S3_n(_ound SKYLAB- THE VITAL LINK AV 519 Well when the third good liveable out of fluid while manned mission launched, the workshop was essentially coolant That didn't affect activities cooling loop really affect in a whether

condition...we and was going

knew that but it rather

the primary did

was essentially we were to have to be our to

to need reservicing. The extravehicular than liquid

or not the workshop conduct done on what we call bodies last would probably outside a sail as long

was habitable gas cooling build before

the EVA's that

we were out there.


which meant that

up a lot we got

of heat load and we would not be able in too overheated was properly as a hound's condition. shaded and so from a We found

The crew before when we

us had erected thermal got there in. that

and so the workshpp the workshop was as clean


was in real

good condition. tooth

the workshop

and ready to be lived

The only the trained a saddle pipe. servicing here for then

system in the workshop that coolant prior loop, to launch the coolanol valve, valve fer was the

was not up to snuff loop, reservicing puncturing essentially bleeding the coolanol it up and it of that of the just

when we got there was that coolant the we had involved line, ...a and with loop, primary and what it


and one of the tasks

was the attachment valve, You puncture automobiles, off

of a saddle and the saddle

clamps over

top of the

the pipe and then connect much like a brick and we reserviced

up a system of servicing system that system with

system that's

we had...have more fluid,


the system and started

worked very well.

Moving around in zero-G was really a very effortlessthing, once your body became accommodatedto the fact that you were weightless. It's very much like the sensationyou get when you're skin diving or just floating around in the water.The handling of equipment we found somethingrather peculiar, but again not too surprisingand that is that we found it much easier to handle very large objects, objects which on the ground weigh lO0, 200 or 300 Ibs, very bulky objects, much easier to handle that size object than it was the little bitty pieces, because the little pieces were so inclined to f!oet away so much more quickly than the

large objects with the high inertia. We also found that if you ever dropped a small object or released it by accident, your first one-G instinct is to swing at it and snatch it before it falls, so you instinctively swing below in order to catch it because of gravity, and what you end up doing, usually, is hitting

Page 2 - Cart it with the top of your hand and b_tting it away, and so then you've only made _" the situation a lot worse and we found ourselves on many occasions having to unlock from the position we were located at and go chase a small item that we had batted away because we dropped it.

_sion, we elected priorto the___ex_rd_es per_o from an hour to an hour and a half, and this was done mainly on the basis of \ recon_nendationsf previous crew - the second manned mission. We felt that... o they felt anyway, that there just was not enough time for a good exercise period _ that you really needed more time. for an hour an a half per day exercise. We were also bringing up the little \ \ I"

treadmill, which was going to require time for use, so we just ended up going It appears that that decision was a good

one, because we came back I think in better condition than has any other crew that's/ been up there, and I think we can most likely credit that with the increased exercise that we unde_vent. Everybody's going to say the same thing, and that is that Gemini and Apollos and the early S_,!_bs, _vejus_ weren't up long enough to find out what the longterm effect was_ a_ L it reek Khe last two Skylab missions to kind of level it out.

So why do_t _e .,i_'_*.._ that one. Everybody...andsolar physics again will _) by be...I tell yo_J,_hy den't I go ahead and take five and we'll see how it works, but let's definitely leave six for Ed, because he's the solar physicist and it would be inappropriate for me to be describing any of that stuff on the movie. Either he or Owen ought to do that.

The last two Skylab missions really were the culmination of the medical protocol, medical experiments. We answered a lot of questions on those two. We found that man doesadapt and that the losses of calcium in the bones apparently, and the deconditioning of the cardiovascular system seems to level out after a certain period of time, and so I would say that we now can very confidently say that man can exist in space, in zero-G, in reduced atmospheres for an extended period of time, really as long as he wants. I think the only word of caution we have to add here is that man must in zero-G, in weightlessness, be constantly aware of the fact that sooner or later he's got to go back to one G, and he's got to maintain his conditioning in ...with that in mind.

Page 3 - Carr

The Kohoutek observations were extremely interesting to us.

We - Bill was the

first guy to see Kohoutek, and that was when it was up near the constellation Scorpio, and we were very surprised to see that as it approached perihelion, it picked up an orange color, and I don't think the three of us had expected that at all. The day that we were out, Christmas day, that EVA was probably one of the more memorable occasions...cut, it wasn't Christmas Day, it was...let's see... we went out Thanksgiving, then Bill and I went out Christmas, Ed and I went out later, and that's when we really saw Kohoutek with the naked eye. Bill and I

were eut Christmas Day and we did not see Kohoutek, and we were disappointed. We tooklots of pictures, and that was pre-perihelion, and post-prihelion, that's when Ed and I saw Khoutek with the naked eye outside, and that was December 29 or 30 or something...I'll just call it the post-perihelion EVA after the Christmas EVA or something. EVA l was Ed and Bill; #2 was Ed and me; and then #3 was Bill That was in January. So it was the third and me; and the last one was Ed and me.

EVA; I'll just refer to it as the third EVA. We were abit disappointed on the third EVA when Bill Pogue and I couldnot see the comet with the naked eye outside. We really held high hopes of being able to see it, but apparently we were working so close to the sun at that time that we just never got a chance to look at it or see it. We brought all of the proper cameras to bear and took all the data that the cameras could take, but we just didn't get to see it until the next EVA which was EVA #3 in which Ed and I were outside. We were a bit disappointed on the second EVA, which was the Christmas

Day EVA, in that Bill and I didn't get a chance to see Kohoutek. We were just operating a little bit too close to the sun apparently, and we never could see it with the naked eye outside, but we did however manage to take all the photographic data which was necessary. The third EVA which - in which Ed and ! were outside - we did get to see Kohoutek, and that was a very breath-taking thing, and one of the interesting aspects of that is that we could even see the little spike up front, with the naked eye.

"Well, from a layman's standpoint, I think that the solar observations that we took were rather significant. In my simple-minded way of expressing it, I guess

we can call the sun a big nuclear furnace, in which the hydrogen is the primary element, and there's many things that apparently the people in solar physics don't understand about the sun, and one of the reasons - one of the bits of data

Page 4 - Carr

that that


need is data because point perticular going

in the ultraviolet the earth

wavelengths, naturally jus t can't atmosphere, I think to, will protects

and in some of the x-rays us from. Any observatory so from a lot puzzling the sun's on the engineer body expect some of for why. of data and of the wavelengths,

our atmosphere


down here, our vantage in these

of our atmosphere, up above the earth's wavelengths, physics. which

see these

we manage to take be _nvaluable that's that very

to the people

in the area of solar maybe we're corona, order would sun has a temperature which

One of the areas of 6,000

I think

to have some answers on the order around it

is the fact degrees

the photosphere whereas


is the atmosphere degrees temperature off will with had basic to fall gathered exists.

the photosphere, doesn't

has a temperature guy, it. the average a radiating You would

of 1.2 million have a lower

Kelvin, physics,

and to the average atmosphere from the in solar

or anybody who's the temperature the data we've this phenomena

make sense that around body, physics

than the distance people

and hopefully, a good field



From a lay;,_an's standpoi_t, I think that solar physics has benefitedfrom the Skylab program in that i guess we can consider a sun to be a big nuclear furnace, boiling away up there_ and the main constituentsof the sun is hydrogen, and the sun is emitting light in many different wavelengths,but our earth's atmosphere protects us essentially, or blocks out ultraviolet and some of the harder x-rays, so that means that on the ground in an observatory, people are not ...who are studying the sun...are not able to see these wavelengths, and so by putting Skylab up, this vantage point up over the earth's atmospherewe're able to gather the dta that they don't have in these particular wavelengths and help them anser some questions about some pecul4arities about the sun that people don't really understand, and I guess one that I cam think of offhand is the fact that the photosphere, or the ball that we can see, which is the sun, has a surface temperature on the order of say 6,000 degrees Kelvin, I think the number is, and the corona, which is the atmosphere around the sun, has a temperature on the order of around 1.2 million degrees Kelvin, and to the average physicist or engineer who understands a little bit about radiation, that doesn't make sens, because usually the radiating body is at a higher temperature than the atmosphere around it, and temperature decreases


as a function of the distance that you move away. Hopefully, some of the data that has been gathered in Skylab will help the people in solar physics find an answer for this phenomena.

Page 5 - Carr

I don't Earth the

know anything Resources data that that just quite

about that


stuff. are certainly situation is going going to be valuable beneficial resources. and these There were in

we gathered the food supply


of estimating data

in the earth...theEarth to be pretty of food at,


we gathered the third areas south a bit

in Skylab

to man, I think are two areas in Argentina, Uh, we learned resources

in one area,

and that

is the estimation

manned mission Australia,

had a good look southwestern and we...

the wheat-growing

in western


and also

of Buenos Aires, about

food supply mission,

and crop estimation

from the earth


On our particular

we had a good chance to look at

two major wheat-growing south of Buenos Aires, We found could mission type and this that in late

areas in the world, one is in southern Argentina, just and the other area of interest wasin southwest Australia. November, early December, that most of the fields that at all, changes in color, we

see in that went on,

two areas were real the late January that late and early

brown and not many green of these two areas, we could measure February, certainly area. major that


was essentially


and then as the

see definite that with the change

in the coioration of sensing will There

of these wheat fields, equipment, we could

and so we think

the proper of what the or mineral in Nevada based to sense to finding and of and a lot

we can nteasure the rate wheat yield for resources. on imagery differences more minerals copper, data coal, bilities Pacific upwellings _ feasible, for advantage available the fossil exploration

of growth of wheat and get good estimates wheat-growing is a rather Another copper in the that that since in the area of geology find future man's ability

be in an entire

area of interest

from space of the ground has been apparently taken from space, will probably industry

and data

and I think be of value

in coloration or geological from space. fields

data from space.

I think

areas of iron there's petroleum

mining and petroleum

are going to find needs,

In the area of energy going energy.

are really point

to have to be preserved, We took a look We looked like it it's islands at islands possible,

and we are going at a fw new possiin the South

to have to find

new ways of generating flow It

from our vantage of cold I shouldn't water

up in Skylab. looks like

and how the ocean currents from below. It

around these

and how you get or at least in the future by taking advantage of

say that. as it


may be possible or taking

an island

to become self-sufficient

from a power standpoint, the island

of the current

goes around

Page 6 - Carr

_the temprature differences between a cold water upwelling area and the normal warm water that's around the island. ence and use it to generate power. Take advantage of that temperature differ-

We also took a good look...at the fjord-

like looking islands that are on the south coast of Chile, as the humble current sweeps up from the antartic area and sweeps up north along the coast of Chile, it gets captured in these fjord, very, very deep channels, fjord-like islands, along the coast of Chile, and you get some pretty high current buildups in there and some people think that there may be a possibility of generating hydroelectric power just from the ocean currents that move through those deep crevices _n.those fjord-like islands in the southern part of Chile.

Yeah, the Fau!kland current would...I guess the food supplies would be the main thing. The Faulklandcurrent being green, you know, it indicates plankton, and where you have plankton, you have fish, so understanding the oceans currents better hastwo values. Number l, is knowing where the fish are, and the other Why

of course if n_eteerologicai, the impact of the ocean on the meteorology. _-_

don't we mcve _lete_)IoIogy Lipnext, I'll talk about that, and then we'll jump into ocean currents, erd I'll tie the two together - food and meteorology. Meteorology has certainly benefited from photographs and observations from space. taken

We've been able to give people in meteorology a large-scale view photography cyclonic

of weather systems. We've been able to take some stereo.-

and give them three-dimensional looks at cloud formations in the areas of cyclones, tropical cyclones, typhoons, hurricanes, and the like, and extra-tropical disturbances. answer a few questionsthat

We've given them some photographic data that we think is going to have never been answered to date anyway on just

exactly how the earth ard its atmosphere interchanges energy back and forth. There seems to be quite a change - interchange of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the people in meteorology really, and oceanography as well, haven't really understood this interchange, but some of the photos that we've taken may well get them on their way to understandingthat interchangeof energy. One very interesting area that we took a long look at was ocean currents. The Faulkland current is by far the most interesting of all the currents we saw because it was the most brilliant-colored. The main tracker we used to locate ocean currents is the upwelling or blooming of plankton - the little organisms that grow essentially in the deep water, and then when the water wells up from

Page 7 - Carr

below, it brings up this green plankton, and from space, it looks like a green Faulkland stain, long serpentine stain in the water; _we took a good look at


current. We could see some of the staining, this plankton blooming__ the Humble current, the New Zealand current, and the Japanese currents.(We know for a fact that plankton is a major source of food for fish,so therefore, it se_ that from space, when you find large plankton blooms, you can certainly direct fishing fleets to those areas, and the fishing should be excellent in the plankton bloom areas, and of course, getting back to meteorology, knowing these currents and being able to track a current from space and see what it's doing, certainly will • i_proye our ability to forecast weather, because again, the interchangeof ocean and atmosphereerydefinitelyffects v a the weather.

Well, the red tide is sort of a universal thing, you want to talk about that? We have one or two stills, yeah, and I don't know if the IR stuff came out wel_, it's hard to say. We were surprised to also note from space that we could see what was commonly called the red tide. The red tide is essentially a little one-celled organism that manages to get itself imbedded in, as far as we could see, in these large plankton blooms. On several occasions, in the Faulkland current, we saw extremely large red stains imbedded or enclosed in the long plankton blooms of the Faulkland current, and I don't think that people really understand exactly how the red tide gets started, and as we understand from the oceanography people, it's very difficult to see the red tide when you're actually in the waterwith airplanes,more specificallyfrom space. it, because apparently you've §ot to get back away from it in order to see it, so you can see it from

Some of the photographsthat we took from space are certainly going to be of value in understandingmen's pollution prob]ems. We saw in several occasions rather vast indications of pollution. We were surprised to see that Mother Natureis probably a much larger polluter than is man. The Amazon River very, very dirty, "fullof silt, and it runs red and orange all the way - almost from its headwaters, all the way out to the mouth of the Amazon River. Mobile Bay we noticed on one occasion - we got some goodpictures- I didn't start that out well anyway.

Page 8 - Carr

We noticed and several the rivers, this I think

in areas



Bay and the mouth of the Mississippi


other river areas around that you could see the silt moving out of and into the various harbors and bays around the world. Part of we can probably however, blame on man because of poor soil there are many places before, herself, pollution, Nature conservation isn't up silt that's upstream, pollution and quite

practices and for is just dragging pollution

upstream, instance, being it

where man just just picking

the Amazon, as I mentioned by Mother basin In the areas of air

is an area where

caused just


we saw many cases of air pollution if you look

- I guess Los Angeles

is certainly

one of the areas

evident. Tokyo is another area where you can see air carefully, and it can be seenfrom space.

It's very easy to see things like smoke plumes.

These are forms of pollution We looked

that are very valuable to the people on the ground who are studying how the earth's atmosphere goes about diffusing things like the stack gases. at several good smoke p'iu_es along the gulf coast, and we saw some good instances of smoke gener_tio_ ir_the area of central Africa, where people do a lot of slash burning burning. value diffused in the a_ea of clearing to people who are trying land for to f_gure crops. out just They use the technique we took will of slash be of and We saw a _oK of smoke, and l'm in the air. sure the pictures

how smoke is moved around

A lot of the photography that was taken in Skylab I think is going to be very useful in the study of population patterns in metropolitan growth. The the cartojraphers who are interested in this field... people,

A lot of the data that we gathered from Skylab that concerns itself with population growth and metropolitan growth I think is going to be of great value. Photographs taken today, and compared with photographs taken, of the same large cities, taken in Gemini and the Apollo programs, are going to give our people ,who are interested in these fields of growth, a very good handle on the manner i n which metropolitan areas seem to radiate out. in that sort of thing. And they are very interested

We"ve got pictures of most of the major cities in the I think they Another very interesting new field that we've

world now, and these pictures have been repeated over the years. are going to be very valuable.

been looking at from Skylab is the ways of evaluating man's water...his ability

Page 9- Carr (Begin Tape 2)

to interpret water resource situations. Snow cover is certainly a very important source of water in such areas as southern California and around the Phoenix area so people from these areas are certainly very interested in knowing what sort of snow cover they have up in the mountains and how long it's hanging on, because most certainly the amount of snow they have in those areas has an affect on what sort of water situation will exist in those areas the following sunmmr. Another very interesting area that we looked at was ice. We learned much to our surprise that about 90% of the world's fresh water supply is in the form of ice at the two poles, and if it were all to melt all at one time, we would probably all be under water. People who are very concerned with the manner in which ice is formed and moved around were very pleased with a lot of the photographythat was taken on Skylab, because in areas such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, we have photography that shows the Gulf of St. Lawrence before it started to freeze, and • en on almost a day to day basis, we have photography of ice forming and being blown around and reforming and being blown around by the wind more in the Gulf of St. Lawrence until it reached the point where the Gulf was almost one complete _ice pack. The significance of understanding the formation and movement of ice

is that well number one, in the North Atlantic, the location of ice is very important for shipping purposes. You need to know what's a safe place for your ships and And of where they should avoid trying to make the passage across the Atlantic.

course one area that people are just beginning to look at is the idea of using ice as a water supply. There are even some people who think that it might someday be feasible to someday to tow an iceberg into the temperate zone and tow it into an estuary somewhere or some harbor, and essentially block off the harbor, and then allow the iceberg to melt and use the water for crops. minerals and geology and all that. The only area I

didn't touch was fault lines, and I should have hit that When I was hitting

I think a significant contribution has been made in helping to understand ... I think another significant contribution that was made by photography in Skylab • that we certainly learned a lot more about a lot of the faults in areas such is as Southern California, Baja, California and New Zealand. In order to understand

earthquakes and techtonic (?) movement, the plate theory or whatever you want to _ call that, the idea of continental shifting and moving, continents shifting and moving around...let me start over again anyway.

Page lO- Carr

There's been a lot of significant data gathered in the determination of faults, the Southern California, of course, has been troubled with earthquakes for many, many years, and we're just really beginning to understand the fault structure in that area. We also have got some excellent photography of the fault structure as it extends on down to Baja, California, and we have some good data on fault down in Chile, the Autacoma (?) fault, and then over in the area of New Zealand we got some excellent photography of the Alpine fault. All of this photography

has not turned up any new discoveries or anything like that - it's merely added to the data base that man needs in order to understand faulting better, and how it affectsthe earth, the techtonic movement of the large plates or continents of the earth, and we think that possibly better knowledge of the fault systems around the earth will give us a better understanding of earthquakes and possibly we can learn to better predict earthquakes.

Volcanoes we didn't mention. that rather surprised me.

Looking down at the earth, there were two things

Number l is that the earth is covered by so much water.

I think we_ve always ui_derstood from geography classes and things that the earth is about 2/_ water',b_It that really doesn't hit you - the impact really doesn't hit you until you're _;pthere and you see all the water. Another interesting thing was I just rea_iv didn't realize there were so many active volcanoes going on arot_nd the earth today. We saw an active volcano-inJapan, the Galapagos Islands, and we saw a volcano, volcanoes in Hawaii Islands and Central America, around Guatamala City, and the Bay of Fonseca, and it was just very surprising to see that there are so many active volcanos going right now on the earth.

We have gathered some data that may be of interest to the people in the area of Vulcanism,a lot of t!ledata on smoke plumes that we gathered will probably be of more _alue to the people studying air pollution than it will be to the vulcanist. I think that the volcano as viewed from space probably - we're not going te add too much to the knowledge of volcanoes other than the fact that we can see them when they start popping off from space, and if they happen to •be located in uninhabitedareas, it will probably be discovered by a satellite or by a man in space ratherthan by peopleon the ground. Yeah, we made some EREP passes with sensors which sensed geothermal...theonly way we could sense it was right after the snow - we could see which areas melted

Page II - Carr quickest and they were obviously the populated areas or geothermal areas. The Yellowstone area - right after the snow, it was already starting to melt off because of all the warm ground around there - guysers and everything, so the Yellowstone Park area blackens right up again right after a snow.

In the area of geothermal resources, I think the value from space of studying geothermal areas is going to be gained by using sensors, heat sensors and things like that. We did see some definite indicationsthat geothermalactivity from space, and it was in the Northern U.S. right after the big snow in mid-December, and the Yellowstone area is a known geothermal area - the Old Faithful guyser and a lot of the mud pots and a lot of the _eas around there very quickly thawed and the Yellowstone area immediately became black again right after a snow within just a few days.

Materials processingon our mission - the only thing on our mission was flammability...

In the area of materials processing, the third manned mission was mainly concerned with the subject of flammability. We put many different samples into our little

furnace and ignited these samples and studied the manner in which they burned in a zero-G atmosphere and we studied also the manner with which you can quench these fires. The two manners we studied was the water quench system, which turned out

to be quite effective when you could get the water to spray in the right direction. We had a little trouble with nozzles and with water pressure, but that's a solveable problem. Another area that was of interest to us was the idea of vacuum quenching, We found that vacuum quenching

that is, putting out a fire by evacuating the area.

is effect, but as you start moving the atmospbere_out through the hole that you're evacuating the system with, you're pulling oxygen over the top of the item that's being burned, and you do get a flareup until you have moved all the oxygen out of the system and then the burning specimen does die. We fully expected to see many specimens in zero-G snuff out their own fires because of tile lack of convection to move the exhaust gases, the combustiongases away from the point of combustion. Well, essentially, I think, locate, or figure out which materials we want to never never use and which materials handle well in space. For instance, Teflon doesn't

burn well down here, it burns...when it does burn, it's pretty toxic and gives

Page 12 - Carr

off toxic gases, but up there it doesn't burn well at all. Nylon is extremely dangerous up there, as is polyurethane. You know that polyurethane foam that you pack the - the gray foam that you pack a lot - electronic gear in and all sorts of stuff? Boy, that stuff burns like mad. It burns like gasoline and

it's really scary.

It flares, and you've got some footage of a piece of polyI guess it's because you got so much surface

urethane burning and that's proof positive that you don't ever want to put polyurethane foam in a spacecraft. area all through that foam, and once you get it going, it just goes bananas. Most of the things we looked at are things that are used _n spacecraft now with the exception of polyurethane, and we just wanted to make sure how we understand how it all burns, because as move out and develop new materials, at least we'll have these things to compare combustion with.

The flammability studies that were done on the third manned mission were really the crux of the materials processing experiment for thatmission. We burned several sambles in our little oven, furnace, and the purpose of that was to study the manner _r__Jhich various materials burned in a zero-G 5 Ibs per square inch atmosphere. M_;stof the materials we bdrned are materials that are used in present day spacecraft,,The one exception is polyurethanefoam. We do not use it in a spacecraft because we know it's rather flammable and we bore that out with tests in space. it really went fast. We burned a small sample full of polyurethane foam and It was a very frightening thing to see that foam burn, and I left

I'm sure that we will never ever see polyurethane foam in a spacecraft.

myself an out by saying that the crux of it was flammability, so I can move right • in and say now crystal growth.

Thearea that.

in materials processing that received a little less attention - cut all Another area in materials processing experiments that we investigated in The electronics industry circuits

the third manned mission was the area of crystal growth.

is pretty interested in growing perfect crystals for the microminiaturized

that they are putting together now. THEY have always felt that if we could grew a crystal in zero-G it would be a more perfectly formed crystal and therefore it would make a better electroniccomponent,and so we grew several crystals on our mission, and we're now looking at those crystals in the laboratory down on the ground, and we hope to get a verdict soon as to whether •or not crystal growth in space looks like a economical and effective thing to do for the electronics

Page 13 - Carr f" industry. The gyroscope experiment that we did for the TV demonstrations was probably one of the most enjoyable demonstrations that I did. I must admit at first when I opened the package and found the gyroscope in there with one little gimbal, I'll have to confess to having been a little bit upset because the ground didn't provide us with just more than one gyro, and my first impression was just how in th_heck am I going to do a decent gyroscope demonstration if I've got a little gyro and one gimbal, and then after a few seconds of thought, I realized that once I got the gyro spun up, all I had to do was remove the gimbal and take it away and I had an infinite number of gimbals in space. That is, my gyro was Suspended in zero-G with infinite number of gimbals and an infinite number of degrees of freedom. So once I realized that, I spun up the gyro and just had a wonderful time with two soda straws, pushing the gyro around and demonstrating to myself and to the people in (fades out). Graphic principles of gyroscopic precession...other experiments that...(fades out)


The AMU, the astronaut maneuvering unit, was a very valuable experiment from our standpoint. It appears that we now have got a viable way of...for a man to move The AMU is essentially a backpack with a set of This system is essentially We found that

around outside the spacecraft.

gyros in it, and also some control moment gyros.

gyro-stabilized and gyro-controlled as well as thruster controlled.

that sort of a system seems to be quite feasible - it allows a man to move around in a suit in a zero-G situation and he can quite effectively get from one point to another by the;most direct route. I think that we will find that in the future that this is essentially going to be the forerunner of future systems where a man will be going outside the spacecraft and flying over to another spacecraft or to a satellite in order to effect repairs or something like that - or effect conceivably a rescue. The foot control maneuvering unit was another type of unit that we

investigatedto study th: capability of man to move from one vehicle to another outside, but using instead of his hands, using his feet as the control agent, you should say, I might say, using his feet to control the spacecraft rather than his hands. The concept here was to keep the hands free and allow them to beavailable We

to push off or carry the equipment or things like that - or do repair work.

found that eventually the foot control maneuvering unit is a more difficult unit to work with - the unit that we tested up there was not gyro-stabilized, though I

Page 14 - Carr think we got a goodhandle on the desirability or lack of desirability of a gyro-stabilized system, and I think we all agree that future systems ought to be gyro-stabilized. (ROLL 3) Uh, I think on the average, I required about six and a half hours sleep. I think that was about the norm. Some guys could get along with six, and other crewmen required on the order of seven hours sleep a night in order to effectively carry out the next day's work.

We found on Skylab that sleeping was not quite the problem that we had anticipatedc We found that pretty much the same down here on earth, you need a little time to undwind before you go to bed so that when you go to bed you can get right to sleep. You can't go to bed still lathered up from a day's work and get right to sleep. We found that the average guy took about - required about 6½ hours' rest per night, some of the crewmen could get along with six or so, and others required about 7, but t_e norm see_ed to be around 6½ hours sleep. _ ! We found that the depth of your sl_? seems to be pretty much the same as it is down here. The sleep experiments that _veredone by the three scientist-pilots indicated that they got prett_ .j_,.,_ sleep. The food on Skylab was really quite good. _n_..._ The water was very good, the iodine which was added to the water to keep it sterile was not at all unpleasantto us. It didn't affect the food at all. We found that your sense of taste and your sense of smell appears to be very slightly degraded in that atmosphere, but for the most part, the foods that we disliked at the beginningof the mission on our particularmission were the foods that we dislike_ at the end of the mission. "

Personal hygiene turned out to be a very pleasant surprise. much easier to stay clean up there than we had anticipated. cloth and soap and water.

We found that it was We found that the best

way to keep clean was everyday to have a full body wash. That is, with a wash We were afforded one shower a week, and each shower utilized about three quarts of water, and we found those to be very refreshing and with the one shower, one body wash per day, we found we were able to maintain good cleanliness, no odor problems, and we felt very good...

Page 15 - Carr

We found that growilnga beard was much more acceptable to the problem of shaving. The shaving materials that were available to us just were di(ficult We used the brushless shave type of lather. It was inclined to it was more So Bill to get off.

load up in the razor, and it just got to the point where we felt

trouble to clean the razor and shave than it was to just let it go. firstcouple

Pogue and I elected to grow beards, and found out that after you get over the of weeks of itching, it's not too terribly unpleasant having a is when you're eating potatoes and beard, and I guess the biggest disadvantage

gravy, or something like that, you've got to be careful to keep it out of your whiskers. As far as housekeeping,there's nothing much to be said there.

Offduty activity - I think the most pleasant off-duty activity that any of us had was looking out the window. There's just a vast panorama of things going by the window at all times, and we got more enjoyment out of sitting and just staring at things out the window than any other sort of off-duty activity we had. We had tape recorded music, that was very, very pleasant to have. We had some little cassette-type recorders up there, and we used the music to divert our mind when we were doing things like pedaling the bicycle or carrying out the ! medical exercises,medical experiments. We enjoyed goodmusic while we ate our meals, and sometimes during the work period when we were working at the solar telescope panel, the ATM panel, in those areas, we found the music to be very pleasant and relaxing. We also had a small library of books that we brought

along and a fw of us in our spare times had an opportunity to read a book or two, and give ourselves a little bit of mental stimulation away from the daily workaday grind that we lived in up there in Skylab.

In the area of habitability we found that essentially the workshop was a rather sterile environment. After a while, we begin to wish that we had a few more colors

in the workshop, and so I think that's something that people will be considering in the future, and I think that is adding a little bit more color to working areas when you're going to be in those areas for long periods of time. We also found Not only

•that we would have very much liked to have had a television up there.

for it's value for entertainment purposes, but also it would have been very valuable as a training aid, particularly for those tasks that we had to do off the cuff, that were entirely untrained for and in particular I might point out the deployment of sails that was done on earlier missions. In my mission, we

Page 16 - Carr


had a filter procedures uplink

wheel on one of our solar had to be sent would side, up verbally, television mission


that for

jammed up, and the word pictures, like very valuable or daily future and that. to us. We would news missions, something in football.

and you had to paint valuable wouTd have been very were very interested on an off-day, TV available.


have been extremely

On the entertainment The three have enjoyed would we will a football

of us on the third

game I think, very uplink

and movies in the future,

have been very, probably

good on TV, so I think

end up with

The EVA's on the third manned mission - the first EVA was particularly the plan for that EVA was to go out and install all the film we needed in the solar telescopes, and to effect a repair on an antenna that was used to look at the ground in the earth resources package. The second EVA was the one done on Christmas Day, and the main purpose of that EVA was to photograph the Comet Kohoutek from outside the spacecraft, and also to try to effect the repair of. the solar telescope camera, the filter wheel. The third EVA was done after the

Comet KohouCek had pa_sed perihelion, and that EVA again had a prime mission of rcollecting data Fram cut_ide the workshop on the comet, and also to change out the film in the so!_ _lescopes in the cameras_ The fourth and final EVA was to recover was to get still violet that a little panels, the fiIm itself f_'cm the solar telescopes and one of the itself, auxiliary missions coverage trying and ultraand we hope cells give them

some good footage

of the workshop quite the give of solar time. because are going there

some photographic of the workshop_ contamination

of the workshop to point out with radiation

from outside, us and took affected will

and we took a 16mmmovie a few pictures of things paint cells panels, job the people like

camera and a 35_m

camera out with

photographs and how it capability with

the effect

of the workshop,

some of the photography information

in the area of solar we might cells the little

the energy-gathering

- we hope that

as to how the solar

in the solar

have deterior_ated is

Manned spaceflight forever initiative there's where tasks of man. no reason


are going the that

to be cases flexibility


sure but

up there in the world that

to require

and the

There are a lot

of things

can be done unmanned;

to put a man in space and have him do nothing and click a camera shutter or punch a button less mistakes every by be done with

more than look few minutes,

at a stopwatch


can most effectively

Page 17 - Carr

a computer start _-_n in L

or a machine,



man will

get bored and he will

me_ssing up even a simple task of punchin 9 a button at the prnp_ areas where you need man's flexibility and_his i_i_ative, for instance_, of the solar wing on the first _an_l_#d _i_si%n,_a_don the \ the the \

the deploymeBt

_eployment of the sail that was used to shade, provide thermal shading for _orkshop on the second mission, and our mission, where we had to reservice _oolant system, filter coolanol wheel system, on the or where we had to actually solar telescope cameras

\ /

get out and unjam photographs could I'

_r move the

so that

_e continue to be taken with that system. That's where you need man - you need up there when you need some pretty wheeling judgments, and the tasks in / /


_pace that

are assigned to man are the tasks his unique abilities



him to use his mind can't be covered by ___ /


and his abilities,

which certainly

_[ogramming a computer. I like country's -_ the getting that to think of the Skylab program as sort of a consolidation missions the development

phase in this were essentially for and we of and we very in space, now that normal sort of techniques

spac_ program. man wherever proved you might

The Mercury,

Gemini and Apollo any point


of t_'an_portation y_; want him to, so it tha_ yeah, call


you want in space, and he can live and that is,

adequately of these,

man can be in space,

he can go where _e wishes,

seemed to me the next in space, of time put him up there

step was consolidation he can set

them beach heads, now let's over a long period provided design what sorts that future

know we can get man up there, up housekeeping living ideas and exist

and see if

in a rather

environment, to stay

and Skylab away from,

information. space stations.

We've got to develop

some good further

now as to how we should to try

We know what sort

of systems in order in space... You're • always

of systems to try

to make man more at ease and more at home and more effective


on quicksand



you try

to answer


- because


somebody who says yes...

Space exploration seems to be looking space is just



to mankind standpoint, into

I think very



reasons, being. like

I think, He's always that. The

I guess from a philosophical - you might call

Man is an exploratory things inquisitively, sometl_ing frontie_or

out or prying it

and I think

the last

Page 18 - Carr


of t_ematter i.sthat man stops really stretching himself and extending

--_himself then I think that's when ctvilizati.on ' w_ll begin to decline. Man just_ \_as that inquisitivenature and it's got to be satisfied..I _ H be looking for something. go_

From a strictly dollars and cents or nuts and bolts

standpoint, I think the exploration of space is certainlY important to man because We're going to learn more from out there that we don't know now, and these things that we can learn about how our earth was formed and what were - what we are in comparision to what else is out there - will put us in a better position to better manage our lives here on the earth. I think the Apollo missions, some of _

_e pictures they brought back and some of the things that those guys have said about the earth being somewhat of an island in space, an oasis in space, a:lot of those things. I think it most certainly has stimulated the ecological movement

that is going on in this country right now, because people are realizing that we _e now in a situation that's open-ended. There is an end - there is a limit to how far man can expand and go on this earth, and so we've got to learn to kind of manage - manage our •environment, and as I've said on other occasions, man has got to get into harmony with his environment and with his fellow man, so I think tilat exploration has certainly done a lot toward stimulating man into a more intelligent interest in his earth and his environment and a desire to take better care of it.


when we hit in this

the water, position, this with definitely

we immediately


to the Stable forward,

2 position, in the those When we took pulse a and got very well

and we were BII couches muscle3 rates and it just

very much aware of the weight

of our heads.

As we lay in our feel

our heads hanging took up a strain, that and the doctors down, sitting what condition felt We were acutely very, and to sit the

the muscles acquired. us, they up,

back of our head very pulling got hoistedaboard good feel as to just wasn't

and we could

big watermelon the ship, lying too bad. exactly

we had suddenly got in with

and bloodpressures really to roll

up and standing our cardiovascular very heavy.

system was in, heaviness It was a struggle enough to kind of

aware of the very,

of our limbs,

our hands and our feet over on your side, we then exited

up, and when we felt


and walk,


and we had people

walking along each side of us, keeping a good track of us to give us support if we needed it. Again, we felt a certain amount of vertigo - that is slight dizziness. It was mainly caused by head movement. If you could hold your head That vertigo stayed

still, you were less inclined to feel this vertigo problem.

page 19 - Carr

with u_ _n an eyer d_crea_i_ll_ a_ourLt for vertigo.

abq_t 14 _a_s,, and thella_ter a_owt

the 14th or so day, we begin to reallyhave pretty much lost all the signs of We noticed for at least three or four days the heaviness of the limbs. were back pretty much to baseline

From a cardiovascular standpoint, I thinkwe by recovery plus 8 to lO days. on R+lO.

And we all began running again, jogging, I think

Ed did his first job on something like R + 8 and Bill and I ran our first times

I don't think there's any real limit to how long man can stay in space, as long as he never loses sight of the fact that sometime he's going to have to back to one-G, and if he keeps that in mind, and keeps his cardiovascular system and his muscles and his bones toned for that eventuality, then there is no reason to believe that man need worry about how long he spends in space. there's a limit to that. I don't think


_2 • • ,_, '.



L. °




sail that

_mah_ ned flight, was actually the second thermal protection that 3, the second sunshade or twin-pole we deployed on Skylab the spacecraft I had. The first crew deployed the parasol which brought the temperatures down i material. It wasn't holding up as well thermally nor mechanically as it would to a reasonable level, but there was some deterioration in the quality of that 1 have been desired to do, so we found that it was necessary to deploy an extra i sail over the top of that, and this brought the temperatures down even further ) fromas far as to atechnique for deployment is concerned, we did this on ourrange. Now liveable the really comfortable level in the mid-70 degree farenheit first "

ll-foot sections, and it was my job to bolt II of them together. There's a sort EVA and it required the manufacture really of two very large poles. They came in i of a little bayonet lock that each of the sections fits into the other sections I j with, and then there is a screw clamp and a rubber grommet (?) that fits up to ! hold all of Lh:_se sections together, and two of these 55-foot long poles were _ put together iz_this fashloo. They were then handed out to Jack Lousma who ! _ mounted the_ in the Fork of a little pivot and then this large V was swung I over the top of the old parasol and he then unfurled a large sail with lanyards i and halyards ac!dwe pulled it up like a large flag, all the way out over the side of the spacecraft, and so that's the way Skylab is currently flying around, \ \with this very large sail deployed over the top of the parasol.


/Prior to the flight, we had several weeks in which to prepare ourselves for the Spaceflight _ploy_enL of this sail_. We went to Marshall Center where the sail =had been manufactured, we practiced first of all in the water tank with the deployment mechanisms, we then went out into a large bay area and actually pulled the large sail up over the poles themselves and we went to the practice in a pressure suit, fitting these two long poles together, making sure that_ stood just how they all fitted together. under-

We tried it in the pressure suits, we

'tried it in shirtsleeves,so we thought we were fully familiar with just how it should go together in the operation we were to perform.



It turns out that equipment handling, particularly large masses, or even your body, that sort of thing, zero-G is a very pleasant surprise. It's one of the things that can really be done much more easily than it can here in the one-G environment here on earth. I am fully convinced that if we had a safe weighing The only thing that's important is don't

a ton, sitting here on the floor, it would be very easily handled and moved from one side of the room to the other.

move too fast - you can't put too much energy into the object that you're moving because when you're ...you do, you have to take that energy out over on the other side, and so it's important that you move slowly for the larger sized objects, but it's still very easy to do, very precise capability, and it's a very pleasant one as far as moving yourself around - you can move easily, you can spin, you can gyrate, you can flip, and all have a pleasant experience while you're moving your own body around. fiaveto bed Now small objects are a little bit different, because you For example, with a pen, I'm very certain that I have it clipped there and I needn't little more careful. "

this will n_ver fall out of my pocket.

worry about it until it's time to use it. But the same thing is not true of t zero-G. You c_n't jus_ lay it on your lap or lay it on the table, because as soon as you do that, _'_o floated away and been lost. You have to restrain it _ •with a little piece of Velcro or with a clip, always being careful where you put it down and how you attach it, so it's one of the things we do without thinking here in one-G - we lay it on the table when we're through, or a variety of other places, and we just can't do that in zero-G. You have to be more careful L_d thoughtful for all of the smaller objects.

_e lower body negative pressure device, _r as we use the acronym, just the LBNP, was one of the medical tests that turned out to be rather different in zero-G than we'd found it on earth. It was perhaps the one experiment that we found

to be more challengingphysically in zero-G than we'd experienced in our pretestprelaunch test on earth. This appears to be associated with the fluid changes in our body and the fact that we have a smaller plasma volume in zero-G so that when we get inside this can which encloses our body up to the waist, there is I then a partial vacuum drawn on the lower half of our torso and this tends to _-/ nol blood " "TD In our legs, moreso in zeru-_jbecauseour legs have not been used { to resisting these forces, moreso in zero-G than we'd experienced here on earth, o there is a tendency for our body to become a little bit faint, and we'll notice


a little lightheadedness in flight as opposed to a very simple nonchallenging task as we found it here on earth. So in a way this test allows us to simulate inflight what our body...or how our body would react to a one-G environment if we were brought back to earth right at that time because the differential pressure that's drawn on the lower half of our torso, about 50 millimeters of mercury, is about the same differential pressure that our heart has to work against in pumping blood from our legs to our heart as we stand direct...erect in one -G. So in away, this is a test which simulates a return to earth

immediately and allows us to foresee how our body might respond to those conditions.

_The vestibular tests in flight were also quite interesting because here again the results were somewhat differentthan we h_d encounteredin our preflight testing. The test itself was to put the subject in a rotating chair and allow

you to spin at some speed on order of lO to 30 rpm and then go thrQugh a series of head movements,., first nod forward, then to side, back, left and forward, until Inalaise Now Scall, _what the you approach a condition, to a layman, that ' i


means that you don't feel too good, and when you reech this level of being ready to stop becauseyou .justdon't feel too good, then that terminates the test, and rpm hormallyfound, in my own case fairly typical, spinning at about 15 I went 50 to 60 head movements before reaching malaiseS. Now in zero-G, a=ter a few days of adaptation, all cre_en h_ve found that we became very insensitive to these motion problems and instead of going at 15 rpm, we could go at 30 rpm, the highest speed the chair would rotate and not only that, go through the full protocol of 150 head movements with essentially no symptoms at all. Now this is

essentially a situation that was not predicted by the physicians before flight, nor is it really fully understood, even postflight, and it's one of the mere interesting results in the medical area to come out of the Skylab flights. _Blood sampling was performed on all of the Skylab crewmen at periodic intervals "throughout all three flights, whether one, two or three-month flight interval, and we would take the samples on each crewman, then put it through a centrifuge to separate the red from the plasma component and then freeze it and bring it back to earth for more complete analysis. Now we also went through even addiWe also

onal testing with blood samples in addition to the blood withdrawals.


made hemoglobin we were inflight

measurement_s and other tests on the blood during the time to help correlate with the results that were obtained when at the end of the flight back on earth.

the samples were analyzed

S_eep about pilot

monitoring each...about would

was performed every third

on the night, his

scientist and for

pilot this contained

on each of the the This results that seven electrodes, and also the

flights all


scientist was connected a little of the the subject

put on a cap over the top of your a preamplifier black box which

head which a magnetic

• e way across then through electronic experiment. spent

head and over into

here on the side. tape recorder


back to the ground

Now it

essentially each level

accumulated of sleep

the number of hours the whole night,

at the...at


and physicians

h_ve estab}ished several levels of sleep, although a 1 through 4_and then finally what they call REM sleep, or a rapid eye movement condition when_the subject is normally

dreaming. levels

And so during was telemetered

each of these


the amount of sleep tape. These tapes in detail third that night from the were


each of these a full then brought complete'picture whole sleep flight. that

to the ground, on magnetic who study they

and then in addition sleep every different

to that,

electroencephalogram of just An rather

was recorded

b_ck holm so the physicians interestingly, levels here right inflight

have a rather during of amount the

what each of us was doing is not substantially

have found

the amounts

at each of these

of sleep sleep case,

we accumulated which it

here on earth. it takes as opposed to II

They use a term called to go to sleep, and in my on the or 12 minutes

latency I think

is essentially

how long

was 13 minutes

ground, so essentially there's no different in the time it takes to go to sleep and no substantialdifference in the amount of time you spend at each level, and subjectively,my own impressionis that sleep is very, very comfortableand pleasant in zero-G. I almost feel that it was rather pleasant to wake up a little bit at night, just to have the pleasure of going back to sleep again, it's a very comfortable situation and a very pleasant experience.

(Exerciseis one of the things that each of the flights did rather differently. IThe first flight was very busy with a number of other tasks and limited the ount of other exercisesyou did to on the order of 30 minutes per day. It


WaAS ctivity concluded muscle the amount abilityexercise respondimportant upon return to earth, and that tone and of to was well in maintaining the body's so on four second mission, we increased that to about an hour per man per day and we did improvement I _indthean third n flight, again they in our ability extended that to so even return to the went through more like further, and one-G environment,

hour and a half per man per day, with again comparable_significant improvements in their general physical condition. Now we also added new equipment with each flight in order to be able to better perform and better maintain this muscle condition. For example, on our flight, we pull...broughtin additional bunge (?) cord along with us. We had other exercise devices and then the third flight brought a little treadmill on which they could operate and work against to stress their lower legs even more heavily than we had, so this is a succession of increased time and increased improved equipment for maintaining good physical condition.


e earlier Gemini and Apollo flights had a very specificgoal in mind - that is Itheywanted to get to the moon, they wanted to do lunar science, bring back I |samples, and of course, the programs were very successful in that. they did not Ibave the objective really of studying man and how he interacts or how he adapts !]to zero-G. It didn't really havethe objective of establishinghis ability to

_work well for long durations in zero-G and conduct lengthy experimental and f !scientific experiments in space. These are the sorts of things Skylab did do. For example, Gemini's

We were looking at how man can spend these long intervals.

longest flight was two weeks; we immediately jumped to four weeks with our first flight more than doubled that to two months and then again to three months in the Skylab series, all the while, studying man very, very carefully in much and it's really a rater new direction for our efforts and it's also the direction Ldetail performing very useful next lO or 15 technological experiments, so ich we will b_eadin9 over the scientific andyears in the Shuttle program, so I think that's the best description of how Skylab differs from the research objectives of the Gemini-Apollo programs.

he solar equipment, the solar studies comprise one of the most complicated and ...let me start that over. In the area of our solar studies, that of the solar ,0 f-_/I physics, we have one of the prime research areas of the whole Skylab program... e equipment that was used consists basically of six scientific telescopes,


mounted tothey haveandnumber things are about lO feet long and 7 or 8 feeta in diameter, a spar, a these of auxiliary equipment mounted with them and number of environmental control systems also on this one spar. It can be pointed with I very great precision, as a matter of fact, you can point to a precise spot on the sun's disc, on the way to what physicists call one arc second. Now one arc

i second is actually the size of a dime as seen from a distance of one mile. So that gives you some sort of an idea of the precision with which these very large could not possibly be of any value on earth, because the energy simply doesn't Penetrate the earth's atmosphere. i I'm talking about the ultraviolet and x-ray solar _Jescopes the sun which is very important useful at wavelengthwhat's going radiation from can be pointed. They are also to understanding to ranges which on on the sun, but yet all this can't see is absorbedso we have to go above and our ground-based telescopes radiation it at all, in the earth's atmosphere the earth's atmosphere to see and to use these telescopes and we have to point it with the very great precision that the solar telescopes on Skylab were able '_to be used_

(There were a number o_ really fascinatingviews available on Skylab - some of them seen for the very first * _ by the h....... and just one of these for .... eye n _lm_ example I might mention was a view we had on about the second or third day of a very large gas bubble - like a magnetic bottle expanding out through the the question was'bout the new things we'd

solar corona. Now in this case/ seen, wasn't it?

There were a number of really fascinating views available from Skylab in the area of the solar studies - some of them seen for the very first time by human eye, and one of the ones I remember best appeared on just the second or third day of our flight, or of our solar observations. When we had the chance to see what's In this case, called a transient moving all the way out through the solar corona.

there was an eruptive prominence, as it was called, on the disc of the su!_hich # cast out through the solar atmosphere, called the corona, to very, very high altitudes and expanding bubble, confined by the magnetic field an theformwas ,___] sort of a bubble or a bottle. This was moving out through the corona at a velocity of about 300 miles per second and we couid see the expansion of that bubble on our coronagraph, and we had a number of photographs of this taken during the


ROLL 1 - PAGE 7 GARR[OTT course of this expansion, and as a matter of fact, although vm'd only hoped to see two or three of these perhaps on the whole Skylab flight, our mission alone had the opportunity to bring back over 20 examples of this sort of a transient, and our...


Okay, I'll expanding As a matter

just all

say another

word or so about this corona,


So this see it sort

bubble was of events.

the way out to the solar of fact, they have occurred

we could

on the corongraph, in such large

and we brought

back a number of very fascinating

views of this and result

so frequently

changes to the corona that the solar physicist responsible for work in this area indicate that their ideas of the stability and the dynamics behavior of the corona will have to be completely revised now as a result of the photography k_ information brought back from Skylab.

I was going to mention next so EUV bright point fluctuations, leading to a _ flare. You do havesome flares, I suspect? _ares I could say something about a flare.

are also a transient event that was very important to study and very high

ion our priority list, and we had the good fortune to have a good deal of solar _activity on the sun and the opportunity to view a number of these. They sometimes seem to be preceeded by fluctuations in the intensity of the ultraviolet light coming from the sun until they perhaps just reach this point of instability and then the flare really bursts out in full strength and over a period of just a a_numCOUple ofminutes may reach its maximum intensity. We've been able to photograph

ber of these at various wavelengths in the ultraviolet and x-ray ranJnd provide a very useful view of just how it is these things start, and we hope we will be better able to understand the mechanism which produces this very rapid and enormous conversion of energy into the radiation that we see.

Tsheimportance First ofviews of the sunphysicist - it's offrom several different tandpoints. of our all, the solar can be approached intrinsic interest. 'They're basically interested in understanding how the sun behaves, where it I gets its energy, how it converts that energy into the forms _n which we see it, _f_/ but there are also other reasons which are even more important to the man on the street. ___ Within just the last couple of years, our space program has enabled

find a relationship between the solar wind which blows far out through the


hat solar wind and weather patterns here on the surface of the earth, and orona, eventually reaching the earth's environment, a relationship between so _we need to study more about this connection between solar wind and meteorologica_ phenomena. That's of course of basic importance to us all. We also know that when these large flares erupt on the sun, they throw out charge particles which reach the earth in some 24 to 48 hours - these produce Aurora, which we see l}ereon earth, and we've got a number of photographsof those by the way. We have al_o found unfortunately they sometimes even disrupt solar communications and even power lines at some of our northern and high-latitude power locations, so we have to understandbetter these violent events on the sun in order to be able to see its relationship to the effects that we find hero on earth.

nge where the radiation does not penetrate to the earth's surface. One of lu_Vementioned that most of our the visible are in the x-ray is the range of r instruments really works in instruments range, and that and ultraviolet I i _ wavelengths to which our eye responds. This is an instrument called a white

light coro1_o]raph put still this is an instrument that has a very unique application iLnearth orbit because w_ could again not use that on the surface of the earth. The reason is on the surface of the earth we can only see the corona of the sun maybe once or so a year, and usually off in T_mbucktoo instead of a conveniet location where a complete solar eclipse. it we know those things only come at the time of the astronomers are, and soNow means that we only have a few along glimpses a year, lasting maybe one or two minutes at a time of the solar corona. Now if we look back over at how many opportunities there's been in the _est century, there's been probably less than an hour, some very small amount, but here on Skylab, we have this large instrument with occulting discs to block out the bright image of the sun, allowing us to see in effect the corona of the sun continuously, so we have an interval now of about 8 months for which the corona is visible continuously. It's a far more valuable thing than just a fw


brief glimpses or snapshots spaced bY yearly intervals, because the sun rotates dynamically with time by looking at it continuously as we'd done on Skylab. in abouta 28 daysnew facility then ofhow the corona itself rotates and changes This is whole and now we can see complete change in our ability and way in Which we can look at the corona as opposed to our brief glimpses on solar eclipses en from the ground.

ROLL 1 - PAGE 9 f_: GARRIQTT also IfWe I radiation ._ radiation out-the the had several experiments smaller coming from stars throughout even fron airlock

intended the galaxy

to look at the ultraviolet in which we're in as well


coming scientific

other galaxies, and these experiments of the Skylab and then pointed their had been selected by the

wre extended instruments at investigator





for study and in it his instrument looked at the ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun, allowed it to be dispersed until the image actually looks like it has a long tail on it, and then he can see just what radiation is coming from each of these stars to see how they are developing and what the conditions are _n the atmospheres of each of these stars many many millions of light years away.

_Anothm - experiment that we extended from our airlock was one to look at the airglow the earth. That's one of the interesting things that you see differently from radiation, coming from a rather bright ring which can be found completely surrounding orbit. When you look at the horizon, particularly at night, sometimes you can just make out the boundary between the earth and the darkness of space, especially i _if there is a _oon, but then just a degree or so above that, you'll find another little bright ring which is an airglow layer. Now this airglow is caused by


I excited molecules in the earth's atmospherewhich re-radiatethe excitation J l energy that the2 have, and this radiationwill frequentlycome at both visible l wavelengths and into the ultraviolet - near ultraviolet range, and so our cameras _were _rounds also used to photograph the emissions coming from this airglow layer which the earth. Let me check that angle here again...

I don't see how I can give you very much on that one really...

f them at this point. We have brought back so many thousands of pictures, and hs is actually in the order of lO0,O00 photographs of the sun, wavelengths which he solar physics community has about five years of very intensivework ahead _'were simply not obtainablefrom the earth's surface, which they have to look _jIthrough an analyze in order to better understandall of this activity that's f going on on the sun, all the dynamic behavior and the time variabilityof the sun il i_ something that they have to spend a lot of time studying and better understanding they will be able to see somethingabout how the energy is transmitted and


transformed it is from within the sun all the way out to the solar atmosphere until We also here on the difficulty, radiated away in either of the particles in seeing the form of radiation how this relates conditions, like of these which we can see or in the the corona. right patterns power line back here on form of energy are quite the earth surface radio as they move out through to activity weather Aurora, interested of the earth, communication

in the way of meteorological or in terms problems,

of things

because all

are related

back to the

ctivity earth

on the sun, which

was the basic


of interest

to the solar


he earth resources f looking outwards l ..... I

equipment was a whole new array towards space, toward the stars

of instruments - instead and the sun which was instead back

oking backward at the earth, down at the earth, in order to study things he at hone. Now these instruments resources equipment - I'II start that over earth in a variety again... re photograph the of wavelengths and say the blueand red, c_ear down into the infrared, which is very useful for spectral ranges, all the way from visible

_ different _green,

_ "certain studies. I_ also had infrared imaging which essentially builds up _ ----television pictures in a number of infrared wavelengths,wnicn_can be viewed _ by the investigatorsback here on the ground. He had other instrumentsin the microwave region which essentially senses the temperature and the sea state, and the altitude of the sea and things of this nature, but it's a rather complicated and sophisticated package of instruments, looking back at the earth, attmptin£ to see just what are the best ways for us to study all of the many ferent disciplines of interest to us here at home.


fFood supplies are very important factor not only for this country but for the

entire world of course.

That's one of the things that we can provide some


to with our earth resources package and then later on satellites,

perhaps other unmanned or automated satellites using the results of the ... let me start all over on that...

Food supply is one of the important things that we're all concerned about.

package can hopefully be of benefit to.

For example, we look back at our sources

of food supply, that is our agricultural areas where we are growing corn, wheat and ether things and we It's do several things. First ofour earth resourcesthe can also one of the things that all we can survey throughout the world. _.._m_untt°fw_and is devoted to the productionof these crops- we cn even that ima e at the yield is going to be, depending upon rainfall, temperature and so on is, also we can see where there may be areas of infestation- in _other words some disease like a corn blight may have been started, or such as fruit trees, which may not be healthy._We can see areas where the

forests have had significant infestations, so this all goes together to help us put together a better pattern of the total world production of food and lumber and other things very importantinterests to people in this country and overseas as well.

fMineral resourcesare very valuable...I'djust as soon not talk about minerals, hat's a tough question. Let me go on to the one on hydrology, is that all right? In the area of hydrology,water resources is a valuable national resource that we need to carefully evaluate and see how much we've got. We need to decide for example if it's a question of snow storage, how much we have available,so we can decide how much of it can be released for irrigation,how much should be reserved for recreationalpurposes, how much volume should be stored for potential flood control, these sorts of thi see the entire geographic area to be surveyed. F _ ow we can all study these We can see just how much snow

"things rather well from a remote location like a spacecraft,because we can

coverage there is in areas like Arizona or Colorado and estimate the amount of water that's going to be there, how much runoff we're.gonna' have in the spring and thereby determine how much should be used for irrigation and other important purposes.

ROLL 2 - PAGE 12
f-_\ f •

/ One of the early uses for some of our earth resources photography has to do
are quite interested in finding how much of our finite volume or area of land is being devoted to metropolitan areas, how much for crops, how much for recreation, how much to timber, etc. Now this can of course ben done by reports from our

county agents,_but this is a very tedious and lengthy and time consuming and expensive job_ Instead we've in our major can take large area photographs, with land use studies - people found that we cities and our agricultural areas one to two hundred miles on a slide, allow computers to scan these photographs, and by using sensors at different wavelengths, establish automatically how much of it is being devoted to these variety of uses, thereby providing a very eoonomical way of studying the land use pattern all over the entire country.

rystal growing experiments provide onespaceflight provides us with an opportunity f our ability to work in zero-G. The of the most fascinating applications to get away from the gravitational influence that many of our processing experiments have imposed upon it. _. For example, when we try to grow crystals in our earthbound laboratory, we find that very small thermal convection currents result in an inhomogeneousstructure. It does not have the pure homogeneouschemical con_ituency that we wou!dlike it to have. I'll start that one over....

/_rystal growing experimentsprovide one of the most interestingapplications of our ability to work in space. One of the things we can do in space of course is to get away from the constraining and perturbing influences of gravity. Now

when we grow a large crystal in earth's gravity, we find that the chemical homogeneity is not anything like as nice and as uniform that we would like it to be, in fact, one of the photographswhich we have seen provided by Professor: at MIT and his crystal growing experimentshows layers of crystal in which although it was attempted to be grown perfectly uniform, thermal convection currents have caused it to be a very layered structure, almost like strata you would find along a stream bed someplace, but then when this crystal was then i melted, and resolidified in zero-G, that half which resolidified in zero-G is | nearly perfectly uniform, as near as you can tell by eye, it is quite homegeneous going to earth orbit for the \and one of the advantages that can be achieved by F_ _,_rowth of crystals such as these... _ w_k:5

ROLL 2 - PAGE 13


have almost

an infinite

number of uses in our electronic and in electronic

industry. almost

They are used in diodes

and in transistors


!in every application we can imagine throughout the country today, and it's very important for a lot of purposes to either have them very pure chemically or to have a very precise amount of impurity of known amounts distributed homogeneously throughout those crystals, and so that's one of the directions that this sort of research should lead us.

You may know that we also had a number of experiments proposed by high school students around the country. One of the most interesting one I think was that that" oposed ...let me start r be that also one over I don't so flub hername. had onboard "

You may around the country. aware we students

Skylabproposed One experiments of the most interesting I think was by high school that proposed Of course,

by a Miss Judy Miles from Lexington, Massachusetts, who suggested that it would be quite interesting to study the web formation of a spider in zero-G. .... | here on earth, they start their webs by sort of dangling down on one thread from the ceiling or from a tree limb until they can get the web started and complete I the pattern. Now they can't do that in zero-G of course because they just don't dangle down on a thread, so it would be quite interesting to see how they mentally .go about solving this problem of getting away without the availabilityof gravity and generating an interesting or satisfactory web. Now it turns out the first

first webs ...when Arabella was first placed in zero-G, her legs were simply spider we had - we had two actually - the first one was Arabella, and Arabella's flailing wilding around as she tried to find something to grab ahold of, and after i bouncing around attached herself rather for several minutes, she finally got over on a screen and inside her little cage firmly there, and after that point, she then set about apparently thinking about how she should begin her web construction, because that night, the very first night, she did indeed come up with a sort of a web - a very scruffy looking thing, but still got around the corner of the .little enclosure. But the interesting thing was that every night after that, the web improved until after 5 or 6 days, she was spinning very, very Dice webs, nice symmetrical webs...radials and circumferential rings all the way around it. f_f _ It would do justice to any sort of a web that you might find at home in your garden, and we still didn't know Exactly how she figured out all the problems _to solve the difficulty of this construction w_thout gravity to assist her, but

ROLL 2 - P§. 13
F " -

_Sb_e_oss_Ui_a_e_°t_a_ea_u_otIt_n_t_em_t_t_i_l_ nevertheless she did so, and after about a wee_ with spinning _._ound. They certainly she had to spin


very nice


can improvise, a web.

no question



By instinct,

she knew

.,.handling of liquids in zero-G is also an interesting problem, as you can f imagine when you try to take a drink from a cup or something of that nature. We of course didn't have cups onboard, we instead had little drink.bottles which expanded accordion style to fill out the amount of liquid that you put in them, so you have to do something like that to drink. precautions everytime you handle liquids. I You can take special Now we had a number of science demo-

strations onboard in which we attempted various means of handling liquids, and this is one oF the areas:in which it was interesting to see the evolution of

i technique Ce:Je]oped over the course ofto squeeze Skylab flights. out of these • on the first flight, .JoeKerwin began the three a little liquid For example, bottles and ' "' it _._ith straw, and even to pump air into and out of the nan_e a _' water bubble, as he wished. Building on those ideas, on the second flight, I.

- then began to use hypodermicneedles to use it a little more precisely,and to I blow even larger bubbles, and also sovled one of the most difficult problems, that of restraining and confining this bubble so it doesnt float all over the r $ spacecraft,- a nice simple way to do that is simply on.a little string which t t we made of dental floss, and this is just enough force to attach it to the I ! bubble and restrain the bubble so it doesn't fly around all over the spacecraft, and we then generated a,number of ot_er experiments, using these sorts of bubbles,


and then on the third flight, they did even more fascinating things such as spinning these bubbles up, causing them to rotate until they finally even reached the point where they would fission or separate into two separate bubbles, and 'we'renow reaching the point where we're doing experimentsthat are really of

_ i,


sorts of breakups in solar systems or in cosmological problems'. It's of interest to cloud physicists who are studying the way in which water drops interact and combine as they are falling down through the earth's atmosphere, studying handling considerable theoretical interest to nuclear physicists who are and so similar

ROLL 2 - PAGE 14 (of liquids, in space turned.out to provide a_ evolution through the course of

teresting to a number...a large number of researchers. _the three our sci nce d mon trations ha i Another offlights,!and e!en£!ally _e££hela top!int Where theY're really in earth o with magnetic effects quite orbit. Some people may not be aware that the earth's field that we use here Way above the altitude of Skylab even, and we can

on the surface for say pointing our compasses and so on - actually extends far out into space as well.

demonstrate this in fact with little magnets about so long by releasing these in zero-G and allowing them to float, we can see them oscillate back and forth and from the period of that oscillation, we can actually ca@culate the strength of the earth's field. We can also see its effect in other ways, such as providing gyroscope _oa ject and aatorque then allowsso we in effect have a torque on spinning object, this gyroscope to precess in a way the spinning by rather similar to a top precession that a youngster can spin right here on the surface but whereas gravity provides a torque resulting in the top spinning around, rotating around in a loop, in earth orbit, it's the magnetic torque that causes the spinning nut to tip over and precess.

Not quite so true on the water drop. from those water drops.

We might well have learned some new things

I tried to suggest that.

een about 3/4 of an inch long, as well as about 50 eggs which hadn't hatched et. We took these into zero-G in order to see what the behavior of these little innows and the hatching of the eggs would be, and it turned out to be a very scinating experiment as a matter of fact. First of all, little minnows, when _ _a e also took along with in zero-G, immediatelybegan to minnows, what amust have hey were first placed us a couple of little minchmog swim in they pilot would swam a very tight loop _call outside loops. In other words, they pitched down, in l outward. This actually would seem to give their bodies negative G and why they swam this direction is why ...is certainly something I don't understand and I on explanationsfor this particularphenomenon. And these two minnows essentially kept up that same sort of behavior - periodid outside loops for their entire 'don'tbelieve the physiciansunderstandeither, and they are currently working

lifetime,after 3was about four weeks. Now in addition the that, the eggs began hatch which or 4 weeks, and a total of 48 out of to 50 eggs finally did

ROLL z - YA_E |b / f-_/hatch into small minnows, little tiny minnows, and the rather intersting I here has been found that the newly hatched fish did no_ exhibit th! same _ncy you find that one of the little minnows would swim in an outside loop, but normally they swam about more or less in any orientation much as we would find here ... fish were doing here on earth. I It does seem at this point that in some way, these

new hatchlings adapted to zero-G while they were still in the egg, and so once to swim in outside didn't feel it necessary for them to bag was shaken could loops they hatched, they loops. Very occasionally,when the swim in the outside as did those fish _hich had been hatched and had lived for awhile in a one-G ironment before being taken into space. Really covered most of them because magnets, fish, water, web, we're gonna' talk let's see on momentum, we ...conservation of energy and angular _nentum. Also I might say a few more words about the sort of acrobatics that can be performed. I think you'd want to include a little bit of that, and I would suggest you use Alan Bean, in fact, I'll use his name in here if you don't mind because he was a g_nnist in college and does this with more finesse with...than L anybody else, and it Yearly is beautiful to see him flip and twist and roll as he goes from point to point around the spacecraft.

' A number of physica] principlescan be very well demonstratedin space, such as the conservation of energy and angular momentum. that we know from our textbooks have to be true. These are all physical laws We have some good examples

here on earth, but in zero-G, in orbit, they can even be demonstrated better. The one that comes to my mind most readily is in fact a demonstration that Joe Kerwin performed on his flight in which he is p_aced out in the center of the workshop, away from contact with any of the rest of the spacecraft, and essentially stable and stationary with no kinetic energy and no angular momentum, and yet he is able to demonstrate how he can do exercises there, and as soon as the exercise is complete, he again becomes perfectly stationary. Another very fascinating

thing that can be demonstrated this way is how a cat can always land on his feet. If you've ever tried this experiment, and I don't really recommend it for the youngsters, but the experiment can be done which shows that even thoughyou /_ to twist his body around and always land on his feet. n the same way by the exmaple that Joe Kerwin does. drop

a can upside down, by the time it's had just one or two feet of fall, he is able Now that can be demonstrated Here he is with zero-angular

ROLL 2 - PAGE 16 /-_ f

(m omentum,
effect position • shows that


but by twisting wording on his his

his just feet

hands and feet a moment...Joe by twisting twist, his

in opposite Kerwin

in directions... in

I want to change that how a cat rotates again, lands directions,

can demonstrate

hands and feet another

in opposite so this

body by 90 degree_ another with

per twist, with

and comes back to a stable 90 degrees, a structure, can indeed

and with

he rotates no contact in effect

the human in zero-G, attitude,

change yourbody pside down into

and that's

what the cat does as he falls

a rightsideup a fascinating fascinating

position. demonstration of angular demonstration in orbit, and in a way, Alan Bean, Alan I think is also perhaps... back in

Acrobatics Acrobatics does this

is also

a demonstration job

of conservation better

momentum. of us since

is another

from space.

Bean I think

than any of the rest

he was a gymnist

college, but you can see how between contacts with_he wall of the spacecraft, k__anages to do a number of flips and body gyration_which would certainly be the envy of any diver _ere on earth, had he had the 5 or lO seconds to perform j-_ all these ma1_euver_, and it makes a very beautifulwork of art, as well as I think doing justice to a ballet organizationand could be fittingly associated with appropriate sort of ballet music.


first we_t




When orbit, somethermal for the stability a of that, apparently, our attitude gyros, which are used problems,nd as a result of the spacecraft, apparently were slightly damaged so it became somewhat erratic and every now and then one of the gyros in quite the right attitude, we could get. would tend and this to indicate that the spacecraft

was not

caused a number of pertmrbations of that, we took up with

needed all

the stability

As a result

us on our flight to the spacecraft spacecraft,

a - new set ofitself gyros automatically,installed as a result which we inside the pressurizedwe handled .so of that, through our flight, on the second EVA, Jack Lousma

and so halfway

and I went out, Jack took the pliers, interchange the cables on theof outside of the and made of interchange several cables volume, but which then required the and hooked up another little box, as required, to connect this new set of gyros into _ i the spacecraft attitude control system, so instead we were working attitude...of on now a good set which controlled the attitude of the entire the entire

us pointing Skylab very precisely, and this enabled to do several more experiments, at stars, pointing at the Comet for example tht could not have been done with a


set of gyros that

we had to begin with.


ROLL 2 - PAGE 17

_/The i i !


of manned spaceflilgEt

i_ really

hard to su_arize

in only a fw

minutes, but I think could be mentioned.

there are several features, First of all, we're in this been opened the last

several important aspects that game for a long time. It's a

whole new sea which just knows how many centuries, that, ! | we are going

15 years

and for

the next system.

who To do

man is going

to be exploring

the solar

to be able

to know to...we

are going to need to be sure we


can really and Skylab

endure and work well efficiently in space for long intervals of time, has been the first program to prove that that's been possible, because

here we have men who have lived for a long enough time in space to allow their bodies to really adapt to that new environment, and we found that we can still work and live environment Now we've scientific earth. also efficiently when we're and effectively, thmough, and that's and then again we can conduct return to a one-G features. of a above the away frgm one of the most important experiments vacuum environment

found many new ways in which nature that

and technological

in the zero-G


_e found many new things

the earth, but study Iookingbacka_earth hereat_ndso


we need to not only study looking

for the__benefit, f our citizens o

these I thinkare the important things- t_ Df man in space. We're right on the threshold o, ..... /


and the imFortance

_really a brand new opportunity to explore the solar systemand _uniKverse j _and to increase t_e value of benefits back here at home. _£#le v(" .__/

I think Skylab is a turning point in our effort. rand land _and

All through Mercury, Gemini,

Apollo, we were working toward a single objective, that is, the design constructionof hardware which gave us the capability to operate in space, in fact, achieve a very specific goal, that of landing men on the moon,

)erformingscientificexperiments,returning rocks and the men baGk home, and ve met that goal and accomplished, but now Skylab is the turning point away from ithat specific objective, and allowing us to take advantage and benefit from this capability to operate in space, - we've seen that Skylab has already turned this. Were obtained the benefits of living for a long time in space, performing many scientific and technological experiments in space, and returning our interest and .our focus back to our problems here on earth, and so in that sense, Skylab has been the turning point and is showing the way I think for the next 10 or 15 or _erhaps even more years of spaceflight activities.




PaulWeitz _: S_a _

_On the launch of Skylab l, the Workshop, May 14th, slightly over a minute into the flight, as it passed through maximum dynamic pressure region of the boost profile, due to what turned out to be faulty engineering design, is that we actually got a positive pressure through the base portion of the workshop stage a portion of the meteoroid that's called the tunnel. This actually increased the pressure underneath the micrometeoroid shield, lifted it out into what was then becoming a supersonic airstream, and this thing is made of 25,000 sheet

a supersonic airstream, it carried away.

Fortunately, for us, the program and

I think the world is that it didn't really do any damage to the rest of the aluminum, so you can imagine when aluminum of that thickness is extended got one icle. It separated rather cleanly.//Thatall right? I think I only into "uh" in there.

Well, this is just supposed to be completely relaxed, all right? President Nixon. upper lip is sweating.

I feel like

Ever notice that everytime you see him it shows up that his

Paul, could you smooth your hair down just a little...where? I don't know, I ain't been able to in 42 years.

That's it.


Okay, this will be the ground preparation as far as you and Pete and Joe were concerned, for the parasol and various aspects ofwhat you did. Okay, ready?

In preparing for our launch, which of course was slipped I0 days to a11ow us to attempt to analyze what was really wrong with the workshop, because all we had to go on were deductions based on data that was being sent back from the workshop,_ tr_yJ_i_ so_ _e_._t1_ tb___b_j_:v_one on,the center, o_f course, all the NASA centers were working on it, all our contractor_n the" Skylab program were working on it, and primarilywas taking an active part in discussions and decisions that were made as to what's wrong with the workshop and how we're gonna' fix it, and we went to Marshall to work in the watertank with the proposed fixes, talked to the engineers that were working on it, talkec _o the flij_lanners and_Lis_ssed it of course with management_ we actually launched on the 25th of May, with three potentialways of covering the workshop, to shade it from the sun.

Page 2 - Weitz

This will be as you approached Skylab, describe the damage as you saw it... and you might even describe some of that stuff that you did, trying to get the wing out.

Well, as we approached the workshop, we got within distance where we could disV !_ _j,_L_., cern it"I'"_+'-11"'I_..j_ see that the entire meteoroid shield from the bottom... we could we did approach it from the bottom, that is the earth side of the vehicle, and we could see it was gone, we could see all the gold foil, the workshop was covered with gold foil underneath the area where the meteoroid shield was suppose to be. We could see that the one solar panel was still in place, was deployed about 15 degrees, as the ground had deduced from their voltage measurements from the solar areas, and that the other panel was completely gone. We could see wire bundles of about 5 and 6 feet in length sticking out of the side of the vehicle, but the rest of it was completely gone. As we did our flyaround, I

think the thing that impressed me mostly was first off, the size of it and thB thing was so damaged that it incurred on the gold foil on the sun side - it was blackened, blistered, charred, you normally think of the gold foil as being a good reflectivesurface, to reflect the solar energy, but it had really suffered, we knew it _#asgettiT_g hot inside the workshop. So we fooled...flewaround, _nished our inspection,everythingelse, the forward end of it, the Apollo Telescope Mount, the multiple docking adapter, the entire forward end of the vehicle looked I00% okay. We flew around soft dock, went ahead and ate and prepared for our standup EVA in an attempt to deploy that remaining solar wing. We undocked, flew around to the side during a night pass so that we were all ready to go as soon as it got daylight, we went ahead and dumped the cabin, opened the hatch, that first light, I went out the hatch, Joe stayed down in the lower equipment bay portion of the command module, steadied my feet and passed me portions of tools. We had various tools that fitted on the end of 5-foot sections of pole which screwed together. Using this and what we call a Shepherd's Hook, which was a large hook with which we intended to hook under the free end of the solar panel and break it loose and swing it out, Pete went ahead and drove the vehicle right on it, he had no problem station-keeping, which we're all glad to see, because we really had some concerns about his ability, with Joeand _ I thrashing around in the vehicle to control the vehicle in a pressurized auit. _.Uh, the command modul_/hadn'tever really been flown by smmeone in a pressurized suit before. Uh, but it turned out to be a do-able job, we went ahead and hooked

3 - Weitz under the beam, the portion of the straB of the remaining piece of the meteoroid shield was still there, was wrapped up over the top of the beam however, was much stronger and practically welded in place. I heaved on the end of the beam on the pole, with the pole, hard enough to deflect the end of it about a foot add a half, according to Pete, pulled the two vehicles together and actually deflected the workshop, disturbed it from its inertial attitude, but it just wasn't enough to break that strap loose or do anything with it, so tired and discouraged with night coming on us, we then...our assessment of the situation at the time, mine and Pete's, was that we did not have _he right tools on board, I did,..we gave up on the hook and moved up to the strap, and we had a small tWo-prong tool onboard that actually we actually tried to then pry the strap loose, but we just couldn't get ahold o4 it and couldn't get enough leverage on it to pry it loose, so we then went, as we say, very discouraged, gave up, went back, redocked or attempted to redock, and that's when we got our next big surprise of not being able to make a successful capture, and that's the time when you really get down to the fourth-order backup procedure, which we never expected to use, and it was only kind of by chance that Pete and Joe really knew enough about it to go ahead and use it.

Describe the parasol... Excuseme _ur - I didn't get you in the ears with that one, did I?

first choice of the method to use is to erect some sort of sunshade to

try to protect the workshop was what's called the parasol, and it was our natural first choice, because it was deployed through a scientificairlock that already existed in the side of the workshop, it can be done completely from the inside L in a pressurized vehicle. _ster Pete and l went down into the_workshop, installed _Eh_'_ the tem_erature_)yJ_

that containedthe parasol in a sci_k,

_rksho_ was.verY ho.t but_dry l_eminded me of the desert - it Was_a_bout 130 degress Farehheit in there, and this approach was to go down with minimum , . clothing on, but the heat was being radiate_at us from the walls of the workshop and from the water tanks primarily.

We found out they were great 9ource of heat -


it took them a long time to cool off, and they were radiating heat and we actually wound up going like the Arabs do, we put on more clothes to help protect us from I theheat. We put our jacket on over the top of our shirt, we put our on and wore gloves. It wasn't that uncomfortable, as I say, it was a very dry heat,

•4 - WeitZ


r_we'd worked on there for 15 or 20 minutes and then retire to the MDA where the
I t J

MDA temperature was about 55 degrees Farenheit, we'd cool off for about 5 minutes or so there, and maybe have a drink of water out of the command module, and then go back down. I forgot now how long it took us to do this, a couple of hours, _'c,_ after which we had completed the task and deployed the parasQl. Joe wasobservin_ thedeplojnnentof the parasol from the command module,,ff_--C-_Id that_t didsee no_ep_ completelY the first try, it dep_F6_yed 0 n much the same fashion as a beach umbrella. We went ahead, jiggled it and shook it and spun it around as

best as we dare, since it, too, was erected and screwed together sections of pole so we didn't want to spin it too much for fear we'd unscrew one of the sections and lose it. We deployed it as best we coul_.pulTed:it-_c_l_-It_ w_r_about lO feet off the side of the workshop w_n R_as deployed, wo pulled / i_k dotal _wb_reit's abau_a_f_t off and uh, that was i_ite _o well for the rest of the mission. It turned out our post-undockingflyaround photograph showed that it had not deployed completely,and we could tell. You s could map out, just by feeling the side of the workshop, ever_n_here hat the t parasol was, because in the space of 3 inches, you could feel it was hot, hot to the touch, I'd esthrate 90 to lO0 degrees, and 3 inches away where it was in the 1 _ shade, the wall of the workshop on the inside was cool, 70 degrees or whatever was about ambient.

Cut, Charlie, keep rollin', Les...tell me when you first started feeling the temperaturecoming down, when you first felt the thing was having some effect..•

Now when we could tell...whenwe first noticed the decrease in the ten_oerature, of course, the ground was keeping us advised, and I think that had a lot to do with it. They said the temperaturecame down 3 degrees, and we'd say yeah, and we're glad, but of course while it was that hot, we were sleeping in the MDA and the command module, and you're biggest differencewas you'd come out of the workshop in the evening, turn in for the night, get up the next morning and go down, and you'd know it was cooler then by 5 or 6 degrees or lO degrees or so, but we could tell.,-.I _uncomfortable think on about Day"4_or 5, we definiteiy"_tha_i_t environment,it

Was "o longer

warm, but certainlyn6"thing-that you couldn't ./

Okay, let's skip over that solar wing thing...okay,the next thing is describe

5 -Weitz

the _sensat_o_of _oyemen_ _n_pment

handling,your reactions to it, Charlie

let's just make it...let's get about 30 seconds in, we'll cut the camera, and won't have to distract anybody, okay?

As far as moving around ourselves and equipment in the large open volume of the workshop, that was very pleasant. It was a very pleasant surprise, in NASA's own inimitable way, we'd approached it conservatively and we had many tasks that were spelled out in our procedures to be two-man tasks, some that were even required three. We found out that as long as you could fix your body, stabilize your body position, there was practically no task you couldn't do in weightlessness. As a matter of fact, the smaller the task, such as when

I took apart the SOl9, the UV Stellar Experiment, and it had many small screws in it, the smaller the piece of equipmentyou were working with, the more difficult it was, because they tended to float away on you and drift off, and we had to stick small screws and springs and small pieces like that and make sure we. stuck them to a piece of tape that we had taped to a locker wall. But the

mobility was, I like to refer to it as the "Peter Pan Mode" - you could really i ==--just off and move around within the workshop/he, thing that surprisedme push most was how quickly we all adapted to being fairly precise - within a matter of a day - I'm talking about - you could by pushing off with one finger, if you wanted to combine a translation, that is moving from one point to another within the workshop, and you also wantedto rotate, to change your attitude by the time you got there, this was a very rapid learning curve and you could learn to do this quite rapidly - you just pushed off from the wall, you went in the right direction at the speed you wanted, and was pretty near the right rotational rates you wanted. Of course, the secret in rotational rates you wanted is like tumblers

and ice skaters and that, you just change your moment of inertia by pulling the legs and arms in or extending them and you could change your rate of rotation this way. Large packages were no problem, of course, these have mass and still

have inertia, but all you had to do was move slowly and my technique, personally, for moving a large mass, was I'd push it off in the direction in which I wanted it to go, and then I'd let loose of whatever I was hanging on to and I'd just hold on to the mass or piece of equipment, whether it was a camera or a bunch of ._. film, or what have you, and just let it tow me along. In a long-duration spaceflight, Paul, would you like to see the ship have artificOal gravity or do you think the weightless environment would be better?

Page 6 - Weitz

For long-duration missions, weightlessness It's like everything else.

has attractions,

it has drawbacks. But as far as When it comes to

Gravity has attractions and it's got drawbacks, too.

Especially to the man who falls off of a 30-story building.

working, moving about, handling equipment, gravity's an asset.

everyday living chores, the shaving, the brushing the teeth, the going to the bathroom, the eating, the lack of gravity is an inconvenience. I wouldn't say

it's a hindrance, I think it's a nice to have thing on long missions, and by that I'm talking about missions of 6 months or more, but it's expensive, it's gonna' cost us something to have artificial gravity, we're gonna' have to have a large enough vehicle to spin and a lot of technical problems that would have to be overcome to utilize it, so I think it would be nice to have thing for the living, sleeping and eating areas. Okay, we'll skip over the medicai. Okay, just give me something on the solar Here agaiW,

physics, briefly describe solar physics equipment and experiments. let's cut _ut after about 40-50 seconds...


r'fhe solar physics portion of the Skylab experiments, which of course were almost on our flight, w_s cc))ductedslowly with the Apollo Telescope Mount, which was a battery of 6 solar telescopes, and of course, we used them on Sky!ab to get these telescopesup above the earth's atmospherewhich does a wonderful job of filtering out what has become to humans the harmful radiation from the sun, but it also filters out radiation and wavelengths that would help solar physicists understand more about the process that's going on in the sun. For example, we

brought back more data'on the corona, that is, the hot gases that surround the sun, on our flight, which was only I/6 of the totalmissionflight time than had been gathered in all the study of the sun previously, because the only time we could get it was during totdl eclipses before, and they,re rewriting;atextbook #

on solar physics as a result of these Skylab flights./We've learned a lot about the corona - we've learned a lot about the radiations that come from the sun,

;from the...during these so-called solar storms that affect the earth's weather, and atmosphere, and you can see that if we can predict the affects of solar radiation, changes in solar radiation, on earth's weather, this will give us a _ leg up on forecasting weather, and agronomists and agriculturalists say that an accurate 5-day weather forecast can save farmers in this country 3 billion - 3 to 5 billion dollars a year. Uh...Skylab was a unique vantage point from which to


- Weitz

to study the sun, and as a result, we've learned an awful, awful lot about it. I think Ed and Owen can give you moredetails on it.

Yeah, I remember details like in the past century we've had a chance to loek at the sun uh...it's real low, I've forgotten now, uh, so many minutes. Yes, that's right - there's some of it that's minutes, cumulative with lO's of rocket flights, and I think Ed's got that information.

Anytime you want to break now, Paul, ...naw, it's all right. Okay, you say UV Stellar you don't -

That's right, we only did one experiment, I already told you everything I knew about that when I said that I took it apart once.

How would you describe function and purposes of EREP experiments?

We had on board, of course, EREP, which is an abbreviation for Earth Resources Experiments Package. The primary purpose in flying this group of equipment which much like the Apollo Telescope Mount was a conglomerationof six different sensors that we used to look at and study the earth's surface. The primary purpose of this package was to evaluate the techniquesand equipment to be used in studying the earth's surface. Now incidentalto that we brought back data and this is what is going to turn out to be very useful, but it's an important technical point to keep in mind is that the primary purpose of flying EREP was to study the sensors themselves and what will come out of it that's most useful will be evaluationof sensor performance,but in order to evaluate the sensors, we do in fact have data informationon processes that are going on on earth. Now from this hopefully,some day, we will be able to determine what for instance the amount of snow in the mountains left by the winter storms, the winter soow. We can be able to determine hopefully the rate of melt of these snows in the spring, and I think from that, then, you can see that we would be able to if we can predict the amount of runoff, how it will affect the flood plains along the rivers and with proper implementationof this information,we can have the good schedule for opening the flood control devices along the river drainage

8 - Weitz

more warning and can minimize it. We're helping to find where fish are, so I system. This boats not eliminate floods,and hunt for days can days, people that fishing will don't have to go out but hopefully it and give hopefully one day we'll be able to give more effective utilization of our fishing fleet in this country and tell people where the fish are and where to go to get them. They can just go out, fill their boats, and come back with them without having to spend days at sea. We hopefully will be able to determine sources of pollution and by analyzing the pollutantsthemselves, potentiallycome up with better _ys to control this pollution.

Let's see, what else you got down there, we got uh...I wouldlike, if you can, ...all right. Naw, I don't think we'll use this, Charlie...okay?

Two of the potentially most useful experiments in EREP were a multispectral camera that took simultaneousphotographs in 6 differentwavelengths and a multispectral and it tookscanner which is a digital data information gathering system, measured the radiation in 13 different wavelengths. Now what makes

this type of information so useful is in the results - and the results aren't in NASA and the principal investigators are still working with this information, or with the data, trying to get informationout of it, but you can combine, for instance with the multispectral scanner, you can combine as many of the 13 channels as you want, depending on how you combine them and what combinations you use, you get different types of information, and you can imagine how many different combinations of 13 you can make. You can use any two, any three, any four, and mix just don't them, that way, and the results unfortunately just aren't in yet, we

know what we can do yet, we're still working on it, but it's a very useful tool, as far as trying to...I lost my train of thought - I was thinking what I was going to say next...yeah, signature's a good word... ...so by combining these different wavelengths in what is called a signature of a particularphenomenon,whether - and what they hope to be able to do, for "exmaple, is in the spring, if we want to know how the wheat crop is doing in the United States, well, it's very difficult with our present state of the ark, _ to tell newly sprouted summer wheat or spring wheat from barley, oats, from other greens, but we may not want to know about barley and oats. What we're trying to What do is find out how can we mix these things so that we can differentiate.

9 - Weitz


is it that makes the signature of wheat different, of young wheat different from young barley and young oats, and young rye, for example. Uh, we saw

several instances of pollution, both manmade and natural - the Amazon river, for example, is a large natural pollutant, if you consider silt and sediment pollution. It extends from lO0 miles into the Atlantic Ocean. A__far as manmade-pollution,I think that probably the most outstandingvisual evidence of this is in_I_c_i,_k_ndd it starts at the source of the Great Lakes -

the western end of Lake S__i_-we-_c_lel_Q___a_eddish color, which I assume comes from steel mills in that region as it flows by populated areas - you can see the pollutantsalong the southern shore Of Lake Erie/Yob can see where eye, large creek or small river en_oties into the lake practically.

Uh...mineralshortages...lhave these all in context, problems... As far as what Skylab and EREP and remote sensing in general of the earth can do toward mineral supplies, and that includes oil, and metals, is in many cases, you know, you have to send a man or a crew out there to look at it and say yes, P this is a good place to explore, it's not. But in many cases, the big picture is worth months of exploring. For instance, in Wyoming, from one picture of our flight in Skylab, there...they're are upgrading all the geological and topigraphic maps in a section of Wyoming. To do it by conventional means, that is by ground

and by airplane would take at least a year, and they're updating these maps from one photograph. There's a section in Nevada, in central Nevada, where it hasn't been proved yet, but using different aspects - one is a photograph, a geologist vYno is familiar with that area thinks that there is a potential for massive copper deposits in that region, because he's seen on a scale that's very very large that never showed up in aerial photographsor in exploration by foot or car of that region...is that here's a geologic formation that is similar to ones that they know have gotten copper from before. Now here's the example where we feed in the multispectral data - an analysis of the multispectral photographs of that region show that the plants in that region emit in a signature that's indicativethat they have...or are living in copper-rich soil. So these two ...... things in combination lead us to believe that there is probably copper in that region. Now what well...we'll also do is reduce the amount...in oil for example, which is very important nowadays. As far as finding deposits of oil is reduce

the exploration necessary to find a profitable yield and profitable deposit of oil.

I0 - Weitz

Energy needs, _ guess youKye coye_,ed that, too. Ub, populationpatterns.

All right.

Another use of remote earth sensing data is determining population I don't know what's been done with it so far. You can't see

patterns and population density.

Visually, you can discern large areas, large cities - they look up as they appear ...they appear to be a gray patch on the surface of the earth. any buildings, you can't see streets, interstate highways and freeways show up quite plainly, mainly...sir?

Interstate highways and freeways show up quite distinctly, for one thing, they're usually in high contrast with their surroundings, plus they're typically pretty much straight lines, so even thoggh they're relatively narrow, they're quite discernible to the human eye from our orbital altitude of about 270 miles, and they typically lead into the population centers, but it's quite easy to determine where the large cities are. We could see Houston, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, We

for example - this is tempered to a certain extent by atmospheric pollution. tr_'ed find the city of WashingtonD. C. one day - when the meteoroligical to conditions reported on the ground was clear - that is, no clouds - and seven miles visibility. And, unfortunately,there was Bnough of this hazy-type, smoggy-type, whatever you want to call it - I call it pollution - in the area that we just could not find Washington, even though there were no clouds in the sky. Did I give you enough on that?






Uh, you might cover one other thing under EREP and that's meteorology - weather business, want to touch on that?

Uh, yeah...no, I don't know much about it, and we didn't do any of it, as a matter of fact, the main thing on ours was to stay the hell away from the clouds. All we did was incidentallytake some radiometerdata on that hurricane,and uh... that's right, they did get into some of the weather stuff, but we didn't.

Okay, briefly describe the hardware...would you like to take a break, Paul, coffee? Okay, don't let us push you now.., briefly describe the hardware and purpose of materials processingexperiments,and the next question is describe the purpose of the following processingexperiments...and you say you did sphere forming and welding, so you can just run all that together, but I would like for you to explain electric furnace (garble)...okay. All right.

Part of a large family of experimentswe had onboard was what was called the multi-purpose furnace or the materials processingfacility. This was a chamber - a spherical chamber in which we could insert different setups for evaluating what was going to happen to the materials under different conditions. This sphere could be evacuated, it could be dumped to a vacuum so that we could actually study what happens...let me start all over again.

Another group of experiments that we performed onboard was the materials processing or...let me start over again on that. What the hell, I keep getting MPF as multipurposefurnace which we didn't really use, and it was a materials processing facility, I guess'that'swhat we call it.

We also had onboard a setup that was called materials processing facility.


this did primarily was determine are there...is it technically feasible and in some cases, is it economicallyfeasible to perform certain materials processing functions in space? Now why do we want to do it in space. We have two major I advantages. _her One is the absence of any significant amount of gravity and the

is the availability of a large, near-perfect vacuum, so those processes

Roll 2 - Page 2 Wei.tz

which require or potentiall_ can...may take use of these two advantages of orbital flight or evaluateS_,To_C, this, we had a sphere which could be evacuated do and we had an electron beam gun as a heat source. ...made the first attempt at forming ball bearings. disappointing to us. Now on our flight, we tried The results were somewhat It turned out

To the actual metallurgist who we_ technically responsible

for the experiment - they were quite delighted with the results.

we didn't get many spheres - spherical spheres, that is, because of technique problems, more than anything. slugs and then let them _ In other words, we had to melt these cylindrical without touching anything else. This didn't always

work. Sometimes they stuck to the wheel on which they were ...had been originally launched, sometimes they would come off it with too much velocity and impact the side of the sphere, but it did show that there's definite promise in making perfectly spherical and homogeneous ball bearings, as it were, for those specialized applications where it's worth the time and effort to form them in space. also evaluated welding. We Wondered if there would be any advantages to we._ding Uh, I think

i.nspace or any disadvantages. The results , the preliminaryresults, so far, ' show that we get nice, even beads with good cooling, good welds.

from what I've heard, there are no distinct advantages, no major surprises in that. 'formed. The other was crystal growth, a portion of the experiment that we perI think that this probably shows the most potential benefit. We grew

some crystals in.the various crystals ...in the various flights, which were up to lO times the size of any that have been successfullygrown on earth. As far as metals melting, we melted some combinationsof metals to form alloys, and ' these turned out that they met the greatest expectations of the experimenters

earth in the presence this, and the advantagesof that some of the portions i who were working with of a gravitationalfield, isweightlessnessesthat on of the alloys will form first, and so doing, as they solidify, they settle to the bottom, and you either have to keep it agitated, or some other means of keeping the thing stirred up, or in some cases, you just can't do it. And,

of course, in weightlessness, there is no bottom for these particles to settle to, and they are very excited about the results of this - they are getting good homogeneousmaterials out of these. Uh, let's see - something crossed my mind - oh, are there any dollar figures you could place on this?


Roll 2 - Page 3 Weitz

No, not that I know of.

Okay, yeah, that was good.

Yeah, this is habitability, Paul - sleeping, per-

sonal hygiene, housekeeping, off-duty activity, just briefly, anyway you want to.

_/}J_l_r_ght.nother area with which everyone was concerned and interestedwas A _ what's called habitability - that is, howwas of space inweightlessness. it living for extended periods

We found that it was quite pleasant - thatmoving

about was no problem, initially, there is a feeling of fullness in the head. This is caused, we think, by the fact that for 40 years, your heart has been maintaining a five-foot pressure head from your feet to your head, and you get into weightlessness and it doesn't need this anymore but it keeps providing it. fI can liken it best to hanging by your knees from a tree limb - you feel I think

your jugular vein is distended, you just have a fullness in the head.

the effects of this diminish, plus you get accustomed to this, so that after about lO days to two weeks, you really don't notice it much anymore. As far as eating, we had no problems with eating. We used fruit trays that were similar Uh, there was no to old airline-type ....As far as eating, we had food trays that both heated the food and retained the containers in which the food came. problem eating, it was a pleasant surprise. And we had rehydratables.

We had frozen food, we had what's

called thermo-stabilizedfood...likecanned food that you would buy_on earth. That's food that was mixed with water - to rehydrate.

We had very few problems handling the food, and it was very pleasant. Sleeping was no problem. We had what we called sleep restraints - it was a me_al frame over which was stretched _ bed - more like a sleeping bag into which you crawled. ' We had multiple covers you could put on or take off as many covers as you wanted. We had expandable stretch straps that held you in this bed, and it also helped to give the illusion of lying in bed, as it were, and this.... you could lie on Personal hygiene - of course, what you

your back, or on your side, or on your stomach, or any attitude that you wanted, and it was no problem at all in sleeping.

I miss most is going to a sink and turning the water on and washing your ! face or brushing your teeth. Well, we didntt have this. Our water, we dispense_ into a ' washcloth,l if" you're going to use a washcloth, and you got rid of the water by

Roll 2, Page 4 Paul Wetiz

absorbing it all in a towel.

So you kind of missed the niceties of gravity.

As far as the waste management compartment system...as far as the waste management system was concerned, it worked quite well. We had an air entrainment system for both urine and feces, and it worked extremely well. We had no

problems with the system, we had no spills, it was not unpleasant, as has been reported from previous flights.(General housekeeping in thevehicle was quite easy. The one area that we always had to stay on top of was the food area. mentioned previously that there wern't many problems, but what you did have was small spatters which at home on earth wind up on your placemat, on the tablecloth, or under the table where they're easily wiped off. In weightlessness, a spatter goes in any direction - it can go up to the ceiling, over to the wall, wherever - we took a damp towel and wiped down all the walls and the floors or what have you in the eating area once a day, in an attempt to keep it clean. We had an excellent pattern of ventilation through the vehicle. In essence, it came up in front of the...it came up through the floor of the workshop, and went toward the dome, toward the top of the workshop, and there entered a large plenum - a large mixing chamber that had a fine screen over it. If you ! lost something, we soon learned that you didn't worry about it - you just forgot about it for an hour or two and then you went and looked on the screen and...in the dome of the workshop, around the plenum, and 95% of the time, that's where we'd find it_ As far as recreationand off-duty activities, there was no surprise to me anyway, having spoken with people who'd participatedin TekTite, the underwaterexperiments, we found that the most useful - uh_the most used form of recreationwas looking out the window." In 28 days, we never got tired of watching the earth jgo by. Uh, we read some toward the end of the mission, but as far as playing games, we had cards on board, we had darts, none of which we used. We broke Ithemout and looked at them, just to see what they looked like, but we never really used them, because between looking out the window, listening to music, we had tape cassette music onboard, we listened to that a lot. Each man has his own tapes and own tape recorder, cassette player that he could use. One of the most useful items however that we did use a lot was a small rubber ball - a little blue ball, and we got a lot of hours' enjoyment out of that, just throwing it around, back and forth to each other, or we had one where we saw who could

get remember. as I the most skips around the dome lockers. I think I held the record with 12,

Roll 2, Page 5 Paul Weitz

At the time, I don't know if that's been broken or not. Okay, cut. Yeah, I remember the footage of the ball. At first, I thought you were talking about the darts,

That's right, yeah.

couldn't figure out what the hell you were talking about, then I remembered.

How they might be improved on a long'duration flight...or what you think of a long-duration flight (fade out)...take care of their off-duty hours. As far as what I think we can apply from what we learn in Skylab to future long-term missions, it was quite pleasant, again as I said. We had the... We walked

the vehicle did have an up-orientation,because,.we rained in one-G in trainers t for 1000's of hours, and you still tend to associate that "up".

around in it, and up was always toward the dome, and this was no problem. Another surprise was that many people had visualized that in moving about in weightlessness, you v.sould like you do in water - that is, you would move do

from one point to another headfirst. We found this wasn't so. _

You'd push

•off your hand, and you'd maintain _L. \' uorientation, _,isup withyourheadtoward the dome, and if you'd have to, you'd go feet first if you were going down, you went headfirst if you were going up, and if you're moving across the room, you typically just went sideways, in a standing or "vertical" attitude. As far •as...so for future flights, I think we don't have to provide any special means of locomotion- we had a lot of what we called mobility aids on the vesicle. You don't need this -you don't need these special aids to get from place to place. You learn very rapidly to just push off and soar - fly from one place to another - unless you're doing work. If you're doing work, then you must have some Means of stabil_zingyour body, and the most useful way to do this is with your feet. The triangle shoes that fit into the grid of the workshop that we used for...were quite useful. From that, the dutch shoes, so-called

dutch shoes that sta;-ted back in the Gemini days and that weused were quite " useful and easy to use. As far as maint_ance tasks in the future, we're gonna' need some better way than sticky tape, I think, of holding the small p_eces ; when you're working on a piece of gear, piece of equipment, but I think the i message that comes across loud and clear is that anything you can do on earth, ! you can do in space if you just give a guy a place to put his tools and his


Roll 2 - Page 6 Paul We_tz





there's reallynothing there's -

_n:rts thatyou can't do. thing a placeto


As far as recreation, off-duty activities, looking out the window will always be I ti_ink the prime mode of rec_ation,and that's based on not just Skylab, but every other flight that's ever flown. Therefore, any vehicle that goes and the longer it goes, I think the bigger the windows ought to be and the more w__indows there ought to be--_so you can look out, and this is not only useful from a recreation point of view, it's going to be useful scientifically. People are g6ing to be able to see more, they're going to be able to make more observations, and report on more phenomena. Uh, our tapes, our tape music was very much used was very useful - we ought to have this provision. However, the one thing that we didn't have that I think will be useful and maybe even a requirement in the future, is our live - essentially live - current news broadcast - at least radio, if not television. Television, I think, from the ground, would be very useful on future flights. t ...why is man important up there, ready?

Man is important in space flight because he's very flexible and relatively cheap-to-producecomputer, is what it boils down to. Some things a man can do better than a machine. Some things a machine can do better than a man, but when you're performing an honest to goodness, real live experiment, if you're going to do it with a machine, you either have to know everythingabout the experiment,that is, be able to predict every possible path down which that experimentcan proceed, which are based on the results of the experimentsup to that point, or y_u have to be able to change the paths down which the experiment will proceed, _ remote control from the ground, so that means that a tremendous

amount of data flow back and forth - in some cases, it's not practical to do this.

_It's cheaper and easier to send a man along. Even though in so doing, you have _ to provide for man's comfort and well being, and you have to provide an environ_ mental control system, a temperaturecontrol system, food, water, uh waste

it's worthwhile sending a man along to do some of these jobs. Not every job management, butNASA's message throughoutour exploration ofon Skylab and Apollo, can a man do. still, I think as we've demonstrated,both space, our total


Roll 2 - Page 7 Weitz

themselves, and a lot people lose sight of, was a mix of manned and unmanned portions has been exploration - the ALSEP_ the flights. The Apollo Exploration program, of space a mix of manned and unmanned Apollo Lunar Surface missions Equipment, that was set out on the surface of the moon - they were in place by man, because man was along, but the equipment themselves that they set out there as part of ALSEP was an unmanned station - it's a monitoring station, kind of like a lunar weather station, as it were and they're sending back data L_,c_ the Apollo 12 stationAwasin place in 1969 with a lifetime of one year - year 1974, it's still sending back data. What the challenge is to the managers of these programs, is finding the right mix of manned and unmanned endeavor in space to best utilize the advantage of both, but man definitely has a place in Space exploration, primarily because of his flexibility and his own capabilities to determine which way an experiment or an investigation should proceed. Uh, okay, cut, Charlie - let's apply that to Skylab.

Man's usefulnessin sp_,:e has been demonstratedI think on Skylab. First off, if it ha_t been fo_ _an, we'd have never fixed the vehicle, it would have Some of the capability that we would have lost was Ibeen a lost mission.

the habitability of the vehicle, making it liveable for man to begin with, of course, but not as much of the film and many of the experiments could not have continued to operate in a high-temperature environment which the thing had been seen for lO days or so, and also, as we learn more about living and working on Skylab, performing the experiments, our flight was primarily an evaluation of what can we do? Can a man live comfortablywith little if any ill effects for Can he move around, can he work, and that 28 days, and can he do experiments?

was primarily what we did. On the second flight, the_extended this a little Lbit, they got into a little more of how can man be best utilized to work on his own in flight. I _hinklh_ this culminated in the last flight, where Ed Gibson was {tape fades out)...utllization of man, as far as Skylab was concerned, was f._o_ pointed out by Ed Gibson on the last flight. By the end of the mission, when he really knew what was going on with the ATM experiments and based on what he had learned from our flight and the results of the second flight, Al Bean and his crew, and he said there...in quotes, "remained at the panel, looked at the ldisplays, saw the information and data that were coming in from the experiments,

Roll 2 - Page 8 Weitz

and he utilized man's capability to take all this - these inputs and something he may have learned or been exposed to years ago comes into play and you don't realize it I've been told in making_any of these decisions. He put this all

together in a way that no machine could have I think unless potentially it was the machine itself was as large as Skylab. You'd have to build a thinking machine, a computer that knows everything, and a computer only knows as much as the guys that build it and program it an_ay, and he put this all together and actually the ultimate goal in ATM was that Ed picked out a spot on the sun, watched it, was monitoring it, was taking data on it and we got a flare, a full flare, right from its conception, from the birth of the flare, and I think that this is an example of just how much man can do. No machine could have done that.

flowabout (garble) problems...yeah, let's cut...

I mentioned SOl9 - we talked about...we skipped the solar beam - we talked about gyro six-packwhich we didn't do anyway...


Why are Skylab missions so important, Apollo-Gemini mission of the future (??) past and the future together.

Skylab, as it turns out to my way of thinking, is one of the most important spin-ofYs of the Apollo program - we refer often to unexpectedadvantagesor gains in knowledgeof the space p_ogram - the spin-off. And Skylab, I think, is truly one of these. We achiev_our lunar exploration program with less flights than we thought we would, than we had anticipatedyears ago, that left hardware, unused hardware remaining,so how to utilize it? Put it to some good The

advantage, and from this evolved Skylab, and Skylab is an important step in man's long-range, long-term exploration of space toward extended missions. primary purpose of course was originally to determine how does man react in extended periods of weightlessness. For years, we've been looking - NASA, the

medical community - has been looking at the physiological data that has come ,back and the people who have flown spaceflight, and what they have beenlooking for is this magical plateau - some body functions have shown a change, and we've never known until Skylab - has this change ever decreased - does it drop off will you die after a certain number of days in weightlessness, or what happens,


Roll 2 - Page 9 Weitz

and Skylab found this plateau - it turns out that it's right about 28 days, which was when we came back. experiments and stresses. We came back at about the worst time you could, as far as your medical condition is measured by response to certain medical It's opened the door, I think it's shown just how much man can do, given the right equipment and a place to move around, a place to work, we know now we can put extensions of ground-based laboratories in flight. You can liken it to the corporate jet - I think, is that airplanes

have evolved over the years from the l_right Brothers flying machine to the place now where the jet is ...the corporate jet is an extension of the office. Give a man the right accoutrements on the airplane, and he can do anything in the airplane he can do on the ground. of ground-based laboratory. nd information. Okay, good. Okay...(fade, Bill)...real philosophical. The same thing applies to the spacecraft. We can,..not business...but from a scientific point of view - it's an extension We can perform experiments, we can analyze data,,

I think it's a natural question - why explore space? And some peopl: ..\\. different people have different views on this. Personally to my way of thinking, ! on/ part of human nature is to reach out and explore -we cgnting_that -

__t_h__we hadn't, whatwouldthe UnitedStates be now. It would still be concentratedeast of the Appalachians if we hadn't followed Daniel Boone down through the Cumberland Gap, you know, what was West? Indians and vast grassy plains - that's all, and that was no good, but people did. But people did - we advanced west and look what the western part of the The same thing was the acquisition United States is worth to us as a country. of Alaska, for example.

It was looked upon with much debate and hooting, and

it was called Seward's Folly, but I think everyone will agree that Alaska was a bargain - especially the Russians now that they sold it to us - so it's for two things:

it's for what we can use to benefit mankind from a scientific and

a technological point of view, and also I think it's to satisfy man's basic • yearA1ng for exploration and reaching out beyond the confines of his present environment, and the space program - in the space program very few people get to do it, but a lot of people can participate in it vicariously by watching the reports of the space program and reading the results. That enough?

Roll 2 - Page I0 Paul Wei.tz Uh, one other thing...something to cover recovery, and just kind of give me your reactions when you first got out of the command module, how you felt, _hysically and...

IAll right. When we stepped out of the Command Module



deck of the carrier

Jand it wasn't exactly a light springy step out either, because we had been in _an environment of course where we had not been influenced by gravity for 28 days and here we were essentially all of a sudden subjected to it again - and what it waslike to me - subjectively - was just like being on a centrifuge in a 3-G environment, that is where everything - you're living in a gravity that's 3 times as strong as the earth's - everytimeyou tried to move your arm, it felt You had to get For instance, the human neck

like it weighed 3 times as much as you rmembered it weighing. used to again to using muscles you hadn't used.

isAfairly large muscle to primarily hold your head erect. But we hadn't had i to do that for four (?) days, and we found that if for instance you nodded.your !head or tipped your head to one side, it tended to keep on going, because you'd ! forgotten how to go abcut stopping it, and the muscles weren't just as strong as they had been before, and by the same token, when you walked, you tended to overshoot and lurch a little bit._I think that's why in the movies I've seen


in the TV clips that show that you kind of walk spraddle-legged and in a lurching fashion and that's just because you're essentially learning the fine points of walking over again. There was a little...I'm trying to think of the word to

use because we got into a big flap over this before on this orientation, dizziness, vertigo, veu know - they all mean different things to different people, and I certainly want to make sure. I think I won't use any of those words.

Well, let me say something about it - I'm just thinking about...so then I'm gBing to get into the recovery.

Paul Weitz SKYLAB OVERVIEW FILM AV 519 ROLL 3 - WILD SOUND ...and also when...in our first re-exposure to one-G, we found that it's a little... there was a little disorientation whenever you moved your head, and by that I mean that whenever...ifyou moved your head rapidly, up and down, for instance, as in nodding yes or side to side, or that...it wasn't dizziness or certainly wasn't a sickening sensationat all, it was more as I say a disorientationand this sensation, both the...andthis orientationwould stop as soon as you stopped moving your head. It had no lasting effects, it wasn't like getting sick from spinning around in the chair or what have you too much. Now this sensation of disorientationof vestibular, inner ear disorientation,and this heaviness in the limbs kind of went pretty much together as far as their dissipationand disappearance, and the morning of the second day aboard ship, for example, I likened... when we got out of the command module to 3-G environment,the morning of the second day was about 2-G's until it took just about 48 hours for this sensation, in my. case, to disappear, so that by the morning, the second morning aboard ship, was a little more than l-G, I didn't notice that...thedisorientationon head movement anymore, and by noon or early afternoon,I was back completely in a l-G environment. ! That covers it, Paul, unless there's anything else you'd...


No sir, as i say, Sammy gave me that list there last week, and I thought




We launched in November - the workshop was in good condition, operating loop, difficulty which secondary workshop, loop but we did have systems in the very properly. sensitive problems. loop, is a plumbing on a prior proper apparatus with


was an coolant but the some are essential of the

The primary

was malfunctioning, We had experienced gyroscopes and these which gyroscopes

was up and functioning mission attitude

to maintaining

in the vehicle,

original equipment had been replaced by a separate item which had been carried up by the second crew. As far as the physical condition of the workshop itself

when we entered it, it was very clean, there were no problems, just about everything was in the proper position as far as stowage was concerned, and we could not really complain at all about the condition of the workshop when we launched.

Well, as far as working in zero gravity and moving yourself or moving pieces of equipment, it was a delight in comparison to similar work which was conducted in training in one-G on the surface of the earth. two fingers once we got into orbit in zero-gravity. We found, for instance, a It's very easy to move

piece of equipment which weighed 175 Ibs on earth was quite easy to move with

the pieces around, it was remarkably easy to control them, although it was also sort of interesting that an item of equipment, however.light or heavy, it was very difficult to stabilize in open space, so usually ended up with a small velocity, and if you were trying to more or less suspend an object in space while we were preparing something else, it would always have a slight drift velocity to it that you'd have to continually manage it with no big problem, but we found that there were no problems associated with zero-gravity which were very serious.

That required a lot of planning - the problem of stabilizing your own body in zero gravity in order to do useful work is somewhat of a problem.. We of course took full advantage of the triangular grid structure which was throughout the spacecraft, located throughout the spacecraft, and this matched or mated with the triangular cleat on the bottom of our shoes. When we did not have this sort of facility available at a work station, we resorted to either holding with one hand, wrapping our legs around something, or in some cases, once when I was doing a fairly intricate repair task on the coolant

Page 2 - Pogue

loop, I actually took straps and lashed my legs to hand holds so that it would hold my body in the proper position so that I would have a good purchase at the pointTof application of forces. We had one rather interesting experiment which was conducted in what is called a lower body negative pressure device, called LBNP for short, which consisted mainly of sort of a drum or cylindrical container which had a rubber d_aphragm or collar on one end. The crewman was placed with his body in the

cylinder up to his waist, and then during the experiment, the pressure was removed on the lower body, hence the term lower body negative pressure, and this was continually test the astronaut for any cardiovascular problems, that is, any problems with the heart or the plumbing associated with the circulatory system.

The metabolic analyzer was a device which measured the amount of air inspired by crewmen during exercise and the amount of air expired during exercise with the additional added factor that the expired air was analyzed for its chemical constituents to see what kind of actual performance the body was maintaining as far as its ability to process oxygen. We had one experiment which was related to problems of vestibular nature in the crewmen and consisted of a rotated chair, and in this experiment, a crewman was placed in the chair and rotated at a certain rate while at the same time he was rotating, he would perform head movements to see exactly what degree of motion sensitivity had evolved during the flight, and we found almost universally that all of the crewmen demonstrated a remarkable adaptation to rotations, that is, they were very insensitive to the rotational effect, and although they were aware of the tumbling sensation and so forth, there was no nausea or any tendency to get sick. took blood samples periodically throughout the flight, mainly to make 'sure that the blood was maintained at the proper level, and that the body was responding properly to lowered levels of hemoglobin, or red blood cells, to make sure there was not some sort of subtle effect taking place in zerogravity that would leave us more or less open to infection say. was - all these blood samples were returned and theywere The blood

subject to post-


analysis for other things than just the red blood cell count.

Page 3 - Pogue

We had one small which Of course,


onboard small

called items,

a specimen measure there

mass measurement is no weight,

device items. but of

was used to measure in weightlessness

the mass of small

or zero-gravity,

course, the body or small object still has the same mass that it possessed on the surface of the earth. And we used a device to measure this which essentially of this involved mass when it very accurate determinations way. of the period of oscillation

held in a certain

The body mass measurement device was used to determine the weight, if you'll pardon the expression, of a crewman each day. Of course, we can't determine

weight in weightlessness, but we can determine the mass of the body and the mass of a crewman who is located in a device which is free to swing on a very carefully calibrated spring. The period of this spring balance will vary with the mass of the object in the device and of course, this is - has a direct relation to the weight or what is equivalent to earth weight or the mass of the body. This is how we weighed ourselves everyday.

During the course of the flight, we conducted periodic examinations - ear, nose and throat, also the eyes. We had a small amount of eye irritation early in the flight but that cleared up and we were never concerned with it again, but we did have to occasionally look at the ears and throat. After looking at the results from the first two flights, it was rather obvious that the more you exercised, the better off you were in spaceflight, so we cooperated fully - in fact, very willingly, in increasing the exercise regimen onboard our flight. We increased it from - well first, there was 30

minutes a day roughly per crewman for the first flight, an hour a day per crewman on the second flight, and we resolved to use an hour and a half per day per crewman for exercise. We did this and used an additional device, which was not used in the previous flights, which was called a treadmill, and this enabled us to exercise the lower legs, the calves, and the large muscles of the thighs to the extent they were not exercised on previous flights. This together with the fact that we followed this regimen very

religiously, we feel this is responsible for our good conditon upon return.

Page 4 - Pogue

We feel like that a crew could probably stay up for a longer period than We did if we followed an exercise regimen similar to the one we followed. However, it was my own personal feeling that zero gravity sort of permits a detrimental effect to set in. I personally think that long duration say on the order of six months to a year - long duration missions should require some sort of artificial gravity.

Of course, the medical experiments onboard Skylab were a natural outgrowth In many cases from the medical experiments conducted on Mercury, Gemini and Apollo flights. Skylab. Uh, for an example, the bone demineralization problem or

speculation was very carefully examined on the long duration flights in Very simply stated, one asked the question, "Do you lose an irrecoverable amount of calcium or phosphorus or some other mineral from the bone on a long duration spaceflight?" looked at the data. The answer appears to be, "No, you do not."

Tb_s question was not fully resolved until our flight got back, and they Now the other - many of the other medical experiments But I think that what you have is quite naturally follow and sort of expansions of examinations in Mercury and Apollo - some of them are quite new.

a developmental larea of expertise and knowledge and you would just naturally expect for the medical experiments to become just a little bit more grandiose as you go along.

One of the added bonuses on our flight was the scheduled appearance of the Comet Kohoutek during our flight. 1973... The comet was observed early in February

In February 1973, an observation was made of a new comet which was entering our solar system out near the planet Jupiter, and the discovery was made by a gentleman in Germany named Kohoutek. There were several things more or less unique about this comet - one, it was observed very early out in the solar system so that they had a good chance to track it and determine the path it was actually going to take. Another was it appeared to be very bright In

according to cometary standards, and third, there was a unique opportunity to martial a lot of forces to get correlated observations of the comet. addition to having an unmanned observatory in orbit which could conduct some observations, we were scheduled to have our last Skylab flight up there

Page 5 - Pogue

in just about the period of time that the comet would come closest to the sun, and it gave us a lot of time to get everybody geared up so that we could coordinate observations. This we did, and there was a plan called

Operation Kohoutek which did coordinate'all these efforts. We were very pleased to be able to participate in the program. Now the comet did not achieve the brightness - the degree of brightness which had been originally forecast, and it was considered more or less a disappointment to a lot of people on the ground. I think also some bad weather in the United States

helped that, but from the scientific standpoint, it was a I suppose quite a _uccess, because they had a lot of data that they had not gotten before, they were able to observe the comet in the kind of high-energy light which _s not ordinarily possible because earth-based observatories and observations are shielded by our atmosphere which prevents a lot of very useful data from coming through. We started our observations in the last week in November, we first sited it by the unaided eye the first week in December. We were taring pictures with handheld camera_, with certain astrophysics devices cameras, devices we had onboard - astronomical-type cameras, we were making observations with several of the solar telescopes which were a part of the Apollo Telescope I_unt, the large solar observatory, and we also were taking pictures with a brand new camera which we especially took up to look at Kohoutek. This was called an electronographic camera, and we took pictures with the electronographic camera from inside the vehicle, and we also took p_ctures from outside the vehicle on EVA during two occasions, one of which was Christmas Day, and it was sort of interesting because we actually maneuvered the vehicle around and used one of our solar pauels to shileld the sun because thecomet was very close to the sun. We used the solar panel

to shield the sun while we aimed the camera sort of by guess and by golly in the area where the comet was supposed to be and then took pictures and later on, ,in fact, just after Christmas when the comet got just a little further from the sun, we were able to see it by unaided eye while out on EVA. They're very pleased with them. If you look at the photographs, of course,

they don't look very impressive, but the thing is, you're registering a response in the spectral region around IO00 Angstroms which is well down in UV - this isn't - you can't get that kind of picture from an earth-based

Page 5 - Pogue observatory, so also apparently the photometric data is good. They're able

to take dissections, just on light intensity, shaded gray intensity, with the plates and they - by doing these false-coloring, color-coded slices, they're able to come up with some very intersting pictures, and they are able of course to see the hydrogen cloud, among other things that are associated with a comet which they couldn't see before, because these particular spectral lines are concealed or filtered out by the earth's atmoshpere.

Thornton Page is the guy that you ought to call - tell him that you want that, I guess, color-dissected- I don't know if that's the right _ord to use or not - that you want to use the - see the picture of Kohoutek taken on Christmas Day whichhas been color coded. He'll know what you mean.

He came to the office one day and showed it to me - I'd taken the shot. I think I'd also add on an additional approach, but...

Well, we feel the Skylab observations are important to science because this is the First time we've ever been able to take long-term synoptic, that _s, sort of historical sequential photographs of the sun in ultraviolet light and in the x-ray light becauge the earth's atmosphere filteres all these rays out. We can't see any sort of x-ray evidence or any ultraviolet and the outerevidence if we look at the sun from the surface of the earth, So there's a lot of information that would be revealing about the innemost

most reactions and processes in the sun which we can't see from the surface of the ear, but which we can see from orbit, and these instruments are all designed to record this data. They've done so - they've done it over an

extended period of time, just to give you one example - of course, some of " these x-ray and ultravioletphotographswhich were taken werecompletelyunder unavailable,but one example is, the photographstaken withthe white light coronographof the sun's outer atmosphereor corona. Now this is a very _nterest_ng feature of the sun - it's not really very well understood because tbeytre really very many interestingprocesses in energy transfers that take place which, if understood,would immeasurableincrease our ability to understand the thermonuclearprocesses on the sun. Very much of interest to atomic, nuclear and plasma particle-typephysicists. Up until the time Skylab -

Page 7 - Pogue

the sum total accumulated time duration of coronagraph or corona photographs consisted of something like eight minutes, and that's all we had since the time people have been taking photographs of the sun which would have been in the 19th century up to date. Well, you can compare the eight minutes to the amount - number of observations that we got in one pass in Skylab which of course was exposure time and in roughly 50 minutes. So, just one orbit in

Skylab - we completely leap-frogged all the photographs that we had taken and the evidence that we had taken at the time of Skylab.

Well, the benefits that mankind can derive from the solar studies, of course, tt probably could be broken down into several categories,one of which of course is that man is increasing his basic understanding nature, natural processes, and phenomena. and understanding. The long-term practical advantages from making

the solar studies will probably rapidly accrue in the area of energy management I think that certainly whether one accepts the desirability

of having nuclear power plants or not, if you were told that you could perfect or produce a power plant which had no harmful effects at all, was in no way going to pollute the atmosphere or environment, but which could be operated cheaply and economically over a long-period of time and which required very l_ttle maintenance and personal attention, then you would agree that this would be a good thing to have and if the proper waderstandingof the solar _rocesses can lead to the generation of such a power producing plant, I think that the whole idea of problems, shortages of energy, or if you are going to call it an energy crisis, I think that this whole area is going to reap enormous benefits, both in a short term and in a long term, based upon our solar observations.

The UV stellar astronomy studies were conductedwith a small telescope designed by one of the astronauts, Dr. Carl Henize. The primary purpose of that experiment is to examine certain very hot stars in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. A sort of bonus, too, with Carl's experimentwas the fact that we would also be able to study some of the instellargas and dust which was between us and the star. The unique part about Carl's experiment was that we'll be able to examine these stars in a spectral region which was impossible to do from the surface of the earth.

Page 8 - Pogue

The UV panorama experiment, very closely related to the UV stellar experiment, I think that probably the main difference was that it was slightly more sophisticated instrument that came along a little later, once again will enable us to do very sophisticated spectrographic studies of some of the more interesting stellar objects in our own galaxy and actually studies of other galaxies, as well as intervening dust and matter and gas in space. The UV horizon airglow was a very interestingly conceived experiment in that We were trying to observe some peculiar and poorly understood phenomena in our upper atmosphere.. There are layers of oxygen and ozone and other gases high in our atmospherewhich give off peculiar rediationwhen they are subjected to intense radiation from the sun, or just normal sunlight as far as tbeytre concerned. So we wo_Id like to understand just exactly how they Again, we can't tell from the surreact to this stimulation from sunlight.

face of the earth just exactly how the ozone or oxygen or whatever gas it is" ilsreacting to or responding to this solar stimulation from the surface of __ the earth. We can't see it from the surface of the earth so we look at it from Skylab.

Earth resources provided us with the opportunity to conduct surveys with photographic cameras and other types of imaging devices which enabled us to analyze and more or less take inventory on large areas of the earth's surface which lay in food producing areas. One typical example would be the salt verde water shed area in central Arizona, and of course, somewhat different from that, but related in the long run, would be the photographic coverage of an item such as the FaulklandCurrent which runs along the east coast of South America. Quite briefly, if one can properly track the current and observe and detect areas of plankton blooming, then one can also tell fishermenwhere large catches can occur. The plankton is sort of the bread of the sea, and ._t starts the life cycle in the sea, and if you can track the plankton,you can track the smaller fishes which will attract the larger fishes wi_ich will attract the larger fishes, the food fishes, which are good for commercial people. o. Areas as diverse as taking a look at water or say one of our desert areas, -which is a very intensely top-rated agriculturalarea will all provide help insofar as proper managing the earth's foodstuffs, food supply.

Page 9 - Pogue

Earth resources provides us with a good capability for analyzing the areas for energy needs, energy capabilities or possible certain natural resources which are good for providing energy. For instance, if you can locate deposits One of the more of oil, or coal, from orbit, that would ,be a good idea.

interesting things though howver is the application of our earth resources package for canvassing for geo-...potential the earth and using that to generate power. geothermal sources of energy. The nice thing about that is

Now very simply, geothermal energy is taking the heat from the interior of it's nonpolluting, it does not in any way deplete the fossil fuel supply _bich should be used very judiciously or very carefully for very carefully Selected applications of energy, and it should be in the long run a sort of self-sustaining and very economical. We conducted a geothermal survey all down r guess it was the west coast of Italy. We also examined data of the United States and the central plains area of the United States for possible sources of geothermalenergy. Geothermalenergy is used in the San Francisco area, for instance, for generating power.

Geothermal - that is, potential sources of geothermal energy do not show up on a photograph in a way that is very easily recognizeable. we d_d notice that was recognizeable was snow melt patterns. One thing Now this is

something you can see with the eye, as an example of how a human operator cold recognize a possible source of geothermal energy. We noticed a very suspicious area just to the northeast of the Black Hills of South Dakota. We noted that after a heavy snowfall, this particular area melted faster. Okay, that's one way you can notice it just with the eyeball. We also had

some very sophisticated sensors which generate an image very similar to the way at,elevisiongenerates an image, and these have to be very, very caret fully analyzed by experts in order to recognizepossible sources of geothermal energy.

Lake Superior, the Rio de la Plata, and Red Tide, okay, I'II mention those. During the course of our earth resources studies, we were able to identify sources of water pollution which will enable people to better managetheir own equipment in industries and also enable people to take action in case people aren't responsive in that area. Just to give a few examples, we noticed in the northwestern tip of Lake Superior a rather significant area

Page I0 - Pogue of water pollution which was occurring as a result of mining operations and smelting operations on iron ore. This was near the city of Deluth. Also, it was rather significant that we should point out that Mother Nature does her own share of polluting the waters. We have some fairly striking

photographs of the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, which is between Uraguay and Argentina, Monte Vidao on the north and Buenos Aires on the south, and there were certain times when the whole bay just filled up with sediment. I don't know whether this is good or bad, but certainly it wasn't what you would call nice clear water and was an example of sediment moving from well _nland out into the ocean, and associated very closely in space with the mouth o_ the Rio de la Plata when it was heavily polluted and probably in no way related was the registration and the pictures taken of a large area of red tide, again with Mother Nature doing some polluting on her own. Now if _e can locate these areas of red tide regularly and on a systematic basis, it would certainly help fishermen, because the red tide is thought to poiso: shellfish and wreak havoc with the fishing industry in general, and the a_rbore aerosols generated by this red tide are thought to cause respiratory ailments in humans. Now

Some of our observatons related to earth resources in the area of air pollution varied from the very careful observation of volcanic plumes to the actual photographs of large metropolitan areas which had pollution problems, say Los Angeles, New York City area. The volcano we studied was the volcano in the southern island Kyusu in Japan called Sucoorezema, I think is the way it's pronounced, and the significant thing about some of our photographs was that it illustrated for the first time the mix between the trophispheric-born gas or aerosol, that is in the lower level of the atmosphere, and that mixed into the stratosphere which is the uppper layer of our atmosphere which is consideredvery critical to long-term studies of air pollution, and of course, the studies of the metropolitan areas were of interest simply to indicate the gross extent of the problem. Another thing that of course was of interest to us was to notice the extent to which large dust storms in Africa are _pread out. We noticed a couple of times some rather large dust storms one time _ne of them was a goodlSO0 miles long, another dust storm we noticed and recorded on Our earth resources imagery and filmwas a large dust storm

moving off the east coast - correction - the west coast of Maritania, and

Page II

- Pogue

this During for


has been tracked resources

as far

west as the Carribean we did concentrate techniques verde interest supply, sort for

area and the Antilles. on several managing in northern areas and

our earth



purposes One specific Quite Arizona.

of trying a large

to develop agricultural to indicate shed tha_ resources

our water

resources. central around

area was the salt Water is in critical

watershed exists

Arizona. Phoenix, in this

in the valleys several and words, which trends In other activity

and we took

photographs snow cover, sort was related on conducting determine the water _n that, it's not

area to try

of seasonal

the amount of water a water to managing what we could was tied our water tell

they can expect. more general was the emphasis we could tell

of conducting

inventory. In general,


in concentration to do was to how much of in involved how much Well, you area.

snow surveys.

what we were trying in the mountains, how can you tell say just

and how accurately

up _n our snow cover to give

particularly exactly

the Rockies,

and just

you an example of one of the problems you'd look at the picture.

is nne, you asked the question, always that simple you're will because trying

area is covered by snow,and well, conceal the snow so if


the shadows in

the valleys.

to make the computer and interpret so we're which layer, studies related using pattern

do the work for a shadow as being in that

you ...maybe no snow, or it

the computer

be confused by cloud resources is directly accurately pattern is drainage

may be confused in our earth which quite runoff

working was related

One of the areas conservation, that exactly another green

to water was just

of course to tell

to water certain area. Florida,

management, of films Or to say it

we are able


what the water

in a given

way, what is the actual swamp. This particular story short,

in an area.

One specific called by real the estate low. of satis-

area of interest investors the attorney the .... litigation, with gether faction provide with

is an area to the west of Orlando, area was going and was located although took these

to be developed people

and speculators general certain for

in an area which was fairly were well and in the from Skylab, this litigation so it course to the

Now to make a long

intentioned, was used to-

of Florida

them to court, in particular, to settle

a space photograph area photographs people of to live,

of both parties. places

They not only

were able to develop

the area and was compatible

but they would do it


the environment.

Page 12 - Pogue

During the course of our earth resources investigation, we were also encouraged to look for and examine fault lines. One fault line, or what One fault that we a fault is is a big crack in the surface of the earth.

examined that was of considerableinterest was the large African Riff Zone Which extends all the way from Lake Victoria in South Central Africa up to the Dead Sea in the Middle East, so it goes righton up through the eastern portion of Africa into the Gulf of Agaba and into the Palestine area. in continental drift. This is consfdered to be of considerable interest to people who are interested

I'II concentrateon the gross and the microscopic. One is the occurrence of the large storms outside of equatorial regions which are of considerable interest because of the localized damaging effect they have, and the other is the influence that man can have in generating local weather conditions.

During the earth resources observations in the area of meteorology, we had an opportunity to cover a rather rare event insofar as meteorological occurrences were concerned in that we were able tophotograph and record with our sensors a large, so-called extra-tropical cyclone in the north Atlantic. This was a very rare occurrence and provided us with a unique opportunity and we got very good coverage. We're quite proud of it, as it's of particular One - it's very rare, and secondly, Also ocean _nterest to meteorologists for two reasons.

when these things do occur, they usually wreak havoc, in this case, in western Europe they had some rather severe weather out of it. traffic was very seriously affected.

Going from the large areas to the ver_/ I say small scale because

small areas, we also used earth resources investigations to examine very small-scale effects that man has on the weather. locally, they may be actually quite large in their effect, and just to give you a brief example, we have photographs which show certain areas of heating apparently where heating is taking place, say in the city of Toronto, causing the generationof a cloud which subsequentlycauses a fairly large snowfall to occur in the city of Rochester, New York. Now this is just registered in one photograph. We have other cases of this where it occurs across the Great Lakes and other areas.

Page 13 - Pogue £'ye got one_hi_ Obviously not _ call _y StFeak_ng P_otograph produced, one streak, like it's because all being lowa. therels It's a streak of snow.

naturally just looks goes all

a snowfall, by the city of Lincoln

a snow pattern, on the of Lincoln, to well is primarily

and then there's the map, and it Nebraska. a handheld During examined free period size. collide people interest raindrop the It

by itself, generated the east

and I got to checking

the way from just

South and East of Des Moines, photograph. course of conducting interesting area concerned, how they of fluid

So, you never

know, and this

some of cour and very this pleasant involved thrust dynamics,

so-called to do for forming

science mechanics, large

demonstrations we in a " and so far or upset or

which were quite a general as I was personally

the crew,

or fluid

drops of water to determine bubbles to in

space and seeing disturbed. of oscillation Of interest in that Free space.

behaved when they of this size, of given

weme jiggled was trying


The primary of a bubble also was exactly

or a drop of water Do they It's place

a given

what happens when two of these each other? and this mechanics. that takes

Do they bounce off in dynamics of fluid

coalesce? also of

Turns out

_oth things

happen on occasion,

was of interest

who are nterested td people formation

- by the way, to meteorologi6ts and the actual mechanism some of the people experiments two atoms, lot

who are interested in the will

in thunderstorms. dynamics because are attracted One of the other to to creates was hours form a of they

And strangely - in very very rotate. get these fluid


were interested - wre atomic space colliding

mechanics model for effects

physicists which these.

were - apparently good analogue interesting or coll_de

two drops of water

in free

or two nuclei

- so we had an awful In rotating apart

of fun in doing to get a bubble again, one quite is in motion,

was trying

or a drop of water accidentally and this It sequence. took four and we were able physicists.

a arop of water under their intriguing

a model of the nucleus drops to fly considered to be quite

of an atom which

own centrifugal and significant was frustrating.

force, to atomic

That was awful one day - four wreck when thet

hard to do - man, that and a half was over.

hours to get a 25 minute

Was a nervous

page 14 - Pogue i Re: Gypsy Moth did understand it. What we were told to do would was - they with put wanted to sterile these actually in

Uh, I never know if offspring, create a colony solve zero


would some way cause the eggs to hatch breeding mate so that do it they could

and what they would try some kind and sort could of sterile

be to somehow or another

of zap the gypsy moths with see how you could - l'm sure there


of their I told

own kind, you.

and I never

on a scale

which would

the problem

was more to it


The large internal volume of Skylab provided us with a unique opportunity to test and evaluate a device called the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit. Now Now this is really a small spacecraft which you sort of strap on your back. the _ which we used was not designed for work outside the spacecraft,

although the - implication is that such a device wouldbe ultimately used outside and to do useful work outside the vehicle, in say in terms of performing repairs or actually constructing and assembling a space station. We did perform an evaluation of this - it's looking good, and there were several recommendations have been made Which we consider valuable in terms of leading to a better design.

As far as sleeping in Skylab, or in zero gravity in general is concerned, there was no problem. We slept in a sleeping bag-like device which had

straps across it at certain distances and which could be tightened to give one sort of a snugness and a feeling of being in bed. We also had a small strap to pull down over our forehead, but once you were in the sleeping bag and all snugged up, so to speak, you felt like - it was very close to what you feel like in bed in one-G or in earth, so that was no problem. I had very little sleeping, and the only trouble I did have could be attributed to factors other than the sleeping device itself. 6_2hours sleep a night on the average. We got about In fact,

_ood and o_g_nally

water on Skylab of course were all onboard when the workshop was launched. We had a prepared diet which rotated on a six-day

cycle. In other words, we ate the same food starting - in speciallydesigned menus - starting every six days. Water, of course, was available for just Freeze-dried dr%nking purposes, as water, or it was available for reconstituting certain types of foodstuffs, which were called freeze-dried foods.

Page 15 - Pogue food required water for the reconstitution. The food, in general, was of excellent quality, although all of us got tired of it after a period df t_me and would like to have been able to sort of inject a little random variety. The food was actually prepared in a food tray which was located It consisted

near the food preparation, or on the food preparation table.

of small cavities which wre placed the food items for the meal which was going to be eaten. This provided easy access and also helped to hold the

food down while you were eating say several different items at the same tilme.

Personal hygiene was not too much of a problem, although we found in general that washing or going to the bathroom took quite a bit of time. You more or less allowed yourself this time, so we didn't - after we became accustomed to the procedures that were involved with whatever we were doing, this didn't presant too much of a problem, but we did have to allow time for it.

One of the personal hygiene tasks which was more difficult than we had thought that it would be was shaving. : It's difficult to wash the razor,

it's difficult to kee_ the blade clean so that you have a nice sharp cutting edge that's not all clogged up with the whiskers. Because of the problem we had with shaving, Jerry and I both decided to grow beards which we did, and found that it was quite a time-saver, and usually only needed to take say only 15 minutes every three days to sort of shave the neck and then just let the rest of it go.

Generally, housekeeping was not too much of a problem.

Housekeeping in

general required periodic cleaning and cleaning with a hygienic solution. Certain areas - the areas where we kept our food - we had places where we put waste cans of food. This area got a bit messy and we had to clean that up quite reqularly, and we would also clean the area in the food in the general area of the food preparation table or in our wardroom because food spills and food spatters occurred occasionally but regularly. All loose - as far as items - managing housekeeping items, everything tends to float This around in zero gravity problem, and have places and come loose for if you don't stowage tie it down. to you is not a big but you do have to sort provided temporary of take measures otherwise

stow things

Page 16 - Pogue have a cabin a large full of items of items sort of floating which around in the air. or thrown We collected away - we and this

bag full

which were to be discarddd was called of taking was located items

would put them away in a device essent%ally it It gave us the capability waste can which part an integral afraid we would

the trash


a bag of trash under the orbiting booster.

and throwing workshop. was an This

_nto a large was actually l'm

of the original and if

excellent airlock,

way of disposing

of these

we had not had the trash in every corner.

have had trash


One of our most pleasant offduty activities actually was looking out the window. _le of course engaged in all kinds of physical activity insofar as

moving around, tumbling about, running in certain areas where we could generate enough centrifugal force to keep our feet down, but by and large, the thing that gave us the most fun was actually looking down at the surface of the earth, looking at the map sort of seeing where we were, trying to notice new things, new interesting things, and taking photographs of these areas, which we did. _we took close to 1800 handheld photographs of the surface of the earth, and this is considered to be quite an added bonus to the earth resources observations taken by the remote operating cameras. Again this was - we considered this a delight and a pleasure instead of a piece of work to do.

On long duration flights, I should add by the way, insofar as our recreation, we did some reading, we also had tape recordings which we used quite extensively. time. We used them during our exercise periods and during our offduty So far as for long duration space

This was very pleasant to have.

flights, I think that a specially designed earth observatory, sort of both for work and for recreation, would really be a pleasant addition to the facility onboard. This would provide you with the capability of making good data for the some rather detailed observations and alsoprovide people on the ground.

During our extravehicular activity, sometimes called an EVA or more generally known as a spacewalk, we not only took observations of a scientific nature, we also replaced film and repaired cameras in some cases, but we also did some hardware repairs, too. On the first EVA in which I participated, we

Page 17 - Pogue

repaired information in fact, taking to take and it but it's

one of t_Elarge about the total itself the

earth resources of the which lot earth. could of fun. several about 6½ hours,

antennae which was providing This not required several inside. it's hours The EVA always is space, a very full nice you day, but at the same time, be taken Of course, hours to get you're we were

surface too,

EVA took

some photographs, a walk takes well outdoors,

or spacewalk

is an awful and it hours the effort. It, s very up that twice

but of course, takes to clean

in order

to do this so it's almost

have to get prepared, several worth beauty

ready to go outside,

up afterwards, - it's

You get out, impressive of the earth

able to see much larger impossible to describe so we look out

areas of the earth. the physical possible forward twice socalled when you're to this myself...l

of the surface high

and the panorama that's of the earth, Now I was only

above the surface

as sort was out

of an unforgettable on


on EVA, once on Thanksgiving my first earth

Day and once on of the antennae, and the

Chr%stmas Day.

The main activity which

EVA was the repair resources there

S192 antenna

was one of our large Day, the

and on the second EVA on Christmas

prime activity

prime interest at least was in getting photographs of the comet Kohoutek which was very close to the sun at that time andcould only be seen from Skylab, or at least from orbit. Of course, on the Christmas Day EVA, we also repaired one of the major telescopes in the Apollo Telescope Mount. Generally speaking, the EVA or spacewalk is very pleasant, and enjoyable. There really is I don't think too much competition now between socalled unmanned spaceflight and manned spaceflight. In fact, I think now we've Some of this matured to the point where we're doing space exploration.

space exploration can be better done by a piece of automated equipment, that is to say, an unmanned satellite. be made by human observer. Some of the o_her observations can only

If you are looking for data which can be highly If you're trying to actually probe

categorized and characterized prior to observations, then certainly I think an automated satellite is the answer.

mysteries, if you're looking for new things, if you're looking for things that you're not aware of before the flight, then there's no substitute for -the human observer, much better capability Just than a human eye. the eye. than In fact, camera, in many respects, of things the human eye has were and in certain a couple ways a camera is better which we saw which


Page 18 - Pogue

unknown prior to flight, the extent and visibility of the Faulkland Current was not at all appreciated at all prior to our flight. Neither was our - the area of the current near New Zealand and the South Pacific. on our flight. There were large areas of red tides which were observed for the first time by human observers This was not only on the east coast of South America, but Certain very peculiar meteorological

also on the west coast of Central America.

patterns were also observed by the eye which had never been recorded on any of our weather satellites, and we had excellent weather satellites in orbit. So all things considered, we need both manned and unmanned, and did I say I think we've matured to the point now where we're just doing space exploration and we use the best thing available for the task at hand.

Well, I think that Skylab is an important link between past and future m_ssions. It sort of occupies a 6ignificant sort of crossover point. First

spacefligh_s which were very short in duration were merely to prove that you could actually get a man up and bring him down. You weren,t really concerned

W_th whether or not he could do anything useful - just that you could accomplish that task. Then as we developed that capability, we asked more and more of the system - that is, the man doing more work, the system providing more capability for the man to do more work. Also, as we kept a man up for

longer periods of time, we asked questions about man's surviveability himself, how long can he actually stay up there, and we sort of feel like Skylab is giving us answers in several areas and indicated directions to go, in other areas. We've answered questions that were raised on Mercury and Gemini, how long can a man stay up, does he approach irreversible points in his physiology, that is to say, can you send him up for two weeks and no longer, is he going to be really safe - well, we put a lot of these bugaboos to bed, so we've established man's presence in space. Also, we have operated very extensive and complex equipment in Skylab and established that this is a viable operation and that you can do it - it will provide good data, in fact, excellent data, and that we have indicated we - we have learned from Skylab exactly what features are best, what features to avoid in the way of designing say a spacecraft or space station itself, or even certain pieces of scientific equTpment. So we have sort of inherited certain things from the past, developed on them and now we have sort of indicated the directions to go in the future.

Page 19 - Pogue

In fact, provides ...cut.

projecting us with

on from Skylab, an immense capability

we see Shuttle to take large

coming along

which or

space stations

Projecting and wilth
C "

on from Skylab, the Shuttle the

we see coming capability
. ft

over the


the Shuttle, for the

to take

u_ large


onstru,_tlon of a.... . sp__ace.s_tlon A space lab itself is presently con/_eived, it will provide us with a capability which grows on Skylab, expands_ on and I Skylab provides us with an enormous capability to conduct research

Well, that

I believe ultimately


space exploration



to mankind reasons,


many and


You could of all

l'm sure document many material exploration is self-discovery.

but I think

what you have - you have man involved

in exploration,

the end result



Jack Lousma "SKYLAB - THE VITAL LINK" AV 519

The twin pole sunshade was erected on our flight during the first spacewalk. The purpose, of course, was to shelter the spacecraft from the heat of the sun. The first crew had put up temporary parasol, as we called it, which was a gold foil material, and the engineers were a little concerned that it might not last

for the entire mission, so on our flight, we put up the twin-pole sunshade,
and it took about three hours to put this sunshade up. Basically,it consisted of two long poles which were fastened to a base plate at the foot of where I was standing. Owen Garriott put these poles together. Each pole had II five-foot

sections and with a clothesline attached. When he got them together, then I would rotate them together 90 degrees and place them in their base plate, extend it in a V_fashion out over the spacecraft, and when they were finally constructed, We attached the sail to the clothesline on the poles and kind of ran the sunshade up the pole like you would run the flag up the pole and lowered it down over'the critical area in the workshop, which we wanted to shelter from the sun, and we laid it down over the parasol, and when it was in this position, it was then secured by means of ropes through other places on the spacecraft and held very securely in place, and it did the job very well. The temperatures within the spacecraft although they had been fairly comfortable from the use of the parasol, lowered further a few degrees to make it more stable inside the workshop and more comfortable than had a lasting sunshade. We practiced putting a sunshade up in the water tank prior to the flight. I think we practiced it two times in the water tank in Huntsville,Alabama, and we were able to understand the problems of putting it up and further refine the proceduresfor doing so, and I think the direction ofthe twin-pole sunshade was one of the highlightsof the flight as far as I was concerned. Zero-gravityis a very pleasant, comfortable,enjoyable sensation. I think everyone would enjoy it. The only time it became an annoyancewas when we wanted to fasten ourselves in some location and were unable to hold on to something, and this was very seldom. Basically,zero gravity is a very pleasant sensation. Zero gravity is a very pleasant, enjoyable,comfortable,relaxing environment. It's very easy to move very large objects around. You could take a piano by one hand and suspend it in the middle Of the room. Objects that weigh very much on earth could be moved very easily up there. I guess

LOUSMA Page 2 you could liken it to relaxing in a swimming pool, below the surface but yet not touching the bottom. Just completely relaxing yourself and simulate the feeling that you experience in zero gravity. We train for zero gravity by

Working in the neutral buoyancy tank or the water tank at Huntsville, Alabama. The only time that zero gravity was ever an annoyance was when we were trying to fasten ourselves down or stabilize ourselves in some position to work on a Piece of equipment, but it _tasvery seldom that we had any difficulty at all stabiilizing ourselves, so zero gravity is an experience that everyone I think Would enjoy. Usually when we went from one place to another in the space We did flips, and...I'm sorry, have to start that one station, we did tumbles. Oyer again.

Whenever we went from one place to another in the workshop, of course, we floated, and after ten days in flight, it seemed just as instinctive and just as natural to float somewhere as it was to say walk on earth, as we know it now. Normally when we went from one place to another, we liked to do some flips, or _mble in the air. We could arrive at a position on the other side of the Spacecraft in exactly the right orientation by either tuoking our legs and arms _n and sp_nning rapidly like a figure skater, or spreading our arms and legs out and slowing down so that we just instinctively arrived at the place in the right attitude like a cat landing on his feet.

We used the lower body negative pressure device to test or to simulate one gravity. Normaliy_ when we're standing on earth, the blood flows down on our legs andis d_stributed differently in our body than it is in zero-G. In zero-G, your blood In order

does not go down into your legs as readily as it does when you're standing up here unless it tends ...and thus it tends to pool in your abdomen area. to compare what was happening to our cardiovascular system in flight with the way it's performed on the ground, we had a device known as the lower body negative pressure, into which we inserted our lower bodies and were able to seal it around ti_ waist, and then a slight vacuum was pulled inside this tank to permit - to cause the blood to flow from our upper extremities into our legs, thus simulating the same blood distribution Qp there as we have down here in this condition... and in this condition, our cardiovascular system was measured by checking our /_ heart and our response to this kind of a stress over about a 15 minute period, and we did this three times a day...maybe I should start over again. We did

LOUSMA Page 3.

this three times...we did this experiment every three days so that the doctors could monitor the changes in our cardiovascular system over the entire flight. The doctors also wanted to check the changes within the pulmonary system, the lung breathing apparatus over flight and see what changes had occurred. to dtermine their change. To do

this, we had a device which measured the exhaled air, measured the inhaled air, This was known as the metabolic analyzer, so every third day, we performed an experiment in which we rode the ergometer, or the bicycle, at very high work loads, thus causing us to breathe very rapidly, and our exhaled breath was measured for carbon dioxide and water content, nitrogen, O_ygen and so forth, just to see how this air exchange mechanism within the ; lung was performing and how it was changing, if at all, during the period =of the flight.


considered importantto check the response of the vestibularsystem_ k _ I

f OF the little balanci,g system within the inner ear during long-term space / flight, and we did this by means of a rotating chair. Now normally, when you _ i _it in this chair and rotate on the earth and move your head, it doesn't _ake

_yery__ long before you experience motion sickness. However, up there, we noticed/ _hat after we were there a few days, it was possible to siu in this chair and / r_tate almost all day long, with no sensationwhatever of motion sickness at /

all. However, after returningto earth, we noticed that we returned to our // normal level, so there is a phenomena that occurs within the inner ear and_j vestib_ _-s ing investigatedat this time._We-knnowt_at _ _=during spaceflight,the blood system has several changes which are undergone... We know that during spaceflight, the blood system undergoes several changes. We wanted to study these as well, so every few days, we sampled each other's blood by, as you might in a doctor's office, by getting out the syringe and filling it with blood, but then we wanted to separate its various components _.ntod_fferent parts within the little container and we put it in a centrifuge to separate out the components of blood in which the doctors were most interested, and we froze the sample in that condition and brought it back to earth for analysis.


Upon the recommendation of the first crew, we increased our daily exercise, and we exercised muscles that they didn't have the equipment to exercise. NOrmally, our daily exercise routine was to ride approximately 30 or 40 minutes on the ergometer or bicycle at differing workloads so that we would be able to exercise our lungs, our heart and our pulmonary system. devices. In addition to that, we spent an extra 20 to 30 minutes approximately using muscular exercise One additional exercising device that we took on our flight was the

friction type of Wheel which permitted us to pull on a cord and adjust the level at which we might pull to exercise our legs and our upper body. And our arms with. We also b_d some other spring type of devices that were able to exercise our upper body We found that the exercise made us feel better, we were gore efficient and that we stayed in better shape for longer periods of time, and as a result of our flight, the following crew decided to spend more time in exercise in flight, and they also took an additional type of device to perform this exercise. we have found in spaceflight that man changes physiologically while he's in space , and up until Skylab, of course, our longest flight had been about 14 days. With our first flight, we doubled that to 28, the second flight, the one which I was on, went even more than double that, and the final flight, of course, was 85 days. Up until this _ime, the medical aspects of spaceflight

bad not been...oh, I better not talk about that.

From our Gemini and Apollo experiences, it became clear that we were going to have to know more about man and his physiological response to spaceflight, if we were going to go for longer and longer periods of time, and so Skylab was a step in that direction, to determine what happens to man's body while he's in space. Although I don't believe we're ready to jump off on a year and a half _ss_on at this time, Skylab experience has been the first stepping stone.

From our Gemini and Apollo experience, ti became clear that if we were going to go on for longer and longer missions in space, which hopefully we will do, it became clear that we were going to have to know more about man, his physiological _ response to spaceflight, so this is what we attempted to do on Skylab, and we had some very thorough medical experiments to determine this response physiologi-

LouSMA Psae 5

cally in long-term flight, and although we're not ready at this time I think medically to go for a flight which is a year and a half in duration, I am confident that we've taken the initial steps in that direction and that the Skylab information will go a long way toward helping us to understand how man will respond to longer and longer flights as time goes on. On Skylab, we looked

On Skylab, we looked at the sun in a way that we've never done before.

We had

several telescopes which operated in various wavelengths, which the eye is not able to see in. We looked at the sun in the x-ray wavelengths, ultraviolet wavelengths and several other wavelengths and took photographic data on the phenomena that were occuring on the sun. We were able to point our instruments

yery_ very precisely at the specific feature of interest on the sun's surface. _e_ye been observing the sun for many years from the earth, except there's relatively little known about what makes it operate or perform the way it does. Of course, we know, that when we're on the earth, the atmosphere absorbs or blots out much of the information that comes from the sun, and it's a good thing it does, because much of this information is very high-energy radiation that would f_v us to a crisp_in a moment. But that information is what is needed to understand the sun better and you can see that up above the atmosphere --i._space, e're able to get an unobstructed view of the sun and to get I00% of w the information that comes from it, thus permitting us to know more about it and understand its function better.

We're all well aware of the fact that the sun controls our climate and our environment, and so the more we know about its interreaction with the earth and _ts environment,the more we will know about the world in which we live, and so to know about the sun is important from that standpoint. On the other

hand, we might also determine some new types of energy process, or some new type of mechanical phenomena that we can put to good advantage here on Earth, which is currently unknown.

LOUSMA Page 6 We had a variety of experiments onboard the Skylab which were known as the earth resources experiments.(The purpose of these experiments was to look at the various resources on the earth - agrdculture, forestry, oceanography, meteorology, pollution, minerology, population growth, all of those types of th_ngs and many more are earth resources-related_ We had a battery of cameras that was able to take simultaneous pictures in six different wavelengths to highlight the particular resource in which we were most interested, whether it b_water or agriculture or fault lines in the geologic structure of the earth -

we had the variety of other earth resources experiments as well, one of which included a telescope which we could point at the ground at some specific site, perhaps it would be a farmer's field, or a body of water, and we could track it a_ _e were going over the earth at 18,000 miles per hour, we could focus in on thCs particular site on the ground, magnify it and track it very closely until the spacecraft of course passed over that area, but we could # track an . area which was a smaller...smaller than a quarter of a mile square,(and most of this data was put on magnetic tape whichlwas later returned for --analysis, and I think between all the Skylab missions, we used approximately50 miles P of th_s earth-resources,28 track tape.

We all know that the earth resources are limited, and in order to enjoy the benefits of the resources of the earth that we have enjoyed in the past, we are go}_g,to have to manage what we have more effectively and more efficiently. life here on earth, and this is the purpose of the earth resouces program. We One

are going to have to learn how to find new resources to improve our quality of of the areas which we studied was agriculture, and agriculture, for example here _s what we can do from space. We can determine a different...different types of crops, for example, we can differentiate between barley and rye or wheat or corn, or you name it. We can also tell you what stage of development that crop is in, or whether it has a disease even before the farmer can tell ...can determine that in the field. You can see if we have this kind of information available, that we can manage the earth's resources more effectively and Fore eff_c%ently into what to plant, when to plant, how to control our markets, and so forth. Now if you apply this same logic, rationale, to the other earth -

resources, you can see what a great benefit the space program can bring to the welfare of the people, not only in this country, but around the world, and that's


our objective with the earth's resources program, and you can also see that from a spacecraft flying around the world every hour and a half, you can cover a lot of territory in a hurry in a way in which it can't be covered in any other manner. We had several industrial experiments on Skylab as well, and I'm confident as time goes on, we'll so more and more areas in which industrial applications can make their way into the space program. Some day we're going to be

joining large structures in space, and we may want to weld them together, so on Skylab, we had a welding gun which was not the conventional type we have here on the ground, but it was high intensity and electron beams which formed the heat and melted the metal. One thing that is unique about space is of course that_there's no gravity. In metals that are melted today and crystals that are

grown, many industrial processe s are dependent upon gravity, and up there where there is no gravity, perhaps we can formulate a better alloy. We know we can grow better crystals, and a better crystal of course can be used in electronics and...heck, I don't like any of that that I said...

Many metallurgical

processes including the solidification

of melted metals,

and the growth of crystals are dependent upon gravity on the earth. We believe that in space, perhaps we can develop a more pure crystal or a more pure alloy or metal, simply because there's no gravity there to influence the way the metals and crystals form, and these metals and crystals have wide application on our earth today, so we believe there's a way we can use space to improve industrial products here on earth.

Some day, instead of going outside our spacecraft, spacewalks, by the use of an umbilical, we're going to be flying from one vehicle to another vehicle without the use of an umbilical. In order to do that, we are going to have to

have a kind of Buck Rogers type of maneuvering device, so before we use one of these outdoors, we want to insure that it's properly evaluated and that it's reliable and safe, sn in Skylab, we had a couple of maneuvering units that we were evaluating inside the workshop. Now we had a large area in which we could We found

fly these maneuvering units around, and this is what we did on Skylab.

that living on Skylab was very pleasant and comfortable and aside from the fact that we were weightless and floated everywhere, we might haveimagined that we were working in the trainer in our training building. We of course had to

LouSMA Page 8

sleep just like you have to here on earth.

We had all the same needs up there One way in which our sleep was

as we have here, mostly...in most cases, we slept about tilesame amount of time as we slept on earth, but we slept very well.

different however was that we were mounted on the wall in a sleeping bag, and instead of sleeping horizontally, as you would see it on earth, we slept in a vertical fashion - the sleeping bag just kept us fromfloating around - and we slept very well and usually didn't have any trouble getting to sleep. Personal hygiene-wise, it was necessary for us to perform up there abQut the same way that it is here. we washed. We brushed our teeth, we combed our hair, we shaved, One thing about the Skylab environment that was different than some

Of t_e places we were acquainted here with on earth was that it's very dry and _eryclean up there, and it didn't require that we wash quite as much as we might have to on earth. We did have, however, a shower, and we did use the shower. We found however that we could almost keep clean enough by using sponge baths; by washing ourselves off with a washrag, although we did use the shower on several occasions, and I think for future space stations, the shower would be _ a good _dea. Our food was good. We had the same menu, repeat, every six days. T_e food was very closely controlled because this was a part of a medical experiment. Every bit of food that we ate was measured and logged very carefully Most of and the vmter that we drank was measured and logged very carefully.

the food came in cans - some of it was frozen, each man had one frozen item per day, and this included meat, which was precooked, or ice cream, various types of frozen items. Our beverageswere mixed in small plastic collapsiblecontainers. Ne wQuld just add water with them and shake them up and we were ready to drink our beverages. We had hot and cold running water. For example... Some of our food was also mixed with water.

It was necessary to mix some of our food with water, and other food items came pretty much as they do off the shelf from the grocery store, for example, peaches and pears ano fruit items looked the same up there as they do down here. We looked forward to eating our meals. was looking out the window. Another thing we enjoyed doing very much

We didn't have much time to do it, and I think if

I were to go again, I'd want to plan more time to look at the earth, because the earth was always beautiful. We crossed most of the land mass of the earth. We crossed all the land mass south of the equator, except for anarctica. We


went as high north as the northern border of the United States, crossed all of Europe, the southern part of the Soviet Union, China, South _merica, and A_y_ca. The earth was always beautiful. And after passing over the earth for several days, it became almost possible to look out the window and to know immediately where you were. One of the things thatimpressed me most

_n looking out the window was that the earth is in fact as our teachers tell us three-quarters covered with water so that much of the time when we looked Out the window, we saw water. We're used to living here on land, and not realizing that there is so much water in the world, but when you get up there you indeed find out that the earth is about 75% covered with water.

Of course, like in any laLoratory operation, it was necessary to clean house up there once in awhile, too. All of our air was filtered through a big screen

_i%h_ii_ the orbital workshop, and as the air went through this screen, little particles would collect on the screen, thus pieces of paper, small items that. needed to be vacuumed up, so every day or two, we would get out the vacuum cleaner and vacuum off the screens. We also had to dump our trash. We had

di_ty food cans and dirty towels and other types of equipment that had to be thrown away. If they were left inside of the spacecraft, they would grow

bacteria, and eventually the bacterial would take over the spacecraft, so we bad to d_ise a means to get rid of this trash. The way we did it was to put

it into small bags and to place it in the airlock. Now we were living in the hydrogen tank of the third stage of the moon rocket that had been modified for q_Y _se. So down below this was the oxygen tank, and it was a perfect place to dump our junk, and so rather than dumping our junk out into space, we dumped it down into this oxygen tank by means of the trash airlock, and there it is until this day. Of course, the tank down there was evacuated, and if we were to open up the hatch and dump something down there, we'd lose all the air in the spacecraft, so we had the trash airlock to circumvent this problem, and t_at_s w_ere we put all of our junk.

Eac_-man on Skylab had his own food tray, and in this food tray were several c_rcular slots in which we could put our food cans, and they were held in there w_le we were eating our food so that they wouldn't float around. Three of

these slots had heaters in them with a little timer such that we could put


Page 10 food that needed to be heated inside of this food tray, turn on the timer, and turn on the heater and go away, and when we came back for our meal, the food would be heated and ready for our use. It became a very efficient way in which My favorite

to have our meals and we looked forward to meal time in most cases. meal was steak and ice cream.

I think I could eat steak and ice cream every

day. There were of course other items besides that, but those are my two _avorite items.

Basically, the whole Skylab space station was very well designed from a human standpoint. There were a number of small things that we made suggestions on One of the things that I think I would enjoy

i_mprovingin future spacecraft.

on another spacecraft would be to have more and bigger windows, so that we would not be so limited where we could look at the earth, or at space, or at the stars...someplace that we could look in all directions. This is one of

the things that I enjoyed the most about the spacewalks, and when the space... This was one of the things that I enjoyed the most about spacewalks. When that hatch was opened, it opened a oompletely new world, a completely new perspectivefrom what we were experiencinginside the spacecraft. When we went out the hatch, we could look down and we could see the whole earth, blue, green, brown, white ball, and we could realize our great speed over the earth as well, inside. completely I think and so T t_ink When that I compare it hatch best in the design of the future we could have more of that a spacewalk, It's hard was opened for perspective. like this spacecraft, perspective everything I'd took like on a but to see more windows so that new and different from the

to make a comparison,

- to say,

when we were looking

out of the along in a as it outside earth of it, the goes

window from the inside at the earth below, it was much like riding train and looking at the window at the countryside in one direction • goes by'. standing where it's it's train Your view is very limited. on this big space station, big train point. round a complete, that ball, But on a spacewalk, looking over it, and you can see all of the locomotive

when you're 360 degrees that's pulling as it


down at the

more ICke being by, pulling vantage

out on the outside along,

and watching

the countryside

by from that



in the

mission, system.

we developed We had a couple

some problems of failures We could


some of the gyros that along gotten all


our control behaving

and some others


somewhat unpredictably.

have probably

-rightwith what we had, but we weren't sure, and we decided that the safest bet was to take some new ones along, so some ingenius engineers got together and devised a set of gyros which we call the six-pack, because it included six gyros, and we took those up with us on our flight and mounted them on the wall inside of the spacecraft. Now there had been no plan to ever do this

before, but we devised the way to do it, and then we had to hook up some cables on the outside, so that electrically, the output from these gyros could be _fed _nto the system, and so during the second spacewalk on our flight, we hooked up this cable that permitted us to use these new gyros that we took up, we plugged in the cables and turned on the gyros and they worked perfectly and they worked perfectly throughout the whole mission. I think the Skylab flights demonstrated very clearly that man has a definite role in space, for he has the capability to evaluate, to assess, to make decisions, to analyze, and then to do something completely unplanned but constructive about solving a problem. Or about applying new knowledge...



man has a very evaluate,analyze and I think that it

important this


in space because it's corrective brought action,

only is

m_n somehad it

who can assess, t_mes unplanned, in Skylab. not been for Bab_tab!e completely

and take wouldn't


was clearly

out and demonstrated missions were and to make it

I think the fact

we probably

have had any Skylab to get to the Skylab all

Man was able

and to repair successful.

in such a way that

of the missions

I envision America's role in space in the future to be one in which we spend most of our time near the earth on large space platforms for long periods of t%me. Unless...thus Skylab was the forerunner of this type of operation, learned what he can do from a space station. The results were w_ereman favorable.

Medically, we looked at man to know what's going to happen to We also determined what he can do from Skylab, I believe, was the stepping stone from the

him for these long-term spaceflights. these space platforms.

Apollo and Gemini type of operation to long-term operation in earth orbit. The benefits of any space program are numerous, and our manned and unmanned

LOUSMA _agel2

b._oth - we've been looking dren and our childre,_s quality of life here on earth

at the earth chiidren

and at its


are going to enjoy the same_ here in the past, we're _C_, #_" and manage the ones we have( found we can do this very J

as we have enjoyed

going to have to learn how to find new resources more efficiently and more effectively, and we've

efficientlyand veryeconomically from spaceflt's also important to looka_e'sun, to try to understaCd_hoW It influences ...it's also important to look at the sun and to understand how it influences our environment and our climate. The space program is introduced...has introduced maay new products and processes into our everyday life, most of which are unknown to most people. The space program always requires bigger and better and more

of everything, and once they are developed by the program, they are somehow u_ed _n our everyday life. If you were to go into a modern hospital today, you would find many innovations within this hospital that were an offshoot from the space program, and this same type of logic applies to many other areas of our American life, in materials, in processes, industrial equipment,

_tems in the home. cooperation.

The space program is also a great channel for international

Up until this time, 75 or 80 countries have been involved with weather network. also going Many have been helping with channel flight for with us analyze our systems. The cooperation. of our educators that

us iln a worldwide lunar In July rocks,

and they've

been involved to have the joint

us in communications international was launched

of 1975, we're

the Russians.

space program national life.

has opened up a tremendous has been a stimulus that I recall

The space program also

to progress Sputnik

in many areas

when the first

around the country wondered why we weren't smart enough to do the same thing and wb_ our engineers weren't trained to accomplish a similar feat, and it _evamped, this the changed our educational in other live stimulates television, techniques, our methods of teaching, as well, enjoy the across satellites and where benefits the same idea is applied space program color ways in our American in many areas. by satellite. of what it life We all If you call


of worldwide ocean, your were available, era this

phone bill

is a third

used to be before

so communication-wise, communications. leading everybody. the way. In the

the space program In the area

has opened up a new forecasting, doesn't the the space

_n fnternational is al_o affect doesn't

of weather this

space program

Now indirectly, area of weather

- directly


LoUSMA Page 13

program is leading the way. Weather forecasts don't affect everybody directly, but they affect the farmer who grows our food. If he can know when to harvest and when to plant, because he has better forecasts, this is to the advantage to all of us, and if you ever lived in the path of a hurricane, you appreciated the advance warning that you got because you had time to move away, to go to a different place, or to protect your property, so the space program has a way of influencing many areas of our national life, which most of us aren't really aware of, and I think it is a bonus for our country, and I'm confident that the time will come in 20 or 30 or 40 years when people will wonder why anyone ever criticized the space program, and I'm confident that it's here to stay.

Space exploration is also...has also raised our national prestige around the world. Other countries around the world have recognized that we have a tmemen-

dous capability...that's all bad, I don't like that at all. I'm confident that the space program is here to stay for many reasons, but aside from all of the benefits that we normally ascribe to the space program, one reason I think it's here to stay is because of man's innate desire to explore new areas. This is particularly true of _mericans. Americans developed this country. They pushed west. Wherever there was a place to ga, Americans went there if they could. We now have the capabilityto go further into the solar system, and I think that man's innate curiosity about the world and the universe about him will drive him further out into space, if he has the capability to do so, and at the present time, we have no plans to go to Mars, but I am personally confident that ultimatelymen will _and on Mars because it will be good for a nation to do so, but also because he has an innate desire to go to any place he has the capability to reach.


Pete ¢onrad '"SKYLAB- THE VITAL LINK" AV 519 I think if you'll look at the overall programs, we started out with Project Mercury just primarily to find if man could exist at all in space, and as _t became apparent that he could and the country began to focus on the atlonal objective of golng to the moon, Gemlnl and Apollo wer_ th_lJ_llow-on; _Femini proved the rendezvoustheories and worked out a lot of the operational Y / informationthat we needed as we were building Apollo. Of course, Apollo went IIQn-to tak) us to the moon, but it also left us with a tremendoustechnology to look towards ti_efuture, and as far as Skylab is concerned, it represents _nite turning point_ .... __ ' _!J ................... -"

\ k
f //

Let's see - the workshop launched on what...the 14th...

Well, on May 14th, of course, Joe and Paul and myself were at the Cape to _atcE t_e launch of the workshop, being we were to launch some 23½ hours later to go up to it and we were out with our families watching the launch, and as soon as ?t lifted off and went out of sight we inTnediately eft that area to l ..... get in our cars and go back to the crew quarters where we could listen to Mission Control run through their functions to get the lab into shape for our occupancy the next day. So we were actually in the cars 15 or 20 minutes in the traffic getting back to the crew quarters and had no.idea that something _ad h.appe course,"as soon as we got up to the crew quarters and we coul_ --__ i I1_sten on the flight director net, we realized that something had happeneds_i_ ) in to the lab, even though it looked like a perfect launch from where we had been observing it' And as most people may remember, the meteoroid shield which was / i to remain tightly strapped about the_______worksbop_ztil it W_._n. orbit ripped off_ the flight_l_when it did, it unlocked the solar wings and one ofthem came-of{_w]_enhe vehicle shut down in orbit, and the other one t Was jammed by some metal that had wrappe_ around it, preventing it from deploying all the way. he_eteoroid shield gone, this gave us tb_e__Iz_QJ_lem of overheating in they _w_c.Sj}.Q_so man.v_cti_fS_rent____idea intervening_, days_o_;._ _;_L,. . in the lO _f__. _, C_tht f_rc_ COL _ _f Aavs/'_'re--p_out different means of being _-__ as f_ _-_'_S___" _--------_-heat _-ig-a. _ temporary shield or a]_Z_a_w_J_._shield which would-allow"_ us to salvage the vehicle._k'We lso felt looking at the telemetry that this one a 1 \


solar wing, would be capable of delivering power, or if we could free it, and we were hoping that the debris that was ,hOldingit was of a small enough nature and easy enough nature to clear to allow .us to do that from the command module so the initial plan of attack was to look at three different methods of rigging a beat shield, and then looking at various tools that Paul could use while hanging out the command module hatch to help open the wing and clear the debris so that the wing would open all the way. In the interveninglO days, it became apparent that therewere certain objectives in rigging this heat shield that we wanted to do. We wanted to do it in the In most simple manner that would do the job, and also the safest manner, so the one device that Johnson Spacecraft Center was working on ws the parasol.

the meantime, because we had done a great deal of extravehicular training at Marshall Spaceflightand we were familiar with getting in and out of the vehicle and there were good handholds and pads out to the solar telescope,Marshall came V_ w_th what we call the Marshall sail, and at the same time, Johnson Spacecraft Center was working on the parasol from within the vehicle through the airlock. Marshall was working in the WIF in the water facility, learning how to put together these poles and rig this sail, and so right at the end, we got the fCnal configuration of how the parasol would work out of the scientific airlock and on our way to the Cape for the launch, we actually stopped in Marshall and d_d our f_nal inspection of that gear and our real and only training task in the W_F to rig the Marshall sail. Then we had one third method which I had spent a great deal of time on, and Paul was to rig a sail by flying the command module to...around to damage...the damaged workshop, with Paul rigging it in varjous places and me guiding him aroundas he hung out of the hatch, so we actually

took off on May 25th with three different ways of rigging a heat shield, and all of them being different methods and of course there were several_other • schemes, but they were discarded along to somewhere along in the lO days. The thing that's amazing to me is that all the teams could design, put together the procedures and functionally test to a relatively high degree each one of those systems, have them completely manufactured and made in flight configuration and into the command module in lO days.




/About 7 2 hours after llftoff, as we were rendezvousing with the workshop, /extent of the damage w_..ic__ _ lot of iL :,a_b==,,_.,jz:t_c, became apparent


/ to us very rapidly. We first confirmed that the one solar wing had completely i laeftthe vehicle and was no longer around and we could see the damaged wires ! at the hinge line, and ofcourse, all the gold foil which normally would have / been under the heat shield and meteoroid shield was exposed to the sun light /

/ 1

\'__andit haddarkened on the sun side considerably_/T-h__thing whic-_-'--_we --+ _to s_-._--_e_e-_e_'_ne-d't_at if the solr panel which weighs over a ton had departed the vehicle, that it might possibly have damaged it. We would see no large dents in the workshop, or we could see no great structural da_+a_qg_+ILg_orkshop itself,, w and then as we got aroUnd_t_ th_ide_ith the

_a_ed solar wing, it became irrmmdiatelybvious that thls _it_le t_ o metal (strap, so to speak, had torn off the heat shield and meteoroid shield had jammed} -_wing,/_Bd open that of the _ first looked...it appeared to us we would-be able tO wing by having Paul get outside and hanging out of the hatch, use one to free with it, then the it course...after our flyaround, we went around for doing vehicle and went through our preparations


and we softdocked t --

t_s EVA, and we got this all done and we undocked and we were very hopeful that _e were going to get the wing out, and after much struggle which I'm sure everybody remembers, we failed in our first attempt, and we were a little bit upset about that. However, that changed very rapidly when I found out I couldn't redock.

And so here was a problem that we hadn't even anticipated,and immediately,we went to work on that one and we tried every method in the book until we got down to the very last one which again required extravehicularactivity, and I had -madethe remark which I'll never make again some three months before, that if we ever had to use that procedure,we were going to be in so much trouble that we probably woudlntt be successfulat all, and I wasn't even sure that I wanted to bother to take the time to train to do such a wild procedure in my mind as this having to disassemblepart of the docking probe out the hatch, and sure enough, there we were, right all the way down to having to use tht procedure, and the ground gave us the opportunity to either back off and spend the night or at our option, continue to try and successfullydock, and I felt that we would get so far behind and that I might as well get the answers to the question and we were all of course keyed up and obviously we were tired but we weren't aware of it and I elected to go ahead and try the EVA procedure, which we did, and


that at the moment of docking I was having trouble getting good alignment in the daylight, r couldn't see the alignment marks in my alignment site, and so... elected to wait until night so I could do it at night and I could get better alignment using the lights on the lab and using our alignment site in the command module and at this time, we were out of ground contact, so when we attempted it and slid in and all 12 docking latches popped shut and we had a hard dock, the •ground didn't know it, so we were very very happy to report, after an extremely long day - I think we'd been up about 15 or 16 hours inflight and 4 or 5 hours before that - I think we'd been up almost 24 hours at this point - I think... that we had at least successfullydocked with the lab.

Of course, before the flight, we'd been wondering whether we would be able to _ust whistle around inside this great big workshop as we hoped we could, and _e also were relatively guessing at how well we could move heavy equipment -. we thought we could move it very, very well, and so the morning we opened the hatch, I still had many tasks to do in the command module, and Joe and Paul, I think, were a little bit nervous in the sense that they were going to be the f_st ones inside, and they weren't sure how things were going to go, and after they'd been in there about lO minutes, all I could hear was a bunch of laughter. So _ couldn'•t stand it - I had to take a look myself, and they had already at just a very few minutes found that it was very easy to get around and they were having a great deal of fun going about their tasks of activating the multiple docking adapter. Of course, we hadn't at this point even gotten down into the workshop itself which was the biggest area, and by the time 28 days were over, why it was just as natural to whistle all over the vehicle - nobody ever went anywhere in a straight _ine - they always had to do a slow roll or a somersault or worR out however they wanted so they landed feet first after talking off from the opposite end feet first and do a nice little roll on the way, and you got to where your...it didn't make any difference that there wasn't any up and down - you knew if you started down from the ATM and you wanted to go to your bedroom, you could just take off and do all the necessary attitude changes en route, maybe ricocheting off the fireman's pole to accomplish this, or change your direction of flight and go right to where you wanted to, and arrive heads down, if that's the way you wanted, or feet first, or however you wanted to do it. It just turned out that the biggest ...the bigger the piece of equipment, the easier to handle. The only time it got frustratingis when you had a lot

a_e, 5

of little start

pieces getting

and you were trying

to keep them all


and they'd

away somewhere or moving about:the after dinner and all

vehicle... had to take go up there and of doing

Every evening a trip free-fly, that,

the work was done, we always ring lockers that or just

or two around the workshop...water and we always had a lot

of fun doing

- never

got tired

In the systems where we do local originations, there's one outfit that we use called Fort Network, and they've bought a whole bunch of televisionand movie Stuff that they syndicate, and then there are quite a few independent ones that have movie packages and of course you know you gotta' - what you have to do is run a computer run to see who's got the rights - the local airway stations and clear that you're not overriding them on what they have rights on - and they get those rights for like two years if they buy the film package, and uh...we do do local origination - we have some systems that are larger systems, do a _ r Iot of c_m,unity stuff, some of them do their own news, but very low budge -

and _t loses money.

Of course, this was required by the federal government

and then it's been fought in court, and now the FCC's looking at it again, because local origination has cost them a lot more money than they envisioned them costing. We use...well, our most sophisticated setups use Sony and Panasonic equipment, but it's primarily designed for cable television - it's nothing like an RCA color camera - God, what do you get, $60-80 thousand dollars _n one of those jabberdoes (?) and we'll spend maybe $15,000 on a good (garble) and that's what cost the bucks - the Plumicon (?).

Some of our systems - some of our bigger systems - Reding, Pa. - we've got almost 30,000 subscribers, and we do a let of local origination. The other stuff that we do - we don't originate, but in a lot of these places, in our two-way systems where we have two-way video capabiliti4es, they'll wire all the schools together and they'll - they can broadcast to each other through our head in - we provide that service for free. studio facilities - they're just using our cable. Uh, they'll have their own Couple of places there's

CONRAD Page 6 Interestng evenings can sit things - and the very high high bands will can get it give the doctors in town a converter._. on in the in their guys semethin'or and get it or bladder

and then we put very, and the only in there _Ouse and Mother

grade medical-educational are the doctors transplants


guys that

can look and get

on the other two hours

set and watch the network

and these

of cornea

Others, or whatever - we're working a deal in Jackson, Mississippi right now - the _A hospital there is building a microwave system - with the microwaves to our head in, and then again on the high band, we'll put out to five hospitals in Jackson, and they've got almost eight hours a day programming they want to put into these hospitals - home medical stuff - I don't know, primarily educational, I_ guess,for doctors,nurses,hospitaladministrators, -

Well, the FCC is restudying the local origination requirements rightnow - the big problem is that you - with any of these movie packages, as you know - even normal airway television, the losing operation is the news operation - it just doesn't generate much bucks, and we're allowed to sell local advertising on our local station, but we're having a hard time from what's available, and then the communities vary so much, Now we've got a tremendous operation in Fayette-

ville that*s a big flop - the guy is a super programmer, he's done a hell of a job, but Fayetteville is primarily military, transient, they don't give a shit about Fayetteville, so they're not interested in the women's club or the local baseball game, or whatever thatyou could do. In other places, like Redding, there's tremendous community interest, and then we have in addition to local O, other channels which we call public access, and we give them portapacks and Sonies amid train them - anybody can come in, the blacks, the queers, the babies, the ladies, the church, they can do anything - any Goddam thing they want, as long as long as they don't destroy the place, and that's - that meets with... I tell you what happens - the city will write that in the franchise, and you go out and buy all this goddam gear and here comes everybody in the community, and they find out (1) you just don't point the camera, you know, so they got to go to class at night, and then they do one show and they find out nobody watched it except them, and about three or four months after you get operational, this shit's sitting over in the corner collecting dust, and you've got 80-I00 grand wrapped up in a studio and portapacks and all this stuff - but it's there, and I think people - yeah, we do city council meetings, we'll do it all day long, and another thing we got tied in now with Civil Defense, boy I'll tell you,

CONRAD Page- 7



set of tornadoes city hall


went through...every Defense will


on our down there in

back - wire into city leave hall,

and Civil broadcasting,

buy the gear and no matter or audio - either a storm warning, it'll get one, or switch

how many channels you're both, or

they can punch a button will

and they can have video on every channel, they could havejust 6 - yeah, no matter it blanks audio and it out and you could say, you know, there's everything what channel you're looking

blank the channels and you could - and see, everybody's 'em over on

'era blank,

to Channel attention,

at - you can get

the channel you want and tell'em a goddamn tornado is comin' so get your ass out of the way. We've got one little gimmick some guy in one of our systems invented. He took one of the old weather skin cameras, put tht in a water proof box and mounted it on our 3600 rotor, and it turns out our 500' tower is pretty much in the center of town, so we just put that on an empty channel, and that thing just sits there and does 360's around town all day long, and if you want" to see where the hell the thunderstormsare - this is out in Kansas - see where the thunderstorm is or where the goddam tornado is, all you gotta' do is tune to that channel and watch the camera go around.

I'm vice-president of operations and chief operating officer of the cm_hoany, and my problem is running the systems that we got and building the new ones. We would like to stay as far away from that, and we don't want - all we want to do is anybody wants to come in and program, we'll lease 'em the channel or whatever...and we don't want to get in that business. Albany's got 30-channel

capability into the home, and four channel video back, or if you bust up video, if you just want to send data back, we can have a digital terminal on every house. Yeah, we bicycle stuffour own packages. We'll go to somebody and

say, Okay, we want to bicycle this stuff between four systems, and they'll run the computer runs... You can either can film and get on a film train, or you gotta' do dupe it on 3/4 - most of the stuff that we use now is 3/4" video, and we use those Sony machines or panasonic - well Sony machines are a little better they tell me.



Of course, on our flight, being the first ones to be up for that kind of duration, the medical experiments were very, very important to it, and of course, having Dr. Kerwin along, he was vitally interested - this was his area and his field, and exactly what was happening to us, so Joe kept a pretty good eye on us and on himse'if,- we use to have a little medical exam from Joe about every three or four days - check all the normal things, and we were in our regular routine Of running medical experiments - the lower body negative pressure - everybody bad a run in that about every three days, and we were of course all interested in watching ourselves to see what our own reactions were going to be to it and compare reactions on the ground, and then the bicycle ergometer and metabolic analyzer were very important, and there ws something in riding that bicycle where each of us could objectively tell by riding the bike what kind of physical shape were we in - our legs and how well we were doing and what our heart rate was doing; and so forth, and of course, we learned a lot of early lessons with that. J In the first place, we found the restraint system was hindering us in We thought we needed to be restrained on the bicycle seat, doing our work. "

and we finally discovered that we could ride the bicycle better, and alm6st l_Re we d_d before by just not only eliminating the restraints- you really didn't need the seat for that matter. You could lock your feet in the petals and bold onto the handlebars and ride away merrily, and of course, it also turned out and it was again subjective, but I know in my case, it became very very obvious that the exercise was necessary, and I got to where everyday I rode that bicycle and I could tell after sitting at the solar telescope for three ou_ four hours I didn't feel bad but I felt lethargic and I'd get down and get on the bicycle, and after three or four minutes of_xercise, just feel myself getting a nice pleasant feeling of well being. I could

You know,

I think I described it during the flight - I really wanted to get up there and pump hard - work hard and make my heart pump that blood and it just made me feel good for hours after exercise, and I think the succeedingflights have shown that their physical well being got even better inflight and they did more and more exercise. It's almost directly related - the amount of exercise as to how well the crew's doing physically

Page 9 coNRAD

...up to that screen and be stuck on it, so we never lost anything either. Of course, as far as off-duty activities went, the first 14 days of the flight, _e didn't have any time off. We were in a semi-powered down mode and it wasn't _nt_l Day 14 that we got our other solar wing out and got full electrical power back on the vehicle that we got into a normal mode of operation. Now of course we_d been learning every day how to do tasks better, and after we got to about Day 16 or 17, we got into a very good routine, the amount of flight planning that the ground gave us to accomplishwe could get done, and I think we would wind up in the evening with a little spare time 0n our hands, and one never ceased to Want to go to the window and watch the world go by when you got done doing whatever it was - you wouldn't know exactly where you were in the world, but you could quickly find out by looking out the window, take the map, and match up something and you'd know you were coming down over Japan or you'd be out over the Pacific r •unning down the island chains, or over South America, and finally at the end_ actually got a chance to read some of the books that I took along. I remember the first one I read was Johnothan Livingston Seagull, and I managed to read two F _Ore books . and I'd get a chance to listen to my music. Now the other thing that we found was that we really didn't need as much sleep up there as we needed on the ground, so we actually didn't...did a lot of our off-duty and recreation sort of things after we were supposed to have gone to bed. We kept a regular 8-hour rest period, but Joe and I found that we really only needed about 6_ hours sleep and Paul found that he only needed only about 5½ hours - 5-3/4 hours sleep - we used to call him the night wanderer because we'd go to bed before he .Would. Be'd still wander around doing something,and it was pleasant. You'd go to bed at your regular time and take the book with you and read for a half an Bout or so, put your earphones andlisten to your own music, whatever your tapes were, and you were quite comfortable,you were in your own bedroom. I think the other thing a lot of people didn't realize about Skylab is that it was a trememdously big vehicle - it was over 90 feet long, and it was compartmentized so that in the morning you might go off and work the solar telescope and the gther two fellows would be down doing something else and you really wouldn't see them until it was lunch time. It was sort of like routine on a large ship or maybe even in an office building. They'd go off and do something in the afternoon or you'd get with one of them and do something and the other fellow would go off and work the solar telescope, but you know, you wouldn't see him again until dinner.


So we werent everybody people together travel obviously forget for if

really is that

in each other's well with they always but they before together

way, and so that

made it

pleasant. thing for

We that 28 days

got along

each other forget this

and of course that you lived, for that

the other eat, slept with

want to know how you got along training get along, the flight.

or 59 days or 84 days, together, train

and breathed We used to and time

2½ or 3 years

and so we were constantly gonna'

one another, a long

somebody weren't

would come out

Before you got in the vehicle, and so you know, Joe and Paul and I - we had a Super time - we got along well with each other - we never got in each other's hair, and we did have enough off-duty and different things to do that it was always interesting.

Well, Gn a longer flight, I have the feeling that you could invent a lot of games to do up there that you can't do down here. I know one of them - we had a rubber ball up there, and gee, with that rubber ball and all the different angled corners and protuberances and so forth in the vehicle, we used to play a game of seeing _ i bow much - how many times we could ricochet it off the water ring lockers and into the ceiling and back to the floor and exactly tell where it was going to _ind up and then we used to do a little intercept game there where somebody'd press off from the floor and he'd be whistling through the middle of the vehicle and you'd see if you couldn't throw the ball in such a manner that he could intercept it as he was going, because of course once he was free-flight,he couldn't change his direction. He could change his attitude, but not his direction, so we found lots of things to do that were different up there with the bali and with ourselves and all, and it was a great be_ when we finally settled once and for all that youcould run fast enough to get enough centrifugal _Orce to bold you on the water ring lockers and actually run around the vehicle. Of course, on the first day into the vehicle, our major task was to deploy the parasol, which was the first of the three different methods that we had, and when we first opened up the workshop, it was still extremely hot down there - I think the temperature was on the order of 125 degrees in the workshop. Now it was

quite cool up in the multiple docking adapter - was in the very low 60's up there, and Paul and I were the two that had the task of deploying the parasol, _d we found - of course, there was no humidity in there - the vehicle had been

empty, bad been charged withdry air - and so the heat didn't bother you very

CONRAD Page 1 1

much - we did get hot down there, and a lot of the things that we touched were hot, so rather than stripping down, we found that we wanted to put on as much clothes as we could so that when we were leaning or jamming ourselves against Something to work on this deployment, we wouldn't heat ourselves up too badly or burn ourselves, so to speak, on any of the hot equipment, and we could work for about i5 or 20 minutes and then we'd whistle up into the MDA where it was nice and cool and then we!d cool off for 4 or 5 minutes and then'd we'd go back and work on the deployment. Now this whole thing had been put together

lO days, and we didn't have a lot of opportunity to train on it, so we were eztremely careful in going through the checklist and we were_very,very careful _D._ak_ng sure that we put it together exactly right and operated it exactly I_.them anner in which it was supposed to be operated, so it took us quite a w_ile. I think it took us 3 or 4 hours to get ready for the deployment, and _ben we were ready, of course, Joe filmed and observed this from the command . -_odule- he could see the outside from there - and we deployed it and it came out _t didn't deploy quite all the way...

t -_

Of course, we deployed it through the scientificairlock, and we got to the
point where we could put it out and Joe was observing this from the command -_odule. He could see it sticking out through the scientificairiock, and when _t deployed, it didnlt deploy quite ell the way, so we spent a little while trying to shake the wrinkles out of it by pulling the pole in and out where it went through the scientificairlock, and we finally got itout as far as we could and we pulled it back down to where it was very close over the vehicle _Ite .w_ _t was designed to be, and the ground could tell us right off the bat t_e_ could see the temperaturesbeginning to drop on telemetry,so we didnt know how low they would drop, but we knew that we were at least going to get tt down out of the high 120's which wou_d have preventedus from ever really using it, and sure enough, it took quite awhile - I think one of the interesting things is that the outside skin of the vehicle cooled off right away, but we had all the water stowed in the water tanks, and water is a great holder of b_at, and for days afterwards,whenever you passed by the water tanks that were on the sunside of the vehicle, you could feel them still giving up their heat, and it really took the vehicle 5 or 6...

CONRAD Page 12.


It took the vehicle 4 Dr 5 days to give up all the heat. Now also, depending on the time of flight - where we were in the flight - we actually had a different heating condition on the vehicle due to its inclination of the orbit plane to the sun. And uh, so we - some periods of time had more daylight on it than others, so actually the temperature cycle down below, because we didn't have perfect control of the heating - once.the meteoroid shield was gone - so I th_nk the lowest temperature I remember down there - I remember it got down to 72 degrees, and right at the end of the flight when we left, it was getting back up to its maximum temperature,and it was about 88 degrees down there when we 1eft the vehicle.

e up there, our first 14 days we lived like moles. Wewere always" turning \, lights out behind us, we had to conserve out on our first attempt when had. \ course, not having gotten the swing electricalenergy - we really we "\ a " about _alf of the electrical capabilitythat we should have had. So it was _, i


I _ery. very important to attempt to get that jammed solar panel out. and the 1 _. ground, in the interveningtime)n-_ la,nch and)nsuccessful attempt to ge_ )_ T_Out, spent a great dealf_me taking the televisionpictures_that_s_entback and analyzing themand figuring out exactly how that wing was.jammed by _,,e strap, and then they worked up a set of procedures. Now this was really fun for us, because the ground sent the proceduresup on about Day II, and we _bad to manufacture all this equipment and they told us you know how to make it, what to make it out of and then they left a lot of little innovationsand wrinkles up to us, so Joe and Paul and I spent three very long evenings assemblingall the gear that was required and putting it all together and trying it out inside the vehicle and figuring out better ways to flip the roping along the side of the cutters and we tried rubber bands and we tried tape and we finally decided - we finally found a way to flake it out with tape that allowed it to oome out very well and not jam, so we had ourselves worked up to a high pitch there to go out and we were determined we were going to get the wing out, but I had the one concern that we were going to be working in an area where we did not have good foot restraint and handholds, and I had had a bad experience with that on Gemini II - Dick Gordon had gotten in trouble and we knew how important it was to have the right restraint - and we had good restraint around where we had /_ _lanned to work, but of course, this was over in an area that we hadn't, so I

Page 13 had reservations that we might not be successful. I thought the methods that

they came up would work, assuming that we could hang 6n in the right manner. Yell, our first - after we got outside - at our first daylight pass at it, Joe was having a great deal of difficulty in getting himself anchored to attach the cutter to the strap. And actually: he got quite frustrated trying to do it, and _t d_d, it reminded me very much at the time of Dick getting frustrated out on the end of the Gemini where he didn't have good handholds,so night time came, and Joe and I shot the breeze for awhile, and I told him that we were •going to have to tare a strain, and we'd have to take a little different approach to it, and we got to thinking about it, and I think Joe got the idea up of tiding this tether had on his chest tighter than we had, which would give him a good anchor point to pull against with his feet, and as we came out the next daylight pass, as soon as we got that organized and got him well anchored, why he got the cutter fight on the strap and I was able to go right up the cutter pole and attach the rope that needed to be attached out there that would allow us to,pull _t open.once we cut the strap. Then Joe tried to cut the strap and tried ... and was having some bit of difficultyand _s I was going out there to see what _d happened, he gave it one more tug and it left me free-floatingup there we had a little thrill with that one - or at least I had a little thrill with _t until I got ahold of something again, and by golly, we had it free. Now

the question was to break the actuator that was frozen by again pulling on this rope that I'd attached, and they had a method where I'd get underneath it and stand up, sort of like the way you'd stretch a bow, and I tried and I tried, and _ _toodup as far as I could, and I still couldn't.get__be_i_eak, fso Joe tr_ed and thenwedecided t_°tig-bten _it up again, and_I'dtry and I got_ _ _ r lunder it and boy, it broke, it let go in one big hur_andt_e e I waslaunche_ \into _, free-floating,hanging on the end of this string_you know, and all I could see was I dlsappeareoln_rommlngwas tne w!nq c_In_at=_me,

\ j

aIot_ foste than thought shoul ell.the got e.j, time stralgh ,, by
ou_a6_n and looked aro,nd, why there it was. out and deployed../Nowof course. the solar panels themselveswere'_their dampers were frozenand they were going to have to heat. and they had just crept out a little ways. but at least weknew we got the wing oDen and we knew that they would eventuallyget out and we'd •9et the electricalpower back. so we got inside and by the time we got inside _J_two of them had crept down quite a way. matter of fact. they crept out far _-_ enough that they were supplying enough power to startcharging the workshop

.. i.--




bettery system, and sure enough, by 6 or 8 hours later, why they all three of tb_ sections were all the way out and we were now back in a nice normal mode _nd we hadmore than enough electricalpower to do the rest of the mission for the rest of the fellows, so that was kind of a high point.

Of course, there's always been the big argument - that of why man in space and I think Skylab should have settled that once and for all - of course, really those of us that worked closely in the program recognize that you have to have both man and unmanned flight - we couldn't have landed on the moon without the _n_anned satellite studies and work that was done, and certainly such things as our Mariner probes are going to give us the preliminarydata because I'm con#Tnced someday - you know, Man will go to Mars or Venus and so forth. Now Skylab Would have been a total loss had man not been involved in that inflight to salvage _t, and of course I think we're going to reach the ultimate in melding manned" and unmanned flight with the space shuttle, because man will operate the vehicle _nd the payload in the _back will be either manned or unmanned or a combination of manned and unmanned doing whatever the task is that's required, and I think man _S ...has more than paid for himself by being in space.

Space exploration I think is just an extension of any kind of exploration. Somewhere way back when, man got curious to what was over on the other side of the hill, and he really wasn't sure what he was going to find, but he mute wanted to find out what it was, and to me, flying in space is just going in a _fferent direction than those Who want to study Underwater,or out in the ground and man will always continue going in all those directions. He's gonna' learn more about underwater and more about his own earth, and I think we've seen that space flight contributes to that knowledge also, it helps man better understand his own environment,that's when spaceflightis used to look back at ourselves, on earth, and man's not going to be satisfied with just going to the moon. So_edayLhe_s going to go further. That's the question - of when - you know,

technically,we could go further right now, but we need to focus on ourselves for the moment, so he stopped looking past earth orbit or past the moon for the moment. Not everybody. You know, somebody's thinking about going further, I know I am. And I think I'll see the day maybe that man goes to Mars.

CONRAD Page 15 Well, flight able all these flights it added up to Skylab, was very cramped, that I think. we built again I gained flights, I flew the a long-duration knowledge flights we needed in being but allowed I rocket

in Gemini,

we were gaining about operating

to go to the moon, but the technology and so forth the information me I think have traded all contributed that ...and to Skylab experience for

in the large had a different in Gemini and I don't but don't

to go to the moon and what I learned that

and training purpose, and Apollo think


to more effectively any of my flights

do my job

in Skylab,

I would

any other

get me wrong,

enjoyed going to the moon, but I think

Skylab was probably

the best one.

.t ,



Capt. AI an. Bean vSKYLAB- THE VITAL LINK" AV 519

We knew that we were going to have to deploy a sunshade on our mission, because the one that was deployed on the first mission just was not - we did not see that it would be able to maintain the environment in the workshop as long as it - as long as the total three missions, so we wanted to get out a sunshade

that would be permanent and permanent in terms of staying out there as long as the three missions went, so we went, we did a lot of water - a lot of work in i;h__ater tank in Huntsville, developing the procedures and techniques for delploying the sunshade. We knew we ...

We knew we were going to have to deploy a sunshade on our mission, even though the first mission had deployed a parasol-typesunshade, and the reason we knew th_s was because that sunshade was made of materials that didn't appear to us to stand the total three mission usage. We then set about developingthe J_ater_alsand the techniquesof deploying this...whatwe call a twin-pole sunshade _n the water tank at Huntsville,Alabama. We used the water tank because underwater it sCmulated the zero-G and allowed us to learn how to do it before we j _ actually left the earth. As it turned out, the same techniques that we used in the water tank worked just perfectly in space.

Inflight we wanted to deploy the sunshade - probably the... I'll start over. I_flight we knew that deploymentof the sunshade was one of the most important things we had to do on EVA because this deplojnnent epended on keeping a good d habitable environment for the total of the three missions. When the time came to deploy it, Jack Lousma and (}wenGarriot went outside and working as a team, they assembled the pole, put the poles in position - there were two of them and then they took a bag that contained the actual sunshade Which was folded up _ by the way, the sunshedewas a cloth, large cloth awning is about what it a_nted to, rolled up in a bag. Jack was actually near the twin poles

that were deployed. He hooked the awning or the sunshade on it, and using some small ropes, pulled it all the way out until it covered the entire workshop on the sunny side. He tied the lines off than...thenwe had a nice little sunshade for the rest of the mission. Lower body negative pressure device, or the LBNP, wassort of a large can with a rubber seal. This rubber seal allowed you to slip down inside the can

BEAN Page 2

and then seal up around your upper waist - upper body. You could then take t_e can and vent it partially, put a suction on your lower body and cause the blood to want to come to your legs and lower extremities. Of course, your heart and brain realize this was occurring and so it had to pump this blood against the forces of the suction of the vacuum, back up to the head._to keep you from fainting. You could put the amount of vacuum or suction on the lower extremities that you wanted and thus load your heart and measure to see how well it wasgoing. It was an excellent test in flight to determine the health The first few days we ran it,

and state of the cardiovascular system, although I personally thought in flight it was tougher to pass than it was on earth. _t was difficult. It was difficolt throughoutthe flight, and then the first day we returned back on the ship, we found it ws fairly easy to do once on the ship. Metabolic analyzer was a unique device in that it allowed you to do a certain level of work and while doing this work, measure how well your cardiovascular, your heart, and .yourair-breathingoxygen exchange system is doing. It consisted of a bicycle, an ergometer, a bicycle that you could vary the load on, and then some sensors on your chest to take an electrocardiogram to check and see how your heart was doing, and also a ure_J_g system that measured the oxygen

that you used and the CO2 that you expelled, so the purpose was to get on the b_cycle ergometer, start working at specified rates, and measure how the heart reacted, how your oxygen interchange system, or the lungs, reacted. Now it is interesting that we did this quite frequentlybefore we launched, we did it inflight, and we did it after we landed, and through this information which was telemetered to the ground, we were able to keep up with our health prior to flight, during the flight and postflight rather accurately. Vestibular function was an experimentto determine what happens to man in... man's inner ear under zero gravity. We do know that without gravity keeping the fluid in the ear in the right place, it will float around and send unusual stimuli to the brain. Now the brain has the ability to afterwhile ignore these things, but what we have noticed in previous flights, particularlyin Apollo where we could move around quite a bit, was that as the flight progressed, -_ _e were able to move more rapidly and it would bother you less, so we wanted


to determine just what affect motion - movement had as the flight llt turned out that we measured - we were able to measure certain tolerance and forth five prior to flight by rotating feeling in this this good. chair

wore on. levels of

and moving our head back number of times, after just four or we

and left days,

and right, we could

and by doing

a certain Inflight,

could determine or six

when we weren't

take any number of movements and any number of

speed - any amount of speed, whirling around movements, and it would not bother us at all. This continued throughout the flight, and then when we returned

to earth, for at least a little While, we found that we weren't very su6ceptible _o motion sickness problems at all.

Blood studies - the majority of them were done pre-and-postflight, however, on our flight, we did do some, as were done on the first flight, we did do some inflight blood sampling. This turned out to be very easy, and Dr. Owen

Garriott would generally get out the equipment the night before, we'd...in _b.e_Qrni_og ust before breakfast,we'd float into the...our wardroom, he'd j ...... take blood from Jack and I, and then we would, in turn, either Jack or I, would take blood from Owen. ward precedure--a!though This turned out to be a very simple, straightfor-

then the actual carrying for and centrifuging the

blood, and measuring it, putting it in vials and the like to bring it back home was time consuming,but we got back the data that could have been accomplished no other way.

Body mass measurementwas essentially a scales. I didn't realize personally myself before we started working with Skylab how important it is to keep an accurate measure on a person's weight if you want to know his health. It is one of the first signs of change, or the first thing that will change when a person is undergoingstress, physical stress, and by having an accurate measure of weight on the ground with a spring scale, and up in flight by vibrating back and forth in a chair, and measuring the period of this vibration, as you can imagine, if youtre heavy, the vibration is going to be slow, and you can time it, or if youLre light, it will be much faster and you can time it, and you can tell how much you weigh - by weighing ourselves each morning before we /ate, we were able to determine our state of weight and eat the right amount of food to keep it at a low level condition.

BEAN Page 4

The exercise thing.



we practiced of the first

on our flight Skylab

was sort that

of a personal Pete Conrad had

We knew as a result


really done most of the exercise and came back in the best shape. From that, we sort of took into account that we wanted to do as much as we could. Jack Lousma was on our flight and he could do quite a bit more exercise than either Owen or I because he was stronger. We did each day as much as we feltwould _ep us _n good condition. We did it on the bicycle ergometer,we did it on a device that was like a spring attached to the floor, and in fact, this ws the first mission where we had that and we used it quite frequently. When we returned, we found that we were in better condition than the first crew, and we also found that some of our lower back muscles had not been kept in as good a condition - our leg muscles were not in as good condition as we would have liked. The follow-on crew, SL-4 crew, took up an additional exercise in t_e fQYl_of a treadmill,and using this treadmill,they were, in addition t6 the other devices mentioned, they were able to keep their lower body in exceptional Shape as a result they came back in better condition than the other two crews. _ Of course, that's the name of the space business - if we knew all the answers to begin w_tfi, wouldnLt have to go. So we try to build on each flight, and we in this case, with personal exercise, we think we did. superior and even bring them back in better shape.

We think if we sent a

crew up tomorrow, we could give him exercise equipment that would even be

Skylab medica_ experiments were perhaps the - one of the most important things we did d_ri6_ the whole Skylab mission. We attempted to take a look a man

as he re_ctedlunder long-term weightlessness. As you know, we had a maximum of 14 d_ys in Gemini in a rather confined space, in Apollo we had... ................. The Skylab experiments -_-_-_-_--_ were one of the best experiments ............... and most important , \ !

experimentswe did on the mission, for the simple reason that in Gemini and Apollo, our maximum time in orbit, for man, was about I¢ days. We knew that to go to the planets someday and maybe even to the stars in some more distance/

\ futu_, man is going toblt _-

0 understand_an be able tosurvivehis d

_c_tion./_It__ wouldbe nice if he could survive it with zero gravity and not have to spin up to space stations and furnish some sort of artificial gravity. Our tests showed to date, or at least _he missions that we flew,

BEAN Page 5

showed that he did rather well.

Our first mission, 28 days, our middle one 59,

and the end one 84 days indicated that Man degraded somewhat for the first several weeks, but after the first several weeks, he begin to stabilize. It's interesting to note that the crew on the first mission came back in a physical Condition that wasn't quite as good as the second crew, and of course the third crew came back in even better condition. We believe that most of this is caused

by improved exercise regime and equipment, however, it did demonstrate that at least for that length of time that we had no large problems. Whether or not we can extrapolate that 84 days out to several hundred_ days, incidentally, it takes something like 400 days for a typical Mars mission - we don't know right now. But it does indicate that we're on that we're on the right track in than man can assume...can exist for long times in zero gravity. a_sum_ng

ge did quite a lot of work with the Apollo Telescope Mount while we were in orbit. We had two complete sets of film for our cameras, and this allowed us to take quite a little bit of data of just normal everyday typical events on the sun and it also allowed us to keep some in reserve for the more special eyents, l_ke the solar flare, solar explosion of some type. We spenf as much time as we possible could at the ATM panel. We tried to divide it equally

among the crew members_b_!t soon realized that Dr. Owen Garriott, ,_howas we our scientist, was probably the superior observer, so we then asked to maybe put him at the panel. I think maybe this was true in all flights, that the scientist-astronaut was able to demonstrate his most - his expertise most obviously with theApollo Telescope Mount work. We had some excellent flares, or solar explosions on our mission which we wereable to record. We had some uh...quite a nun_oer filaments that lifted off the surface, we had just of some coronal activity, we had essentiallyquite a bit more solar action, if you will, than was even forecast in an optimisticscientist before the mission. If you total up all three missions, I think that the scientiststhat were concerned with the Apollo Telescope Mount were extremely pleased.They were not only enthusiasticabout the way the sun behaved, but they werevery happy about the total amount of work and improvisionthatcould be done by the scientist astronautsand the rest of us onboard. We were able to modi(y the Use of the equipment when it didn't work perfectly as it should have, and we wre also able to further optimize some of the techniquesthat had been dreamed up prior to flight. One of the things that I recall on our mission that

BEAN Page 6

was very useful was that it was the first time that we took up a small camera, and using this camera, we could photograph the display of the ATM, thus giving us some information on how the exact details on the sun are at any one time, and then we could prepare that photograph in an hour or so, and the next man comes on. It allowed us to better understand the transient events on the surface of the sun and the corona - we got some pictures it would not be possible to have obtained any other way.

The studies we did on the sun I think are particularly important, because they - the sun is probably our best laboratory of high-energy, very hot plasma physics. There's a lot of events taking place on the sun now that man on earth just does not understand. We understand the fundamental things that are going

on, the basic things that were going on, but a lot of the more subtle changes that are occurring on the sun on a daily basis or even less frequently than that, are not fully understood. Because the sun is such as huge energy source, _t would probably be to our advantage on earth to understand all the things on earth that are happening there, becauee we're gonna' be able to use some of those techniques or principles to harness perhaps nuclear energy here on earth. As you know, man first observed nuclear energy on the sun long before he knew exactly what it was, and knew - was able to harness it here on earth. it's not inconceivable that the same thing could occur again. Now

We would take

a look at the sun, find some things occurring on there that we don't understand which we know that's true at the moment, we would learn to understand them better, and then maybe we could somehow duplicate them to our advantage dow_ here in a world that's fast using up some other forms of energy.

UV stellar experimentwas an excellent one and it provided a lot of flexibility _n what you could look at and what exposures you ...were used so you could pick up what we call dim ultravioletstars or very strong ones. It mounted in the airlock, you could take it out of its box, stick in the airlock, open the window, extend it out so that it could view different stars, point them at the stars, and then take exposures of a length depending on what we thought the strength of those particular ultravioletstars were. Of course, in some cases, we would over-expose them purposely per plan, and some under-exposed in the event that they weren't perfect. We didn't know everything about the

BEAN Page 7


As a result, we go back quite a lot of information, quite a lot of star

fi.elds that should enable a much more thorough and complete mapping of the heavens as we are able to do right now with the ultraviolet equipment. UV panorama...I didn't use that.

The astrophysics experiments were important because through a better understanding Of our universe, we're better able to See the energy sources that are at work at ....n the universe. i We were well aware that there were other larger forces "

at work in the universe some years ago before we understood atomic energy that were not explained by chemical energy means, although we didn't know that atomic energy itself was...existed, or how we might harness it. Through observing these

energy sources and trying better to understand them, we were able to duplicate an atomic energy event here on earth. As you know, we now use that as one of our most promising sources of energy in the future. Now we are able to look out in the universe right now and find events taking place of such an energy that they're not explained either by chemical means or by atomic power release,

so there are other forces at work in the universe than man needs to understand so that he can use them for his benefit. How long it's gonna' take to do this, no one knows, but it's important to start building a foundationand start understanding these things better, so that some day in the future, as our planet uses up its natural resources, we can call on improved methods for generation of the energy that we are going to need.

The earth resourcesmultispectralcamera is.ijust battery of six cameras all a pointed at the same place on the ground. Now through using suitable filters

on some of these cameras and putting different kinds of film in there, some susceptiple to visible light, some tha_twillmeasure infrared light, some that will measure other frequenciesof light, you're able to record what is being radiated from the ground in these different frequencyranges. By doing this, you have a permanent record at one time in these separate ranges, these pictures can be brought back to earth and are at the moment here being studied byscientists and being used to ...let me back up a little...The


Page 8 ..othe_e _ctures were brQug_ back to e_rth that will and are being used now to try in the future in

to determfne certain

some of the things resources will ranges

help man on earth earth.

his use of the natural frequencies


For example, we do know that me go back. a person's health if we don't is true is times much

make visible...let to tell his

For example, just look

we know it's

much easier take

at him, but we actually If like we just - it's

temperature. and wanting in the visible in another

The same thing to know if range, green. range, a plant Oft' It's

in some cases of looking healthy what it this isn't or not. looks

down at the earth take a picture either as being green, able light

we can see such as the

green or dark

as important

to look

infrared, which allows us to infer easier we know now to...

the temperature

of the plant.

For example, we know here on earth, in addition to a doctor looking at you to see how you feel or how well you are, he's sometimes able to tell much more b,v taking your temperature. at a forest, for example. be able to essentially that, times it will infer its health deposit a copper Nov;the same thing is true from orbit, looking down You might be able to tell the health, to a small If you have some infrared film, you'll of the plants is true or trees for and from Someas ore deposit. frequency,

degree, by the color, the vision factor. take the temperature also. will frequency, mineral might be.

Now the same thing not show up as well and by using deposits, Now this tell trying

in the visual computer

in some other be able

techniques in certain is in its

in a variety sequences, find infancy. beneath

of different you'll It's where schools

photographs, to locate of fishes

superimpose one on the other

the health

of trees, what's

whole science

the same as long ago when we started

to determine

the ground, for example, in the explorationof oil, by using explosivesand sound microphones. No one in today's world would think of going out and searching for oil without using that technique, because they've learned to understand that it will pinpoint the strata and the formations that...give oil much better thar.you can on the surface. The same thing is going to be true with this science of earth resources. The day is not too far distant

where a person would not even consider going out to hunt for a mineral deposit without first doing some very serious study of the area with multispectral camera information such as we brought back from Skylab. We took some excellent pictures of the drought area of Central Africa while we werein orbit, with the idea

Page 9

that from these pictures, we would be able to find ground that was not being used that was...did look like it was cultivatable, we would be able to find somehow some surface water or slightly subsurface water that was being used so that it could be tapped and used for irrigation, and it was also pictured with the idea of trying to discover a total pattern of the drought to see if could be stopped in some way by suitable planting or suitable cultivation or preventing cultivation of certain areas, so although we don't know the full techniques that would be used in this case for food production, we do know that it does provide the tools so that at least we can get sort of a handle on food production and enhance it in some way. We're all aware that at least... •

just this year...we're all aware that in the year 1974, the total population of the world has started to exceed very rapidly the total capability of the world of produced food, and if we don't do something about one or the other ...we're headed for some very difficult times _n the years to come. Earth

resources can help add to our ability to produce food. Earth resources h6s great possibilities in the energy field, not only for ...from discovering, for example, slightly subsurface heat sources which might be tapped to generate steam, probably even more useful looking down at the ground and noticing fault structure in the surface that are similar to those in other parts of the world where coal, oil and other important minerals are found. By using this technique,

right now men are out in the field looking in areas of these similar structural conditions, to try to locate additional minerals and energy supplies for us in the future. We think that this technique is going to make quite a lot of energy sources available that just haven't been discovered yet because of the vast surface of the earth that would have to be walked by individuals...by man to discover it. It's much easier to take a picture or look down from orbit and

try to survey the situation and try to find the areas most likely to'be sites for future oil fields, for example... Pollution is more than just a localized problem. It turns out that oft times, the air pollution that is generated in a city in Japan, with the right winds, can come over and bother the northwest coast of the United States. The same thing is true with things generated in the northwest U.S. - the winds can blow them into the central U.S. and even further. By using earth resources systems, we hope to be able to pinpoint the problem and take steps so that we can say solve this pollution problem on a global basis.

BEAN Page 10

Population patterns - we were able to take through suitable camera information or multispectral camera, look down and tell quite rapidly on a repetitive basis of where people are moving as-far as the city is concerned. We can tell which

way major building is moving, we can a_so tell which is perhaps more important the change in vegetation which accompanies man in his motion, and from this, we can perhaps predict ahead this change in vegetation patterns to prevent any sort of a dust bowl or atmospheric change that is not desirable. man as he moves about makes changes in the weather, andthrough We know that observing him

very accurately and recording it, we can perhaps head off any change he might make that would be detrimental in the future.

Water resources - film such as that sensitive to the infrared which measures surface temperature rather accurately can be determined ...used to determine underwater resources. even It's also possible to determine areas that have not only With springs, but where rivers go partially undergroundand are not at the moment known that that part of the river is being diverted in some way.

this sort of knowledge, you can tapthese

underwater sources, you can dam the

ones you don't feel are as productive, and then can keep the total amount of water in a useful condition so that it can be used for irrigation, or whatever else. Essentially you'd be able to tap the sources of water that are present.


The reason...at the moment, we just don't have the capability on earth The reason we don't is that

to predict the weather accurately for long periods.

we don't fully understand what makes the weather, and the reason we don't is because we can't measure the weather all over the earth at the same time at all altitudes. There's a feeling by some meteorologists that if they could You can imagine that

once accomplish this on a systematic basis, they could create equations and models that would allow them to forecast the weather.

if we had the ability to forecast the weather, literally millions and millions of dollars in crop savings alone would result. We'd know when to plant, we'd know when to harvest, we'd know when and when not to irrigate, and it's just the first step, of course, to weather control. Before you can control anything,

you need to understand and be able to predict what's going to happen, so the earth resources experiments are going to add greatly to that science.


We observed a lot of storms.

These are generally anomalous conditions in

the total scheme of the weather, but we're able to track the hurricanes very accurately on a day to day basis, were able to give an indication of the size, and we did so. Unfortunately, as yet, we're not able to tell from orbital

altitude just how severe the storm is_j and w_'r_ mn_tly__., The earth resources has a great future as far as meteorology is concerned. From the point of view of trying to understandthe earth's weather. The weather is concerned on a global basis, and right now, one of the short comings we have as far as trying to predict the weather is the fact that we only see it as a small part of the total picture. The use of satellites,both as unmanned and spaceshipsmanned - over the next years are going to allow us to get a better feeling for what causes the weather and to start predictingit. As you can imagine, once we start predictingthe weather, we're gonna' be able" to make some tremendous savings in many areas, one of which for example is ships of sea following the right winds and the right, smooth seas. F Another

is the same thing with aircraft. Mcre obvious one perhaps is when to plant, when to water and irrigate, and when to harvest, so our only hope, as far as learning a particular weather actively is from space and we think that some of the work that we did from Skylab is going to further that goal..

The materials processing we did on our flight was one of the things that we think will be the most beneficialin years to come. There's two major advantages of space flight as far as manufacturing is concerned. One is the zero gravity condition, which does not cause separation of materials of different densities or of different weights, like it occurs on earth. With this phenomena available to someone, it's conceivable that materials that weren't able to be manufactured Serums, for example,

on earth with this gravity field will be manufactured.

that now are now separable on earth, it's conceivable that up in zero-gravity condition, forces that aren't useful here, say like electrophoresis or light magnetic fields or electric fields will allow us to separate...

For example, serums that we are not able to separate here on earth, or medicines that we are not able to make here on earth because wecan't separate the components of the...from the fluid that are not desirable, perhaps in zero

BEAN Page 12

gravity, using some other forces such as light electrical fields or magnetic fields, we would be able to separate these serums and come back with medicines that we just can't make here on earth..The same thing with metals. There's perhaps a possibility of making some sort of foam steel, since the bubbles won't come to the top since there isn't any top. These techniques were looked

at primarily as just a pilot program on Skylab - that is, we just looked at the principle to see if it would work. When we build space stations of the future that are up there for many, many years, with the work of a shuttle or space ship between earth and the space station or back, it is probable that these manufacturing techniques are going to be commercially profitable. The other asset that space has is an unlimited vacuum, and as you know, many different metallurgical and manufacturing techniques depend on a vacuum in order for them to operate, and with this more perfect vacuum than is obtainable on earth, we'll be able to manfacture materials let's say of even increased purity andstrength than we are presently able to do so here on earth.

Metals melting experiment was a good one in that it allowed us to take...not us, but the scientists back on earth, the metallurgists back here on earth, to take a look at different kinds of metals that were heated to the molten state, and then allowed to cool at different rates. By allowing them to cool

at these different rates and raising them to very specialized temperature, we could observe just what sort of separation or differentiation would take place among the metals. You...using this technique, it's conceivable that we will be able to invent some foam seals or we will be able to create some high-purity products or specially separated products. It would be exceptionally

good for you to ...for use in electronic solid-state devices, such as TV sets, radios and the like.

We were the first to take a look at the maneuvering units in space.

We had

realized that some sort of device that could be put on an individual man so that he could go outside and maybe inspect the space station or maybe repair it, or assemble a large telescope in the future, or go over to a satellite and work on it, was going to be desirable, just as it is desirable for man here on earth to walk over as an individual to a car, or to a truck or to a house,

or anything else and work with it. These maneuvering units, although we just looked at them inside the space station - it had the attendent advantage of

BEAN Page 13

being safe to do.

We were able to do some very good evaluations of, for He would do some of the chores that I mentioned

example, the AMU, which is the astronaut maneuvering unit, back pack unit, which fit on a man's back. about.

When you're using a hand-controlled device, much like the space ship, We found that large space inside

just fly it around as a single space ship.

the workshop, in Skylab, was a very definite advantage as far as evaluating this sort of equipment. We also flew a foot control maneuvering unit. It utilized a foot as a guiding technique. This turned out to be not as desirable

a method of control as we had hoped, however, it did allow us to take a look at what man could do with his feet in the event that a future maneuvering ... that in future maneuvering systems we wanted a combination hand and foot control unit such as we have in an airplane now, or just a car, where you steer with your hands and go fast or slow With your feet.

We found living aboard Skylab to be rather present.

Sleeping - we slept on

the walls in sleeping bags that either allowed you to float inside them or through the use of some sort of elastic over the front of you to kinda' squash p _ you doom against the bed. Now it turned out in Apollo we discovered that

floating free to some crewmembers just wasn't a satisfactory way to sleep. They liked the feel of the bed, such as enjoy here on earth. The covers on us and our weight pushing down in bed, so for Skylab, we created these elastic straps that we could pull tight, and we found by using them and some days we'd like to pull them tight and be pushed against the bed, and some days not so tight, and float rather free - we were able to get a good night Food aboard Skylab was a very good treat when compared Probably the best feature was the fact that we

sleep consistently.

to earlier space missions.

had the ability through a warming tray to put all of our food out and heat it so that when you sat down to eat, you could eat a variety of foods all at once. Back in Apollo, we had to hold potatoes in one hand in a little bag Here you could eat your potatoes and eat them with a spoon in the other.

with one bite and the next bite you could have your steak and then maybe you could have fruit or fruit juice, so it became more earth-like the fact that we could eat them allowed us to have a variety of foods. Probably the favorite

of everybody's up there was ice cream and strawberries, and we'd have those every second or third day and it made it real nice. We intended to save those

for after the evening meal and look out the Window while we ate them.

BEAN Page 14 Personal hygiene was a very convenient be used once a week. it took quite clean, washing rinsing of all we found that sort However, a while you just the your of thing. we found it didn't to erect We had a shower on that althoughkthe ready to up there. 70, mid-70's a bath with rag with more control. into a and get it nice

board for...to shower. First

shower got us clean, The atmosphere your just washrag, clear

get very dirty was a very to take

was extremely using soap,

temperature soap out

most of the time, water feel

and when you did get dirty, and just dirty, yourself. that

you were able Although it it

and then using was...got


was a little under

trouble you didn't

than stepping

Sn the


here on earth, we kept and spit toothbrush, if teeth

you clean,

and we felt

our hygiene

We used a normal rag or a towel an earth that it would allow toothpaste,


and toothpaste earth-like the

the toothpaste

at the end, and then...l'll a regular us to swallow just away. it toothpaste,

back up a little.

We used just we found" in to it was

and some toothpaste need be, however, the toothpaste just as clean and ability

was more convenient and throw it

to brush your We were able So as far

and spit

a tissue feel just

to keep our teeth cleanliness quarters.

as we were here on earth. good, a little was at least bit

as personal

as good as what you enjoy to do it in confined

at home, although

more trouble

We found housekeeping to be not as difficult as here on earth.

One reason was

that we had a planned place for every item, and we usually used it and returned it to that spot. Another one was that I think most of the ladies would get a kick out of was whatever dirt we made from food or other activities didn't just fall on the floor Where it had to be swept up, it usually floated around in the air and the air current would take it up to a screen intake to the fans, so any time we wanted to clean up dust and dirt, we merely had to go to one spot, and that was the area that sucked the air around the spacecraft, and using a small vacuum cleaner, cleaned it up, so we could get our spacecraft very shipshape, very clean in just a matter of 5 to lO minutes, which you certainly can't do in an earth-based house. My guess is that in the future when women go along on space missions, they're going to find that's one of the finest parts of the whole mission. Our off-duty activities were...let me start again.

We had some excellent off-duty equipment and...we never were at a loss of what to do with our off-duty activity time.

Page 15

Probably the most enjoyable thing was to float over near the window and look down at the earth going by. I don't think anyone throughout the Skylab program It was quite beautiful. One minute you'd

ever tired of looking down and seeing what the earth looked like at 270 miles, no matter how long the mission was.

be looking down at New York City, and a bare 12 minutes later, you're looking down at Paris, France, so there's always something to see. If you were over

the ocean, it was obvious that the clouds and waves and...were interesting also. We had some tape recorders with some taped music that we played allmost We'd swap all the time - each person had his own tape recorder and music.

around frequently, but we played that throughout the day when we were working and when we were exercising. We had some games such as darts and cards, and the like that we carried aboard, but we found that man just wasn't interested in that sort of competitivesport. Looking out the window, we all had some books, some reading and listening to music that took up most of our offduty time.

We found that we could have quite a little bit of fun doing tricks and stunts and flips and rolls that weren't possible here on earth. k For example, you

could do a simulated dive that you could do maybe one and a half flips here on earth. In space, you could do a beautiful lO and a half or 15 and a half,

or whatever you wanted to do, so you could do circus tricks and you could stand on hands, and you could...uh, you could do circus tricks, such as swinging by your hands and flying across the workshop to gatch by your hands on another part of the workshop. You could push off with your feet from the

floor area and land on top of the workshop with your feet and you came...you became quite agile and that used to occupy our time, not so much as an individual fun thing to do, but mostly when we were travelingaround the workshop to do other things. From one end to the other, we might do two or three flips on the way just for fun.

I think perhaps the most important improvement in long-duration spaceflight would be the ability to have television and radio come up from the earth at the same time it's happening on earth . By that, I mean it would be nice to tune in a Houston TV station and have it presented to a TV set in the space station. I don't think this is far from reality with the global It's just a matter of hooking

communications satellites that we have now.

BEAN Page 16

an antenna on the back of the space station and having it pointed at the right satellite at the right time, so I Would expect in years to come, that will be solved. One of the things that'we enjoyed very much on our mission This is also important

was talking with our wives via radio down to the ground.

in long-term space stations, and once again with the satellite tracking and the ability to track satellites longer during the orbit, we were looking at ground stations, it should be no trouble to call anybody on earth that you want to from the space station at any time you want. I think those two capabilities - television and ability to phone people and hear what they're saying in real time instead of having it relayed would make living in space, although pleasant in Skylab, even more pleasant in the future. We were concerned when we found that we had a leak in the second set of thrusters of our command module, our service module. However, we knew that " probably caused

the people down on the ground hadmore information aboutwhat

it and had more goodthinking going on down there as to what we were going to have to do as a result of these leaks. They were much better able to predict whether this was a problem that would spread to the other thrusters or was isolated to these two. Because of this, we spent very little time trying to solve the problem ourselves, but rather devoted our full time to doing experiments and t_ying to do the daily activities on Skylab. We were worried that maybe the decision on earth would be that we had to come home early, of course, we didn't want that because we were only starting to operate as we had been training for several years. When Dr. Kraft called up and indicated that

these problems were not expected to go to the other quads or occur in the other quads and that it was elected to leave us up there, we were elated - that was probably one of the high points of the mission, and of course, we felt very good about his decision and we just pressed on and continued with the mission. As it turned out, his prediction was exactly right.

The question "Why manned spaceflight is important" is a frequent one.

I think

the key to it is the fact that there's no such thing as unmanned spaceflight. It's where to you put the man. f_ Do you put him up there where the action is

or do you leave him down here on the ground and give him some road mode instruments. Now we do know that there are some things that are done better that way.

Bean Page 17

For example, the observation of weather on a long term.

That's performed by

some automatic system that takes a picture of the weather and sends it back down to earth where meteorologists can look at it on a minute-by-minute basis. There are other things that it seems that the man's best utilized for. For example, repairing equipment, mixing up materials that might be useful in a manufacturing process, taking a look at the ground and trying to observe what... let's say fault lines or geographic phenomena that don't show up so well to a TV camera or to film. We know that man's eye has the ability to see things that And if you just use that one sense

the camera does not see, and vice-versa.

along, namely the sense of sight, you realize very rapidly that there are some things that an unmanned satellite can do better than a man, and there's some things that the man can do better than the satellite, so my guess is that we're gonna' have a mix of these two forever after.

Skylab missions provided an imPortant link between Mercury, Gemini and Apollo and let's say Shuttle or missions to Mars predominantly because they showed that man could live and work in space for long periods and do as good a job as he could do down here on earth. Now this was a big question because beyond

14 days we had no experience, and there was a school of thought that after so many days, man would become sort of incapable of operations through some physical changes and he just wouldn't be able to do the sorts of work that he could _own here on earth. Now this didn't turn out to be true. In fact, it turned out just to be the opposite, that as the missions went on, individuals became more proficient in working than they did the first 14 days, and even at the end of 84 days, we found that we could do any job in space that we could do on earth provided that we had the right tools and equipment and training.

Space exploration is important to man for two big reasons, I think. One is ......... a spiritual one._Man, asweknow fo_g_-_a_omething him, needs _ goal and a-_irection to be in the future, new in the future - t, S something different

'and of course, space explorationprovides this spiritual quality. It allows 'i you to go to the unknown and find what's there, and hopefully by doing so, you're _ing _to jmRrgve your Io

t/ ;n

the case of man since he crawled o[t We


from the cave, and I guess that's why he crawled out of the cave. The second one is - we know that we're using up many of the resources here on earth.

BEAN Page 18

know that that stars.


- population planets


is a problem. fully



inconceivable places like

in years I don't

to come, centuries the other think anybody

to come, man will of the solar reallyi_knows


the moon and all

system and go out among the is at the moment he's always done, so I able he's the rest going of of doing,

what man's future done it the

but however we do know that and not only think has he always

what man's done, he's

been capable always

to his advantage, of man being and live, and for

I see maybe space exploration to f_nd uses for he's going of the earth it, he's so.

as just


to go out to other be_s going topopulate, the people I think

areas of the universe, to make a better in doing

and once he's life for himself

able to go out there,

going to go out there

the main difference



and Skylab,

is Apollo

was a visit Module and then or "

somewhere - a trip you returned a visft. lined mission, from just makes a lot are acceptable so _ think there. they

somewhere. So it

For two weeks, you got in the Co,and took a little in that 59 days, bit it period

and the Lunar Module, and you went somewhere and you did something, to earth. Now Skylab was different, In our case, stayed we stayed 84 days, actually of time, that

of the aura of a vacation and in the casedrof lives the last over there. the things going to

went somewhere and you shifted

and in that to sort

a visitor

and a tourist acceptable Actual a job

of a person

This that and

of different to you, too. these

in the way you live, of explorations living

the way you act, of food,

to you in terms in space,

entertainment, we're and actual

two types

are the two that

see in the future, going

in some cases,

somewhere and doing

and returning

in some cases.


Dr. Joseph Kerwin "SKYLAB- THE VITAL.LINK AV 519 -

Right. Well, we were down at the Cape on the 14th of May, counting down our last day of normal living. In fact, NASA would have been pretty upset with I was in us if we hadn't shown up, but we were there and watched the launch.

the top of the training building, as a matter of fact, and it was a beautiful launch. Went back downstairs to get to a radio you know, so we could hear

the conversations of the flight controllers as they inserted the thing into orbit because we all knew before that the first 40 minutes or so of Skylab's lifetime was going to be critical. There were a lot of sequences that had to happen in rapid-fire,one-two-threeorder, the attitude had to be controlled right, the nose cone had to be jettisoned,the ATM had to deploy - that was when we thought we might have trouble. We were all ready to go up there and complete the deploymentof an ATM, if the motor failed or the wire broke, and the solar panels had to come out and each shield had to come out and all those good things had to happen, and uh, funny thing, it never occurred to us that that sequence would get mickeyed up before we ever reached orbit on the doggone -_ thing, and another funny thing, to me, rememberingit, was the - it wasn't at all clear from the conversation on the flight control loop that we had a really significant problem. There were temperatures not doing quite the things

temperatureswere supposed to do, and there had been a spike during the launch and this and that, but it took them and certainly us a fewhours to even begin to put the thing together, and so it was really mid-afternoonbefore we knew we had a problem in that our own launch was in jeopardy. I remember at that time saying "It's in trouble - let's go on up there as quick as we can and nurse it...it probably needs some immediate attention. Let's not cancel the launch." And the hours went by and evening came, and my wife was having a party somewhere down the street with all of our launch guests and we were tossing do_ a few, and I knew that they were wondering the same thing we were wondering are we going to go or are we not. And I called her along about 7:00 o'clock and had to tell her we didn't know yet - we didn't - we hadn't gotten the word but in retrospect, the interestingthing is that Managementmade the decision not to launch the crew. _-_. I'm not sure I would have made the same decision, but it certainly was the correct one. In fact, they made the decision not to launch us for five days and very shortly within the next dayor two, it was obvious that five days wasn't enough to do this job-we were trying to do a year's work


Pa e 2
and as it turned out, about nine days and 23 hours to do it.



That was on Day 2, and I didn't for parasol deployment.

have much to do with restowing

the \


I was working

the c_mand...

I remember Pete and Paul being down in the workshop and coming back up for air every 15 or 20 minutes, because it was pretty hot down there, and proceeding With the placement of the box into the airlock and the rigging of the rods and all that, and thenpretty soon they came up and said, "Have you got the TV ready? We think we're ready to go." So I went up in the c_,_aand module and shopped around for a good window, wound up using the pilot's rendezvous w_ndow on the righthand side, which gave me a pretty good shot in between the ATM structure and worksho_ structure,down to where the parasol was to be deployed. I couldn't see the airlock itself, but I coul_ee_t_is ,__

funny looking_ 1

_range thing all rolled up and skinny come pooching out v_ {heVr_, ----of and then uh / Pete said okay, we're gonna' let her go and it just started to unfold and did // a lot of this stuff - a lot of flopping and kind of settled halfway folded .J" ..a__and_a-_ay gnfo]__ndi_rel_y_nfo----_ati--on toPete, and according to what he said, he then commenced a series of maneuvers of pushing the thing out and pulling it back, and kind of giving it a snap motion to try and flatten i.tout, and everytime he did it, it would flatten out a little better and finally it looked to us from that vantage point as though it was as good as it was gonna' get, and there was nothing else to do from that point on except to wait for some temperaturesto start falling, and from that, see howeffective this action was going to be. We were still ready to go out EVA the following day and put out the sail if we had to,.and we went to bed that night, not really knowing what the plan was. Fun thing about the so]ar wing deployment was really getting ready for it... father than the operation itself...because we had a wonderful time with brown rope and gray tape, really hand-making some of our own equipment to carry out and trying to figure out how to restring 25-feet of aluminum pole and cable cutters and all kinds of equipment in the airlock module, and get it outside and. get it deployed in an orderly fashion, and Pete let me help a lot on that but he insisted he tie all the knots himself, having had some sailor-type


training, he didn't trust my surgical knots, so the actual deployment itself kind of falls into three parts. The preparation therefor, getting outside the

hatch the first time, everything very familiar,no problem at all, deploying the aluminum pole, getting the ropes all squared away and the thing out to its full length, getting the cable cutters on the end and verifying their operation and getting all that equipment up to the spot where it had to be used halfway around the vehicle on the sunny side was pleasant and routine and no problem, but we knew we really hadn't faced our big problem yet, and from my point of view, the big problem was hooking the jaws of the cable cutter onto the aluminum strap that was holding the wing down. Basically, a very simple operation - just maneuvering the jaws, which had a spread of about an inch and a half or two inches at the end of the 25-foot pole, hooking them over the scrap and pulling the rope to tighten it, but the problem was that that long cable had quite a bit of mass and quite a bit of inertia, and everytime I moved it, my feet would slide out from under me and I'd start going in the opposite direction and there was just no way. And Pete was down there trying to hold my feet, but he didntt have anything . proper to stabilize himself and that didn't work. He tried to help me by holding the pole and that didn't work, and we were getting hot and sweaty, and anxious and Paul inside was saying, "Okay now, why don't you just take a rest and think about this for a few minutes", and suddenly it dawned on me that I had a 6-foot tether hooked to my chest and that there was a little eye down on the workshop dome through which that tether would pass, and maybe if I hooked it from my chest down through the eye and back to my chest, it would serve as kind of a third leg. And so with Pete's help, I accomplished that, and then all of a sudden it went from a very difficulttask to a complete piece of cake standing and pushing both feet cn the rim of the workshop with the tether between _LY legs acting as a stabilizingforce. As long as I kept some tension on it and I was fixed in position beautifully - just as if I'd had a pair of dutch shoes out there, so from that point, I could move that thing around anywhere I wanted with great precisiow_, and using the help of Pete's 20-15 vision, it only took us about three minutes to get it hooked on, and that wasPhase II and from that point on, it was all routine, too. We had the avenue out to the panel now because we had the 25-foot pole secured at that end with the jaws bitten part way in. We had me hanging onto it at the near end and Pete used it as a handrail or super highway to go down there, verify that the jaws were in place correctly

KERWIN Pa_e 4, and hook one end of his brown rope on the panel in pulling quickly, the _ust on, tried it first it up once we cut the strap a great view, and we spent matter. the night Off, and all out and with sunset, the was a simple itself that there that was to be used very, all very done by trusses came he reach

took place we got that

deal of ease, and in fact, and cooling

under the ATM support "morning" quite some connections, couldn't


and when the following the panel,

Pete went down and verified

to hook a redundant or second hook into

the eye, but we didn't need it. We cut the jaws, several tugs but no real problem, and then we verified that Pete's umbilical was out of the way and be went ahead and got underneaththe rope and heaved on it, and I got underneath the rope and helped, and pretty soon there was a big crack and we went flying off _.ndifferent directions, and by the time we had gotten ourselves stabilized again and grabbed ahold of something to where we could look at the panel, why i_twas fully, 100% deployed. .

e_'_-ic re,ason f(}-r-a_ _61__kage of onboard medical experiments"i.,\ /$kylabwas that we were planning to quadruple the amount of time in-"space by a human being, and we'd seen changes on some of the shorter missions in Apollo and in Gemini which were not dangereus in themselves, but which, if they continued to change, and I'm talking about things like a decrease in number Qf red cells in a guy's body, and a decrease in calcium in his bones, anda loss of weight. __ _-_ The reason for having a complete package of medical experiments - onboard on Skylab, as opposed to the case in the earlier missions where we did our medical stuff primarily before flight and then after flight, was that we were going to fly much longer than we ever had before, of t_e out, we did better than that - 84 We were going to quadruple the amount of a human being in space - from 14 days to 56 d_ys, and as it turned days on the third flight, but there were _


\ )

changes that we'd seen on the earlier flights, which were not dangerous in themselves, but which if permitted to continue, and if they did continue, might be dangerous and might compromise the individual'sability to survive or to
! ,

perform during re-entry or on the water or on the carrier afterwards. Things l_ke a.decrease in the number of red cells in your blood, decrease in amount of calcium in your bones, basically,weight - a loss in weight. We'd seen





weight losses of over I0 Ibs, if you multiplyt_b_fn,r-

vn,,'vo Sn*

age Or experiments that we hoped would give us warnings at the time w, ile !theguys were still in orbit and before'they'dcompleted the mission that maybe


things weren't going well and we might consider well, it would give us confidence I and on the other hand, if the experiments went an early mission termination, # that we could press on to the full mission duration and that we weren't building / ! ourselves a bridge to trouble, so this worked out very well. The actual changes/ that we saw inflight and the symptoms we felt and the whole ball of wa_'were / Very much milder, much less dramatic,much less harmful than we had expected //

might be the case.......


We had about four major medical experiments that were performed inflight, with many little side issues and add ons. The system we ex, pected,t_ change _.\

thebody wasthecardiovasc.lar . The syst

elblood e sel , v

the amount of blood in them and the way they operated, and so our number one experiment to stress that system and see how it reacted to stress was called "

lower body negative pressuree.,_The'theory here is that ifan_individual sticks _imself into a garbage can from feet up to the waist, seals his waist with an i_pervious cloth seal and then sucks some of the air out of the garbage can, the lower pressure in his legs causes the blood vessels to expand, leaves more room in the blood vessels down there and actually results in the pulling or stasis of a considerable amount of blood down in the legs...this is the same thing that happens to a man when he stands upright in gravity for a long period of time without moving his muscles. You get more and more blood tb_s Zs why people's ankles swell when they've been shopping for a day - and this is why soldiers in a parade occasionally tend to become faint and pass out. They pool so much blood down in their legs that there isn't enough left for the heart to work withLand drop and the,. you see the pulse rate go up.an& the blood pressure

we didn t have gravity up their tsO w_cg.uldn't stand& a_nd the LBNP or lower body negative pressure, was a surrog_t_ a substitute for gravity - a way to fake the body out, and we ran that at four-day intervals throughout the mission, and from the very first time we ran it it was obvious that there were indeed changes, and that there was ...this was a much tougher/ _-_ _ test inflight than it was on the ground, and we felt the change in pressure _Luch more readily -_y6uY__o_nf_ort at a s--ooner timethan...at a Sooner


time in the experiment and at a lower negative pressure.

You felt the mailaise

andmaybe a little cold sweat on your palms and maybe a little dizziness and once or twice during the mission there was a time when we felt that we might faint - like the soldier in the parade ground - if we didn't stop the test, and we did stop it early. Now looking back on that, what was going on was that

indeed the body had dumped a lot of fluid, fluid which it turns out is unnecessary in zero-G, which on the ground is packed into your thighs and the calves of your legs to counterbalancegravity pressures in the vessels. When you get up there that fluid soaks back into the blood system and is eventuallyexcreted in the urine, then when you suck blood down into the legs, there's room for a lot _ore of it, and you pool maybe twice the amount of blood. I'm talking about three or four pints of blood, sucked down and held in the leg by the negative pressure where the heart can!t_et at it, so the symptoms are very much greater, ,_ /___b.@ encouraglng thlng was that these symp't_I_ _erepresent the very firs_ *_ _t:_e_e thing t did the te_hey interested didn t get worse as time went _That in Z were we backing into trouble was th - were we -\

we were really

losing more blood or pooling more or in some way, was the system not respo_di_n_ the way_ould, and although LBNP was a tough test,It_wasn't an_tougher o__ _ay25 than it was_on _--_h_ S the-data we really needed. _leE_re ere w

other m a4_ordynamic tests or stress tests that we used todete__oL_jZ.conditio_ .Th_srw_-a_dif_erent_--_-_.__.V_kind of \ _j_flight_and tha__w_bi_T_rgOm_er_ ,_ress , this was an exercise stress - you didn t ta_e bJoo_-out of the systeI_, i /

__ u simply worked your heart and your muscles and your lungs to the maximum !#apacitythat you were able to work them on the ground to see whether they _ll played together in the absence of gravity the same way, and our experience there was simply no change at all and we found that our ability to exercise, )ur_eart_s ability to move blood around the body, the cells and muscles abilit_ I _o extract oxygen from it and all the processes that go into maximum exercise _6_e_._fected_byzero-gravity._es, we had a little less blood to work with, but it was enough to do the job and all of that went normally. We used the bicycle not only of course for this experiment,which again we did every four days, but we used it for exercise every day and we found that we were able to exercise very well, and themere we exercised the better we

In that was completelydifferent from our lower body negative pressure, because /





The third major experiment that we did was an experiment designed to test the reactions of the vestibular system, which is your body's gyroscope system, in weightlessness,and that was interesting. We didn't consider it quite as critical in terms of go-no-go for mission duration as we did the other experiments. It was the hardware involved - the hardware involved was a rotating cha_, chair were like a rotating barber chair only more sophisticated,and the things we did on the designed to test whether it was easier or harder for us to detect rotation, and easier or harder for us to get motion sick as a result of rotation, _P there, as _t is down on the ground. We were all very carefully calibrated

and tfien wear up, strapped ourselves into the chair, spun the thing like a we long-playing record and made head movements, which on the ground are guaranteed to make you notion sick, and much to everyone'samazement,and this is true across all three mission_, across all nine crewmen, once we had adapted to the enyironment, five or six days into the mission, it's impossible to get motion silckup there in that chair. _ Our threshold just went clear out of sight, and couldn't even f_nd it, and that's very interesting because you know a number

oF the guys have gotten motion sick to one degree or another ib_ediately on getting up _nto zero-G, and certainlyi_we were all very much surprised to find t_at once that little square wave to the system has been adapted to it, once you're used to zero-G and your appetite returns and you're feeling pretty good, you can forget motion sickness, because there's no way to make it happen. Okay, the other medical experiments were also very important, but they were more important from a standpoint of postflight analysis than they were of infligfitgo - no-go - o_ of inflight (laughter). _erymajor These other experiments were - one of them was the calcium balance experiment, and that was a

very major time consumer in flight because what it meant to us was that everything we ate and everythingwe excreted had to be very carefully measured and accounted for because what they were doing was measuring the total net intake or output of calciu= and phosphorus and potassium and sodium and every other darn thing so as to tell with great accuracy over a long period of time whether our bones were getting thin or not - sometimes that's hard to tell on an x-ray when _tts in the early stages, so it meant adhering to a vry strict diet, _easuring any food that was uneaten, it meant measuring urine and feces on a regular daily basis and making sure you did a good accurate job of it - also


everything you drank.

We didn't get any data return from that during the

flight - the one thing we did get data return from during the flight was our zero-gravity mass measurement device, our equivalent of the bathroom scales. Everything ...every morning when we got up the first thing we had to do was hop into the body mass measurement device, measure our weight and report that to the ground, and it was also of a great deal of interest to us, and it was delightful to see that after an initial period of rapid weight loss in the first week of the mission, we lost very little weight from there on out as long as we flew, and that was again true of all missions.

Okay, so we returned all these samples in the area of food and waste and another set of samples that we returned for the first time from a flight was blood. We had discoveredalong the way that it wasn't really that hard to draw each other's blood -

Okay, in addition to the other samples that I've mentioned, we brought back samples of blood from every crewman, we discoveredin preparation for Skylab _ " that _t wasn't that difficult to draw each other's blood, giving the cre_n a good deal of paramedical training anyway so that they could handle illness or injury on the part of their crewmates,and we had for the first time a _pability to centrifugethe blood or to freeze the blood so that it wouldn't deteriorate so that it would make sense to bring blood samples home as a - an inflight check on the blood levels of the hormones and minerals that we were interested in and were collecting in the urine and feces. It was a good thing to do - it proved to be very easy to do. :

Now let me talk for a minute about medical experimentsaside, what the symptoms and feelings are that a crewman has when he_s weightlessand what affect, if any, it has on his performance. I'll leave motion sickness go for now because I think we've talked about it enough - it's a transient thing - if a guy is going to get motion sick up there, he's over it in a few days now anyway so what...so once you've adapted to the environment,you know darn well you're not in one-G - it's different. You have a constant feeling of fullness in the head which you notice about one minute after you arrived in orbit, and it never really goes away completely,you just get used to it. And when you look at

KERIN Page 9

your fellow crewman, you notice that he doesn't look the same as he looked on the ground. His cheeks look fuller and thicker, fatter, and his eyes look a

little slantier, because the tissues around them are kind of pooched up you notice that the veins in his neck stand out - they're full of blood all the time. voice. He talks with a little bit of a nasal twang, if you really know his

It's a little different from on the ground- probably since all these

_)_usclesand tissues are not being pulled down by gravity any more, they take a little different shape and it changes his voice a little bit. is different. Your posture

If you relax up there, your arms _ind of float up and your Your neck moves back a little

shoulders go up in the general direction of your ears and your legs kind of bend halfway and sit out there in front of you. b_t and your back flattens up and you have to get used to that because it doesn't feel right and I would continually findmyself trying to pull my arms down and _tra_ghten out my back and read a book in my lap, but you just don't read donLt want to read a book in your lap down there - pretty soon your head stamts to come up and your shoulders come up and you say to heck with it, and you read the book out in front of you where it belongs. _ Minor annoyance. Something you Your

notice and then you get used to it, and then pretty soon you forget.

appetite is remarkablygood and that was one of the rather major surprises of the mission. not true. We had a mistaken impression that a guy didn't eat nearly as _uch food _n weCghtlessnessas he does on the ground. Turns out this is Turns out that again once you're over that four or five day period

at the beginning, your appetite returns to normal and you eat everything they giveyou, so you eat well, you sleep well, it's a little harder going to sleep, probably because of this posture thing. Everybody is used to sleeping with his yourself body arranged in a certain way - on your back, on your side, with your hands here or there, and you can't sleep that way up there because you compose

for sleepand then you relax and assume that same old posture that I just talked about. Once you get used to that and get used to how you want to snug yourself _nto your sleeping bag, sleep is quite easy. The duration of it may be a little short, but the quality of it is goodand you wake up pretty refreshed in the morning. You can exercise well, no problem doing activity, no problem thinking or planning or any of that stuff, and having talked about some of tb_ th_ngs that feel different - the important thing to emphasize is that most _-_ of the time you feel the same. Now that...nowthere's one other area that I'd like to touch on - that really feels different than it does on the ground -


and that is your sense of up and down. respect to you.

Your sense of where things are with

This does take a little time to get used to because with no

gravity, first of all, if your eyes are closed or if it's dark up there, you have no idea where anything else is except your own body, and sometimes you're not so sure about your hands and feet, which is a peculiar sensation. I remember _aking up one night in the sleeping compartment and Houston was calling on the radio and it was pitch black in there, and I knew that the _ntercom box was two feet from the end of my nose, right straight in front of me, and it took me a minuteto find it because I didn't know where I was in relation to the bed or the ceiling or the floor or anything,and I had to feel my way around this tiny little compartment until my finger hit the transmit button and I said, "Oh, yeah - there it is", and once I had the light on, it all goes away - once your eyes see something, then you relate to it and you say whatever is above my head is up and whatever is below my feet is down, doesn't matter whether it's the floor or the ceiling - and in fact, if you stand there and have this nice sense of rightness that everything _s in its place, and you turn 180 degrees and stand on your head, the whole world I turns with you, and what was the ceiling now feels like the floor and you know now that the chairs and tables are growing out of the ceiling. on. You wonder why It's

the designers built them this way, and all the lights are on the floor, and so Your sense of relation to the outside world is completely different.

completely centered in your own body, and once you get used to this, it's kind of pleasant to just play with it to look down the long axis of the workshop headfirst,and it feels like you're looking up, then you rotate around and you look at it between your feet and it looks like you're standing on the top of a deep well and could jump down into it. That's the way it feels - moving I think it's like learning how around in it is very easy, very delightful.

to ride a bike - it takes you a few days to get the reflexes down right and then you can push off and do some somersaultsor twists or land with your feet with the...in the right place everytime, not even worrying about it. Okay?

I_t_s(nterest_ng to speculate on what the outlook would be for the nation's space program now...if we hadn't had a Skylab at all...or if we had attempted to do the same kinds of experiments on a number of unmanned missions, or if we hadn't been able to repair the Skylabwhen it had its little accident on


the first day, and to me, the differencebetween the thinking around the office and around the agency between say January 1973,_hen we were in final training, and April of 1974 when the whole thing was over and put to bed is just enormous, and that that change in attitude and the facts that go to make it up have almost paid for the program, never mind the tremendousdata that we got from the solar physics experiments and the tremendous data that gQt from the earth resources_experiments,and he medical experimentsand t the surprising finds in the areas of materials processing. Just the fact that now we know that we can fly a complex laboratoryand that we can utilize man as a link in that laboratory,notjust because he's a scientificgenius and can invent things on the spot and think beautiful thoughts, that, too, maybe. But als_ because as a practical matter, it's very much simpler to take an experiment that you nomnally do in a laboratory down on the ground with tecBn!cians and scientists andpeople to run it, and take that thing and put _t into a spacecraftand not have to redesign it, automate it, computerize " it and program it to run through its thing over a period of days or weeks or monthspbmut_a h,,m_n haqd be.ing laid on it. That'_ensive _ it can be


the thing, to fix it when it breaks,-_6ta_ it out and put a new one in, is ) (n many cases, not only the rewardingthing to do, but the cheap thin.g d__o.J to Now we_ve got a very successful unmanned program going and I'm talking as an advocate of man,,in flight, but it seems to me that the unmanned program is clearly the way to go in at least two areas that I can think of off the top of my head. One is exploring far out - other planets, down close to the sun, clear out of the solar system hopefully where we can't send man because we just haven't solved the problem yet. The other is in the area of gathering _er_ _aluable repetitive data and doing things in orbit of a repetitive and routine nature, where its cost effective to use a small spacecraft, a small, specialized spacecraft - I'm talking about weather satellites, communication satellites, navigation satellites, relaysatellites, all that sort of thing, and a lot of the things we did on Skylab in an experimental way I think will be done in a routine operationalway, surveying the earth and the oceans and so on unmanned. But I think that when you get into things like manufac:

tur_ng, when you get into astronomy and solar physics, I don't think you're _-_ going to find a cheaper way than to carry up the food, carry up the atmosphere, carry up the tape recorded music and whatever you need to make the guy

KERWIN Page 12

happy and let him do the job because he's going to do it better than the computers can, and the reason is that the human race does it that way on the ground. AnythCng wedo manned in orbit, manned on the ground, we probably ought to do


Ed Gibson s'SKYLAB THE VITAL LINK" AV 519 We had two additional types of exercise on our mission. we exercised for a longer period of time. p. "l


The first was that

On the third mission, we had two additional types of exercise. than the previous flights.


First, we went for about an hour an a half as

opposed to an hour for the second mission, and a half an hour for the first mission, so in terms of cardiovascular conditioning, I thi_k we were in better condition because of that additional length of time. Secondly, we took along a

device which Dr. Bill Thornton came up with which was the way to keep our legs in better shape for walking and running. It was a device which we could essen-

tially duplicate walking and running the same way we do down here, and that I think contributed substantially to us being in I think excellent shape when we got back.

The two types of missions that we plan to fly in the future - both will depend upon knowledge that we've gained in the medical areas in Skylab. happened to man in the first week of flight. First the

Shuttle flights, which are relatively short, will need to understand what We had exceptionally good instrumentation on board to measure all the changes which do occur to the human when he_s first up there. We know what to expect in the way of cardiovascular changes, Secondly, we hope in the future that our_

fluid shifts, and muscular deconditioning.

we'll have another long-range, long-duration space statioo_certainlyon

_A_ig_h-tg-otto 84 ays--_a_a-_)__hinkwe c_ng_'-quitea bit longer than that._ up d We understandwhat problems may crop up, but we're also greatly relieved thatI that there were no significantproblems, and certainly we got a green light for ) going much further than 84 days. JC-I /_ . _ _, -_.,,__- -" I think just to put an order of magnitude on the limit that we see now, it would be on the order of a year. The only thing that would hold us back is That is, a small amount of

long-duration changes in the skeletal structure. in some individuals.

calcium loss multiplied over a long period of time - it may become significant


Well, on our flight, we were fortunate enough to be able to first of all record a solar flare from the very beginning all the way through the rise through the

GIBSO_ Page 2 end. That's exceptionally the explosion only solar we've in the crews, important, itself been able because as an explosion and not the aftermath. to watch what happens after On ours, takes So far, the place, on all is experience a flare, was energy you of

have to observe the flights, released oI the other most exciting, Whilch do occur to into earth. Hawaii large


based upon the previous out what happens before came up. these which reaching because solar wind, fairly

we were able to f_gure and gettTng useful for

then be on target

data as the flare understanding

For us, that

and most

unknown things interesting got

in the solar

atmosphere. of a coronal

The other transient solar


was very

us was the observation amount of material the solar We were able noticed that

is an exceptionally and eventually the ionosphere of the close and within of the out in a matter it.


out of the observation off the


wind and came back, to make this lifting

some of it


betweem the ground and the people on board. a prominence information of minutes,

One of the observatories

was up to us and we were able to observe mission is that to gather

One of the advantages to use the experience J iN a l_ttle Ow_n Garriott, were precursors flare actually bit better

we had being on the last of the p_evious way. Espec_ally flight, that or those

we were able the solar observation. which a from data

crews in order

_n the area of flare had come up with which he thought into the

on the previous to flares, began. all Weuse

a number of items occurred before a flare to observe tail-off


information the rise

in order

the very beginning the flare.

the way through

or death of

Well, for us, the Comet observationswere in a sense a disappointment,but in another sense, quite beautiful. Disappointmentprimarily because the intensity was quite a bit lower than we had anticipated, but other than that, the comet was quite beautiful when we saw it close to the sun. it was when we were out EVA. very close to sunset. there was the comet. Our first sighting of I had just finished up one task, and we were

I Still had my dark visor down, and I looked up and I saw it through the visor, even with my eyes not darkThe became became

adapted, (It was very bright, and most notable was the sunward spike. towards smaller, the sun the color The color was yellow. In subsequent days, this the spike tail

spike w_ich_as in the opposite direction of the tail - very sharp and pointed went finally to a yellow-orange, eventually


very tions


and it

changed to a violet it sent visually,

tail, as l've

a very mottled described,


Now observa-

we were able of observations and I think changed, the sun. far

to observe with they

and put these

on to drawings,

them down on television some pretty

and secondly,

we made lots especially, tail

the ATM equipment. configuration observations

'We used the coronagraph good observations as it of the comet changed

came back with

of how the

how the whole We did take the their

swept around onboard LAs the


some of the other try to understand we anticipated, out werequite


to understand ways in which


of the comet,

the composition. but I think successful.

as I know, we did

not get the intensity were carried


Well, the observation of Kohoutek offered an unprecedented opportunity. comets are important to science because we are able to obs_rvewha--h_

First think is

priordal matter, that is, matter which has been around since the birth of the solar sys£em, if the comet came from the solar system, or if it came from outside the solar system, then it's an opportunity to observe something which was not created with our solar system, but in the regular stellar scheme of things. One opportunity we had with Kohoutek was that we found out about it very far in advance - almost a year in advance - so that we could martial a lot of forces in the observation. at the same time. We were able to get ground observatories

and the Skylab, with all the full capabilities from both, observing the comet One of the opportunities we had in the observation of This allowed us to martial a lot of forces on As a matter of fact, when comet Khoutek came because Dr. Kohoutek was able to observe the comet and identify it at...very early.

the ground and in Skylab to make the observation.

we were making the observations, we were able to talk to Dr. Kohoutek on the time at which he was at Johnson Spacecraft Center and tell him what we had seen visually and how the observations were progressing. The Skylab solar observations have been important and will continue to be important to science, primarily in two areas. First, the sun is our nearest

star, and in terms of understanding all of the stars and our primary energy source, the sun - this is an unparalleled opportunity to do thEngs on Skylab because of the combination of being above the earth's atmosphere, having _" instruments with unique capabilities, as well as having trained observers operating those instruments, we were able to accomplish things that have not


been able to have been done up to this time.

I think we made a fairly large

step forward in understanding the sun - not just to understanding the stars or the sun has proven to be important, but also the sun turns out to be a giant astrophysical laboratory. It is made up of plasma - that's high-temperature gases which we plan to use down here for many schemes in energy production, and we can use the sun as a laboratory to better understand how plasmas are affected by electromagnetic fields, how they're moved, what their properties are. Now the advantage of being up above the earth's atmosphere is that it's two-fold. First, and maybe one which is most obvious to people, is that we're able to obserye the atmosphereof the sun without any hindrancebecause of a scattering of atmosphere around the spacecraft. Down here, we can only see the atmosphere of the sun called the corona, during times of an eclipse - that's time at which the moon covers up the sun. Now up there, we're able to cover the sun with an occulting disk and observe that atmosphere of the corona any time that we like. As a matter of fact, we observed it for almost nine months straight during Skylab and learned a lot about how it changes with time. not possible to do down here. Secndly...we'llcut. Something it is just

Secondly, most of the very interesting effects on the sun occur in high energy ranges. The signature of these ranges occur in the ultraviolet and x-ray ranges By that, I mean light which we see down here On the other hand, of spectrum rather than visible.

is the same frequency light which our eyes are able to sense.

the ultraviolet and x-rays are stopped by our atmosphere and the only way to observe them is to get above our atmosphere and get an undistorted look.

Sleeping turned out not to be a problem in Skylab. was quite enjoyable. fairly easy to sleep,

As a matter of fact, it

I found that the restraint devices that we had made it i_yfirst night up there, I was so darn tired that I One experiment which I did do however, I'd go out at night and float

dropped off right away and had no problem.

was to try to sleep floating completely free.

around in the orbital workshop, which is quite a large volume, and find that I womld slowly mash into one wall, and maybe five minutes later, slowly mash into another wall, and I was never able to completelyget a real experience. a sound sleep. I'd go for

maybe a half an hour at a time, but never a complete night's sleep, but it was


I tried at some times to remain completely stationary to get a little bit away from a wall and to remain fixed, but it turned out that we had an airflow in there where every object which was out in the air finally got sucked up into one of the screens in the top of the workshop, and sure enough, every morning I'd go to sleep, I'd find myself the next morning up there against the screen, just like everything else that was loose in the workshop.

Well, on our flight, we didn't really have time for...much time for off-duty activity until the second half of the mission. looking out the window. But what I did enjoy most was We found For us, that was both useful and enjoyable.

that we got much more proficient as time went on in the area of visual observation, and when we weren't doing that, I enjoyed body acrobatics in zero gravity. I think I finally got up to a 10½ gainer in the workshop. able. It was quite enjoy-

We were up there for a number of holidays - as a matter of fact, on both Thanksgiving and Christmas, we were working, were outside EVA on both of those t days. After our last EVA on Christmas, we come back inside and had a little bit of time to celebrate around our homemade Christmas tree. We had a star on the

top which resembed a comet; we made the Christmas tree out of some food cans which...food can retainers which we had enough of while we were up there, and in general, it wasn't quite what we had at home, but it was still Christ_s. We had some gifts on board which we did not know about until they finally called us up on Christmas day and told us they were all in the command module, and all three of us just about got wedged in the hatch at the same time trying to get to them. my wife. In general, I think the EVA's went along quite smoothly, primarily because we bad some excellent training in that area. We worked down at the Marshall Spaceflight Center neutral buoyance tank, I think we all learned to become very familiar with the EVA surroundings, so that when finally we did get out there, and not only the film retrieval became almost mundane, but the additional _, tasks which all came up on each one of the flights became of a secondary nature in terms of working them out. On our flight, we had to fix an antenna for the Each one of the wives had packed away a small gift. Matter of fact, I have mine here - a small Japanese emblem, a tie clip, it says "Love" from


earth that sore

resources for

experiment about



took us a long time. difficulties turn only


and I were EVA was

out there of a turn fingers

6½ hours.

One of the primary and it

in that

we had to undo some screws and we could each time we attacked, out of it, but we got the job buoyancy,

them around a quarter We got some pretty the familiarity with one area in which

took a long time. done. I think and there

the EVA goes back to the neutral

was only

_was surprised. That was while we were out on the sun end of the space station, part away from the major bulk of the space station. Now I go out and lean beck

so that I was almost completely free - I'd find that then I had the feeling that it was just me and the ground, 270 miles down. rather exhilarating. I never had a sensation of falling . in a spacecraft or in an airplane except for that one moment and for me that was

Of course, the view when you're out there is spectacular. When you're inside, you've just got a little window to look through. When you're out there, you've got a 360 degrees worth of good view. It's a great outdoors, and you really appreciate it.

Well, the advantageswhich manned spaceflightoffers are In the area of repair iand maintenance, which we've demonstrated time and time again on Skylab.


a matter of fact, the whole Skylab series of flights would have been a failure had it not been for the ability of the first crew to repair the space station./ Now over and above repair maintenance comes a primary thing in my mind to use man for and that's judgment. In many cases, in a solar observation,in the observationsof the earth, you don't know beforehandexactly what you're looking for, when you're going to see a given phenomena,and what you...and exactly what youtr_ going to see. You use man up there to best utilize the instruments to get tbe best data hck. I think this will in the future will be the major

selling point of a man onboard also. In the shuttle, we'll be taking up people who are scientists,the-best in their given field, and they're gonna' be there because they can exert judgment. Skylab turns out to be a very important link in all of the programs which we've had in manned spaceflight,- in the Apollo program, we had what I consider very _mportant aspect - it was a focal point for building a manned spaceflight capability. Certainly, we got the international prestige and we got some very


good science out of exploring the moon, but it was a focal point. hardware, we got the capability to get up there. you best utilize man and what are his limitations.

We got the

In Skylab, we asked how can Certainly,long-duration,

84 days, is in no way a limitation on man, and we discovered the best way to utilize him is to let him exercise his judgment in taking data, repair maintenance also turned out to be a very important thing. see both of those areas emphasized. ing existing spacecraft in orbit. I think in the future, we'll

We'll find man up there repairing, maintainWe'll also find a specialist being up there,

exerting judgment in taking data in his own particular area, whether it be earth Observations,stellar observations,solar observations,or medical observations.

One realization we had while we were up there was that we were able to look down at all the homelands of the people and almost the whole inhabited planet, and we looked back at our own United States, and we realized that there's something rather unique and very special right down here. We couldn't see it in the land, but we could tell that we had the first real good space station in earth orbit. _e _ere the f_rst people to go to the moon, and it gave us the realizationthat there was a certain spirit and capabilitiesright down there within the American people which made it all possible. world. Something we have not seen elsewhere in the Now manned spaceflight is to me just an That gave us an appreciation for our own country, the people in it, and

made us very proud to be apart of it.

extension of man's desire to explore, as well as man's desire to utilize what he's obtained as ability. _First, we have explored the moon, and we've n_ gone to explore near space, and finally we're going to explore the solar system. All of this - man plays an integral part._ Over and above just the desire to use space and explore it, I think the country needs somethingwhich is outside of its own internal needs and comforts. Mankind and man are really one and the same, Mankin_ in the same We need things the same way a man is not too comfortable, uh too useful, if he spends his full time worrying about his own internal needs and comforts. way _s not productilve_ s not useful, is not going forward if he expends his C full energies concerning himself with internal needs and comforts. which broaden our scope, our external to ourselves, in order to really fulfill our own destiny and the way in which we're just made and put together. may want to cut... You

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