Slajd 1

Kwasy karboksylowe

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Slajd 2

Związki zawierające ugrupowanie
karbonylowe

kwas karboksylowy

chlorek acylu
bromek acylu
halogenek acylu

ester

bezwodnik kwasowy

amid

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Slajd 3

względna reaktywnośc pochodnych kwasów karboksylowych

chlorek acylu

bezwodnik

ester

kwas karboksylowy

amid

rosnąca aktywność

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Slajd 4

Kwasy karboksylowe reagują według tego samego
mechanizmu

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Slajd 5 Nazewnictwo kwasów karboksylowych nazwa systematyczna: kwas metanowy nazwa zwyczajowa: kwas mrówkowy kwas pentanowy kwas walerianowy kwas etanowy kwas octowy kwas heksanowy kwas propanowy kwas propionowy kwas butanowy kwas masłowy kwas propenowy kwas akrylowy kwas benzenokarboksylowy kwas benzoesowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 6 kwas α-chloropropanowy kwas γ-aminobutanowy kwas β-metylobutanowy (kwas izowalerianowy) _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 7 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 8 Dimery kwasów karboksylowych stabilizowane wiązaniem wodorowym _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 9 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 10 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 11 najwięcej najmniej mniej _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 12 Sole kwasów karboksylowych mrówczan sodu octan potasu beznoesan sodu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 13 kwas karboksylowy silna zasada sól _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 14 sól odtworzony kwas przykład octan sodu kwas octowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 15 kwas octowy kwas chlorooctowy kwas dichlorooctowy kwas trichlorooctowy mocniejszy kwas kwas 4-chlorooctowy kwas 3-chlorooctowy kwas 2-chlorooctowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 16 alkohol alkoholan kwas karboksylowy energia anion karboksylanowy stabilizacja anionu karboksylanowego _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 17 Estry octan etylu propanonian fenylu 3-bromobutanonian metylu cykloheksanokarboksylan etylu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 18 kwas alkohol ester przykład kwas ftalowy ktalan dimetylu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 19 Mechanizm estryfikacji katalizowanej kwasem protonowany kwas karboksylowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 20 stabilizowane rezonansem ester _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 21 Aktywowanie kwasów karboksylowych _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 22 Otrzymywanie chlorków kwasowych bezwodnik chlorosiarczanowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 23 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 24 przykład lub chlorek tionylu kwas oleinowy chlorek oleilu chlorek oksalilu kwas 3-fenylopropanowy kwas 3-fenylopropanowy chlorek 3-fenylopropioilu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 25 kwas lub ester chlorek kwasowy przykład kwas benzoesowy chlorek benzoilu benzoesan etylu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 26 Estry cykliczne nazywane są laktonami δ-kaprolakton β-butyrylolakton γ-butyrylolakton γ-kaprolakton _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 27 kwas diazometan ester metylowy przykład kwas cyklobutanokarboksylowy cyklobutanokarboksylan metylu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 28 Reakcje estrów hydroliza octan metylu kwas octowy transestryfikacja benzoesan metylu benzoesan etylu _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 29 mechanizm hydrolizy estrów katalizowany jonem wodorotlenowym Ta reakcja jest nieodwracalna _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Slajd 30 aminoliza propionian etylu N-metylopropionamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 31 Tłuszcze są triestrami glicerolu tłuszcz glicerol sól sodowa kwasów tłuszczowych mydło _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 32 Amidy etanoamid acetamid 4-chlorobutanoamid benzenokarboksyamid benzamid cis-2-etylocykloheksanokarboksyamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 33 Otrzymywanie amidów chlorek kwasowy amina amid przykład chlorek acetylu metyloamina N-metyloacetamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 34 kwas kwas benzoesowy amina etyloamina sól amonowa kwasu karboksylowego benzoesan etyloamoniowy amid N-etylobenzamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 35 Odwodnienie amidów _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 36 Hydroliza amidów N-etyloacetamid N-metylobenzamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 37 Reakcje bezwodników bezwodnik octowy bezwodnik benzoesowy bezwodnik propionowy octan etylu kwas octowy kwas benzoesowy N-metylopropionamid _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 38 mechanizm przekształcenia bezwodnika w ester _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 39 kwas alkohol pierwszorzędowy przykład kwas fenylooctowy 2-fenyloetanol _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Slajd 40 chlorek kwasowy aldehyd przykład kwas izobutanowy chlorek izobutyrylu aldehyd izobutylowy _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

Slajd 41 przykład kwas benzoesowy propylofenon _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ .

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