IEEE Trans. Antennas

Propagation, Vol 39, Sett. 1991.

[37] C. T. P. Song, Peter S. Hall, and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Perturbed Sierpinski Multiband

Fractal Antenna With Improved Feeding Technique", IEEE Transactions On

Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 5, May 2003.

[38] R.P. Clayton, Compatibilità Elettromagnetica, Ulrico Hoepli Milano, 1992.

[39] R.K. Hoffmann, "Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits", Artech House,

Norwood, MA, 1987.

www.intechopen.com

Wireless Communications and Networks - Recent Advances

Edited by Dr. Ali Eksim

ISBN 978-953-51-0189-5

Hard cover, 596 pages

Publisher InTech

Published online 14, March, 2012

Published in print edition March, 2012

This book will provide a comprehensive technical guide covering fundamentals, recent advances and open

issues in wireless communications and networks to the readers. The objective of the book is to serve as a

valuable reference for students, educators, scientists, faculty members, researchers, engineers and research

strategists in these rapidly evolving fields and to encourage them to actively explore these broad, exciting and

rapidly evolving research areas.

How to reference

In order to correctly reference this scholarly work, feel free to copy and paste the following:

Onofrio Losito and Vincenzo Dimiccoli (2012). Travelling Planar Wave Antenna for Wireless Communications,

Wireless Communications and Networks - Recent Advances, Dr. Ali Eksim (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0189-5,

InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/wireless-communications-and-networks-recent-

advances/travelling-planar-wave-antenna-for-wireless-communications

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distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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