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Understanding

How Components Fail


Second Edition

Donald J. Wulpi
Contents

Preface to the Second Edition ...............................ix


Preface to the First Edition.....................................x
CHAPTER 1: Techniques of Failure Analysis ...........1
Procedure for Failure Analysis ........................................................2
Investigative Techniques .................................................................3
Normal Location of Fracture............................................................4
Questions to Ask about Fractures ....................................................6
Summary .........................................................................................10
CHAPTER 2: Distortion Failures ............................13
Types of Distortion Failure ............................................................13
Temporary Distortion .................................................................14
Permanent Distortion..................................................................14
Summary .........................................................................................19
CHAPTER 3: Basic Single-Load
Fracture Modes.................................................21
Shear Mode .....................................................................................22
Cleavage Mode ...............................................................................23
Other Fracture Modes.....................................................................24
Factors Affecting the Ductile Brittle Relationship.......................25
Summary .........................................................................................27
CHAPTER 4: Stress Systems Related to Single-Load
Fracture of Ductile and Brittle Metals ..................29
Pure Loading Systems ....................................................................30
Tension Loading .............................................................................30
Torsional Loading...........................................................................32
Compression Loading.....................................................................36
Bending Loading.............................................................................37
Fatigue .............................................................................................37
Summary .........................................................................................37
CHAPTER 5: Mechanical Properties ......................39
Elastic and Plastic Deformation.....................................................39
Effect of Temperature ....................................................................42
Nonlinear Behavior.........................................................................43

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Bidirectional Stresses .....................................................................44
Effect of Stress Concentrations .....................................................46
Summary .........................................................................................48
CHAPTER 6: Stress Versus Strength .....................49
Elastic Stress Distributions for Simple Shapes.............................50
Summary .........................................................................................59
CHAPTER 7: Residual Stresses .............................61
Thermal Residual Stresses .............................................................65
Metallurgical Residual Stresses .....................................................70
Mechanical Residual Stresses ........................................................71
Chemical Effects on Residual Stresses .........................................75
Helpful Hints...................................................................................76
Summary .........................................................................................79
CHAPTER 8: Brittle Fracture .................................83
Brittle Fracture of Normally Ductile Steels .................................84
Characteristics of Brittle Fracture .................................................88
Microstructural Aspects of Brittle Fracture ..................................91
Combined Fracture Modes .............................................................99
Summary .......................................................................................100
CHAPTER 9: Ductile Fracture ..............................103
Characteristics of Ductile Fracture..............................................104
Microstructural Aspects of Ductile Fracture ..............................107
Cautions in Interpretation ............................................................114
Summary .......................................................................................115
CHAPTER 10: Fatigue Fracture ...........................117
Stages of Fatigue Fracture ...........................................................118
Microscopic Characteristics of Fatigue Fracture........................120
Macroscopic Characteristics of Fatigue Fracture .......................124
Lack of Deformation ................................................................124
Beachmarks ...............................................................................125
Ratchet Marks ...........................................................................126
Similarities between Striations and Beachmarks ...................128
Differences between Striations and Beachmarks ...................129
Relationship of Stress to Strength in Fatigue .............................130
Laboratory Fatigue Testing..........................................................134
Other Types of Fatigue.................................................................136
Statistical Aspects of Fatigue.......................................................143
Examples of Fatigue Fracture ......................................................144
Summary .......................................................................................161
CHAPTER 11: Wear Failures—
Abrasive and Adhesive ..................................163
Abrasive Wear ..............................................................................164
Adhesive Wear..............................................................................173

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Fretting Wear ................................................................................177
Summary .......................................................................................180
CHAPTER 12: Wear Failures—Fatigue ................183
Contact Stress Fatigue ..................................................................185
Summary .......................................................................................202
CHAPTER 13: Corrosion Failures ........................205
Life Cycle of a Metal....................................................................206
Basic Nature of Corrosion............................................................207
Galvanic Corrosion.......................................................................207
Uniform Corrosion .......................................................................211
Crevice Corrosion.........................................................................213
Stress-Corrosion Cracking ..........................................................216
Corrosion Fatigue .........................................................................221
Summary .......................................................................................224
CHAPTER 14: Elevated-Temperature
Failures ..........................................................227
Creep..............................................................................................228
Elevated-Temperature Fatigue.....................................................231
Thermal Fatigue ............................................................................233
Metallurgical Instabilities ............................................................234
Environmentally Induced Failure ................................................234
Cooling Methods ..........................................................................239
Summary .......................................................................................241
CHAPTER 15: Fracture Mechanics ......................243
Toughness and Fracture Mechanics ............................................244
Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics..............................................246
Modes of Loading.........................................................................247
Plane Strain and Plane Stress ......................................................248
Factors Affecting Fracture Toughness ........................................249
Crack Growth................................................................................251
Case History: Hydrotest Failure of a
Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel ..................................................252
Summary .......................................................................................255
Appendix: Fracture Mechanics Concepts ...........255
Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics..............................................255
Plane Strain and Plane Stress.......................................................257
Fracture Toughness Testing .........................................................258
Crack Growth: The Fracture Mechanics Approach
to Fatigue...................................................................................260
Applications of Fracture Mechanics............................................262
Glossary ............................................................267
Index.................................................................281

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