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1

Types of control charts.

Control

charts

Variable or Attribute

measurement charts. charts

Average Range

Chart Chart

(X-Bar) (R-Bar)

2

Types of measurement

Measure where the metric is composed of

classification in one of two (or more)

categories is called attribute data.

• Good / Bad

• Yes / No.

Measure where the metric consists of a number

which indicates a prices value is called variable

data.

• time / hours

• Miles / Temperature

3

Average charts

In this chart the sample means are plotted in order to

control the mean value of a variable (e.g., size of piston

rings, strength of materials, etc.)

monitor the arithmetic means of successive samples of

constant size, n. This type of control chart is used for

characteristics that can be measured on a continuous

scale, such as weight, temperature, thickness etc.

4

RANGE charts

In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to

control the variability of a variable.

Range chart shows how the range of the subgroups changes

over time.

Simply, Range measures the variability of the process.

5

Variation

• There is no two natural items in any category are the same.

• Variation may be quite large or very small.

• If variation very small, it may appear that items are identical,

but precision instruments will show differences.

SOURCES OF Variation

• Equipment

– Tool wear, machine vibration, …

• Material

– Raw material quality

• Environment

– Temperature, pressure, humadity

• Operator

6

– Operator performs- physical & emotional

Average and Range-Charts Example

about the production of a special metal screw used by

several of the company’s largest customers. The diameter

of the screw is critical to the customers. Data from five

samples appear in the table below. The sample size is 4. Is

the process in statistical control?

7

RANGE Chart

SOLUTION

Step 1: For simplicity, we collect only 5 samples. In practice,

more than 20 samples would be desirable. The data are

shown in the following table.

Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047

8

RANGE Chart

Step 2: Compute the range for each sample by subtracting the

lowest value from the highest value. For example, in sample

1 the range is 0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018 in. Similarly, the

ranges for samples 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 0.0021, 0.0017, 0.0026,

and 0.0022 in., respectively. As shown in the table, R =

0.0021.

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

Special Metal Screw

Sample Samples

Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4 R

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039 0.0022

9

R= 0.0021

RANGE Chart

from Table for a sample size of 4. The control limits are

Size of LCL for UCL for

Sample R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (D3) (D4)

2 0 3.267

3 0 2.575

4 0 2.282

5 0 2.115

R = 0.0021 6 0 2.004

7 0.076 1.924

D4 = 2.282 8 0.136 1.864

9 0.184 1.816

D3 = 0 10 0.223 1.777

10

LCLR = D3R = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.

RANGE Chart

Step 4: Plot the ranges on the R-chart, as shown in Figure 5.10. None

of the sample ranges falls outside the control limits so the

process variability is in statistical control. If any of the

sample ranges fall outside of the limits, or an unusual pattern

appears, we would search for the causes of the excessive

variability, correct them, and repeat step 1.

11

Average Chart

Step 1: Compute the mean for each sample. For example, the mean

for sample 1 is

(0.5014 + 0.5022 + 0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 =0.5018

Sample Samples

Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4 X

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.50260.5035 0.5023 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039 0.5045

X = 0.5027

12

Average and Range-Charts Example

Step 2: Now construct the x-chart for the process average. The average

screw diameter is 0.5027 in., and the average range is 0.0021 in.,

so use x = 0.5027, R = 0.0021, and A2 from Table 5.1 for a

sample size of 4 to construct the control limits:

for X charts

(n) (A2)

2 1.880

3 1.023

4 0.729

5 0.577

6 0.483

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729 =

x = 0.5027

LCLx = x=- A2R = 0.5027 – 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5012 in.

13

Average and Range-Charts Example

Step 3: Plot the sample means on the control chart, as shown in Figure

5.11.

The mean of sample 5 falls above the UCL, indicating that the

process average is out of statistical control and that assignable

causes must be explored, perhaps using a cause-and-effect

diagram.

Sample the process Find the assignable cause

Eliminate the problem Repeat the cycle

14

9A-15

concluding process is

out of control or in

danger of being so

15

Average and range chart not applied

When ?

• data is collected once per period

• single value measurement

• few units of each product

• individual Values Chart

16

Benefits of Average and Range Charts

process variation over time.

behavior.

17

•Help you recognize and understand variability and

how to control it

•. Identify .special causes. of variation and changes in

performance

•. Determine if process improvement effects are

having the desired affects

18

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