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Average and Range chart

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Types of control charts.
Control
charts

Variable or Attribute
measurement charts. charts

Average Range
Chart Chart
(X-Bar) (R-Bar)
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Types of measurement
Measure where the metric is composed of
classification in one of two (or more)
categories is called attribute data.
• Good / Bad
• Yes / No.
Measure where the metric consists of a number
which indicates a prices value is called variable
data.
• time / hours
• Miles / Temperature

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Average charts
 In this chart the sample means are plotted in order to
control the mean value of a variable (e.g., size of piston
rings, strength of materials, etc.)

 the X-bar chart is a type of control chart that is used to


monitor the arithmetic means of successive samples of
constant size, n. This type of control chart is used for
characteristics that can be measured on a continuous
scale, such as weight, temperature, thickness etc.

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RANGE charts
 In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to
control the variability of a variable.
 Range chart shows how the range of the subgroups changes
over time.
 Simply, Range measures the variability of the process.

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Variation
• There is no two natural items in any category are the same.
• Variation may be quite large or very small.
• If variation very small, it may appear that items are identical,
but precision instruments will show differences.

SOURCES OF Variation
• Equipment
– Tool wear, machine vibration, …
• Material
– Raw material quality
• Environment
– Temperature, pressure, humadity
• Operator
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– Operator performs- physical & emotional
Average and Range-Charts Example

The management of West Allis Industries is concerned


about the production of a special metal screw used by
several of the company’s largest customers. The diameter
of the screw is critical to the customers. Data from five
samples appear in the table below. The sample size is 4. Is
the process in statistical control?

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RANGE Chart

SOLUTION
Step 1: For simplicity, we collect only 5 samples. In practice,
more than 20 samples would be desirable. The data are
shown in the following table.

Sample Special Metal Screw


Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4
1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027
2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020
3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023
4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015
5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047

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RANGE Chart
Step 2: Compute the range for each sample by subtracting the
lowest value from the highest value. For example, in sample
1 the range is 0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018 in. Similarly, the
ranges for samples 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 0.0021, 0.0017, 0.0026,
and 0.0022 in., respectively. As shown in the table, R =
0.0021.
0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018
Special Metal Screw
Sample Samples
Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4 R
1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018
2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021
3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017
4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026
5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039 0.0022
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R= 0.0021
RANGE Chart

Step 3: To construct the R-chart, select the appropriate constants


from Table for a sample size of 4. The control limits are

Factor for Factor


Size of LCL for UCL for
Sample R-Charts R-Charts
(n) (D3) (D4)
2 0 3.267
3 0 2.575
4 0 2.282
5 0 2.115
R = 0.0021 6 0 2.004
7 0.076 1.924
D4 = 2.282 8 0.136 1.864
9 0.184 1.816
D3 = 0 10 0.223 1.777

UCLR = D4R = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.


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LCLR = D3R = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.
RANGE Chart
Step 4: Plot the ranges on the R-chart, as shown in Figure 5.10. None
of the sample ranges falls outside the control limits so the
process variability is in statistical control. If any of the
sample ranges fall outside of the limits, or an unusual pattern
appears, we would search for the causes of the excessive
variability, correct them, and repeat step 1.

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Average Chart
Step 1: Compute the mean for each sample. For example, the mean
for sample 1 is
(0.5014 + 0.5022 + 0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 =0.5018

Special Metal Screw


Sample Samples
Number Obs.1 Obs.2 Obs.3 Obs.4 X
1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.5018
2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.5027
3 0.5018 0.50260.5035 0.5023 0.5026
4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.5020
5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039 0.5045

X = 0.5027
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Average and Range-Charts Example
Step 2: Now construct the x-chart for the process average. The average
screw diameter is 0.5027 in., and the average range is 0.0021 in.,
so use x = 0.5027, R = 0.0021, and A2 from Table 5.1 for a
sample size of 4 to construct the control limits:

Factor for UCL and LCL


for X charts
(n) (A2)
2 1.880
3 1.023
4 0.729
5 0.577
6 0.483

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729 =
x = 0.5027

UCLx = x=+ A2R = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.


LCLx = x=- A2R = 0.5027 – 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5012 in.
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Average and Range-Charts Example
Step 3: Plot the sample means on the control chart, as shown in Figure
5.11.
The mean of sample 5 falls above the UCL, indicating that the
process average is out of statistical control and that assignable
causes must be explored, perhaps using a cause-and-effect
diagram.
Sample the process Find the assignable cause
Eliminate the problem Repeat the cycle

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Common criteria for


concluding process is
out of control or in
danger of being so
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Average and range chart not applied

When ?
• data is collected once per period
• single value measurement
• few units of each product
• individual Values Chart

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Benefits of Average and Range Charts

• Focuses attention on detecting and monitoring


process variation over time.

• Distinguishes “special” from “common” causes.

• Helps predict performance of a process.

• Helps improve a process to perform consistently.

• Provides a common language to discuss process


behavior.

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•Help you recognize and understand variability and
how to control it
•. Identify .special causes. of variation and changes in
performance
•. Determine if process improvement effects are
having the desired affects

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