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AIRCRAFT LOADING

AIR NAVIGATION ORDER

VERSION : 2.0
DATE OF IMPLEMENTATION : 04-04-2011
OFFICE OF PRIME INTEREST : AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTORATE

04/04/2011 ANO-012-AWRG-2.0
AIRCRAFT LOADING

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AIRCRAFT LOADING

A. AUTHORITY:
A1. This Air Navigation Order is issued by Director General Civil Aviation Authority in pursuance of
Rules 4, 5, 180, 242, 334(3), 360 and all other enabling provisions of Civil Aviation Rules 1994.

A2. The operator is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is loaded, and the loads are secured in
compliance with limitations contained in the Operations Manual & Fight Manual or equivalent document
and in a safe manner.

B. PURPOSE:
B1. The purpose of this ANO is to specify the airworthiness requirements for loading of an aircraft.

C. SCOPE:
C1. This ANO will be applicable to all Operators (RPT, Charter, Private and Aerial Work) dealing /
involved in the operation of Pakistan Registered Aircraft.

D. DESCRIPTION:

D1. DEFINITIONS:

NIL

D2. BACK GROUND

D2.1 The final responsibility for the correct weight and loading of an aircraft lies with the operator.
Rule 242 of Civil Aviation Rules 1994 requires that an aircraft registered in Pakistan shall not fly for the
purpose of regular air transport, or charter, or aerial work unless loading of the aircraft has been carried
out in accordance with any instructions and conditions relating to weight and balance which are
contained in the Operations Manual and Flight Manual, or equivalent certification document relating to
the aircraft and any relevant instructions and conditions specified by the Director General in Air
Navigation Orders, and is properly secured.

D3. CARRIAGE OF CARGO IN PASSENGER, CARGO COMPARTMENT & COCKPIT:

D3.1 Items of cargo and baggage may be carried in passenger compartments, but it should be borne
in mind that these areas may not be specifically designed for this purpose. If the structure is designed for
the carriage of baggage and cargo, then it can be expected that tie-down or stressed bulkheads will be
provided, and that the Flight Manual or placards will prescribe overall and local floor loading, and provide
instructions for loads security. In the absence of tie-down and stressed points, and data on their use, it
must be assumed that the compartment is designed only for the carriage of passengers.

D3.2 Cargo or baggage must not be carried in passenger compartments unless the pilot can satisfy
himself that it is packaged and secured or contained in such a manner that passengers or crew will not
be injured, operation of the aircraft will not be impeded, or its structure damaged, or dangerous shifting of
load will not occur, under forces likely to be experienced in flight or on the ground including a minor crash
landing. Where there are no specific provisions in the Flight Manual or by placard, operators are to
supply the necessary information to pilots for this purpose. Load should not obstruct the normal and
emergency exits for the crew and any passenger carried. Restraints should be capable of withstanding
the inertia forces imposed by the weight of the cargo or baggage multiplied by the design load factors
applicable for the particular aircraft type. For most aircraft the load factors will not exceed:

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AIRCRAFT LOADING

D3.2.1 9.0 g forward, 6.6 g down


D3.2.2 3.0 g up and 1.5 g sideways.

D3.3 Unoccupied seats may be used to secure suitable items of cargo or baggage but only if the pilot
can satisfy himself that any resulting forces applied to the seat or its attachments will not be greater than
that would be applied by a seated standard (77 Kg) passenger.

D3.4 Pilot seats must not be used to secure loads where, if the load were to come loose, the aircraft
controls could be fouled.

D3.5 An occupied seat must not be used to secure cargo or baggage unless it is designed for that
purpose. It should be noted that seat belt alone would often be inadequate to properly secure load to a
seat.

D3.6 In all cases where the provisions of contents of D3.2 and D3.3 cannot be complied with, or when
cargo is to be regularly carried in a passenger-compartment, and there is no specific provision for this,
modification approval should be obtained to strengthen structure if necessary, provide tie-down points to
enable permitted loads to be specified in the flight manual for the guidance of pilots. Applications for the
approval of aircraft modifications and flight manual's changes to make any additional specific provisions
required, must be made to PCAA Airworthiness Directorate in the usual way.

D3.7 When freight is carried in the passenger compartment care must be exercised to ensure that it is
safely stowed and secured in such a manner that it will not interfere with access to, or, the use of any
emergency or regular exits for passengers or crew.

D3.8 No operator may permit cargo to be carried in any aircraft unless:

D3.8.1 It is carried in an approved cargo rack, bin, or compartment installed in the aircraft.
D3.8.2 It is secured by approved means.
D3.8.3 It is carried in accordance with each of the following:

D3.8.3.1 It is properly secured by a safety belt or other tie down having enough strength to
eliminate the possibility of shifting under all normally anticipated flight and ground conditions.
D3.8.3.2 It is packaged or covered to avoid possible injury to passengers.
D3.8.3.3 It does not impose any load on seats or on the floor structure that exceeds the load
limitation for those components.
D3.8.3.4 It is not located in a position that restricts the access to or use of any required
emergency or regular exit, or the use of the aisle between the crew and the passenger compartment.
D3.8.3.5 It is not carried directly above seated passengers.

D3.9 Free access shall be left between the passenger compartment and the cockpit.

D3.10 The manufacturer’s limitations and procedure must always be observed. Particular care is
necessary where articles of concentrated heavy weight are included as part of the cargo. Such articles
must not exceed the weight limits approved for the flooring or supporting members and they must be
adequately secured to appropriate tie-down fittings in the aircraft.

D3.11 The cargo may be carried in the passenger compartment if it is properly secured by a safety belt
or other tie-down having enough strength to eliminate the possibility of shifting under all normally
anticipated flight and ground conditions.

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D3.12 Cargo does not impose any load on seats or the floor structure that exceeds the load limitations
for those components.

D3.13 Its location does not restrict access to or use of any required emergency or regular exit, or of the
aisle in the passenger compartment.

D3.14 Its location does not obscure any passenger’s view of the “seat belt” sign, “no smoking sign, or
required exit sign, unless an auxiliary sign or other approved means for proper notification of the
passenger is provided.

D3.15 When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are designed to require the physical entry of a
crewmember to extinguish any fire that may occur during flight, the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a
crewmember to effectively reach all parts of the compartment with the contents of a hand fire
extinguisher.

D4. CARRY-ON BAGGAGE:

D4.1 The operator shall ensure that all baggage carried onto an aircraft and taken into the passenger
cabin is adequately and securely stowed.

D4.2 An operator may not allow the boarding of carry-on-baggage on an aircraft unless each
passenger’s baggage has been scanned to control the size and amount carried on board with an
approved carry-on-baggage program in its operation’s specification.

D4.3 An operator may not allow an aircraft to take-off and land unless each article of baggage is
stowed in a suitable closet or baggage or cargo stowage compartment placarded for its maximum weight
and providing proper restraint for all baggage or cargo stowed within, and in a manner that does not
hinder the possible use of any emergency equipment.

D4.4 Baggage other than articles of loose clothing may not be placed in an overhead rack unless that
rack is equipped with approved restraining devices or doors. In the absence of restraining devices or
doors articles other than loose clothing may become hazard by shifting under different flight conditions.

Note: Instructions by crew members shall be given to all passengers for compliance with para 4.3 when
overhead racks are not equipped with restraining devices or doors.

D5. AMENDMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS:


D5.1 Any subsequent amendments or modifications to this ANO may be processed and incorporated
through Airworthiness Directorate, HQCAA, in consultation with Chief Legal Services, HQCAA as and
when required or deemed expedient or appropriate.

E. EVIDENCES (ACRONYMS / RECORDS / REFERENCES):

E1. ACRONYMS:

ANO AIR NAVIGATION ORDER


CARs CIVIL AVIATION RULES

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E2. RECORDS:

Nil

E3. REFERENCES

CARs 1994

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INDEX

Sr. No. Contents Page No.


1. Authority 1
2. Purpose 1
3. Scope 1
4. Description 1
5. Background 1
6. Carriage of cargo in passenger, cargo compartment & cockpit 1
7. Carry-on baggage 3
8. Amendments and Modifications 3
9. Evidences (Acronyms / Records / References) 3
10. Implementation 4

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