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Traditional Manufacturing

Processes

Forming

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Forming

Any process that changes the shape of a raw stock


without changing its phase

Example products:
Al/Steel frame of doors and windows, coins, springs,
Elevator doors, cables and wires, sheet-metal, sheet-metal parts…

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Rolling

Hot-rolling

Cold-rolling

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Rolling

Important Applications:

Steel Plants,
Raw stock production (sheets, tubes, Rods, etc.)
Screw manufacture

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Rolling Basics

Sheets are rolled in multiple stages (why ?)

tf Vf Vf
to to tf
Vo
Vo

stationary die
Screw manufacture:

rolling die
thread rolling machine

Reciprocating flat thread-rolling dies

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Forging

[Heated] metal is beaten with a heavy hammer to give it the required shape

Hot forging,

open-die

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Stages in Open-Die Forging

(a) forge hot billet to max diameter

(b) “fuller: tool to mark step-locations

(c) forge right side

(d) reverse part, forge left side

(e) finish (dimension control)

[source:www.scotforge.com] RAKESH CHANDER SAINI 26


Stages in Closed-Die Forging

(a)

(b)

Flash
(c)

1. Blank (bar) 2. Edging 3.Blocking 4. Finishing 5. Trimming

[source:Kalpakjian & Schmid] RAKESH CHANDER SAINI 27


Quality of forged parts

Surface finish/Dimensional control:


Better than casting (typically)

Stronger/tougher than cast/machined parts of same material

[source:www.scotforge.com] RAKESH CHANDER SAINI 28


Extrusion

Metal forced/squeezed out through a hole (die)

[source:www.magnode.com]

Typical use: ductile metals (Cu, Steel, Al, Mg), Plastics, Rubbers

Common products:

Al frames of white-boards, doors, windows, …


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Extrusion: Schematic, Dies

chamber die

extruded shape
hydraulic
stock
piston

chamber

Exercise: how can we get hollow parts?

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Drawing

Similar to extrusion, except: pulling force is applied

stock (bar) die


wire

F (pulling force)

Commonly used to make wires from round bars


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AUDI engine block
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V6 engine block
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BMW cylinder head
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Brake assembly
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Impellers

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Crank Shaft

Also see: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine7.htm

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THANK YOU

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