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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

The Introduction part discusses the Technology advance when comes to social

media and the academic performance of the students. This includes the objectives of

the study, the beneficiaries that will benefit the research study, and the limitations of the

study.

Background of the Study

The world is today celebrating the improvements in communication technology

which has broadened the scope of communication through Information and

Communication Technologies (ICTs). Modern Technology in communication no doubt

has turned the entire world into a “Global village”. But as it is, technology like two sides

of a coin, bring with it both negative and positive sides. It helps people to be better

informed, enlightened, and keeping abreast with world developments. Technology

exposes mankind to a better way of doing things. Social networking sites include:

Twitter, Yahoo Messenger, Face book, Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM),

What’s app messenger, 2go messenger, Skype, Google talk, Google Messenger, I

Phone and Androids. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with

old and new friends, physical or internet friends. This has resulted into the use of

technology as the best medium to explore the wide area of knowledge.

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Academic excellence or achievement plays an important role in an individual

placement, be it in the academic institutions or job placement. Due to this, many people

are concerned with the ways they can enhance their academic achievement. The

emphasis on academic excellence which is also prevalent worldwide has encouraged

many studies about the conditions promoting it. The role of academic achievement as

one of the predictors of one’s life success and also in the aspect of academic placement

in schools to higher institutions as well as the level of employability in one’s career is

inevitable. Academic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is

one of the major goals of a school. Academic performance is commonly measured by

examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is

best tested or which aspects are most important, procedural knowledge such as skills or

declarative knowledge such as facts.

A direct relationship exists between Social media usage and the academic

performance of students in schools. However the darker side within technological

evolution has resulted in dilemmas such as the setback of real values of life especially

among students who form the majority of users interacting through the use of social

networking sites. Online social networking sites focus on building and reflecting social

associations among people who share interests and or activities. With so many social

networking sites displayed on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their

homework and reading times in preference for chatting online with friends. Today most

youths and students possess Face book accounts. The reason most of them perform

badly in school might not be far- fetched. While many minds might be quick to blame the

poor quality of teachers, they might have to think even harder, if they have not heard of

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the Facebook frenzy. Even in classrooms and lecture orientations, it has been observed

that some students are always busy pinging, 2going or Face booking, while lectures are

on. Times that ought be channeled towards learning, academic research and innovating

have been crushed by the passion for meeting new friends online, and most times busy

discussing trivial issues. Hence most students’ academics suffer setback as a result of

distraction from the social media. It was observed that the use of these sites also affects

students’ use of English and grammar. The students are used to short forms of writing

words in their chat rooms; they forget and use the same in the classrooms. They use

things like 4 in place of for, U in place of You, D in place of The etc. and this could affect

their class assessment. Social networking sites although has been recognized as an

important resource for education today, studies however shows that students use social

networking sites such as Facebook for fun, to kill time, to meet existing friends or to

make new ones.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study generally, is to examine the Effects of Social Media

Exposure in the Academic Performance of Grade 12 STEM students of Romblon

National High School.

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Specific Questions

Specifically it will seek to answer the following:

1. What are the different types of Social Media often being used by the students?

2. Is there an advantage of using social media towards the academic performance?

3. Is there a significant relationship among the frequent use of social media, the

addictiveness, exposure and the use of social media in the Academic

Performance of Grade-12 STEM?

Scope and Delimitation of the study

The focus of this research work is to primarily study if there is an influence of

social media on the academic performance of the Grade- 12 students in STEM. Media

exposure such as Face book, Messenger and twitter, where the students are mostly

expose. It is also limited only the 63 Grade 12 STEM Students.

Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. This study will

help the teachers of the school to know the influence that social media has on their

students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the

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possible influence it has on them. This study is of significant to parents in the sense that

they will know the possible effects these social media usage has on their children, so as

to serve as watch-dog to their children on the usage of social media.

The study will enable the students of the senior high grade 12 STEM’s so that they will

be aware that, apart from the social benefits of this social media’s, using the sites more

than necessary will pose possible dangers to their health. It will be relevant in assisting

students in understanding the diversity of social media. It will provide relevance material

for students and other researchers undertaking similar research. This study will help

researchers with more information on the effects of social media on student’s academic

performance.

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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter reviewed some of the numerous works done by scholars and researchers

which are directly related to this research work.

Concept of social media

Social media is that means that employs mobile and web based technology to

create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and community share, co-

create, discus and modifies user-generated content (Kietzmannn, 2012). Social media

is a phrase being tossed around a lot. It is a website that does not just give you

information but interact with you while giving you information. It is a group of internet

based application that allows the creation and exchange of users generated content. It

is easy to confuse social media with social news because we often refer to members of

the news as the media. Adding to it, that social news site is also social media site.

Some media website includes:

Social Bookmarking: interact by tagging website and searching through website book

marked by others (Blink list, simple).

for articles and commenting on them (Dig, propello).

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Social Networking: interact by adding friends, commenting on photo and profiles,

sharing groups for discussions (Face book, 2go, BB chat)

videos and

commenting on the user submission. (Youtube and Fliki).

Social media refers to the means of interaction among people in which they create,

share, exchange and comment among themselves in different networks. Andreas and

Michael (2010) are of the opinion that social media is a group of internet based

application that builds on the ideological foundation and allows the creation and

exchange of users –generated content. Social media has become one of the major

channel of chatting through platforms such as 2go, BB chat, blogger and wiki a. There

has been an increase in the mobile social media which has created new opportunity for

browsing.7The internet usage effect of social media, in views of Nielsen (2012) is that,

students continue to spend more time on the social media than any site. The total time

spent on social media across mobile devices increased by 37%, 121 billion minutes in

July 2012 compared to 88 billion minutes in July 2011.

Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) classified social media into six different classes as follows:
1. Collaborative Project (Wikipedia)

2. Blogs and Micro blogs (Twitter)

3. Content Communities (Youtube)

4. Social Networking Site (Facebook; 2go; BB chat)

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5. Virtual Game World (World of war craft)

6. Virtual Second World (Second life)

Technology includes the blogs, picture sharing, music sharing, crowd sourcing,

e-mail, instant messaging and voice over. These services could be integrated via social

network aggregation platforms.

Social Networking Sites

It is used to describe any website that enables users to create public profiles

within that website and form relationship with other users of the same website who

access their profile. It is used to describe community base website, online discussion

forum, chat rooms and other social space online. Commonly, the phrase “social

networking sites” is used as an umbrella term for all social media and computer-

mediated communication, including but not limited to Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and

Myspace, as well as the inaugural social networking sites of Cyworld, Bebo and

Friendster.Ellison and Boyd (2007) define social network sites as web-based services

that allow individuals to construct profiles, display user connections, and search and

traverse within that list of connections. A social media is an online service or platforms

that focus on facilitating the building of social network among people who share interest,

activities and background on real life connections. It is a website that allows users to

share information within a selected group. It is a great way to stay connected and a

convenient way to share 8photos from trips (Awake, 2012). It consists of a

representation of each user (profiles), social links and a variety of additional services.

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Student’s addictiveness to social media

On the internet, students engage in a variety of activities some of which may be

potentially addictive. (kuss and Griffiths, 2011). The mass appeal of social media on the

internet could be a cause for concern, particularly when attending to the gradually

increasing amount of time students spend online. Undergraduates spend more time on

Facebook, Twitter and other social media through smartphones that are now in

abundance among these youths. Many student cannot go for two-three hours without

checking and updating their profiles on these social networks even at the detriment of

other activities such as educational and career pursuit. (Morahan- Martin and

Schumacher, 2000) explain social media addiction as the excessive use of the internet

and the failure to control this usage which seriously harms a person’s life. In an article

on the Daily Trust newspaper, Itodo (2011) posits that there seem to be an alarming

rate of social networking obsession among students today; a trend that could affect their

academic, social and spiritual lives negatively if not properly controlled.9Many

concerned parents have expressed grave concern that they could hardly get the

attention of their children and wards, as they seem to have been carried away by the

fascinating world of social networks. Some youths are such social freaks that they have

now carved out for themselves a world of fantasy and illusion for detached from

reality.Bello (2012) of the Sunday Observer observes that if the dangerous trend of

social media network “obsession” if left unchecked could further affect an already

collapsing education system in Nigeria. The reason students are performing poorly in

school these days might not be farfetched. While poor quality of lecturers can quickly

take the blame, one might think harder if the phrase “Facebook frenzy” has not been

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heard of. It is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organized

places like church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as

they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. Attention has been shifted from

visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in

the process. This phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in

knowledge and skill acquisition (McQuail 2008). Jeong (2005) noted that internet

addiction is significantly and negatively related to students’ academic performance, as

well as emotional attributes. Even in classrooms and lecture theatres, it has been

observed that some students are always busy pinging, 2going or Facebooking, while

lectures are on. The result is that quality time that ought to be spent on academic

research and other productive networking is lost.

Students Exposure to Social Media

It has been observed in recent times that students have unlimited access to the

internet as well as the social media. Students connect with computer to send and

receive information’s anywhere on the globe. The manufacturing and distribution of

equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as students no

longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send and receive messages. Some school

are so equipped that there is internet connection made available within the school

premises as well as in the library. Online Wikipedia and blogs are the main resource

centers for students as attention have been shifted from making research in the library

to overall dependence on theses socia10platforms. It is a common thing to see a

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student reading in the library and putting the books aside on hearing the sound of a ping

on the phone.

According to a joint study by Campus2Careers and Study Breaks on the use of

mobile devices among students discovered that, an average undergraduate spend 3.6

hours a day with their cell phones and smartphones, while spending less time with

computers, TV’s, handheld gaming devices and e-readers.

Influence of Social Media Network on Student Academic Performance

Though there have been many social, economic, and environmental factors that

have added to the pressure of university students in the past ten years, the drop-out

rate for students is still a major national problem (Bowen, 2008). Current statistics show

that university students in Nigeria are under increased pressure due to higher academic

standards in other countries, and it has become more important than ever for educators

to encourage graduation and further education (Bowen, 2008). However, with more and

more students being preoccupied with social media networks andtechnological social

lives, how will this affect their studies? It is estimated that even those students who do

graduate high school, one out of three does not have possess the knowledge and skills

that would lead him or her to the next level, such as college or an advanced trade

school (Bowen, 2008).The top academic areas that many school professionals are

concerned about are English (ELA) and advanced literacy (Williams, 2008). The current

generations of teens live in a fast-paced technological world with many different types of

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communication happening all at the same time. For example, he or she may be on the

computer on a SNS, while also talking on the phone, sending instant messages to a

friend, and emailing someone else all 12at the same time (Williams, 2008). While there

may be some advantages to this, such as the teen learning how to type faster and multi-

task many things at once, there may also be a breakdown in much of that

communication (Williams, 2008).Literacy has also taken a dive in the past decade,

which has caused many educators toquestion what can be done to help students

improve their reading, writing, speaking, and thinking- all of the most basic skills for a

successful future (Wise, 2009). As one researcher stated, “Literacy is, in reality, the

cornerstone of student achievement, for any student, in any grade” (Wise, 2009, 373).

The question that many school professionals have with regards to communication is

whether or not a tertiary institution student is able to follow school curriculum in courses

like English or Language Arts (Williams, 2008). Also, will it be possible to teach them

without the use of multi-tasking and using new forms of technology.

Usage of Social Media and Students’ Academic Performance

The social media engages students and have to be examined as entrepreneurs

of understanding. The medium of internet is marketing with increase in its programs.

The interactive character of online conditions has extended with social networking.

Hooking up through social networking began as being a niche activity, though time it's a

phenomenon. The web sites are employed in many ways like developing metropolitan

areas, speaking, blogging etc. Additionally different institutions even nowadays are

developing groups on several Websites (Saba Mehmood 2013). The improved usage of

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Websites has become a worldwide phenomenon for quite some time. What began out

as being a hobby for several computer literate people has converted 13to a social norm

and existence-style for individuals from around the globe (Nicole Ellison, 2007).Teens

and teenagers have especially recognized these internet sites to be able to contact their

peers, share information, reinvent their personas, and showcase their social

lives Nicole Ellison,(2007).While using the increase of technology helpful for getting

together with others along with the recognition on the internet, Internet sites are now

being an activity that's done mainly on the web, with Websites Vaughn, Coyle

(2008).According to Khan U (2009), social media users often time experience poor

performance academically. Similarly, Englander, Terregrossa & Wang (2010) posit that

social media is negatively associated with academic performance of student and is a lot

more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction consequently gave rise in

internet usage within the last couple of decades. Nalwa & Anand (2003).recommended

that addicted users prefer using internet setting back their personal and professional

responsibilities which ultimately leads to poor academic performance. In the same vein,

Karpinski (2009) pointed out that social media users devoted lesser time to their studies

in comparison to nonusers did and subsequently had lower GPAs. Karpinski &

Duberstein. (2009).Also mentioned that among various unique distractions of every

single generation, Social media remains a major distraction of current generation.

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Social Media in the Classroom

Having social media in the classroom has been a controversial topic for the last

several years. Many parents and educators have been fearful of the repercussions of

having social media in the classroom (Kist 2012). As a result, cell phones have been

banned from classroom and schools have blocked many popular social media websites.

However, despite adult’s apprehensions, students are using social media. Schools have

realized that they need to incorporate these tools into the classroom and rules are

changing. The Peel District School Board (PDSB) in Ontario is one of many school

boards that has begun to accept the use of social media in the classroom. In 2013, the

PDSB introduced a “Bring Your Own Device” (BYOD) policy and have unblocked many

social media sites. Fewkes and McCabe (2012) have researched about the benefits of

using Facebook in the classroom.In early 2013, Steve Joordens, a professor at the

University of Toronto, encouraged the 1,900 students enrolled in his introductory

psychology course to add content to Wikipedia 14pages featuring content that related to

the course. Like other educators, Joordens argued that the assignment would not only

strengthen the site’s psychology-related content, but also provide an opportunity for

students to engage in critical reflection about the negotiations involved in collaborative

knowledge production. However, Wikipedia’s allvolunteer editorial staff complained that

the students’ contributions resulted in an overwhelming number of additions to the site,

and that some of the contributions were inaccurate.Facebook represents a potentially

useful tool in educational contexts. It allows for both an asynchronous and synchronous,

open dialogue via a familiar and regularly accessed medium, and supports the

integration of multimodal content such as student-created photographs and video and

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URLs to other texts, in a platform that many students are alreadyfamiliar with. Further, it

allows students to ask more minor questions that they might not otherwise feel

motivated to visit a professor in person during office hours to ask (Moody2010).It also

allows students to manage their own privacy settings, and often work with the privacy

settings they have already established as registered users.Facebook is one alternative

means for shyer students to be able to voice their thoughts in and outside of the

classroom. It allows students to collect their thoughts and articulate them in writing

before committing to their expression. Further, the level of informality typical to

Facebook can also aid students in self-expression and encourage more frequent

studentand-instructor and student-and-student communication.Twitter also promotes

social connections among students. It can be used to enhance communication building

and critical thinking. Domizi (2013) utilized Twitter in a graduate seminar requiring

students to post weekly tweets to extend classroom discussions. Students 15reportedly

used Twitter to connect with content and other students. Additionally, students found it

“to be useful professionally and personally”. Junco, Heibergert, and Loken (2011)

completed a study of 132 students to examine the link between social media and

student engagement and social media and grades. They divided the students into two

groups, one used Twitter and the other did not. Twitter was used to discuss material,

organize study groups, post class announcements, and connect with classmates.Junco

and his colleagues (2011) found that the students in the Twitter group had higher GPAs

and greater engagement scores than the control group. Gao, Luo, and Zhang (2012)

reviewed literature about Twitter published between 2008 and 2011. They concluded

that Twitter allowed students to participate with each other in class (back channel), and

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extend discussion outside of class. They also reported that students used Twitter to get

up-to-date news and connect with professionals in their field. Students reported that

microblogging encouraged students to “participate at a higher level” Since the posts

cannot exceed 140 characters, students were required to express ideas, reflect, and

focus on important concepts in a concise manner. Some students found this very

beneficial. Other students did not likethe character limit. Also, some students found

microblogging to be overwhelming (information overload). The research indicated that

many students did not actually participate in the discussions, “they just lurked”.YouTube

is the most frequently used social media tool in the classroom (Moran, Seaman, & Tinti-

Kane 2012). Students can watch videos, answer questions, and discuss content.

Additionally, students can create videos to share with others. Sherer and Shea (2011)

claimed that YouTube increased participation, personalization (customization), and

productivity. YouTube also improved students’ digital skills and provided opportunity for

16peer learning and problem solving. Eick & King (2012) found that videos kept

students’ attention, generated interest in the subject, and clarified course content.

Summary of Literature Review

There are many issues concerning grade12 senior high students in STEM and

social networking site participation. On one hand, there may be benefits for students

who use these sites properly and appropriately. Other research suggests that there are

clear risks involved when students become too consumed with the Internet and social

networking websites. It was discovered that social networking sites are the most

common used social media networks among students and also Wikipedia has the main

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resort point for students for research purposes. Students engage themselves with one

activity or the other on the various social media on day to day activities. However,

Undergraduates spend more time on Face book, Twitter and other social media through

smart phones that are now in abundance among these 17youths. Many students cannot

go for two-three hours without checking and updating their profiles on these social

networks even at the detriment of other activities such as educational and career

pursuit. Smart phones, android phones as well as tablets were seen to be the major

ways through which students gain easy access to the internet to be on the various

social media network platforms. Hence, for the purposes of this research project, the

researcher will examine the level of student addictiveness to social media, how often

they use them, how they use them, and how this is affecting their academic studies.

Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are generated by the researcher and were tested in this

study:

1. Students’ addictiveness to social network has no significant influence on their

academic performance.

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2. Student’s exposure to social media network has no significant influence on students’

academic performance.

3. Use of social media does no significantly influence on the academic performance of

the Grade 12 senior high students STEM.

4. Age does not have significant influence on the use of social media.

Operational Definition of Terms

As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definitions are

given as the words used as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study.

Social Media: They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive

base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology

Social Networking Sites: A website where people put information about them and can

send to others. 18Social Networking: The use of internet to make information about

yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send

messages to them.

Media: Are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by

mass communication. “They are messages communicated through a mass medium to a


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number of people.

Academic: It is concerned with Studying from books as opposed by a practical work.

Students: Someone who is Studying at a University or School. Someone who is very

interested in a particular subject.

Computer: A computer is a machine that receives or stores or process data quickly

according to a stored program.

Tweets: A short message posted on Twitter (a micro blog).

ICT: Information and Communication Technology

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the method and procedure that was applied in this study. It

was organized under the following sub-headings: Research Design, Research Method

Used, Research Locale and Time of the Study, Population of the Study, Sample and

Sampling Technique, Research Instrument, Method of Data Collection, Data Collection

and Source of Data, and Method of Data Processing and Analysis.

Research Design

The research design adopted for the study was a descriptive survey. This design

is considered apt because it enables the researcher to generate data through the

standardized collection procedures based on highly structured research instrument(s)

and well defined study concepts and related variables.

Research Method Used

Descriptive-correlation method was used in this study. Descriptive method was

used in describing the Frequent used of social media, Students addictiveness to social

media, Students exposure to social media, and Use of social media. Correlation method

was employed to test the significant relationship among the students in behalf the

factors formerly mentioned towards the effects on the student academic performance.

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Research Locale and Time of the Study

Research Locale. Romblon National High School (RNHS) was selected where the

study was conducted. Romblon was the primary respondents of this research study came from.

The School is located in Barangay Bagacay, Tarifa St. Romblon, Romblon. From June to

October, School Year 2017, the study took place.

ROMBLON NATIONAL
HIGH SCHOOL

Figure 1. Map showing the location of Romblon National High School, High School Campus

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Population of the Study

The student population of Senior High Students in Romblon National High

School, Romblon High School is 447. Only the Grade 12 students in the STEM strand

were included in the study as sample with a total sum of 67 students.

Sample and Sampling Technique

The sampling procedure that was utilized in this study is a Simple Random

Sampling.

Research Instrument

A well-constructed and self-developed questionnaire titled “Social Media and

Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (SMAAPOS)” was used to get the

desired information from the students. The questionnaire was divided into two sections

(A and B). Section A was for collection of information on personal data of respondents

while Section B consisted of questions that elicited responses from the respondents

with response options: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Fair (F), Disagree (D) and

Strongly Disagree (SD).

Method of Data Collection

The researcher collected the needed data through the use of questionnaire and

its administration in the selected faculties. The administration of the questionnaire were

carried out by the researcher. A total of 63 copies of the questionnaire were distributed

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to each individual to elicit responses from the students and retrieved on the spot by the

researcher.

Data Collection and Source of Data

The list of the respondents was taken from the primary respondent of this

research. After securing permission from the facilitator, the questionnaires will be

distributed personally to the respondent on the scheduled date.

Method of Data Processing and Analysis

1. Percentage to determine the percent of the students/respondents that fall in a

specific category. The formula for percentage is:

𝑓
𝑃= 𝑥100
𝑁

Where:

f = frequency in every category

N = total cases/population

100= constant

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2. Weighted Mean to determine the level of Media exposure of the respondent. The

formula for the weighted mean is:

∑𝑊𝑓
W𝑥̅ = 𝑁

Where:

W𝑥̅ = weighted mean

∑ = sum

Wf = product of weight and frequencies

N = total population

3. Pearson r used to determine the relationship between media exposure of the

students and their academic performance. The formula for person r is:

n∑xy − ∑x∑y
𝑟𝑥𝑦 =
√[n∑x 2 − (∑x)2 ][n∑y 2 − (∑y)2 ]

n = Number of respondents

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∑xy = the sum of the product of the variable x and y

∑x = the sum of x variable

∑y = the sum of y variable

∑x² = the sum of the square of x

∑y² = the sum of the square of y

(∑x)² = the square of the sum of x

(∑y)² = the square of the sum of y

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CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results and discussion from this study in four sections

under the following subheadings:

 Presentation of Demographic Data

 Presentation of Weighted mean

 Presentation of Pearson r

 Discussion of Findings

SECTION A: Presentation of Demographic Data

Table 1: Distribution of respondents according to Section.

Section Frequency Percentage (%)


Obsidian 28 50

Rhyolite 28 50

Total 56 100

The table 1 shows the distribution of students in the selected sections as follows: 28
Obsidian students (50%) and 28 Rhyolite students (50%). A total of 56 students (100%)
available to be our respondents.

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Table 2: Presentation of Demographic Data

Age Frequency Percentage (%)


16 3 5
17 32 57
18 19 34
19 2 4

Sex Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 34 63
Female 20 37

The table 2 shows the demographic data of the participants:3 respondents representing

(5%) were the age of 16, 32 representing (57%) were the age of 17, 19 representing

(34%) were the age of 18 and 2 represent (4%) were the age of 19; 34 representing

(63%) of the respondent were Male and 20 representing (37%) were Female.

Table 3: Presentation of Social Media frequently use.

Social Media Frequency Percentage (%)


Facebook 51 46

Messenger 35 32

Twitter 9 8

Instagram 10 9
Others

Tumblr 2 2

Pinterest 1 0.9

1 0.9
Wattpad
1 0.9
Google

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The table 3 shows the social media most use by the respondents as follows: 51

respondents (46%) uses more Facebook, 35 respondents (32%) use Messenger, 9

respondents (8%) use Twitter and 10 respondent (9%) use Instagram; Other specify

social media follows: 2 respondent (2%) use Tumblr,1 respondent (0.9%) use Pinterest,

1 respondent (0.9%) use Wattpad and 1 respondent (0.9%) use Google.

Analysis of Research Question

Table 4. Frequent used of Social Media.

S/N Items SA A F DA SD TOTAL

I put a check on the


1 social media(s) where 28 18 8 2 0 56
I’m mostly exposed.

(50%) (32%) (14%) (4%) (0%) (100%)

Social media is a big


2 help in my academic 16 25 12 2 1 56
performance.

(29%) (44%) (21%) (4%) (2%) (100%)

I’m always online to


3 check my notifications 23 15 15 2 1 56
and messages.

(41%) (26%) (26%) (4%) (2%) (100%)

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I used helpful
information for my
4 18 28 10 0 0 56
studies from different
sources.

(32%) (50%) (18%) (0%) (0%) (100%)

I do not use social


5 5 10 11 18 12 56
media for my studies.

(9%) (18%) (20%) (32%) (21%) (100%)

90 96 56 24 14 280
Total Percentage
(32%) (34%) (20%) (9%) (5%) (100%)

The table 4 shows that 90 (32%) of the participants’ responded “Agree” that the frequent

used of social media has an effect on the students’ academic performance,90 (32%)

Strongly Agree, 56 (20%) Fair, 24 (9%) Disagree and 14(5%) Strongly Agree.

Table 5. Students Addictiveness to Social Media

S/N Items SA A F DA SD Total

Being prone to
online social
network is my
6
problematic issue 11 16 21 5 3 56
that affects my
academic life.
(20%) (29%) (37%) (9%) (5%) (100%)
Online social
7 networks distract 13 18 20 4 1 56
me from my studies.
(23%) (32%) (36%) (7%) (2%) (100%)

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Hours spent online
can never be
8 compared to the 12 20 18 5 1 56
number of hours I
spend reading.
(21%) (36%) (32%) (9%) (2%) (100%)
There is no
improvement in my
grades since I
9 7 11 15 16 7 56
became engaged
into these social
sites.
(12%) (20%) (27%) (29%) (12%) (100%)
I can consider
myself as a frequent
10 13 22 16 3 2 56
user of social
media.
(23%) (39%) (29%) (5%) (4%) (100%)

56 87 90 33 14 280
Total Percentage
(20%) (31%) (32%) (12%) (5%) (100%)

The table 5 shows 90(32%) of the participants responded “Fair” that student’s

addictiveness to social network is on the students will to let them influence their

academic performance. 56(20%) Strongly Agree, 87 (31%) Agree, 33(12%) Disagree

and 14 (5%) Strongly Disagree.

Table 6. Exposure of students to social media network.

S/N Items SA A F DA SD Total


I solely rely on
information gotten
from Wikipedia to do
11 3 26 14 7 6 56
my assignments
without consulting
other sources.
(6%) (46%) (24%) (12%) (11%) (100%)

30
I usually have
unlimited access to
social media and
12 this has affected my 6 10 21 13 6 56
academic
performance
negatively.
(11%) (18%) (37%) (23%) (11%) (100%)
I became advanced
with the lessons and
13 3 19 21 12 1 56
activities by staying
online.
(5%) (34%) (38%) (21%) (2%) (100%)

Social Media
doesn’t affect my
academic
14 11 17 20 7 1 56
performance but
negatively affect my
health.
(19%) (30%) (36%) (13%) (2%) (100%)

I’m aware that


exposure in social
15 20 26 7 2 1 56
media affects my
time.
(36%) (46%) (12%) (4%) (2%) (100%)

43 98 83 41 15 280
Total Percentage
(15%) (35%) (30%) (15%) (5%) (100%)

The table 6 shows that 98(35%) of the participants responded “Agree” that the students

exposure to social media has an influence on the students’ academic performance. 43

(15%) Strongly Agree, 83(30%) Fair, 41 (15%) Disagree and 15(5%) Strongly Disagree.

31
Table 7. Use of Social Media

S/N Items SA A F DA SD Total


Social media helps
me in my studies
16 especially when 21 25 9 1 0 56
doing researches.

(37%) (44%) (17%) (2%) (0%) (100%)

Utilizing the social


media helps me in
17 9 28 14 4 1 56
my school
performance.
(16%) (50%) (25%) (7%) (2%) (100%)

I use materials
gotten from blogging
18 sites to complement 4 27 20 3 2 56
what I have been
taught in class.
(7%) (48%) (36%) (5%) (4%) (100%)

Social media has no


19 relation with what I 7 9 20 14 6 56
learn in school.
(12%) (16%) (36%) (25%) (11%) (100%)

I can participate in
school activities
20 11 19 18 4 4 56
whenever I’m using
social media.
(20%) (34%) (32%) (7%) (7%) (100%)

52 108 81 26 13 280
Total Percentage
(18%) (39%) (29%) (9%) (5%) (100%)

32
The table 7 shows that 108(39%) of the participants responded “Agree’ that the using of

social media had an influenced to the academic performance of the students. 52(18%)

Strongly Agree, 81(29%) Fair, 26(9%) Disagree, 13 (5%) Strongly Disagree.

SECTION B: Presentation of Weighted Mean

Code Descriptive Interpretation (DI) Scale

SA (5) Strongly Agree 4.51-5.00

A (4) Agree 3.51-4.00

F (3) Fair 2.51-3.00

DA (2) Disagree 1.51-2.00

SD (1) Strongly Disagree 0.01-1.51

Table 8. Level for the frequent used of Social Media.

Items WM DI
1. I put a check on the social media(s) where I’m mostly exposed. 4.28 A
2. Social media is a big help in my academic performance. 4.10 A
3. I’m always online to check my notifications and messages. 4.01 A
4. I used helpful information for my studies from different sources. 4.14 A
5. I do not use social media for my studies. 2.60 DA
Overall Weighted Mean 3.86 A

The table 8 shows that the overall weighted mean is 3.86 which agree that students of

grade 12 Stem uses social media frequently and base on the weighted mean of the

33
items 1-4 they agree that they always open up their social media accounts for their

social life and on the No.5 item the weighted mean disagree to the statement if they use

social media in their studies. They agree that they frequently use social media only for

their social life and does not include social media in terms of their studies.

Table 9. Level for the Students Addictiveness to Social Media.

Items WM DI
6. Being prone to online social network is my problematic
2.58 F
issue that affects my academic life.
7. Online social networks distract me from my studies. 3.67 A
8. Hours spent online can never be compared to the number
1.87 DA
of hours I spend reading.
9. There is no improvement in my grades since I became
2.91 F
engaged into these social sites.
10. I can consider myself as a frequent user of social media. 2.73 F
Overall weighted mean 2.75 F

The table 9 shows the overall weighted mean is 2.75 which is fair to the student’s

addictiveness. The students of Grade 12 STEM addictiveness is fairly which mean

dependable only on the students, it’s up to them to let their addictiveness affect their

academic performance.

34
Table 10. Level for the Exposure of students to social media network.

Items WM DI
11. I solely rely on information gotten from Wikipedia to do my
3.33 F
assignments without consulting other sources.
12. I usually have unlimited access to social media and this has affected
2.94 F
my academic performance negatively.
13. I became advanced with the lessons and activities by staying online. 3.19 F
14. Social Media doesn’t affect my academic performance but negatively
5.82 SA
affect my health.
15. I’m aware that exposure in social media affects my time. 4.1 A
Overall weighted mean 3.87 A

The table 10 shows the overall weighted mean is 3.87 which they agree that they are

expose to social media. In items no.11-13 the results are all Fair, which exposing to

social media has only 50-50 chance to affect their academic performance, in item no. 14

the weighted mean is 5.82 which they are strongly agree that it affects their health

negatively for the reason being expose every day and in no.15 the weighted mean 4.1

which they agree that they are aware that social media affects their time but still they

use social media frequently.

Table 11. The level of Use Social Media

Items WM DI
16. Social media helps me in my studies especially when doing
4.17 A
researches.
17. Utilizing the social media helps me in my school performance. 3.69 A
18. I use materials gotten from blogging sites to complement what I have
2.78 F
been taught in class.

35
19. Social media has no relation with what I learn in school. 2.94 F
20. I can participate in school activities whenever I’m using social media. 3.51 A
Overall weighted mean 3.41 F

The table 11 shows that the overall weighted mean is 3.14 which is fair in using the

social media. Items no. 16, 17 and 20 agree to the point that when they uses a social

media on an activity in school he/she can do well. In item no. 19 the weighted mean is

2.9 is fair, it is only fair to them on what they has something to do with social media.

Table 12. Pearson correlation between Social Media and the academic performance of

students.

Independent Dependent
Pearson r Sig.(2 tailed) Remarks
Level for the frequent used of Social
0.415 0.354 S**
Media.

Level for the Students Addictiveness


to Social Media 0.569 0.354 S**

Level for the Exposure of students to


social media network. 0.635 0.354 S**

The level of Use Social Media


0.614 0.354 S**

36
Legend:

S Significant.

NS Not significant

** Significant at 1% level (2 tailed)

* Significant at 5% level (2 tailed)

The table 12 denotes the Pearson correlation between the social media and the

academic performance of grade 12 students. The table indicates that the probability

value of .354 for academic performance of grade 12 students is greater than the .01

level of significance in the use of social media in terms of “Frequently used social

media, Students addictiveness to social media, Exposure of students to social media

network and use of social media” This means that there is a significant relationship

between the Social media and the academic performance of students.

The data reveal that the level of Social media is significantly related to the

students’ academic performance.

37
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION

Summary of the Study

This study investigated the social media and academic performance of the

student’s in Romblon National High School. The descriptive survey research design was

adopted in the study. A sample of 63 respondents was selected from a population of 67

students, a simple random sampling technique was used for the selection. A self-

developed Liker-type scale titled “Social media and Academic Performance of Students

Questionnaire (SMAAPOS)” thoroughly scrutinized by the validators was used for data

collection. The instrument was validated and found to be reliable. It was personally

administered by the researcher. The data collected were analyzed with the use of

descriptive correlation statistics of frequency count percentage, weighted mean and

Pearson r. The results obtained showed that, Students’ addictiveness to social network

has a significant influence on their academic performance; Student’s exposure to social

media network has significant influence on students’ academic performance; Use of

social media has significant influence on the academic performance of the students.

Conclusion

The result from the findings of this study showed that, with the use of Social

media it has a positive effects on the Grade 12 STEM students on their academic

performance although it may seem that the students sticks around more on their social

38
life but when it comes to their studies they use social media for academic purposes.

Social media is a major factor that affects the academic performance. Showing in this

study, social media is an advantage to the students, especially in the academics.

Students may use social media regularly for their social life but when it comes to their

studies they used it responsibly, having proper knowledge and for research purposes

mostly.

The findings of this study and earlier ones showed some noteworthy results. The

first category shows that the respondents agree for the frequent used of social media,

they often used social media for their social life and for their academic performance.

The second category shows that the respondents fairly agree with their addictiveness to

social media, having not all the time they use open their social sites. The third category

shows that the respondents agree that exposure in social media affects their time and

health negatively and their academic performance positively, and the fourth category

shows that the respondents agree that social media helps them in their academic

performance, influencing the academic performance of students, that is, social media

participation was positively related with students outcome.

Recommendations

In the light of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

1. Students should be educated on the influence of Social media on their academic

performance.

39
2. Students should be monitored by teachers and parents on how they use these sites.

3. Teachers should ensure they use the social media as a tool to improve the academic

performance of students in schools.

4. Students should better manage their study time in and prevent distractions that can

be provided by the social media. There should be a decrease in the number of time

spent by students when surfing the net.

5. Social Networking Sites should be expanded and new pages should be created to

enhance academic activities and avoid setbacks in the students’ academic

performance.

6. The students should create a balance between chit-chatting and academic activities.

More attention should be directed to research.

40
REFERENCE

A.C. Karpinski, 2009. “A description of Facebook use and academic performance


among undergraduate and graduate students,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting
of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, Calif.

Alexander, J. and Salas, G. 2008. Technology for institutional enrollment,


communication, and student success. New Directions for Student Services, 124, 103-
116.

Andreas M., Haenlein Michael (2010). "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and
opportunities of social media". Business Horizons 53 (1). p. 61.
doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003.

Amos Alunyo Bello (2012) Effects of Social Networking on Nigerian youths/Students


Nigeriaobservernews.com/26022012/Sundayobserver/features.html.(Retrieved12/07201
2).

Annie Ward, Howard W. Stoker, Mildred Murray-Ward (1996), Achievement and Ability
Tests –Definition of the Domain. Educational Measurement, 2, University Press of
America, pp. 2–5, ISBN 978-0-7618-0385-0

Asemah, E.S and Edegoh, L.O.N. (2012). Social media and insecurity in Nigeria: a
critical appraisal. Being a paper presented at the 15th National Conference of African
Council for Communication Education, which took place at the conference Hall of
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Barker, V. (2009). Older adolescents’ motivations for social network site use: The
influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem. Cyber Psychology and
41Behavior, 12, 209-213. 41

41
APPENDICES

42
APPENDIX A
LETTER ASKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY

Department of Education
Romblon National High School
Romblon, Romblon

September 27, 2017


MRS. ROSEMARIE M. MANGARING
Principal II
Romblon National High School

Madam;

Greetings!

We, the undersigned STEM students of Romblon National High School, Romblon,
Romblon are undergoing a research study entitled “SOCIAL MEDIA EXPOSURE AND THE
ACADEMIC PERFOMNACE OF GRADE 12 STUDENTS IN THE STEM STRAND”. This
undertaking is a partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research this first semester

In connection with this, we would like to seek permission from your good office to conduct
this study in your school and with your Grade 12 STEM students. Assured that student records
and their identity will be kept confidentially and the data gathered from them will solely be used
for educational purposes only, we are anticipating for your consideration and approval on this
matter. Thank you and God Bless.

Respectfully Yours,
Denzel Jay M. Fradejas
James Von G. Nicolas
Irra Lyn M. Malupa
Ronnel M. Mesana
Noted By:

MR. LINO M. MATEO


Research Adviser

Recommending Approval:

MRS. NOEMI T. MELANO


Asst. Principal II SHS Approved:

MRS. ROSEMARIE M. MANGARING


Principal II

43
APPENDIX B
LETTER FOR THE VALIDATORS

ROMBLON NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL


ROMBLON, ROMBLON
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

September 27, 2017


_______________________

_______________________
_______________________

Sir/Madam:
Greetings of peace and love!

We, the Grade-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)


students of Romblon National High School are currently conducting a study entitled
“SOCIAL MEDIA EXPOSURE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF GRADE 12
STUDENTS IN THE STEM TRACK” in partial fulfillment requirements of the Grade 12
curriculum in the subject of Research in Daily Life 2.
In line with this, we would like to request for your time in validating our
instrument to improve its reliability and validity.
Thank you very much and God Bless.
Very truly yours,

Denzel Jay M. Fradejas


James Von G. Nicolas
Ronnel M. Mesana
Noted: Irra Lyn M. Malupa
Fritzie Jane Fadri Famorcan
Adviser

44
APPENDIX C
VALIDATION FORM
SOCIAL MEDIA EXPOSURE AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMNACE OF GRADE12
STUDENTS IN THE STEM STRAND
STUDENTS A.Y. 2017-2018

Validator’s Profile

Name:

Age: Gender:

Years of Service:

Degree

Bachelor:

Master’s:

Doctorate:

45
APPENDIX D
VALIDATOR’S PROFILE

EXPERT 1
AGE:
PRESENT POSITION:
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:
LENGTH OF SERVICE:

EXPERT 2
AGE:
PRESENT POSITION:
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:
LENGTH OF SERVICE:

EXPERT 3
AGE: 23
PRESENT POSITION: Oral Communication Teacher
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: BSED English, MAED English
LENGTH OF SERVICE: 1 year

46
APPENDIX E

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR VALIDATORS

Title: SOCIAL MEDIA EXPOSURE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF GRADE


12 STUDENTS IN THE STEM STRAND
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study is to determine the Effects of Social Media
Exposure in the Academic performance of Grade 12 STEM students of Romblon
National High School.
Specific Questions
Specifically it will seek to answer the following:
1. What are the different types of Social Media being used?
2. What are the student’s academic performance involved?
3. Is there a significant relationship between social media exposure and academic
performance of Grade-12 STEM?

Directions: Kindly put a check mark (/) under the codes corresponding to the degree
of relevance of the items under each criterion. The codes on the degree of
relevance are as follow:
CODE DEGREE OF RELEVANCE
R Relevant
FR Fairly Relevant
IR Irrelevant
NR Need Revisions

FREQUENTLY USED SOCIAL MEDIA R FR IR NR Specify


Revisions
1. I put a check on the social media where
I’m mostly exposed.
2. I put a check on the social media where
I’m mostly exposed.
3. I’m always online to check my
notifications and messages.
4. I used helpful information for my studies

47
from different sources.
5. I do not use social media for my studies.
STUDENTS ADDICTIVENESS TO
SOCIAL MEDIA
6. Being prone to online social networks is
my problematic issue that affects my
academic life.
7. Online Social networks distract me from
my studies.
8. Hours spent online can never be
compared to the number of hours I spend
reading.
9. There is no improvement in my grades
since I became engaged into these social
networking sites.
10. I can consider myself as a frequent
user of social Media.
EXPOSURE OF STUDENTS TO SOCIAL
MEDIA NETWORK
11. I solely rely on information gotten from
Wikipedia to do my assignments without
consulting other sources.
12. I usually have unlimited access to
social media and this has affected my
academic performance negatively.
13. I became advanced with the lessons
and activities by staying online.
14. Social Media doesn’t affect my
academic performance but negatively
affect my health.
15. I’m aware that exposure in social
media affects my time.
USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
16. Social media helps me in my studies
especially when doing assignments.
17. Utilizing the social media helps me in
my school activities.
18 I use materials gotten from blogging
sites to complement what I have been
taught in class.
19. Social Media has no relation with what
I learn in school.
20. I can participate in school activities
whenever I’m using Social Media.

48
APPENDIX F
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE RESPONDENTS

Romblon National High School


Romblon, Romblon

Social Media and Academic Performance of Students


Questionnaire (SMAAPOS)

DIRECTIONS: Please read carefully and tick (√) the appropriate column for each
statement as promptly as possible. All information gathered shall be used purely for
research purpose and shall be treated with confidentiality.
A. Demographic Data

SECTION: ____________________

AGE: 16 [ ] 17 [ ] 18 [ ] 19 [ ]

SEX: Male [ ] Female [ ]

B. Questionnaire Proper
DIRECTIONS: Choose and put a check on the following social media you frequently
used. If the social media you use is not given, kindly specify.
I. Frequently Social Media Used:

Facebook [ ] Messenger [ ] Twitter [ ] Instagram [ ]

Specify: ___________

49
Code Degree
SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
FFair
DDisagree
SD Strongly Disagree

S/N ITEMS SA A F DA SD
Frequently Used Social Media
1 I put a check on the social media where
I’m mostly exposed.
2 Social Media is a big help in my
academic performance.
3 I’m always online to check my
notifications and messages.
4 I used helpful information for my studies
from different sources.
5 I do not use social media for my studies
Students Addictiveness to Social
Media
6 Being prone to online social networks is
my problematic issue that affects my
academic life.
7 Online Social networks distract me from
my studies.
8 Hours spent online can never be
compared to the number of hours I
spend reading.
9 There is no improvement in my grades
since I became engaged into these
social networking sites.
10 I can consider myself as a frequent user
of social media.
Exposure of Students to Social
Media Network
11 I solely rely on information gotten from

50
Wikipedia to do my assignments without
consulting other sources.
12 I usually have unlimited access to social
media and this has affected my
academic performance negatively.
13 I became advanced with the lessons
and activities by staying online.
14 Social Media doesn’t affect my
academic performance but negatively
affect my health.
15 I’m aware that exposure in social media
affects my time.
Use of Social Media
16 Social media helps me in my studies
especially when doing researches.
17 Utilizing the social media helps me in
my school performance.
18 I use materials gotten from blogging
sites to complement what I have been
taught in class.
19 Social Media has no relation with what I
learn in school.
20 I can participate in school activities
whenever I’m using Social Media.

THANK YOU!

51
APPENDIX G

CODING SHEET

52
Respondent x1 x2 x3 x4 y X1^2 x2^2 x3^2 x4^2 y^2 x1y x2y x3y x4y
#
1 3.8 3.4 3.8 3.8 87 14.44 11.56 14.44 14.44 7569 330.6 295.8 330.6 330.6
2 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.2 86 10.24 11.56 14.44 10.24 7396 275.2 292.4 326.8 275.2
3 3.4 3.6 2.8 3 85 11.56 12.96 7.84 9 7225 289 306 238 255
4 4 3.2 2.8 3.2 86 16 10.24 7.84 10.24 7396 344 275.2 240.8 275.2
5 4.2 4 4 3.6 92 17.64 16 16 12.96 8464 386.4 368 368 331.2
6 4 3.2 3.6 3.4 87 16 10.24 12.96 11.56 7569 348 278.4 313.2 295.8
7 3.8 4.6 4.2 3.6 92 14.44 21.16 17.64 12.96 8464 349.6 423.2 386.4 331.2
8 3.4 3.4 3.2 2.6 85 11.56 11.56 10.24 6.76 7225 289 289 272 221
9 3.8 2.4 2.8 3 83 14.44 5.76 7.84 9 6889 315.4 199.2 232.4 249
10 4 3.2 2.6 3.6 86 16 10.24 6.76 12.96 7396 344 275.2 223.6 309.6
11 4.4 3.8 3.4 3.6 89 19.36 14.44 11.56 12.96 7921 391.6 338.2 302.6 320.4
12 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.2 91 17.64 14.44 17.64 17.64 8281 382.2 345.8 382.2 382.2
13 4.4 3.8 3.8 5 93 19.36 14.44 14.44 25 8649 409.2 353.4 353.4 465
14 3.6 4.6 3 3 87 12.96 21.16 9 9 7569 313.2 400.2 261 261
15 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 86 12.96 11.56 11.56 11.56 7396 309.6 292.4 292.4 292.4
16 3.8 3 3 3.2 85 14.44 9 9 10.24 7225 323 255 255 272
17 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.2 92 14.44 17.64 21.16 17.64 8464 349.6 386.4 423.2 386.4
18 4 4.2 3.8 4.8 91 16 17.64 14.44 23.04 8281 364 382.2 345.8 436.8
19 4.2 4 3 4 89 17.64 16 9 16 7921 373.8 356 267 356
20 4.6 3 3.4 3.4 87 21.16 9 11.56 11.56 7569 400.2 261 295.8 295.8
21 4.4 3.4 3.8 3.2 90 19.36 11.56 14.44 10.24 8100 396 306 342 288
22 3.2 2.6 2.8 3.2 83 10.24 6.76 7.84 10.24 6889 265.6 215.8 232.4 265.6
23 4.2 2.8 3.8 3.8 87 17.64 7.84 14.44 14.44 7569 365.4 243.6 330.6 330.6
24 4.6 3.4 3.6 4.2 91 21.16 11.56 12.96 17.64 8281 418.6 309.4 327.6 382.2
25 3.4 3.8 2.8 3 86 11.56 14.44 7.84 9 7396 292.4 326.8 240.8 258
26 4.6 4.8 4 3.4 92 21.16 23.04 16 11.56 8464 423.2 441.6 368 312.8
27 4.2 2.2 2 2.8 83 17.64 4.84 4 7.84 6889 348.6 182.6 166 232.4
53
28 3.8 2.8 2.4 3.4 84 14.44 7.84 5.76 11.56 7056 319.2 235.2 201.6 285.6
29 3.6 3.4 3.6 4 87 12.96 11.56 12.96 16 7569 313.2 295.8 313.2 348
30 2.4 5 4.2 3.2 90 5.76 25 17.64 10.24 8100 216 450 378 288
31 4.2 3.6 2.8 3.2 90 17.64 12.96 7.84 10.24 8100 378 324 252 288
32 3.4 3.2 3.6 4 90 11.56 10.24 12.96 16 8100 306 288 324 360
33 4.2 3.6 3.2 3.6 89 17.64 12.96 10.24 12.96 7921 373.8 320.4 284.8 320.4
34 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.2 89 10.24 10.24 11.56 10.24 7921 284.8 284.8 302.6 284.8
35 4.6 4.2 4 4.2 95 21.16 17.64 16 17.64 9025 437 399 380 399
36 4 3.8 4 4 91 16 14.44 16 16 8281 364 345.8 364 364
37 3.4 1.8 2.6 4 88 11.56 3.24 6.76 16 7744 299.2 158.4 228.8 352
38 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.8 90 11.56 10.24 12.96 14.44 8100 306 288 324 342
39 3.2 2.2 3.2 2.4 87 10.24 4.84 10.24 5.76 7569 278.4 191.4 278.4 208.8
40 5 4.4 3.6 4.4 95 25 19.36 12.96 19.36 9025 475 418 342 418
41 3.8 3.2 2.6 2.6 90 14.44 10.24 6.76 6.76 8100 342 288 234 234
42 5 5 5 5 90 25 25 25 25 8100 450 450 450 450
43 3.4 3.2 3.8 3 88 11.56 10.24 14.44 9 7744 299.2 281.6 334.4 264
44 3.2 3.6 2.4 3.6 89 10.24 12.96 5.76 12.96 7921 284.8 320.4 213.6 320.4
45 3.8 4.6 3.6 3.4 89 14.44 21.16 12.96 11.56 7921 338.2 409.4 320.4 302.6
46 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.2 93 17.64 14.44 17.64 17.64 8649 390.6 353.4 390.6 390.6
47 3.2 2.4 3.2 3.4 86 10.24 5.76 10.24 11.56 7396 275.2 206.4 275.2 292.4
48 3.8 2.8 2.4 2 86 14.44 7.84 5.76 4 7396 326.8 240.8 206.4 172
49 3.6 3.4 3 3.2 88 12.96 11.56 9 10.24 7744 316.8 299.2 264 281.6
50 3.6 4.2 3.6 3.6 90 12.96 17.64 12.96 12.96 8100 324 378 324 324
51 3.6 2.6 3 2.8 87 12.96 6.76 9 7.84 7569 313.2 226.2 261 243.6
52 3 2.6 3.4 3.4 88 9 6.76 11.56 11.56 7744 264 228.8 299.2 299.2
53 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 89 11.56 11.56 11.56 11.56 7921 302.6 302.6 302.6 302.6
54 4.4 3.2 3.6 4.4 93 19.36 10.24 12.96 19.36 8649 409.2 297.6 334.8 409.2
55 3.6 3 3.4 3.2 91 12.96 9 11.56 10.24 8281 327.6 273 309.4 291.2
56 3.4 3 3.4 3.6 91 11.56 9 11.56 12.96 8281 309.4 273 309.4 327.6

214.2 193.6 407.8 197.6 4964 5161.6 697.36 665.48 1362.8 440484 19022 459506 16920 17575

54
Pearson’s r x1 x2 x3 x4

rxy rxy rxy rxy


0.4152 0.5694 0.6346 0.6146

55