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INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To offer comments on the annual budgeted estimations on the accounts of a

mother dairy for the users of the financial statements to access the ability of the

mother dairy to generate cash and cash equivalents to serve the needs of the

organization.

To derive the working experience of producing budgetary statements.

To offer limited directions cash management group to steer the organization to a cash

surplus company.

• Analyzing the budgetary estimations of the organization.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Mother dairy having the continuous growth every year several divisions, the

study of budgetary control in this organization gives a fair idea on the cash

management considering the major transaction of the firm.

The budgetary estimations are taken for the project study form the annual

reports for the information, and are restricted to the last five years. Several aspects of

the firm have been considered.

The discussion is made in ensuring chapter for the budgetary estimations that

have been prepared at the end of the financial year, and the date is compared with the

past five year’s records.

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METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY:

A. Sources of the data

There are mainly two important sources through which the whole data is collected.

Primary Data

The primary data of the topic is collected by personal interaction with the

officials of the finance and accounting department and also from annuals of the

company. The financial data relating to organization has been collected for the 5years.

Secondary Data

The data collected from the websites, books and all other relevant information or

literary are taken as secondary source of data. The data thus collected is

arranged in a format.

B. Period of the data

The is the project report (live project) conducted in the month of April,2007 for 45

days. The partial fulfillment of Master of Business Administration

(MBA).

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PRESENTATION OF THE STUDY

1) The first chapter is the present scenario of the topic together with objectives
and methodology are presented.
2) The second chapter is about the profile of the MOTHER DAIRY is given in
which the study is done.
3) The third chapter is about industrial profile.
4) The fourth chapter is conceptual frame work relating to budgets and a budget
is reported through tables.
5) The fifth chapter consists of the study of budgetary control of MOTHER
DAIRY.
6) The sixth chapter consists of the suggestion & bibliography.

LIMITATIONS TOF THE STUDY

The 6 weeks period is one of the constraints to make project much more qualitatively

Findings of the study are purely based on information provided by the company other
non financial factors were not considered for analysis.

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INTRODUCTION TO DAIRYING IN INDIA :

Every morning millions of Indians wake up to find their dairy requirement of

milk waiting at their doorstep. Across the country, the dairy products like butter,

cheese, ghee, find their way into millions of homes in the metros, cities, towns and

even teeming need populate.

Milk is the nourishes of health and it was this elixir that brought forth

significant change in the lines of the people of A.P it as changed the way people

looked at life in rural India. But most of all it renewed there hopes and raised their

assumptions.

The main rust was not in just supplying milk but also in giving opportunities to

improve the quality of rural life. And maybe for the first time allowing them to dream.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF SECTORS IN DAIRYING IN INDIA.

In India there are four different kinds of sectors in the field of dairying

They are follows.

1. PRIVATE SECTOR

Individual persons forming his/her dairy shop and collects milk and sale the milk and

its products to customers directly.

2. PUBLIC SECTOR

In this kind of sector, dairying is done by govt. by purchasing milk. From middlemen

and milk producers and processing of milk is done in their own plant and then sold to

the customers.

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3. TRADING SECTOR

Production of milk products is done their primary co-operative society or co-operative

milk union at district level, by which arrangements for collection, processing and

marketing of milk is done and then it is sent to milk takers place.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES:

Co-operatives mean voluntary association on the basis of equality and for

some common purpose. The basic principle of cooperatives is “each for all and all for

each” in the words of H.CALVERT, cooperatives is a form of organization where in

persons voluntarily associate together as human beings an basis of equality for the

promotion of their economic interest of themselves”.

FEATURES OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY/UNION


• It’s membership is voluntary

• It’s organization is democratic

• It’s functioning is based on decentralized decision making principle

• Its aim is economic, social and moral development of its members

In India, evolution of cooperative societies is as old as the co-operatives ACT of

1912, which recognized non-credit forms of cooperative including marketing.

COOPERATIVE MILK UNIONS:


In India, cooperatives milk union’s structure was three tier structures. It

consists of an intermediate organization between primary societies (village level) and

the pace societies.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

INTRODUCTION TO BUDGET AND BUDGETARTY CONTROL

BUDGET:

Budget is essential in every walk of our life –national, domestic and business.
A budget is prepared is to have effective utilization of funds and for the realization of
objective as effective utilization of funds and for the realization of objective as
efficiently as possible. Budgeting is a powerful tool to the management for
performing its functions i.e., efficiently. For efficient and effective and budgetary
control provides a set of basic techniques for planning and control are two highly
essential functions. Budget and budgetary control provides a set of basic techniques
for planning and control.
A budget fixes a target in terms of rupees or quantities against which the
actual performance is measured. A budget is closely related to both the management
function as well as the accounting function of an organization.
As the size of the organization increases, the need for budge thing is
correspondingly more because a budget is an effective tool of planning and control.
Budget is helpful in coordinating the various activities (such as production, sales,
purchase etc) of the organization with result that all the activities precede according to
the objective. Budgets are means of communication. Ideas of the top management are
given practical shape. As the activities department heads are coordinated at the much
needed for the very success of an organization. Budget is necessary to future to
motive the staff associate, to coordinate the activities of different department and to
control the performance of various persons operating at different levels.
Budgets maybe divided into two basic classes. Capital and operating Budgets. Capital
Budgets are directed towards proposed expenditure for new projects and often require
special financing.
The operating Budgets are directed towards achieving short-term operational
goals of the organization for instance, production or profit goals in a business firm.

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Operating Budgets maybe sub-divided into various departmental of functional
Budgets .

DEFINITION OF BUDGET

According to institute of charted management accountants, England “ a plan

quantified in monetary term prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time

usually showing planned income to be generated and/ or to be incurred during that

period and the capital to be employed to attain a given objective.”

According to ICMA, England, a Budgets is “financial and/or quantitative

statement, prepared and approved prior to be defined period of time, of the policy to

be pursed during the period for the purpose of attaining a given objective.”

It is also defined as “a blue print of protected plan of a action of a business for

a definite period of time.”

BUDGETARY CONTROL:

No system of planning can be successful without having an effective and efficient

system of control. Budgeting is closely connected with control. The exercise of

control in the organization with the help of Budgets is known as budgetary control.

The process of budgetary control includes.

1. Establishment of Budgets for each function and section of the organization.

2. Executive responsibility in order to perform the specific tasks so that objective

of the enterprise maybe attained.

3. Continuous comparison of the actual performance with that of the budget and

placing the responsibility of executives for failure to achieve the desired

results a given in the Budgets.

4. Taking suitable remedial action to achieve the desired objective if there is a

variation of the actual performance from the Budgeted performance.

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5. revision of Budgets in the light of changed circumstances.

DEFINITION OF BUDGETARY CONTROL:

According to the brown and Howard “ Budgetary control is the system of

controlling costs which includes the preparation of Budgets , co-coordinating the

department and establishing the responsibilities, comparing the actual performance

with the Budgeted and acting up in the results to achieve the maximum profitability.”

According to the j. Betty ”system which uses Budgets as means of planning and

controlling all aspects of producing and/selling commodities and services”

According to the CIMA, London, “Budgetary control is the establishment of Budgets

gets relating to responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and the

continuous comparison of actual with Budgeted results, either to secure by individual

action the objective of that policy or to provide a basis for revision.

Row land and William in their book entitled Budgeting for management control has

given the difference between Budgets. Budgeting and budgeter control as follow:

“Budgets are the individual objectives of an department etc where as budgeting may

be said to be the act of budgets. Budgetary control embraces all this and in addition

includes the science of planning the Budgets themselves and the utilization of such

Budgets to efforts on overall management too! For the business planning and

control.” Thus , a budget is financial plan and budgetary control results from the

administration of the financial plan.

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ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A BUDGETARY:

► Budgetary control defines the objective and policies of the undertaking as a whole.

►it is an effective method of controlling the activities of various departments of a

business unit. It fixed targets and the various departments have to efficiently to teach

the targets.

►it is an effective method of controlling the activities of various departments of a

business unit. It fixed targets and the various departments have to efficiently to reach

the targets.

►it secures proper co ordination among the activities of various departments.

►it helps the management to fix up responsibility in case the performance is below

expectation.

► it helps the management to reduce wasteful expenditure. This leads to reduction in

the cost of production.

►it brings in efficiency and economy by promoting cost consciousness among the
employees.
►it facilitates centralized control with decentralized activity.

►it acts as internal audit by a continuous evaluation of departmental results and costs.

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ADVANTAGES OF BUDGET AND BUDGERTARY CONTROL.

There are a number of advantages to budgetary control:

● Compels management to think about the future, which is probably the most

important feature of a budgetary planning and control system. Forces management to

look ahead, to set out detailed plans for achieving the targets for each department,

operation and (ideally) each manager, to anticipate and give the organization purpose

and direction.

● Promotes coordination and communication.

● Clearly defines areas of responsibility. Requires of budget centers to he made

responsible for the achievement of budget targets for the operations under their

personal control.

● provides a basis for performance appraisal (variance analysis). A budget is

basically a yardstick against which actual performance is was unread assessed.

Control is provided by comparisons of actual results against budget plan. Departures

from budget can then be investigated and the reasons for the differences can be

divided into controllable and non-controllable factors.

● Enables remedial action to be taken as variances emerge.

● Motivates employees by participating in the setting of budgets.

● Improves the allocation of scarce resources.

● Economizes management time by using the management by exception principle.

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PROBLEMS IN BUDGETING

Whilst budgets may be an essential part of any marketing activity they do have

a number of disadvantages, particularly in perception terms.

● Budgets can be seen as pressure devices imposed by management, thus


resulting in:

i) Bad labor relations

ii) In accurate record keeping

●Departmental conflict arises due to:

i)Disputes over resource allocation

ii)Departments blaming each other if targets are not attained.

●It is difficult to reconcile personal/individual and corporate goals.

● Waste may arise as managers adopt the view, “we had better spend it or we will lose it”.

This is often coupled with “empire building” in order to enhance the prestige of a department.

Responsibility versus controlling, i.e. some costs are under the influence of more than one
person, e.g. power costs.

● Managers may overestimate costs so that they will not be blamed in the future
should they overspend.

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LIMITATION OF BUDGETARY CONTROL

►The preparation of a Budget under inflationary conditions and changing government

policies is really difficult. Thus, the accurate position of the business cannot be

estimated.

►Accuracy in budgeting comes through expenditure. Hence it should not be relied on

too much in the initial stages.

►Budget is only a management tool. It is not a sub stature for management. It cannot

be replace management in decision marking.

►Budgeting involves a heavy expenditure, which small concerns cannot afford.

►There will be active and passive resistance to budgetary control as it points out the

efficiency or on efficiency of individuals.

►The success of budgetary control depends upon willing co-operation and team work.

This is often lacking.

►Frequent changes maybe called for in budgets due to fast changing industrial

revision of Budgets is expensive exercise.

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PLANNING

A Budget is a plan of the policy to be pursued during the defined period of

time to attain a given objective. The Budget control will force management at all the

Activities to be done during the future periods Budget as a plan of action achieves the

following purpose:

►Action is guided by well thought out plan because a budget prepared after a careful

study and research.

►The budget serves as mechanism though which management objectives and policies

are affected.

►It is bridge through which communication is establish between the top management

and the operatives who are to implement the policies of the top management.

► The most profitable course of action is selected from the various available

alternatives.

CO-ORDINATION:
The Budgetary control co-ordinates the various activities of the firm and

secure co-ordinates the various activities of the firm and secures co-operation of all

concerned so that the common so that the common objective of the firm maybe

successfully achieved. It forces executive to think and think as a group. It

coordinating the policies, plan and action. An organization without a budgetary

control is like a ship sailing in a chartered sea. A Budget gives direction to the

business and imparts meaning and significance to its achievements by making

comparison of actual performance and badgered performance.

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MOTIVATION

At employees actively participated imbued preparation and if they are

convinced that their personal interest are closely associated with the success of

organizational plan, Budget provide motivation in the form of goals to be achieved.

The Budget will motivate the workers, depends purely on how the workers have been

mentally and physically involved with the process of Budgeting .

CONTROL

Control consists of the action necessary to ensure the performance of the

organization confirms to the plans and objectives. Control of performance is possible

with predetermined standards, which are laid down in the budget.

Thus. Budgetary control makes control possible by continuous comparison of

actual performance with that of the budget so as to report the variations from the

budget to the management of corrective action.

Thus, Budgeting system integrates key managerial functions as it links top

management planning function with the control function performed at all levels in the

managerial hierarchy. But the efficiency of the Budget as a planning.

And control device depends upon the activity in which it is being used. The more

accurate budget can be developed for those activities where direct relationship exists between

inputs and outputs. The relationship between inputs and outputs.

Becomes the basis for developing Budgets and exercising control.

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APPROVED PLAN

A master Budget provides an approved summary of results to be expected from

proposed plan of operations. It concerns all functions of organizations and serves as a guide to

executives and departmental heads responsible for various departmental objectives.

COMMUNICATION
The employees of an organization should know organizational aims, adjectives

of sub units {Budget centers} and the part that thy have to play for their adamant.

Affectively communicate this information to employees. Besides, budgets keep

different sections of organization informed about the contribution of different sub

units in the attainment of over all organizational objectives.

BUDGET PROCEDURE

Having the Budget organization and fix the period, the actual work or

Budgetary control can be taken up to the following pattern.

STEPS IN BUDGETARY CONRTOL

Organization for Budgeting up of definite plans of organization is a first a step

towards installing Budgetary controlling system in any organization a Budgets

manual should be prepared giving detail of the powers, sixties, responsibilities and

areas of operation of each executive in each organization.

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BUDGETARY MANUAL

A budgetary manual lays down the details of an organizational set up, the

routine procedures and programmers to be followed for developing budgets for

various items and the duties and responsibilities of the executives regarding the

operation of the budgetary control system. CIMA England defines a budgetary

manual as “ a document schedule or book let which sets out inter alias, the routine of

and the forms and records required for budgetary control”.

Thus, it is a document, which guides the executives in preparing various

budgets. Budgets are to be drawn keeping in view the objectives of the organization

given the Budget manual, responsibility and functions of each executive in regard to

Budgeting are return sown in the budget manual to avoid any duplication or

overlapping of responsibilities, steps and the methods developing various budgets and

the methods of reporting performance against the budget are return down in the

budget manual. In short it is a written document, which gives everything relating to

the preparation and execution of carious Budgets , it should be clear and there should

be no ambiguity in it.

The following are some of the most important matters covered in budget manual.

1) Introducing and brief explanation of the objects, benefits and principles of

budgets and principles of budgetary control.

2) Organization chart giving the titles to different personals with full explanation

of the duties each to operating system and preparation of departmental and

functional budgets.

3) Length of budget periods and control periods should be clearly stated

4) A method of accounting and control of expenditure.

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5) A statement showing a responsibility given to each manager for approval of

budgets, vouchers and all other forms and documents which authorized them

to spend money. The authority for granting approval must be clearly stated.

6) The entire process of budgeting programmed including the timetable for

periodically reporting. A schedule should be drawn for this.

7) Purpose, specimen form and other number of copies to be used for each report

and statement. Budget centers should also be clearly stated.

8) Outline of main Budgets and their accounting relationships

9) Explanation of key Budgets.

FIXATION OF BUDGET PERIOD:

The Budget period mean the period for which a Budget is prepared and employed. The

Budget period will depend upon the type of business and the control aspect.

Budget period mean the period for which a Budget is prepared and employed. The Budget

period depends upon the nature of the business and the control techniques. For example, in

case of seasonal industries (i.e., food or clothing) the Budget period should be a short one and

should cover one season. But in case of industries with heavy capital expenditure such as

heavy engineering works, the budget period should be ling enough to meet the requirements

of the business. From control point of view , the budget period should be a short one so that

the actual results may be compared with the budget each week end or month end and

discussed with the discussed with Budget committee. Long term Budgets should be

supplemented by short term Budgets to make the Budgetary control successful, as short-terms

Budgets will helping exercising control over day-today operations .in short, the budget period

should not be too ling so that there may be sufficient time before budget implementation. For

most business, annual budget is quite common because it compares with the financial

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accounting year.

There should be a regular time plan for budget preparation. It may be on the following lines.
• Long-term budgets for three to five years should be prepared for expansion and

modernization of the undertaking, introduction of new products or new projects and

undertaking advertisement.

• Annual budgets coinciding with financial accounting year should be prepared for the

operations activities (i.e., sales, purchases, and production etc., of the business).

• For control purposes, shot -term budgets-monthly or even weekly budget-short-term

budgets are prepared to see that actual performance is preceding according to the

budgets and early corrective action may be taken if there is any pitfall.

BUDGETARY CONTROLLER:

Although the chief executive I finally responsible for the budgetary programmer. It is

better if a large part of the supervisory responsibility is deluged to an official

designated as Budget Controller or Budget Director. Such a person should have

knowledge of the technical details of the business and report directly to the president

or the chief executive.

ROLLING (CONTINUES) BUDGET:

This is a budget which is updated continuously by adding a further period(a

month/quarter) and deducting a corresponding earlier period. Budgeting is a

continuous process under these methods of preparation of Budget. Once the first

period elapses, the forecast for that period is dropped and the forecast reliably, this

method is useful. However, it is a costly exercise but matched by considerable

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reduction in operational variances.

ANNUAL VS CONTINUES BUDGETING SYSTEM:


In some organizations budgets are prepared on annual basis. But annual

budgets may not help the management to have control because variances due to

rapidly changing conditions affect the sales in quantity and prices, severe rapidly

changing conditions affect the sales in quantity and prices, severe inflationary

conditions exist resulting fast increase in the prices, severe inflationary sales prices

immediately and wide range of products being produced making it not feasible to

have precise estimate of activity for a year .

The procedure in continuous budgeting will be that a year will be divided into

four quarters. Monthly budgets for the first quarter and three quarterly budgets for the

next year can be prepared . For the first quarter precise estimates can be drawn up

monthly . The; budget estimates for the second quarter may be revised working out

separately monthly estimates on more precise basis for control purposes before the

starting of the second quarter.

Similarly procedure may be followed for third and fourth quarter . This

method a time which need not be in respect of or coincide with the financial year. It

will enable to evolve a precise plan of action and control of variance functions at the

least for the immediate quarter and a broad tentative one the subsequent three quarters

on a continues basis.

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PRINCIPAL BUDGET (LIMTTING) FACTOR:
Principal budget factor is such an important factor that it would affect all the

functional budgets to a large extent. The extent of its influence must be assessed first

in order to ensure that functional budgets are reasonably capable of fulfillment. This is

the factor in the activities of an undertaking which at a particular point in time or over

a period will limit the volume of output. It is the governing factor which is a major

constraint on all the operational activities of the organization, so this factor is taken

into consideration to determine whether the budgets are capable of attainment. It is

essential to locate the limiting factor may be any one of the following:

Is there sufficient demand for the product?(customer demand) Will a required


quality and quantity of materials be available? (Availability of raw material)
Is the plant capacity sufficient to cope up with the expected sales? (Plant capacity)

Is the required type of labor available?( available of labor)

Is cash position sufficient to finance the expected volume of sales?(cash position)

Are there any Government restrictions?( Government restrictions)

For example: A concern has the capacity to produce 50,000 units of particular

item per year. But only 30,000 units can be sold in the market. In this case, low

demand for the product is the limiting factor. Therefore sales budget should be

prepared first and other functional budgets, such as production budget, labor budget,

plant utilization budget, cash budget etc. should be prepared in accordance with this

case plant capacity is limited. Therefore, production budget should be prepared first

and other budgets should follow the production budget.

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Thus, the budget relating to limiting factor should be prepared first and the

other budgets should be prepared in the light of that factor. All budgets should be co-

coordinated keeping in view the principal budget factor if the budgetary control is to

achieve the desired results.

Principal budget factor is not static. It may very rapidly from time to time due

to internal and external factors. It is of temporary nature and in the light run can be

overcome by suitable management taking sales promotion steps as increasing sales

staff and advertising. Plant capacity can be improved by better planning,

simplification of product or extension of plant.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUDGETS;

Different types of budgets have been developed keeping in view the different

purposes they serve. Budgets can be classified according to:

The coverage they encompass;

The capacity to which they are related;

The conditions on which they are based; and

The periods which they cover.

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FUNCTIONAL BUDGET:

A functional budget is a budget which relates to any of the functions of an

undertaking e.g., sales, production, research and development, cash etc, the following

budgets are generally prepared.

Budget Prepared by

1. Sales Budget including selling Sales Manager


And distribution cost Budget Production Manager
2. Production Budget Purchase Manager
3. Material Budgets Personnel Manager
4. Labor and Personnel Budget Production Manager
5. Manufacturing Overheads Finance Manager
6. Administration Cost Budget Production Manager
7. Plant Utilization Budget Chief Executive
8. Capital Expenditure Budget
9. Research and Development Cost R&D Manager
10. Cash Budgets Finance Manager

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SALES BUDGET:

Sales budget is the most important budget and of primary importance. It forms the

basis in which all the budgets are built up. This budget period. Every quantities and

values of sales to be achieved in a budget in a budget period. Ever effort should be

made to ensure that its figures are as accurate as possible because this is usually the

starting budget (sales being limiting factor on which all the other budgets are built

up). The sales manager should be mode directly responsible for he preparation and

execution of the budget. The sales budget may be prepared according to products,

sales territories, types of customers; salesmen etc., in the preparation of the sales

budget, the sales manager should take into consideration the following factors.

1. Past Sales Figures and Trends.


2. Sale sales men Estimation
3. Plant Capacity
4. Availability of Raw Material and other Supplies
5. General Trade Prospects
6. Orders in Hand
7. Seasonal Fluctuations
8. Financial Aspect
9. Adequate Return on Capital Employed
10. Compeition
11. Miscellanecous Considerations

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PRODUCTION BUDGET:

Production budget is a forecast of the total output of the whole organization

broken down into estimates of output of each type of product with a scheduling of

operations (by weeks and months) to be performed and a recast of the closing finished

stock. This budget may be expressed in quantitative (weight, units et) financial

(rupees) units or both. This budget is prepared after taking into consideration the

estimated sales and the desired closing finished stock of each product. The works

manager is responsible for the total production budget and the departmental managers

are responsible for the departmental production budget. In preparing the production

budget, the following factors are considered.

The time lag between the production in the factor and sales to the customer

should be considered so as to allow fro the time required or the dispatch of goods

from the factory to the place of the customers.

The stock of goods to be maintained both at the factory’s go gown and at he sales

centers.

The level of production needed to meet the sales programme. Monthly production

targets should be fixed and it should be seen that production is kept more or less at a

uniform level throughout the year. The material labor and plant requirements should

be ascertained to have the desired production to meet the sales programme.

The sales and the production are inter-dependant because production budget is

governed by the sales budget and the sales budget is largely determined by the

production capacity and by production costs.

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COST OF PRODUCTION BUDGET;
After determining the volume of output the cost of procuring the output must
be obtained by preparing a cost of production budget. This budget is an estimate of
cost of output planned for a budget period and may be classified into material cost
budget, labor cost budget and overhead budget because cost of production includes
material. Labor and overheads.
MATERIALS BUDGET;
In drawing up the production budget, one of the first requirements to be

considered is material. As we know, materials may be direct or fin direct. The

materials budget deals with the requirements and procurement of direct materials.

Indirect materials are dealt with under the works overhead budget. The budget should

be related to the production budget and the period of the budget should be of short

duration because this budget has an important bearing on the cash budget.

PURCHASE BUDGET:
Purchase Budget is mainly dependent on production budget and material
requirement budget. This budget provides information about the materials to be
acquired from the market during the b period.
Purchase budget should be prepared by the purchase manager by getting relevant
information about capital items, general supplies and direct materials required during
the budget period from other related departments. Like other budgets , the purchase
budget has to be approved by the budget committee. After approval it becomes the
responsibility of the purchases which are not covered by the purchase budget are
made under the following circumstances.
If there is increase in production not anticipated while preparing the purchase budget

and purchase of larger quantities of materials becomes necessary.

If accumulation of stock becomes necessary to avoid shortage of materials.


If overstocking is desired to advantage of lower prices and there is fear that price will
increase in near future. The purchase manager should get additional sanctions from
the higher authorities for making the additional purchases not I covered by the
purchase budget.

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DIRECT LABOR BUDGET:
This budget gives as estimate of the requirements of direct labor essential to

meet the production target. This budget may be classified into labor requirements

budget and requirement budget. The labor requirement budget is developed on the

basis of requirement of the production budget given and detailed information

regarding he different classes of labor e.g., fitters, welders, turner, millers, and

grinders and drillers etc., required for each department, their scales of pay and hours

to be spent. This budget is prepared with a view too enable the personnel department

to carry out programmers of training and training and transfer and to find out sources

of labour needed so that every of effort may be made to remove difficulties arising in

production the available workers in each department, the expected changes in the

labour force during the budget period due to the labour turnovers. This budget gives

information about the personnel specification for the jobs for which workers are to be

recruited, the degree for skill and experience required and the rates of pay. Where

standard costing system is applied, the lacor cost budget is developed on the basis of

standard in the production budget . if standard costing system is not being followed in

the organization, the information of labour cost may be obtained from past records or

estimated cost.

Sometimes another budget known as Manpower budget is prepared. This

budget gives the requirements of direct and indirect labour necessary to meet the

programmer set out in the sales, manufacturing maintenance, research and

development and capital expenditure budget s. the labour terms are expressed of rupee

value, number of labor hours, number and grade of workers etc. this budget makes

provision for shift and overtime work and for the effective training for new workers

on labour cost.

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MANUFACTURING OVERHEADS BUDGET:
This budget gives an estimate of the works overhead expenses to be in creed in
a budget period to achieve the production target. The budget includes the cost of
indirect material indirect works expenses. The budget may be classified into fixed
cost, charitable cost and semi-variable cost. It can be broken into departmental
overhead budget to facilitate control. In preparing the budget, fixed works overhead
can be estimated on the basis of past information after taking into consideration the
expected changes which may occur during the budget period. Variable expenses are
estimated on the bases of the budgeted output because these expenses are bound to
change with the change in put.
The Cost Account prepares this budget on the basis of figures available in the
manufacturing overhead ledger or the head of the workshop may be asked to give
estimates for the manufacturing expenses. A good method is to combine the estimates
of the Cost Accountant and the shop executive.

ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES BUDGET:


This budget covers the expenses incurred in framing policies, directing the
organization and controlling the business operations. In other words, the budget
provides as estimate of the central office and of management salaries. The budget can
be prepared with the help of past experience and anticipated changes. Budget may be
prepared be prepared for each administration department so that responsibility for
increasing such expenses. This budget covers the expenses incurred in framing
policies, directing the organization and controlling the business operations. In other
words, the budget provides an executive. Much difficulty is not experiences in
developing such budget as most of the administration expenses are of a fixed nature.
Although fixed expenses remain constant and are not related to sale volume in the sort
run, they are dependent upon sales in the ling run. With a small change in output, they
did not change. However, if there is persistent fall in output, administration expenses
will have to be reduced by discharging the services of some members of the staff and
taking other economy measures. On the other hand, with persistent increase in output
or business activity, administration expenses will increase but they may lag behind
business activity.

27
BUDGETED INCOME STATEMENT:

A budgeted income statement summarizes all the individual budget i.e., sales

budget, cost of goods sold budget, selling budget, and administrative sales budget.

This budget determines income before taxes. If the tax rate is available net income

after taxes can also be computed.

SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION COST BUDGET:

This budget is the forecast of the cost selling and distribution for budget

period and is clearly related to the sale budget. All expenses related to selling and

distribution of the various products as indicated in the sales budget is included in it.

These expenses are based on the volume of sales set in the sales budget and budget

and budgets are prepared for each item of selling and distribution overhead. Long

term expenses.

As advertisement are spread over more than one period. Selling and

distribution overheads are divided into fixed and variable category with reference to

volume of sales. Separate budgets are prepared for variable and fixed items of selling

and distribution overheads. Certain items of selling and distribution costs as cost of

transport department are included in the departmental production cost budget from

control point of view rather that including in selling and distribution costs budget.

28
PLANT UTILIZATION BUDGET:

This budget lays sown the requirements of plant capacity to carry out the

production as per the production programmer. This budget is terms of convenient

physical units as weight or number of products or working hours.

The main functions of this budget are:

The will show the machine load in each department during the

Budget period

It will indicate the overloading on some departments, machine or group of machine

and alternative courses of actions as working overtime, off loading , procurement or

expansion of plants, sub-contracting etc., can be taken.

Idle capacity in some departments may be utilized by making efforts to increase the

demand for the products by providing after sale service, conducting advertisement

campaign, reducing prices, introducing lucky pries coupons, recruiting efficient sales

staff etc.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE BUDGET:

The capital expenditure budget gives an estimate of the amount of capital that

may be needed for acquiring the assets required for fulfilling production requirements

a specified in the production budget. The budget is prepared after taking into

consideration in the available productive capacities, building budget etc. The capital

expenditure budget is an important budget providing for acquisition of assets

necessitated by the following factors:

29
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COST BUDGET

While developing research and development cost budget, it should be clear in

mind that work relating to research and development is different from that relating to

the manufacturing function. Manufacturing function gives quicker results than

Research and development witch may go on for several years. Therefore, these

budgets are established on a long term basis: say for 5 to 10 years which can be

further subdivided into short-term budgets on annual basis. As a rule research

workers are less cost conscious: so they are not susceptible to strict control. A

research and development budget is prepared taking into consideration the research

projects in hand and the new research projects in hand and the new search and

development projects to be taken up. Thus this budget provides an estimate of the

expenditure to be incurred on research and development during the budget period.

After fixation of the research and development cost budget, the research

executive fixes priorities for the various research and development projects and

submits research and development projects authorization forms to the budget

committee. The projects are finally approved by the senior executive. Before giving

the approval, the expenditure on research and development is matched against the

benefits likely to be availed of from the new project; after the approval of the budget,

a close watch is kept on the expenditure so that it may not exceed budget provisions.

It is also seen that extent of progress made is commensurate with the expenditure

incurred.

30
CASH (FINANCIAL) BUDGET:

The cash budget can be prepared by any of the following method:


1. Receipts and payments method
2. The adjusted profit and loss method
3. The balance sheet method

1. Receipts and payments method:

In case of this method the cash receipts from various sources and the cash payments

to various agencies are estimated. In the opening balance of cash, estimated cash

receipts are added and from the total of estimated cash payments re deducted to find

out of the closing balance.

2. The adjusted profit and loss method:

In case of this method the cash budget is prepared in the basis of opening cash and

bank balance of the various assets an liabilities.

3. The balance sheet method:

With the help of budget balances at end except cash and bank balance, a budgeted

balance sheet can be prepared and the balancing figure would be the estimated closing

cash/bank balance.

Thus under this method, closing balances, other than cash/bank will have to be found

out first to be put in the budget balance sheet. This can be done by adjusting the

anticipated.

31
MASTER BUDGET (FINALISED PROFIT PLAN)

The master budget is consolidated summary of the various functional budgets.

It has been defined as “a summary of the budget schedules in capsule form made for

the purpose of presenting, in one report, the highlights of the budget forecast”. The

definition of this budget given by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountant,

England, is as follows :

“Thus summary budget incorporating its components functional budgets and

which are finally approved and employed”.

The master budget is prepared by the budget committee in the basis of co-coordinated

functional budgets and becomes the target summaries functional budget to produce a

budgeted profit and Loss Account and a Budget Balance Sheet as at the end of the

budget period.

FIXED BUDGET:

This budget is drawn for one level of activity and one set of conditions. It has
been defined as a budget which is designed to remain unchanged irrespective of the
volume of output or turnover attained. It is rigid budget and is drawn on the
assumption that there will be no change in the budgeted level of activity. A fixed
budget will, there dour, be useful only when the actual level of activity corresponds to
the budgeted level of activity.

A master budget tailored to single output level of (say) 20,000 units of sales is
a typical example of a fixed budget. But in practice, the level of activity and set
condition will change as a result of internal limitations and external factors like
changes in demand and price shortage of materials and power, acute competition etc.
it is hardly of any use as a mechanism of budgetary control because it does not make
any distinction between fixed, variable and semi-variable costs and provides for no
adjustment in the budget fixed as result of change in cost due to change in level of
activity. It is also not helpful at all in the fixation of price and submission of tenders.

32
FLEXIBLE BUDGET:

The chartered Institute of Management Accountants, defines a flexible budget also

called sliding scale budget as a budget which, by recognizing the difference in

behavior between field and variable costs in relation to fluctuations in output,

turnover, or other variable factors such a number of employees, is designed to change

appropriately with such fluctuations. This, a flexible budget gives different budgeted

costs for different levels of activity. A flexible budget making an intelligent

classification of all expenses between fixed, semi-variable and variable because the

usefulness of such a budget depend upon the accuracy with which the expenses can be

classified. Such a budget is prescribed in the following cases.

• Where the level of activity during the year varies from period, either due to the
seasonal nature of the industry or to variation in demand.

• Where the business is a new one and it is difficult to foresee the demand.

• Where the undertaking is suffering from shortage of a factor o production such


as materials, labors, plant, capacity etc. the level of activity depends upon the
availability of such a factor of production.

• Where an industry is influenced by changes in fashion.

• Where there are general changes in sales.

• Where the business units keep on introducing new products or make changes
in the its products frequently.

• Where the industries are engaged in make to order business like ship building.

33
BASIC BUDGET:
A basic budget has been defined as a budget which is prepared for use

unaltered over a ling period of time. This does not take into consideration current

conditions and can be attainable under standard conditions.

CURRENT BUDGET:

A current Budget can define a budget which is related to the current conditions

and is prepared for use over a short period of time. This budget is more useful than a

basic budget, as a target of lays down will be corrected to current conditions.

LONG-TERM BUDGET:

A Long-Term budget can be defined as a budget, which is prepared for period

longer than a year. These budgets help in business forecasting and forward planning.

Capital Expenditure Budget and research and Development Budget are examples of

long-term budgets.

SHORT TERM BUDGET:


This budget is defined as a budget, which is prepared for period less than year
and is very useful to lower levels of management for control purposes. Such budgets
are prepared for those activities the trend in which is difficult to foresee over longer
periods. Cash budget and material budget are examples of short term budget
Performance Budgeting has its origin in U.S.A. after Second World War. It
ties to rectify some of the shortcoming in the traditional b. in the traditional budget
amount are earmarked for the objects of expenditures such as salaries, travel, office
expenses, grant in aid etc. in such system of budgeting the money concept was given
more prominence i.e., estimating or projection rupee value for the various accounting
heads or classification of revenue and cost. Such system of budgeting was more
popularly used in government department and many business enterprises. But is such
system of budgeting control of performance in terms of physical units or the related
costs cannot be achieved.

34
Performance oriented budgets are established in such a manner that each item

of expenditure related to a specific responsibility centre is closely linked with the

performance of that centre. The basic issue involved in the fixation of performance

budgets is that of developing work programmers and performance expectation by

assignees responsibility, necessary for the attaining of goals and objectives of the

enterprise, it involves establishment or well defined centers of responsibilities,

establishment for each responsibility centre-a programmed of target performance in

physical units, forecasting the amount of expenditure required to meet the amount of

expenditure required to meet the physical plan laid down and evaluation of

performance.

ZERO BASED BUDGET:


This budget is the preparation of budget starting from Zero or from a clean

state As a new technique it was proposed by patter peal of Texas Instruments inc..

USA. This technique was introduced in the budgeting in the state of Georgia by Mr.

Jimmy Carter who was then the Government of that state. ZBB was tried in federal

budgeting as a means o controlling state expenditures.

The use of zero based budgeting s a managerial tool has become increasingly

popular since the early 1970’s It is steadily gaining acceptance in the business world

because it is providing it utility as a tool integrating the managerial function of

planning and control. ZBB is not based on the incremental approach and previous

year’s figures are not adopted as a bade. Rather, zero is taken as a base of the name

goes. Taking Zero

35
As a base, a budget is developed on the basis of likely activities for the future

period. In ZBB, by declining the budget from the past, the past mistakes are not

repeated. Funds required for any for the next budget period should be obtained by

presenting a convincing case. Funds will not be available as a matter of course.

The most important advantage of a budgetary control is to enable management

conduct business in the most efficient manner because budgets are prepared to get the

effective utilization and resources and the realization of objectives as efficiently.

It lies down as objective for the business as a whole even though a monetary
reward is not offered the budget becomes a game –a goal to achieve or a target to
shoot at – and hence it is more likely to be achieved or hit that if there was no
predetermined goal or target. The budget is an impersonal policeman that maintains
ordered effort and brings about efficiency in result. It ensures effective utilization of
men, materials, machines and money because production is planned according to the
availability of these items.
Everyone working in the concern knows what exactly to do because budgetary control
laid emphasis on the staff organization. It ensures that individual responsibility are
clearly defined and that the required authority commensurate with the responsibility is
delegated so that buck passingay is prevented when the budgeted results are not
achieved.
Budgetary control takes the help of different levels of management in the
preparations of the budget. Budget finally approved represents the judgment of the
entire organization and not merely that of an individual or a group of individuals.
Thus, it ensures team work.
Management by exception is possible because of actual and budgeted results points
out weak spots so that remedial action is taken against week spots which are not in
conformity with the budgeted performance.
Budgetary control crates conditions for setting up a system standard costing.

It is helpful in reviewing current trends in the business and in determining further

policy of the business because current and future treads are studied in the preparation

of the budget.

36
DISADVANTAGES OF A BUDGET:

While budgets may be essential part of activity they do have number of

disadvantages, particularly in perception terms.

Budget can be seen pressure devices imposed by management, thus resulting in:

1. Bad labor relations

2. Inaccurate record-keeping.

Departmental conflict arises due to:

1. Dispute over resources allocation

2. Departmental blaming each other if targets are not attained. It is difficult to

reconcile personal/individual and corporate goals. Waste may arise as managers adopt

the view, “we had better spend it or we will lose it”. This is often coupled with

“empire building” in order to enhance the prestige of department. Responsibility

versus controlling, i.e. some costs are under the influence of more than one person,

e.g. Power costs.

37
COMPANY PROFILE
GENESIS

This is the statewide enterprise of co-operatives for the dairy development. The

Andhra Pradesh dairy development co-operative federation (APDDCF) with million

of farmers as its members for dairy development. Its genesis in 1981 with a three tire

cooperative structure (Andhra Co-operative structure).

ABOUT MOTHER DIARY


The Nalgonda –Rangareddy Co-operative Milk Procedures Union Limited was

registered on 25-02-1986 to cater the needs of milk procedures of two districts

Nalgonda and Rangareddy. The union is having 14 milk chilling centers in Nalgonda

district and 3 in Rangareddy District. A feed mixing plant at Bhongir so as to supply

cattle feed to formers of the two districts .The mother dairy was started in 1987 at

Hayath Nagar with the capacity of 2,00,000 liters per day. In 1989 an extra unit in

mother dairy was inaugurated by the humble chief minister N.T Rama Rao Garu to

supply the homogenized, thick milk with high quality. At first this unit was started as

automatic milk vending i.e., taking the milk from the factory and sending it to the

shops where they give this milk to the consumers by putting coins.

In September 1992, mother dairy was merged with’ Nalgonda, Rangareddy Co-

operation milk producers’ union ltd. And it has been named as “NARMUL”

(MOTHER DAIRY) “nalgonda- rangareddy mutual union ltd”. Presently this union is

renamed as NARMAC’s “Nalgonda-Rrangareddy Milk Mutual Co-operative Union

ltd”. From 15-01-2003 and is paying highest procurement price to its members when

compared to the other union in the state. As automatic milk vending i.e., taking the

milk from the factory and sending it to the shops where they give this milk to the

consumers by putting coins.

38
In September 1992 , mother dairy was merged with’ Nalgonda , Rangareddy

Co-operation milk producers’ union ltd. And it has been named as

“NARMUL”(MOTHER DAIRY) “Nalgonda-Rangareddy Mutual Union ltd”

.presently this union is renamed as NARMAC’s “Nalgonda-Rangareddy Milk Mutual

Aied Co-operative Union ltd from 15-01-2003 and is paying highest procurement

price to its members when compared to the other union in the state.

AT PRESENT THE UNION IS PROCESSING MILK

Milk producers co-operatives societies 358

Milk producers association centers 776

Milk collection routes 61

Total milk producers supplying milk 66,700

The company during the flush section (Sep - March) and “Lean “Sean (April-Aug ) of

every year, maximum and minimum PURITY and QUALITY, which make it , trusted

Name in thousands of households. Mother dairy is the determiner people who have

setup a good marketing network.

The company at present linked up with Mother Dairy India ltd. From 15 th January

2005.

39
ACTIVIES OF THE COMPANY

● Milk collection from rural areas

● Processing milk and convert milk into various milk products

● Taking up of fodder development activities.

● Undertaking various technical input activities such as artificial insemination.

● Foot and mouth vaccination etc.,

OBJECTIVES

1. Organize co-operatives if milk producers at village levels.

2. Provides essential inputs to enhance milk production, feed and fodder products
cross
breeding programmers, veterinary aid ,and take up development programs to
provide
effective leadership and managements skills to the milk producers to help them
manage their own co-operatives.

3. Develop infrastructure for processing milk and manufacturing of dairy products.

4. Fulfill the consumer needs of liquid milk and milk products in two districts new
products and packaging lines in tune with the changing scenario of consumer
market and needs.

5. Integrate dairy development with over all rural development efforts and Provide
greater employment to the rural poor.

6. Today there are 7,000 co-operatives with 300 all –women co-operatives and
membership of over 8 lakh people across two districts.

40
BRAND NAME:
Mother Dairy release its products into the markets with the brand name “Mother

Dairy’ written in white colour on blue colour four sided double lined background

which is very good decent in appearance.

LOGO OF THE COMPANY

The logo of the company is a laughing cow with a bell on its neck, on a milk cauldron

followed by the name “NARMAL” and a right human hand.

MARKETING STRATEGY IN PACKAGING FILMS

The films used for packing are white in four colour with their brand name –Mother

Dairy in middle followed by the milk /milk product name both in English and Telugu

and with the net weight. The also has there company logo and

MARKETED BY

Processed and packed by

Ingredients

Quantity

MRP

Best before both in Telugu and in English and a 3d symbol for symbolizing fresh and

pure.

The union is implementing various schemes for its members for improving milk

production, such as first aid, medicine, fertility, camps. Fodder development schemes,

technical assistance and insurance schemes for its members and their cattle.

41
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

Mother dairy products are

Milk in two form

Pasteurized toned milk in three volumes

Pasteurized double toned milk in two volumes

Curd in one volume

Buttermilk in one volume

MILK

The milk taken form various milk supplies is sent into the market in 2 different
forms.
PASTEURIZED TONED MILK
►has milk fat 3.0% and milk SNF 8.5
►best before 2days when stored under refrigeration below 8-C
►Homogenized
►available in 200ml,500ml, 1 litre also

PASTEURIZED DOUBLE TONED MILK

►has milk fat 1.5%and milk SNF 8.5 %


►Best before 2 days when stored under refrigeration below 8C
►Homogenized
►made from toned milk
►Available in 200ml, 500ml, sachets
CURD

►has milk fat 3.0% and milk SNF 8.5%

►best before 2 days when stored under refrigeration below 4C

►made from homogenized and pasteurized toned milk

►Available in 200g sachets

42
BUTTER MILK

►has milk solids, water, salt, spires and conditions

►Best before 4 days when stored below 8C

►made from pasteurized milk

► Salted

► Available in 200ml sachets

All These Products Are

Processed and Packed by Marketed by

NARMUL LTD. Mother Dairy India ltd.

Mother Dairy Patparganj

Hayatnagar Delhi

DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY

43
►Production department

►Marketing department

►Material or purchase department


►Plant

►Finance or accounts departments

►Processing department

►Personal department

►Pre pack department

►Civil department

►Transport department

►Quality control department

►Butter & Ghee

►Security department

►HRD activities in the company

TRAINING AT MOTHER DAIRY

They are conducting regular training programmers in all units to Cooperative

members for improving milk production and to make aware of first aid, Medicine,

fertility methods, cross breading programmers etc., through audio visual aids, vide

clippings and other appliance. They are conducting regular training programmers for

employees to maintain high quality of all milk production through NDDB.

INDUSTRAIL PROFILE

44
Milk is India’s NO .1 farm of commodity in terms of its contribution to the

national economy. In 1994-95, the value of its output based producer price Rs.500051

millions exceeding that from paddy (rive). Not withstanding its top place and the

many benefits it bestows on the lower rungs of the rural society, dairying has not

received due attention from planners, economist, social scientist and others, For

example. The investment in dairying made under the 5 year plans is not commeasured

rate with its output. Consequently, its potential has not been adequately tapped.

India’s dairy market is multilayered. Its shaped like a pyramid with the base

made up of vast market for low cost milk the bulk of the demand for milk is among

the poor in urban areas whose individuals requirement is small maybe a glass full for

use has white beard for their tea and coffee. Nevertheless, it acts sizable volume

millions of liters per day. In the major cities lies an immense growth potential for

modern sectors. Presently, rarely 778 out of 3700cities and towns as served by its

milk distribution . Network, dispensing hygienically packed wholesome, quality,

pasteurized milk . According to one estimate, the packed milk segment would double

in the next 5 years, giving both estimate, the packed milk segment would in the next

five years, giving both strength and volume to the modern sector, The narrow tip at

the top is a small but an affluent market for western type milk products.

45
NATIONAL DAIRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD

ABOUT NDDB

It was found in 1965 to replace the exploitation with empowerment, tradition

with modernity stagnation with growth transforming dairying into an instrument for

the development of India.

The National Dairy Development Board was created to promote, finance and

support producer-owned and controlled organizations .NDDB’s programmers and

activities seek to strengthen farmer cooperatives and support national policies that are

favorable to the growth of such institutions. Fundamental to NDDB’s efforts are

cooperative principles and cooperative strategies.

GENESIS

NDDB began its operations with the mission of marketing dairying a vehicle

to a better future for millions of pressrooms milk producers. The mission achieved

thrust and direction with the launching of “Operations Flood”, Operation Flood’s

third phase was completed in 1996 and has to credit a number of significant

achievements.

46
ACHIEVEMENTS

As on March 2006, India’s 1,17,575 village dairy cooperatives federated into

s and 15 federations procured on average 21.5 million liters of milk every day. 12.4

million farmers are presently members of village dairy cooperatives.

Since its inception, the Dairy Board has planned and spearheaded India’s Dairy

programmers by placing dairy development in the hands of milk producers and the

professionals they employ to manage their cooperatives. In addition, NDDB also

promotes other commodity-based cooperatives, allied industries and veterinary

biological on an intensive and nation-wide basis.

CONSTTUTION

The National Dairy Board – initially registered as a society under the Societies Act

1860 -- was merged with the erstwhile Indian Dairy Corporation, a company formed

and registered under the Companies Act 1956 , by an Act of India’s Parliament –the

NDDB Act 1987 (37 of1987), with effect from 12 October , 1987 The new body

corporate was declared an institution of national importance by the Act.

47
Products of Indian Dairy Industry
State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
All India 72128 75424 78286 80607 84406 86159 88082 90715
Andhra 4473 4842 5122 5521 5814 6584 6959 7252
Pradesh
Arunachal 43 45 46 42 42 46 46 48
Pradesh
Assam 719 725 667 683 682 705 727 739
Bihar 3420 3440 3252 2489 2664 2869 3180 2974
Goa 38 41 44 45 45 46 48 57
Gujarat 4913 5059 5269 5312 5862 6089 6421 6745
Haryana 4373 4527 4679 4850 4978 5124 5221 5222
Himachal 714 724 742 761 756 773 786 870
Pradesh
J&K 1167 1232 1286 1321 1360 1389 1414 1422
Karntaka 3970 4231 4471 4599 4797 4539 3857 3917
Kerala 2343 2420 2532 2605 2718 2419 2111 2025
Madhya 5377 5442 5519 4761 5283 5343 5388 2206
Pradesh
Maharashtra 5193 5609 5707 5849 6094 9238 6379 6567
Manipur 62 65 68 66 68 69 71 75
Meghalaya 59 61 62 64 66 68 69 71
Mizoram 17 20 18 14 14 15 15 16
Nalland 46 48 48 51 57 58 63 69
Orissa 672 733 850 876 929 941 997 1283
Punjab 7165 7394 7706 7777 7932 8173 8391 8554
Rajasthan 6487 6923 7280 7255 7758 7789 8054 8310
Sikkim 35 35 35 35 37 45 48 46
Tamil Nadu 4061 4273 4586 4910 4988 4622 4752 4784
Tripura 57 76 77 77 90 79 84 46
Uttar 12934 13418 14152 13857 14648 15288 15943 16512
Pradesh
West Bengal 3415 3441 3456 3471 3515 3600 3686 3790
A&N Islands 22 22 23 22 23 26 25 24
Chandigarth 43 43 42 43 43 43 44 43
D&N Haveli 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 4

48
Production in India

Table.1 (000 tones)

Year Production (Million Tones) Per Capita Availability (gms/day)


1996-97 55.7 178
1997-98 58.0 182
1998-99 60.6 187
1999-2000 63.8 194
2000-01 66.2 197
2001-02 69.1 202
2002-03 72.1 207
2003-04 75.4 213
2004-05 78.3 217
2005-06 80.6 220
2006-07 84.4 225
2007-08 86.2 230
2008-09 88.1 231
2009-10 90.7 229

ACHIVEMENTS OF DAIRY CO-OPERATIVES.

A commitment to help rural producers help themselves has guided the Dairy Board’s

work for mere than 40 years. This commitment has been rewarded with achievements

made by cooperative dairies in milk production, employment generation, and per

capita availability of milk, foreign exchange savings and increased farmer incomes.

FACTS AT A GLANCE

The Dairy Cooperative Network (As March 2006)

● Includes 170 milk unions


● Operates in over 346 districts
● Covers around 1, 17,575 village level societies
● Is owned by around 12.4 million farmer members of which 3.2 millions were
women

49
Milk Production

● India’s. Milk production increased from 21.2 million MT in 1968-69 to 97.1

million MT in 2005-06.

● Per capita availability of milk was 241grams per day in 2005-06, up from

112grams per day in 1968-69.

● India’s 3.9 percent annual growth of milk production between 1995-96 and

2005-06 surpasses the 2 per cent growth in population; the net increase in

availability is around 2 per cent per year.

Marketing

● In 2005-06, average daily cooperative milk marketing stood at 168.06 lakh

liters; annual growth has averaged about 5.8 per cent compounded over the

last five years.

● Dairy Cooperatives now market milk in all metros, major cities and mor than

800 towns/cities.

● during the last decade, the daily milk supply to each 1000 urban consumer has

increased from 17.5 to 58.8 liters.

50
Innovation

● Bulk vending –saving money and the environment.

● Milk travels as far as 2,200 kilometers to deficit areas, carried by innovative

rail and road milk tankers.

● Automatic Milk Collection Unit (AMCU) and Bulk Milk Cooler (BMC) at

grass root level-preserve quality and reduce post-procurement losses.

51
Operation Flood Achievements

Table.2

State/UT Farmer Women Milk Milk


No of DCA Members Members Procurement Marketing
Organized (000) (000) (TKgPD) (TLPD)
(Cumulative)
Andhra Pradesh 4,647 779 144 1,087 1,130
Assam 66 3 0 3 7
Bihar 5,183 265 39 553 303
Delhi NA NA NA NA 2,350
Gujarat 12,025 2,458 633 6,441 2,353
Goa 175 19 3 52 90
Haryana 5,382 261 38 405 278
Himachal Pradesh 391 20 7 25 20
Jammu & Kashmur ** ** ** ** **
Jhakhand 80 2 0 6 191
Karnataka 10,114 1,838 527 2,961 1,711
Kerala 3,282 750 132 764 848
Madhya Pradesh 5,008 246 37 457 315
Maharashtra 19,537 1,637 398 2,802 2,749
Nagaland 78 3 0 4 4
Orissa 2,164 142 60 203 158
Puducherry 104 36 16 57 70
Punjab 6,749 405 50 784 526
Rajasthan 12,714 594 152 1,557 1,014
Sikkinm 209 7 0 8 8
Tamil Nadu 7,832 1,876 639 2,085 1,507
Tripura 84 4 1 3 9
Uttar pradesh 18,776 861 246 828 430
West Bengal 2,449 185 65 336 706
ALL-INDIA 1,17,416 12,416 3,194 21,447 16,808

PERSPECTIVE OF 2010

The Perspective 2010 plan of the Dairy Board maps the future of dairying in

52
India, setting realistic goals for Strengthening Cooperative business, Production

Enhancement Assuring Quality, and creating a Information and Development

Research. The plan was realized with the successful completion of the Operation

Flood Programmer and has been developed by the Stat Milk Marketing Federations

and the Milk Producers’ Cooperative Unions in consultation with the Dairy Board,

The Perspective 2010 goals and strategies to meet them have been drawn by its actual

implementers – Federation and unions and supported by NDDB.

THE WINNING EDGE

The aspects of India’s modern dairy sector are particularly noteworthy vast market for

dairy products are being built as disposable incomes increase. Its focus is increasingly

affluent middleclass, numbering some 300 million all most the population of the

United States which is confined to well define urban pockets and is easily accessible.

Milk occupies pride of place as the most coveted food in the diet, after wheat and rice.

Milk based sweets are culinary delight in all homes through out the years.

The milk production is predominantly rooted in the cooperative system. Its focus is in

the small rural farmer having 1 or 2 cows or buffaloes, yielding 2 or 3 liters of milk

per animal. This system is bases of operating flood, the world’s largest dairy

development programmer.

The preferred dairy animal is the buffalo. Some 65% of the world buffalo milk

produced in India. It has 30% higher total solids compare to cow milk an average of

16% vs. 12% for cow milk. Valued for its high fat content (7% vs. 3.5%), it is high

volume in calcium, phosphorus, lactose and proteins. Buffalo milk is the delight of the

milk processor for its more profitable handling.

EMERGING DAIRY MARKETS

Food service instuitional market

53
It is growing at double the rate of consumer market

Defense market

An important growing marker for quality products at reasonable prices.

Ingredients markets

A boom is forecast in the market of dairy products used as raw material in

pharmaceutical and allied industries.

Parlor market

The increasing away from home consumption trend opens new vistas for ready to

serve dairy products, which ride piggyback on the fast food revolution sweeping the

urban area.

India with her sizable dairy industry growing rapidly and on the path of

modernization would have palace in the sum of prosperity for many decades to come.

The one index to the statement is the fact that the projected total milk output over the

next 15 years (1995-2010) would exceed 1457.6 million tones, which is twice the

total production of the past 15 years.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

54
BUDGET ESTIMATIONS OF MOTHER DAIRY
DETAILS OF INCOME 2005-06
Table3 (RS. IN LAKHS)
S.NO PARTICULARS BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIENCE

INCOME
MILK SOLD 6771 6627 144 ADV
SELLING OF MILK
ITEMS
a)GHEE 363.67 291.1 72.57 ADV
b)CHEESE 792 709.74 82.26 ADV
c)CURD 47.45 59.8 12.35 FAV
d)SKIMMING MILK NIL 0.07 0.07 FAV
e)BUTTER MILK 03 02.84 0.16 ADV
f)MILK POWDER NIL 0.07 0.07 FAV
CATTLE FEED 238 221.5 16.5 ADV
MILKSUPPIERS SHARE 12 13.01 1.01 FAV
BUILDING RENT 11.59 14.9 3.31 FAV
OTHER INCOMES 39 36.23 2.77 ADV
BANK LOAN 400 360 40 ADV
CLOSING STOCK 101.28 25.25 76.03 ADV

TOTAL 8778.99 8361.51 417.48 ADV

55
DETAILS OF EXPENSES
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE 2005-06
TABLE4 RS. IN LAKHS
MILK PURCHASES 4400 3910.78 489.22 FAV
MILK PURCHASED FROM OTHER 1002 1046 44 FAV
UNIONS
TRANSPORT CHARGES FOR MILK 235 214 21 FAV
MILK PRODUCTS PURCHASED
A)MILK POWDER 400 460.94 60.94 ADV
B)CHEESE NIL NIL NIL
CATTLE FEED MATERIAL 180 165.27 14.73 FAV
PURCHASING BAGS FOR CATTLE FEED 8 7.88 0.12 FAV
PURCHASING OF STORES MATERIAL 40 35.51 4.49 FAV
PURCHASING OF POLYTHIN FILM NIL 252.33 252.33 ADV
A)OUR UNION 270 NIL 270 FAV
OTHER UNIONS 70 11.52 58.48 FAV
PACKING MATERIAL 15 297.91 282.91 ADV
ELECTRICITY,DIESEL CHARGES 310 48.87 261.13 FAV
REPAIRS IN PLANT AND MACHINERY 51.74 99.28 47.54 ADV
REPAIRS OF VEHICLES 105.2 14.03 91.17 FAV
MANTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF BUILDING 15 NIL 15 FAV
OFFICE REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE
A)FURNITURS AND TYPE WRITERS 2.1 2.1 NIL FAV
B)COMPUTERS NIL NIL NIL
MAINTENANCE OF LABORATORY 98.86 98.32 0.54 FAV
ADMINISTRATION CHARGES 2 1.85 0.15 FAV
FRIGHT CHARGES 4.75 4.35 0.4 FAV
CATTLE FEED TRANSPORT NIL NIL NIL
EMPLOYEES SALARIES
a)PENSION PROVIDENT FUND 590 581.4 8.6 FAV
PRINTING AND STATIONARY 1.9 NIL 1.9 FAV
MARKETING EXPENSES 15 1.8 13.2 FAV
SALES TAX 30 14.6 15.4 FAV
CENTREL TAX 20 28.93 8.93 ADV
INCOME TAX NIL NIL NIL
AUDITOR FEES
A)FREE AUDIT FEES NIL NIL NIL
B)ANNUAL AUDIT FEE NIL NIL NIL
C)TRANSPORT EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
CONVERSION EXPENSES
A)PIECE WORKLABOUR CHARGES 140 138.82 1.18 FAV
B) TRANSPORT CHARGES 20 15.1 4.9 FAV
VRS 20 21.24 1.24 ADV
DIVIDEND 15 15.02 0.02 ADV
OPENING STOCK NIL NIL NIL

INTEREST ON LONG TERM LOAN


A)NDDB 106.26 95.7 10.56 FAV
B)APCOB,CANARA BANK 400 400 NIL FAV
BUILDING AND MACHINERY MATERIALS 130 123 7 FAV
TOTAL 8697.81 8106.55 591.26 FAV
NET PROFIT 81.18 254.96 173.78 ADV

56
Table.5

57
DETAILS OF UTILITIES 2005-06 RS. IN LAKHS
UTILITIES BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
A)ELECTRICITY CHARGES 164 157.36 6.64 FAV
B)GENERATOR DIESEL 164 29 135 FAV
C)WATER CHARGES 164 14.59 149.41 FAV
D)PERNUS OIL 164 96.96 67.04 FAV
TOTAL 656 297.91 358.09
PLANT AND MACHINERYREPAIRS
A)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 1.8 1.65 0.15 FAV
B)REPAIRS 43 39.66 3.34 FAV
C)FACTORY LICENSE FEES 0.1 0.1 NIL FAV
D)BOILER LICENSE FEES 0.04 0.04 NIL ADV
E)AMONIA GAS 0.85 0.81 0.04 FAV
F)SALT 0.55 0.52 0.03 FAV
G)PURCHASE OF SPARE PARTS 5.4 4.96 0.44 FAV
TOTAL 51.74 47.74 4 FAV
REPAIRS OF VEHICLES
A)DIESEL 85 80.37 4.63 FAV
B)OIL ANDLUBRICANTS 2.2 2.1 0.1 FAV
C)TAX INSURANCE 3.5 3.42 0.08 FAV
D)REPAIRS 14.5 13.39 1.11 FAV
TOTAL 105.2 99.28 5.92 FAV
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
1)BANK CHARGES 8.75 8.07 0.68 FAV
2)MANAGERS MEETING CHARGES 0.25 0.24 0.01 FAV
3)BOARD MEETING CHARGES 0.7 0.62 0.08 FAV
4)GENERAL BODY MEETING 1.2 1.17 0.03 ADV
EXPENSES
5)T.A,D.A 1 0.92 0.08 FAV
6)HOUSE RENT FOR CHAIRMAN 0.45 0.44 0.01 FAV
7)CASH INSURANCE NIL NIL NIL
8)INSURANCE 2 2.02 0.02 ADV
9)RENT 0.35 0.34 0.01 FAV
10)ELECTIONS EXPENSES 8 7.56 0.44 FAV
11)CAR RENT 0.4 0.45 0.05 ADV
12)MEETING EXPENSES 1.6 0.4 1.2 FAV
13)LEGAL FEES 0.09 0.09 NIL FAV
14)FESTIVAL EXPENSES 0.22 0.22 NIL FAV
15)NEWS PAPER CHARGES 0.4 0.42 0.02 ADV
16)POSTAGE 5.2 4.8 0.4 FAV
17)TELEPHONE CHARGES 0.3 0.27 0.03 ADV
18)DISTRIBUTORS MEETING 6.55 6.24 0.31 FAV
CHARGES
19)MUNCIPALTAXES 0.45 0.42 0.03 FAV
20)PURCHASE 15.5 14.4 1.1 FAV
COMMITTEECHARGES
21)PRIVATE SECURITY SALARY 5.5 5.22 0.28 ADV
22)TENDER NOTIFICATION 5.9 5.42 0.48 ADV
23)EMPLOYEES TRAVELLING 0.2 NIL 0.2 FAV
EXPENSES
24)TRAINING CHARGES 0.3 0.28 0.02 FAV
25)AUDITORS TRAVELLING NIL NIL NIL
EXPENSESE
26)STORES INSURANCE 0.7 0.69 0.01 FAV
27)STOCK INSURANCE NIL NIL NIL
28)TRANSPORT COMMITTEE 2.5 2.5 0 FAV
CHARGES
29)GENERAL LICENSE EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
30)STAFF UNIFORM 2 1.96 0.04 FAV
31)MAY DAY EXPENSES 58 28.35 33.16 4.81 ADV
32)TYPING CHARGES NIL NIL NIL
TOTAL 98.86 98.32 0.54 FAV
MARKETING EXPENSES
A)ADVERTISMENT EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
59
Table.6

DETAILS OF CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES 2005-06 RS. INLAKHS


BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
MILK COOLING SECTION MALLEPALLY
A)3RD PHASE ENTERTAINMENT 1 NIL 1 FAV
B)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 4.5 NIL 4.5 FAV
C)COMPRESSOR BED NIL NIL NIL
MILK COOLING SECTION KODADA
A)REFRIGERATION NIL 8.8 8.8 ADV
B)OFFICE RENEVATION 1 NIL 1 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION MOTHKUR
A)OFFICE CONSTRUCTION NIL 0.78 0.78 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION RAJAPET
A)GUEST HOUSE CONSTRUCTION NIL 46.16 46.16 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)COMPRESSOR BED NIL NIL NIL
MILK COOLING SECTION ALERU
A)FARMERS GUEST HOUSE 1.5 NIL 1.5 FAV
B)BATHROOMS 1.25 NIL 1.25 FAV
C)COMPOUND WALL 27 NIL 27 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION TANDUR
A)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 1 0.13 0.87 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION MAAL
A)CONSTRUCTION FOR FEED 1 NIL 1 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION MIRYALAGUDA
A)REFRIGERATION EXPENSES 3 NIL 2 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)GATE CONSTRUCTION 2 NIL 2 FAV
MOTHER DAIRY HAYATHNAGAR
A)COLD STORAGE CONSTRUCTION 2.65 23.2 20.55 ADV
B)E.T.PLANT 12 NIL 12 FAV
C)FLAVOURED MILK PLANT 3 NIL 3 FAV
D)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 1 NIL 1 FAV
E)BOREWELLS 8.1 NIL 8.1 FAV
F)C.C.ROAD CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
TOTAL 70 79.07 9.07 ADV

Table.7

60
DETAILS OF PURCHASING 2005-2006 RS. IN LAKHS
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
OFFICE EQUIPMENT
A)OFFICE 2 NIL 2 FAV
EQUIPMENT,CALCULATORS
B)PURCHASING OF COMPUTERS 2 NIL 2 FAV
C)FURNITURE ALMARAHS 0.2 NIL 0.2 FAV

DAIRY ITEMS
MILK CANS 6 4 2 FAV
MILK CRAYTES 8 8 NIL FAV
TOTAL 18.2 12 6.2 FAV

PURCHASING OF PLANT AND


MACHINERY
MOTHER DAIRY
1)FREE PACK MACHINE 20.9 28.01 7.11 ADV
2)FREE PACK SECTION 20.9 10.23 10.67 FAV
TOTAL 41.8 38.24 3.56 FAV

INTERPRETATION OF 2005-2006
61
INCOME:-In this year milk sold is less than budgeted and also less income generated

from the selling of milk items. Cattle feed items, milk suppliers share, building rent

are were favorable but other incomes columns showed unfavorable items which

resulted that budgeted are more than actual. So finally ended up with less income

compare to budgeted.

EXPENSES:-But in the expenses net profit gained in actuals is more because of less

in the total expenses. Other expenses such as electricity charges, purchasing bags for

cattle feed, packing material, and repairs of vehicles are also increasing compared to

budgeted. It is good sign

CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES:-The civil capital expenses made is more because

concentration given on works such as construction of cattle feed building,

construction of cooling section building in kodada, miryalaguda, hayathnagar etc.,

concentration is on construction.

DETAILS OF PURCHASE:-Details of purchase is less in both under machinery and

office. Dairy items like milk cans and crates are given more importance.

62
BUDGET ESTIMATIONS OF MOTHER DAIRY
DETAILS OF INCOME (2006-07)
Table.8 RS. IN LAKHS
SNO PARTICULARS BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE

INCOME
1 MILK SOLD 4875 4804 71 ADV
2 SELLING OF MILK
ITEMS
a)GHEE 660 725 65 FAV
b)CHEESE NIL 412 412 FAV
c)CURD NIL 40 40 FAV
d)SKIMMING MILK NIL NIL NIL
e)BUTTER MILK NIL 4 4 FAV
f)MILK POWDER NIL 9 9 FAV
3 CATTLE FEED 140 223 83 FAV
4 MILK SUPPLIERS 25 20 5 ADV
SHARE
5 BUILDING RENT 10 18 8 FAV
6 OTHER INCOMES 20 20 NIL
7 BANK LOAN 300 380 80 FAV
8 CLOSING STOCK 780 723 57 ADV

TOTAL 6810 7378 568 FAV

Table.9

63
DETAILS OF EXPENSES 2006-2007 RS IN LAKHS
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 MILK PURCHASES 3580 3350 230 FAV
2 MILK PURCHASED FROM OTHER UNIONS 100 315.8 215 ADV
3 TRANSPORT CHARGES FOR MILK 160 185 25 ADV
4 MILK PRODECTS PURCHASED
A)MILK POWDER 300 537 237 ADV
B)CHEESE NIL NIL NIL
5 CATTLE FEED MATERIAL 135 225 90 ADV
6 PURCHASING BAGS FOR CATTLE FEED 5 6 1 ADV
7 PURCHASING OF STORES MATERIAL 25 20 5 FAV
8 PURCHASING OF POLYTHIN FILM
A)MILK 37.5 10.6 68.5 FAV
B)GHEE 37.5 10.7 26.8 FAV
C)GHEE 37.5 3 34.5 FAV
D)BUTTER MILK 37.5 0.45 37.05 FAV
9 PACKING MATERIAL NIL 15 15 ADV
10 ELECTRICITY,DIESEL CHARGES 225 217 8 FAV
11 REPAIRS IN PLANT AND MACHINERY 50 53.7 3.7 ADV
12 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES 92 85.75 6.25 FAV
13 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF 20 20 NIL FAV
BUILDING
14 OFFICE REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE
A)FURNITURES AND TYPEWRITERS 1 0.45 0.55 FAV
B)COMPUTERS 0.5 0.8 0.3 ADV
15 MAINTENANCE OF LABORATORY 0.3 0.1 0.2 FAV
16 ADMINISTRATION CHARGES 58.45 60.7 2.25 ADV
17 EMPLOYEES SALARIES
a)PENSION PROVIDENT FUND 450 380 70 FAV
PRINTING AND STATIONARY 8 8 NIL FAV
MARKETING EXPENSES 52 37.75 14.25 FAV
SALES TAX 10 50 40 ADV
CENTRAL TAX NIL 10 10 ADV
INCOME TAX NIL 50 50 ADV
18 AUDITOR FEES
A)FREE AUDIT FEES 2.75 2 0.75 FAV
B)ANNUAL AUDIT FEES NIL 1 1 ADV
C)TRANSPORT EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
19 CONVERSION EXPENSES
A)PIECE WORK LABOUR CHARGES 55 80 25 ADV
B)TRANSPORT CHARGES 55 40 15 FAV
20 VRS 85 27.25 57.75 FAV
21 DIVIDEND NIL 15 15 ADV
22 OPENING STOCK 510 510 NIL ADV
TOTAL 6130 6423.45 293.45 ADV
CASH PROFIT(6180-6130) 680 954.55 274.55 ADV
23 INTEREST ON LONG TERM LOAN
A)NDDB 175 411 230 ADV
B)APCOB 350 358.55 855 ADV
24 DEPRECIATION ON BUILDING 130 115 15 FAV
TOTAL 6785 7308 523 ADV
NET PROFIT 25 70 45 ADV

Table.10

64
DETAILS OF UTILITIES 2006-07 RS. IN LAKHS
UTILITIES BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
A)ELECTRICITY CHARGES 56.25 160 103.75 ADV
B)GENERATOR DIESEL 56.25 6 50.25 FAV
C)WATER CHARGES 56.25 2.75 53.5 FAV
D)PERNUS OIL 56.25 48.25 8 FAV
TOTAL 225 217 215.5 FAV
PLANT AND
MACHINERYREPAIRS
A)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 7.14 1.25 5.84 FAV
B)REPAIRS 7.14 50 42.86 ADV
C)FACTORY LICENSE FEES 7.14 0.35 6.79 FAV
D)BOILER LICENSE FEES 7.14 0.15 6.99 FAV
E)AMONIA GAS 7.14 1.75 5.39 FAV
F)SALT 7.14 0.2 6.94 FAV
G)PURCHASE OF SPARE PARTS 7.14 NIL 7.14 FAV
TOTAL 50 53.7 3.7 ADV
REPAIRS OF VEHICLES
A)DIESEL 23 65 42 ADV
B)OIL ANDLUBRICANTS 23 1.75 21.25 FAV
C)TAX INSURANCE 23 4 19 FAV
D)REPAIRS 23 15 8 FAV
TOTAL 92 85.75 6.25 FAV
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
1)BANK CHARGES 7 6 1 FAV
2)MANAGERS MEETING 0.75 0.3 0.45 ADV
CHARGES
3)BOARD MEETING CHARGES 0.5 0.9 0.4 ADV
4)GENERAL BODY MEETING 3 1.35 1.65 FAV
EXPENSES
5)T.A,D.A 0.25 0.2 0.5 FAV
6)HOUSE RENT FOR CHAIRMAN 0.40 0.48 0.08 ADV
7)CASH INSURANCE NIL 0.45 NIL ADV
8)INSURANCE NIL 0.3 NIL ADV
9)RENT NIL 4 NIL ADV
10)ELECTIONS EXPENSES NIL 0.42 NIL ADV
11)CAR RENT 12 10 2 FAV
12)MEETING EXPENSES NIL 1.13 1.13 ADV
13)LEGAL FEES 0.5 0.75 0.25 ADV
14)FESTIVAL EXPENSES 0.1 0.11 0.01 ADV
15)NEWS PAPER CHARGES 0.2 0.17 0.03 FAV
16)POSTAGE 1 0.5 0.5 FAV
17)TELEPHONE CHARGES 5 5 NIL
18)DISTRIBUTORS MEETING NIL 0.75 0.75 ADV
CHARGES
19)MUNCIPALTAXES 6 6.25 0.25 ADV
20)PURCHASE NIL 0.5 0.5 ADV
COMMITTEECHARGES
21)PRIVATE SECURITY SALARY 11 10 1 FAV
22)TENDER NOTIFICATION NIL 1.2 1.2 ADV
23)EMPLOYEES TRAVELLING 6 4 2 FAV

65
EXPENSES
24)TRAINING CHARGES 0.2 NIL 0.2 FAV
25)AUDITORS TRAVELLING NIL 0.25 0.25 ADV
EXPENSESE
26)STORES INSURANCE NIL 0.2 0.2 ADV
27)STOCK INSURANCE NIL 0.5 0.5 ADV
28)TRANSPORT COMMITTEE NIL 0.5 0.5 ADV
CHARGES
29)GENERAL LICENSE NIL 0.24 0.24 ADV
EXPENSES
30)STAFF UNIFORM 3 3 NIL
31)MAY DAY EXPENSES 0.3 NIL 0.3 FAV
32)TYPING CHARGES 1.25 1.25 NIL FAV
TOTAL 58.45 60.7 2.25 ADV
MARKETING EXPENSES
A)ADVERTISMENT EXPENSES 5.7 5 0.7 FAV
B)AGMARK CHARGES 5.7 1 4.7 FAV
C)A.P.D.D.C.F COMMISSION 5.7 20 14.3 ADV
D)FEED TRANSPORT CHARGES 5.7 8 2.3 ADV
E)MILK TRANSPORT CHARGES 5.7 0.5 5.2 FAV
F)GHEE TRANSPORT CHARGES 5.7 NIL 5.7 FAV
G)SALES EXECUTIVE SALARIES 5.7 3 2.7 FAV
H)VENDING UNION CHARGES 5.7 0.25 5.45 FAV
I)AGENT INCENTIVES 5.7 NIL 5.7 FAV
TOTAL 52 37.75 14.25 FAV

66
Table.11

DETAILS OF CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES 2006-2007 RS. IN LAKHS


BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 MILK COOLING SECTION MALLEPALLY
A)3RD PHASE ENTERTAINMENT 7.6 6.2 1.4
B) COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 1.15 1.13 0.02
C)COMPRESSOR BED NIL NIL NIL ADV
2 MILK COOLING SECTION KODADA
A)REFRIGERRATION 1.5 1.5 NIL
B)OFFCERENEVATION NIL NIL NIL
3 MILK COOLING SECTION MOTHKUR
A)OFFCE CONSTRUCTION 1.6 1.6 NIL FAV
4 MILK COOLING SECTION RAJAPET FAV
A)GUEST HOUSE CONSTRUCTION 1.8 1.12 0.68 FAV
5 MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET FAV
A)COMPRESSOR BED 1.2 0.67 0.53 FAV
6 MILK COOLING SECTION ALER ADV
A)FARMERS GUEST HOUSE 4 3.65 0.35 ADV
B)BATHROOMS 1.4 1.4 NIL
B)COMPOUND WALL 4 5.86 1.86 FAV
7 MILK COOLING SECTION TANDUR ADV
A)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 0.15 0.15 NIL ADV
8 MILK COOLING SECTION MAAL
A)CONSTRUCTION FOR FEED NIL NIL NIL
9 MILK COOLING SECTION MIRYALA
GUDA
A)REFRIGEATION EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL FAV
1 MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
0
A)GATE CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
1 MOTHER DAIRY HAYATHNAGAR
1
A)COLD STORAGE CONSTRUCTION 10 10 NIL
B)E.T.PLANT NIL NIL NIL
C)FLAVOURED MILK PLANT NIL 2.43 2.43
D)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION NIL NI L NIL
E)BOREWELLS NIL NIL NIL
F)C.C.ROAD CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
TOTAL 30.4 35.71 5.31 ADV

67
Table.12
DETAILS OF PURCHASING 2006-2007 RS IN LAKHS
BUGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE ADV
1 OFFICE EQUIPMENT
A)OFFICE EQUIPMENT,CALCULATORS 0.2 NIIL 0.22 FAV
B)PURCHASING OF COMPUTERS 2 .281 1.19 FAV
C)FURNITURE ALMARAHS 1 0.42 0.59 FAV
D)ELECTRONIC PUNCHMACHINE 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
E)CELLPHONES ,TELEPHONES 0.4 NIL 0.4 FAV
F)CASH COUNTING MACHINE 0.5 8.71 8.71 FAV
G)TOYOTA,QUALIS VEHICLES NIL 8.71 8.71 FAV
2 DAIRY ITEMS
MILK CANS 7.5 NIL 7.5 FAV
MILK CRAYTES 7.5 11.3 4.2 FAV

II PURCHASING OF PLANT AND BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE


MACHINERY
1 MOTHER DAIRY
1)FREE PACK MACHINE 30 13.85 16.15 FAV
2)FREE PACK SECTION NIL NIL NIL
3)PURCHASING OF STABILIZER NIL NIL NIL
4)( B&G)PURCHASED COMPRESSOR NIL NIL NIL
5)(B&G)CONDENSOR COILS NIL NIL NIL
6)TWO WATER PUMPS NIL NIL NIL
7)11KVT CUBICAL PANEL NIL NIL NIL
8)TRANSFORMER SWITCH NIL NIL NIL
9)MILK PUMPS NIL NIL NIL
10)AMONIA COMPRESSOR MOTAR NIL NIL NIL
11)COLD STORAGE MACHINES NIL 11 11 ADV
2 MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)COMPRESSOR MOTAR 5 NIL 5 FAV
B)SOLAR WATER HEAT SYSTEMS 5 1.96 3.04 FAV
3 DIESEL GENERATORS 10 NIL 10 FAV
4 PARIGI,BHUVANAGIRI EXPANSION 5 1.35 3.63 FAV
5 MIRYALAGUDA EXPANSION 25 13.59 11.41 FAV
6 MILK COOLING SECTION PARIGI
A)ARE 232 PRIK COMPRESSOR NIL NIL NIL
7 MILK COOLING SECTION NALGONDA
PRE PACK MACHINE NIL NIL NIL
8 SOLAR WATER HEATER SYSTEM
A)1000LITERS NIL NIL NIL
B)500LITERS CHUNDURU NIL NIL NIL
TOTAL 80 58.03 21.97 FAV

INTERPRETATION 2006-07

INCOMES: Under the income in this year, estimation made on milk sold is 4875

68
lakhs but actual were 4804 which is less than budgeted. But under the selling of milk

items the results were satisfactory cause the actually showed more than estimates.

And also other incomes items are also quite

EXPENSES : in this though the actual expenditure is more than is budgeted the cash

capital and the net profit increased the increase in the actual expenditure is cause

more payments made in the from of the taxes (sales , central sales & income

tax ) . Also because of conversion charges & expenses made on polythin

film .But at the is ended with net profit of 70 which is more than the budgeted (25).

CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES: The civil capital expenses showed the variance

of 5.31 lakhs . concentration is given to construction of compound wall ,

refrigeration , compressor bed and renovation . At last it showed favorable

returns .

DETAILS OF PURCHASE : Office equipment showed the increase of actuals

by 2.45 lakhs because purchase of Toyota vehicle which is not mentioned in

budget. In the purchase of plant and machinery the actuals made less than budgeted

because the expenses are not made in expansion activities & purchasing of machinery.

Table.13

BUDGET ESTIMATIONS OF MOTHER DAIRY

69
DETAILS OF INCOME 2007-08 RS. IN LAKHS
PARTICULARS BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIENCE

INCOME
MILK SOLD 5058 4804 254 ADV
SELLING OF MILK ITEMS
GHEE 605 725 120 FAV
CHEESE 318 412 94 FAV
CURD 40 40 NIL FAV
SKIMMING MILK 50 NIL 50 ADV
BUTTER MILK 11 4 7 ADV
MILK POWDER NIL 9 9 FAV
CATTLE FEED 198 223 25 FAV
MILK SUPPLIERS SHARE 20 20 NIL FAV
BUILDING RENT 20 18 2 ADV
OTHER INCOMES 20 20 NIL FAV
BANK LOAN 300 380 80 FAV
CLOSING STOCK 968 723 2454 ADV

TOTAL 7608 7378 230 ADV

70
DETAILS OF EXPENSES RS. IN LAKHS 2007-2008
Table.14

71
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 MILK PURCHASES 3515 3350 165 FAV
2 MILK PURCHASED FROM OTHER 315 315.8 0.8 ADV
UNIONS
3 TRANSPORT CHARGES FOR MILK 200 185 15 FAV
4 MILK PRODUCTS PURCHASED
A)MILK POWDER 315 537 222 ADV
B)CHEESE NIL NIL NIL
5 CATTLE FEED MATERIAL 210 225 15 ADV
6 PURCHASING BAGS FOR CATTLE 8.5 6 2.5 FAV
FEED
7 PURCHASING OF STORES 25 20 5 FAV
MATERIAL
8 PURCHASING OF POLYTHIN FILM
A)MILK 110 106 4 FAV
B)GHEE 10 10.7 0.7 ADV
C)GHEE 3 3 NIL FAV
D)BUTTER MILK 1 0.45 0.55 FAV
9 PACKING MATERIAL 15 15 NIL FAV
10 ELECTRICITY,DIESEL CHARGES 240 217 23 FAV
11 REPAIRS IN PLANT AND 55 53.7 1.3 FAV
MACHINERY
12 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES 86 85.75 0.25 FAV
13 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF 20 20 NIL FAV
BUILDING
14 OFFICE REPAIRS AND
MAINTENANCE
A)FURNITURES AND TYPEWRITERS 0.5 0.45 0.05 ADV
B)COMPUTERS 0.5 0.8 0.3 FAV
15 MAINTENANCE OF LABORATORY 0.1 0.1 NIL FAV
16 ADMINISTRATION CHARGES 66.15 60.7 5.45 FAV
17 EMPLOYEES SALARIES
18 PENSION PROVIDENT FUND 400 380 20 FAV
19 PRINTING AND STATIONARY 8 8 NIL FAV
20 MARKETING EXPENSES 70 37.75 32.25 FAV
21 SALES TAX 50 50 NIL FAV
22 CENTRAL TAX 10 10 NIL FAV
23 INCOME TAX 50 50 NIL FAV
24 AUDITOR FEES
A)FREE AUDIT FEES 2 2 NIL FAV
B)ANNUAL AUDIT FEES 1 1 NIL FAV
C)TRANSPORT ERXPENSES 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
25 CONVERSION EXPENSES
A)PIECE WORK LABOUR CHARGES 100 80 20 FAV
B)TRANSPORT CHARGES 100 40 60 FAV
26 VRS 100 27.25 72.75 FAV
27 DIVIDEND 15 15 NIL FAV
28 OPENING STOCK 779 510 269 FAV
TOTAL 6878 6423.4 454.6 FAV
CASH PROFIT(6180-6130) 730 954.55 224.55 ADV
INTEREST ON LONG TERM LOAN
A)NDDB 140 411 271 ADV
B)APCOB 400 358.55 41.45 FAV
DEPRECIATION ON BULDING 115 115 NIL FAV
TOTAL 7533 7308 225 FAV
NET PROFIT 75 70 5 FAV
72
DETAILS OF UTILITIES 2007-08 RS. IN LAKHS
Table.15
UTILITIES BUDG VAR
ETED ACTUALS IANCE
A)ELECTRICITY CHARGES 175 160 15 FAV
B)GENERATOR DIESEL 10 6 4 FAV
C)WATER CHARGES 5 2.75 2.25 FAV
D)PERNUS OIL 50 48.25 1.75 FAV
TOTAL 240 217 23 FAV
PLANT AND MACHINERY
REPAIRS
A)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 2 1.25 0.75 FAV
B)REPAIRS 25 50 25 ADV
C)FACTORY LICENSE FEES 0.5 0.35 0.15 ADV
D)BOILER LICENSE FEES 0.25 0.15 0.1 FAV
E)AMONIA GAS 2 1.75 0.25 FAV
F)SALT 0.25 0.2 0.05 FAV
G)PURCHASE OF SPARE 25 NIL 25 FAV
PARTS
TOTAL 55 53.7 1.3 FAV
REPAIRS OF VEHICLES
A)DIESEL 65 65 NIL FAV
B)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 2 1.75 0.25 FAV
C)TAX AND INSURANCE 4 4 NIL FAV
REPAIRS 15 15 NIL FAV
TOTAL 86 85.75 0.25 FAV
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
1)BANK CHARGES 6 6 NIL FAV
2)MANAGERS MEETING 0.3 0.3 NIL FAV
CHARGES
3)BOARD MEETING CHARGES 1 0.9 0.1 FAV
4)GENERAL BODY MEETING 1.5 1.35 0.15 ADV
EXPENSES
5)T.A,D.A 0.25 0.2 0.05 ADV
6)HOUSE RENT FOR 0.48 0.48 NIL FAV
CHAIRMAN
7)CASH INSURANCE 0.45 0.45 NIL FAV
8)INSURANCE 0.3 0.3 NIL FAV
9)RENT 4 4 NIL FAV
10)ELECTIONS EXPENSES 0.45 0.42 0.03 FAV
11)CAR RENT 10 10 NIL FAV
12)MEETING EXPENSES 1.25 1.13 0.12 FAV
13)LEGAL FEES 0.75 0.75 NIL FAV
14)FESTIVAL EXPENSES 0.1 0.11 0.04 ADV
15)NEWS PAPER CHARGES 0.17 0.17 NIL FAV
16)POSTAGE 0.5 0.5 NIL FAV
17)TELEPHONE CHARGES 5 5 NIL FAV
18)DISTRIBUTORS MEETING 1 0.75 0.25 FAV
CHARGES
19)MUNCIPAL TAXES 6.5 6.25 0.25 ADV
20)PURCHSE COMMITTEE 0.5 0.5 NIL FAV
CHARGES
21)PRIVATE SECURITY 10 10 NIL FAV
SALARY
22)TENDER NOTIFICATION 1.25 1.2 0.05 ADV
23)EMPLOYEES TRAVELLING 4 4 NIL FAV
EXPENSES
24)TRAINING CHARGES 0.25 NIL 0.25 FAV
25)AUDITORS TRAVELLING 0.25 0.25 NIL FAV
EXPENSES
26)STORES INSURANCE 0.2 0.2 NIL FAV
27)STOCK INSURANCE 73 0.5 0.5 NIL FAV
28)TRANSPORT COMMITTEE 0.5 0.5 NIL FAV
CHARGES
29)GENERL LICENSE 0.25 0.24 0.01 FAV
EXPENSES
TOTAL 62.15 60.7 1.45 FAV
MARKETING EXPENSES
A)ADVERTISEMENT 15 5 10 FAV
EXPENSES
B)AGMARK CHARGES 1 1 NIL FAV
C)A.P.D.D.C.F COMMISSION 25 20 5 FAV
D)FEED TRANSPORT 10 8 2 FAV
CHARGES
E)MILK TRANSPORT 1 0.5 0.5 FAV
CHARGES
F)GHEE TRANSPORT 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
CHARGES
G)SALES EXCUTIVE 3 3 NIL FAV
SALARIES
H)VENDING UNION CHARGES 0.5 0.25 0.25 ADV
I)AGENT INCENTIVES 14 NIL 14 FAV
TOTAL 70 37.75 32.25 FAV

Table.16

74
DETAILS OF CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES 2007-08 RS. IN LAKHS
VARIAN
BUDGETED ACTUALS
CE
MILK COOLING SECTION
MALLEPALLY
A)3RD PHASE ENTERTAINMENT NIL 6.2 6.2 ADV
B)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION NIL 1.13 1.13 ADV
C)COMPRESSOR BED 1 NIL 1 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION KODADA
A)REFRIGERATION 1.5 1.5 NIL FAV
B)OFFICE RENEVATION 1 NIL 1 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION MOTHKUR
A)OFFICE CONSTRUCTION NIL 1.6 1.6 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION RJAPET
A)GUEST HOUSE CONSTRUCTION NIL 1.12 1.12 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)COMPRESSOR BED NIL 0.67 0.67 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION ALERU
A)FARMERS GUEST HOUSE NIL 3.65 3.65 ADV
B)BATH ROOMS NIL 1.4 1.4 ADV
C)COMPOUND WALL NIL 5.86 5.86 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION TANDUR
A)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION NIL 0.15 0.15 ADV
MILK COOLING SECTION MAAL
A)CONSTRUCTION FOR FEED 1 NIL 1 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION
MIRYALAGUDA
A)REFRIGERATION EXPENSES 1.5 NIL 1.5 FAV
MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)GATE CONSTRUCTION 1 NIL 1 FAV
MOTHER DAIRY HAYATHNAGAR
A)COLD STORAGE CONSTRUCTION NIL 10 10 ADV
B)E.T. PLANT 25 NIL 25 FAV
C)FLAVOURED MILK PLANT NIL 2.43 2.43 ADV
D)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRUCTION 5 NIL 5 FAV
E)BOREWELLS 3 NIL 3 FAV
F)C.C.ROAD CONSTRUCTION 5 NIL 5 FAV
TOTAL 45 35.71 9.29 FAV

Table.17
DETAILS OF PURCHASING 2007-2008 RS IN LAKHS
BUGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE

75
1 OFFICE EQUIPMENT
A)OFFICE EQUIPMENT,CALCULATORS NIL NIL NIL
B)PURCHASING OF COMPUTERS 6 0.81 5.19 FAV
C)FURNITURE ALMARAHS NIL 0.42 0.42 ADV
D)ELECTRONIC PUNCH MACHINE NIL NIL NIL ADV
E)CELLPHONES ,TELEPHONES NIL NIL NIL ADV
F)CASH COUNTING MACHINE NIL 0.81 0.81 ADV
G)TOYOTA,QUALIS VEHICLES NIL 8.71 8.71 ADV
2 DAIRY ITEMS
MILK CANS 12 5.65 6.35 FAV
MILK CRAYTES NIL 5.65 5.65 ADV

II PURCHASING OF PLANT AND


MACHINERY
1 MOTHER DAIRY
1)FREE PACK MACHINE 15 13.85 1.15 FAV
2)FREE PACK SECTION 2 NIL 2 FAV
3)PURCHASING OF STABILIZER 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
4)( B&G)PURCHASED COMPRESSOR 4 NIL 4 FAV
5)(B&G)CONDENSOR COILS 5 NIL 5 FAV
6)TWO WATER PUMPS 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
7)11KVT CUBICAL PANEL 2 NIL 2 FAV
8)TRANSFORMER SWITCH 1 NIL 1 FAV
9)MILK PUMPS 1 NIL 1 FAV
10)AMONIA COMPRESSOR MOTAR 1 NIL 1 FAV
11)COLD STORAGE MACHINES NIL 11 11 ADV
2 MILK COOLING SECTION SURYAPET
A)COMPRESSOR MOTAR NIL NIL NIL
B)SOLAR WATER HEAT SYSTEMS NIL 1.96 1.96 ADV
3 DIESEL GENERATORS NIL NIL NIL ADV
4 PARIGI,BHUVANAGIRI EXPANSION NIL 1.35 1.35 ADV
5 MIRYALAGUDA EXPANSION NIL 13.59 13.59 ADV
6 MILK COOLING SECTION PARIGI
A)ARE 232 PRIK COMPRESSOR 6 NIL 6 FAV
7 MILK COOLING SECTION
NALGONDA
PRE PACK MACHINE 3 NIL 3 FAV
8 SOLAR WATER HEATER SYSTEM
A)1000LITERS 6 NIL 6 FAV
B)500LITERS CHUNDURU 5 NIL 5 FAV
TOTAL 52 58.03 6.03 ADV

INTERPRETATION OF 2007-08

76
INCOME:- In this year the income gained is less because of less milk sold and

income which generated from selling of milk items also less items like cheese, ghee,

buttermilk etc the end results were unsatisfactory.

EXPENSES:- The expenses showed less in actual when compare to Budgeted, thus

net profit at the end gained more. The expenses made on different items is less.

CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES:- In this year more importance given civil Capital

works and investment made cold storage construction & compression bed.

DETAILS 0F PURCHASES:- In this year less expenses made in office Purchases

and some expenses made in mother dairy and milk cooling Section.

BUDGET ESTIMATIONS OF MOTHER DAIRY 2008-09


77
Table.18
DETAILS OF INCOME 2008-09 RS. IN LAKHS
S.NO. PARTICULARS BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIENCE

INCOME
1 MILK SOLD 5800 6240 440 FAV
2 SELLING OF MILK
ITEMS
A)GHEE 580 421 159 ADV
B)CHEESE 380 706 326 ADV
C)CURD 58 50.45 7.55 FAV
D)SKIMMING MILK 3 0.18 2.82 FAV
E)BUTTER MILK 10 4.2 5.8 FAV
3 CATTLE FEED 275 237 38 FAV
4 MILK SUPPLIERS 14 12 2 FAV
SHARE
5 BUILDING RENT 20 18 2 FAV
6 OTHER INCOMES 20 25 5 ADV
7
BANK LOANS 400 500 100 ADV

TOTAL 7560 8213.83 653.83 FAV

DETAILS OF EXPENSES 2008-09 RS. IN LAKHS


Table-19
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 MILK PURCHASES 4100 3750 350 FAV

78
2 MILK PURCHASED FROM OTHER 230 1090 860 ADV
UNIONS
3 TRANSPORT CHARGES FOR MILK 200 216 16 ADV
4 MILK PRODUCTS PURCHASED
A)MILK POWDER 350 500 150 ADV
B)CHEESE NIL
5 CATTLE FEED MATERIAL 225 230 5 ADV
6 PURCHASING BAGS FOR CATTLE 9 12 3 ADV
FEED
7 PURCHASING OF STORES MATERIAL 35 50 15 ADV
8 PURCHASING OF POLYTHIN FILM 210 232 22 ADV
9 PACKING MATERIAL 15 21 6 ADV
10 ELECTRICITY,DIESEL CHARGES 255 262 7 ADV
11 REPAIRS IN PLANT AND MACHINERY 65 60 5 FAV
12 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES 98 80 18 FAV
13 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF BUILDING 30 28 2 FAV
A)FURNITURES AND TYPEWRITERS 1 2.2 1.2 ADV
B)COMPUTERS 1 1.11 0.11 ADV
14 MAINTENANCE OF LABORATORY 0.1 0.1 NIL FAV
15 ADMINISTRATION CHARGES 63.5 60 3.5 FAV
16 EMPLOYEES SALARIES
17 PENSION PROVIDENT FUND 450 532 82 ADV
18 PRINTING AND STATIONARY 8 9 1 ADV
19 MARKETING EXPENSES 44.6 14.5 30.1 FAV
20 SALES TAX 50 16 34 FAV
21 CENTRAL TAX 10 33.66 23.66 ADV
22 INCOME TAX 50 21.22 26.78 FAV
23 AUDITOR FEES
A)FREE AUDIT FEES 1.75 1.52 0.23 FAV
B)ANNUAL AUDIT FEES 1.75 1.3 0.45 FAV
C)TRANSPORT ERXPENSES 0.2 0.28 0.08 ADV
24 CONVERSION EXPENSES
A)PIECE WORK LABOUR CHARGES 100 106 06 ADV
B)TRANSPORT CHARGES 50 15 35 FAV
25 VRS 100 11.2 88.8 ADV
26 DIVIDEND 15 9.34 5.66 FAV
27 ANIMAL PURCHASE NIL 50 50 ADV
28 LONG TERM LOAN
A)SDDB 113.1 111.1 2 FAV
B)CANARA BANK 410 520 110 ADV
29 BUILDINGS,MACHINERYPURCHASE 150 135 15 FAV
TOTAL 7437 8181.53 744 ADV
NET PROFIT 123 32.3 90.7 FAV

Table.20
DETAILS OF UTILITIES 2008-2009 RS. IN LAKHS
10 UTILITIES BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE

79
A)ELECTRICITY CHARGES 175 143 3.2 FAV
B)GENERATOR DIESEL 10 16 6 ADV
C)WATER CHARGES 5 17 12 ADV
D)PERNUS OIL 65 86 21 ADV
TOTAL 255 262 42.2
11 PLANT AND MACHINERY
REPAIRS
A)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 2 1.21 0.79 FAV
B)REPAIRS 30 48 2 ADV
C)FACTORY LICENSE FEES 0.5 0.5 NIL
D)BOILER LICENSE FEES NIL NIL NIL
E)AMONIA GAS 2 1.32 0.68 FAV
F)SALT 0.5 1.32 0.82 ADV
G)PURCHASE OF SPARE PARTS 30 7.65 22.35 FAV
TOTAL 65 60 5 FAV
12 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES
A)DIESEL 65 60 5 FAV
B)OIL AND LUBRICANTS 2 1.8 0.2 FAV
C)TAX AND INSURANCE 4 3.2 0.8 FAV
D)REPAIRS 15 12 3 FAV
E)RMT SPARES 7 3 4 FAV
TOTAL 93 80 13 FAV
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
1)BANK CHARGES 8 7.06 0.94 FAV
2)MANAGERS MEETING 0.25 0.23 0.02 FAV
CHARGES
3)BOARD MEETING CHARGES 1 1.9 0.9 ADV
4)GENERAL BODY MEETING 1.5 1.3 0.2 FAV
EXPENSES
5)T.A,D.A 0.35 0.18 0.17 FAV
6)HOUSE RENT FOR CHAIRMAN 0.48 0.42 0.06 FAV
7)CASH INSURANCE 0.5 NIL 0.5 FAV
8)INSURANCE 0.3 0.96 0.66 ADV
9)RENT 0.1 1.16 1.06 ADV
10)ELECTIONS EXPENSES 0.25 NIL 0.25 FAV
11)CAR RENT 10 6.43 3.57 FAV
12)MEETINGS EXPENSES 0.1 0.11 0.01 ADV
13)LEGAL FEES 1 0.7 0.3 FAV
14)FESTIVAL EXPENSES 0.1 0.03 0.07 FAV
15)NEWS PAPER CHARGES 0.2 0.16 0.04 FAV
16)POSTAGE 0.4 0.32 0.08 FAV
17)TELEPHONE CHARGES 6 4.28 1.72 FAV
18)DISTRIBUTORS MEETING 0.2 0.5 0.3 ADV
CHARGES
19)MUNCIPAL TAXES 8 7 1 FAV
20)PURCHSE COMMITTEE 0.5 0.9 0.4 ADV
CHARGES
21)PRIVATE SECURITY SALARY 11 15 4 ADV

80
22)TENDER NOTIFICATION 1.32 1.5 0.18 ADV
23)EMPLOYEES TRAVELLING 4.5 4.79 0.29 ADV
EXPENSES
24)TRAINING CHARGES 0.25 0.29 0.04 ADV
25)AUDITORS TRAVELLING 0.25 0.27 0.02 ADV
EXPENSES
26)STORES INSURANCE 0.2 NIL 0.2 FAV
27)TRANSPORT COMMITTEE 0.3 NIL 0.3 FAV
CHARGES
28)GENERAL LICENSE 0.1 NIL 0.1 FAV
EXPENSES
29)STAFF UNIFORM 2.5 2.5 NIL NIL
30)MAY DAY EXPENSES 0.25 NIL 0.25 FAV
31)TYPING CHARGES 1.35 0.65 0.75 FAV
32)GIFT PURCHASE 1.75 1.39 0.36 FAV
33)CM RELIF FUND 1 NIL 1 FAV
34)STOCK INSURANCE 1.5 NIL 1.5 FAV
TOTAL 63.5 60 3.5 FAV
MARKETING EXPENSES
A)ADVERTISEMENT EXPENSES 5 3.73 1.27 FAV
B)AGMARK CHARGES 1 1.06 0.06 ADV
C)A.P.D.D.C.F COMMISSION 25 NIL 25 FAV
D)FEED TRANSPORT CHARGES 3.5 5 1.5 ADV
E)MILK TRANSPORT CHARGES 1 NIL 1 FAV
F)GHEE TRANSPORT CHARGES 0.1 0.3 0.2 ADV
G)UNITS EXPENSES 3 NIL 3 FAV
H)AGENTS INCENTIVES 6 4.41 1.59 FAV
TOTAL 44.6 14.5 30.1 FAV

81
Table.21

82
DETAILS OF CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES 2008-2009 RS. IN LAKHS
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 MILK COOLING SECTION
MALLEPALLY
A)COMPRESSOR BED NIL NIL NIL NIL
2 MILK COOLING SECTION KODADA
A)OFFICE CUM GUEST HOUSE NIL 4.85 4.85 ADV
B)WATER SUPPLY NIL NIL NIL NIL
3 MILK COOLING SECTION MOTHKUR
A)OFFICE EXPANSION NIL NIL NIL NIL
4 MILK COOLING SECTION BUVANAGIRI
A)CONDENSOR CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL NIL
5 CATTLE FEED BUILDING
A)TANKS CONSTRUCTION NIL 9.96 9.96 ADV
B)FOUNDATION EXPENSES NIL 3.75 3.75 ADV
C)STEPS CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
6 MILK COOLING SECTION PARIGI
A)SECOND ENTERTAINMENT BUILDING NIL NIL NIL
7 MILK COOLING SECTION MAL
A)STORES ROOM CONSTRUCTION NIL 1.32 1.32 ADV
8 MOTHER DAIRY HAYATHNAGAR
IT PLANTS NIL 9.04 9.04 ADV
COMPOND WALL CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
TOILETS CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
STORES CUM LAB CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
CIVIL CAPITAL WORKS
9 A)MOTHER DAIRY NIL NIL NIL
B)MILK COOLING SECTION 65 NIL 65
TOTAL 65 28 36.12 FAV

Table.22

83
DETAILS OF PURCHASES 2008-2009 RS. IN LAKHS
BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE
1 A)PURCHASE OF COMPUTERS 8 1 7 FAV
B)CELL PHONES AND TELEPHONES NIL 0.2 0.2 ADV
2 DAIRY ITEMS
MILK CANS NIL 1.7 1.7 ADV
MILK TRACKS 12 9.5 2.5 FAV
TOTAL 20 12.4 7.6 FAV

PURCHASING OF PLANT AND


MACHINERY
MOTHER DAIRY
1 S.S GATE WASHER PURCHASE NIL 0.97 0.97 ADV
2 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT NIL 11.7 11.7 ADV
3 BALANCE TANKS NIL 0.34 0.34 ADV
4 CONTROL WALL NIL 0.24 0.24 ADV
5 60KL LEVEL TRANSFORAM NIL 0.53 0.53 ADV
6 60KL MILK SILO NIL 13.27 13.27 ADV
7 HBM LOAD CELL NIL 5.91 5.91 ADV
8 CONTROL PANEL NIL 1.09 1.09 ADV
9 BOILAR PURCHASED NIL 0.36 0.36 ADV
10 PHE CONDENSOR PURCHASE NIL 19.09 19.09 ADV
11 MILK PASTURAIZATION NIL 16.08 16.08 ADV
12 PUMP PURCHASE NIL 0.2 0.2 ADV
13 5HP PUMP PURCHASED NIL 0.18 0.18 ADV
14 1 HP MOTOR PURCHASED NIL 0.5 0.5 ADV
15 5 HP SUB PUMPPURCHASE NIL 0.17 0.17 ADV
16 NEW MACHINES PURCHASE
A)MOTHER DAIRY
B)MILK COOLING SECTION 65
TOTAL 65 70.63 5.18 ADV

INTERPRETATION OF 2008-2009

84
INCOMES:- The income in this year shown the increase of653.83 over the

budgeted .It got more income on selling the cheese where it gained income 326 lakhs

over the budgeted and the milk sold in this is 6240 which more than the budgeted

(5800). So finally the income generated is more at the end . If the organization on best

selling products it can attain more gains.

EXPENSES: In this year all the actuals are more than the budgeted . The main effect

can be seen purchase of milk from other unions and more transportation charges ,

milk powder purchase etc . So this caused in decrease in net profit at the . If

organization consider the above and try reduce the expenses it can gain profits.

CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES: The expenses made of civil works showed less in

actuals because no investment made on milk cooling section which is reflected in

budget.

DETAILS OF PURCHASE: In this more investment done in the plant& machinery

purchase were less in office purchases .

BUDGET ESTIMATIONS OF MOTHER DAIRY

85
Table.23
DETAILS OF INCOMES (2009-10) RS. IN LAKHS

PARTICULARS BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIENCE

1 INCOME
MILK SOLD 6870 6627 243 ADV
2 SELLING OF MILK ITEMS
GHEE 450 291.1 158.9 ADV
CHEESE 780 709.74 70.26 ADV
CURD 65 59.8 5.2 ADV
SKIMMING MILK NIL 0.07 0.07 FAD
BUTTER MILK 5 2.84 2.16 ADV
MILK POWDER NIL 0.07 0.07 FAV
3 CTTLE FEED 242 221.5 20.5 ADV
4 MILK SUTTLIERS SHARE 13 13.01 0.01 ADV
5 BUILDING RENT 18 14.9 3.1 FAV
6 OTHER INCOMES 26 36.23 10.23 ADV
7 BANK LOAN 650 360 290 FAV
8 CLOSING STOCK NIL 25.25 25.25 ADV

TOTAL 9161 8361.51 799.49 ADV

DETAILS OF EXPENSES RS.IN LAKHS (2009-10)


Table.24

86
BUDGETED ACTUA VARIAN
LS CE
1 MILK PURCHASES 4125 3910.78 214.22 FAV
MILK PURCHASED FROM OTHER UNIOBS 1175 1046 429 FAV
TRANSPORT CHARGES FOR MILK 240 214 26 FAV
2 MILK PRODECTS PURCHASES
A)MILK POWDER 650 460.94 189.06 FAV
B)CHEESE NIL NIL NIL A
3 CATTLE FEED MATERIAL 250 165.24 84.79 FAV
4 PURCHASING BAGS FOR CATTLE FEED 15 71.88 56.88 FAV
5 PURCHISING OF STORES MATERIAL 55 35.51 19.49
6 PURCHASING OF POLYTHIN FULM
A)MILK 260 252.33 7.67 FAV
B)GHEE NIL NIL NIL

D)BUTTER MILK NIL NIL NIL


7 PACKING MATERIAL 23 11.52 11.48 FAV
8 ELECTRICITY,DIESEL CHARGES 285 297.91 12.92 ADV
9 REPAIRS IN PLANT AND MACHINERY 66 48.87 17.13 FAV
10 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES 80 99.28 19.28 ADV
11 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF BULDING 31 14.03 16.97 ADV
OFFICE REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE
A)FURNITURES AND TYPEWRITERS 2 2.1 0.1 FAV
B)COMPUTERS 1.5 NIL 1.5 FAV
12 MAITENANCE OF LABORATORY 0.1 NIL 1.5 FAV
13 ADMINISTRATION CHARGES 72 104.52 32.52 ADV
14 EMPLOTEES SALARIES
PENSION PROVIDENT FUND 587 581.4 5.6 FAV
PRINTING EXPENSES 10 NIL 10 FAV
SALES TAX 1.4 1.8 0.4 ADV
CENTRAL TAX 18 14.6 3.4 FAV
INCOME TAX 40 28.93 11.07 FAV
15 AUDITOR FEES
A)FREE AUDIT REES 1.7 NIL 1.7 FAV
B)ANNUAL AUDIT FEES 1.4 NIL 1.4 FAV
C)TRANSPORT EXPENSES 0.3 NIL 0.3 FAV
16 CONVERSION EXPENSES
A)PIECE WORK LAVOUR CHARGES 117 138.82 21.82 ADV
B)TRANSPORT CHARGES 17 15.1 1.9 FAV
VRS 20 21.24 1.24 ADV
DIVIDEND 15 15.2 0.02 ADV
17 INTEREST ON LONG TERM LOAN
A)NDDB 100 95.7 4.3 FAV
B)APCOB 630 400 230 FAV
DEPRECIATION ON BUILDING 140 123 17 FAV
9059.9 8160.55 952.85 FAV

DETAILS OF EXPENDED RS.IN LAKHS (2009-10)


Table.25
UTILITI BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE

87
ES
A)ELECTRICITY CHARGES 155 157.36 2.36 ADV
B)GENERATOR DIESEL 18 29 11 ADV
C)WATER CHARGES 20 14.59 5.41 FAV
D)PERNUS OIL 92 96.96 4.96 ADV
TOTAL 285 297.91 23.73 ADV
2 PLANT AND MACHINERY
REPAIRS
A) OIL AND LUBRICANTS 1.3 1.65 0.35 ADV
B)REPAIRS 49 39.66 9.34 FAV
C)FACTORY LICENSE EES 0.5 0.1 0.4 FAV
D)BOILER LICENSE FEES NIL 0.04 0.04 ADV
E)AMONIA GAS 1.5 0.81 0.69 ADV
F)SALT 1.3 0.52 0.78 ADV
G)PURCHASE OF SPARE PARTS 12.4 4.96 7.44 FAV
TOTAL 66 47.74 18.26 FAV
3 REPAIRS OF VEHICLES
A)DIESEL 63 80.37 17.37 ADV
B)LIL AND LUBRICANTS 1.5 2.1 0.6 ADV
C)TAX AND INSURANCE 2.5 3.4 0.9 ADV
D)REPAIRS 13 13.39 0.39 ADV
TOTAL 80 99.28 19.287 ADV
4 ADMISNISTRATIVE EXPENESES
1)BANK CHARGES 7.5 8.07 0.57 ADV
2)MANAGERS MEETING CHARGES 0.25 0.24 0.01 FAV
3)BOARD MEETING CHARGES 2 0.62 1.38 FAV
4)GENERAL BODY MEETING 1.7 1.17 0.53 ADV
EXPENSES
5)T.A. D.A 0.25 0.92 0.67 ADV
6)HOUSE RENT FOR CHAIRMAN 0.5 0.44 0.06 FAV
7)CASH INSURANCE 1 NIL 1 FAV
8)INSURANCE 1.2 2.02 -0.82 ADV
9)RENT 0.21 0.34 -0.13 FAV
10)ELECTIONS EXPENSES 7 7.76 -0.76 ADV
11)CAR RENT 0.1 0.45 -0.35 FAV
12)MEETING EXPENSES 1 0.4 0.6 FAV
13)LEGAL FEES 0.03 0.09 -0.06 ADV
14)FESTIVAL EXPENSES 0.16 0.22 -0.06 ADV
15)NEWS PAPER CHARGES 0.35 0.42 -0.07 ADV
16)POSTAGE 5 4.8 0.2 FAV
17TELEPHONE CHARGES 0.5 0.27 0.23 ADV
18)DISTRIBUTORS MEETING 7 6.24 0.76 FAV
CHARGESS

88
19)MUNICIPAL TAXES 0.9 0.42 0.48 FAV

20)PURCHASE COMMITTEE 17 14.4 2.6 FAV


CHARGES
21)PRIVATE SECURITY SALARY 0.5 5.22 -4.72 ADV

22)TENDER NOTIFICATION 5 5.42 -0.42 ADV

23)EMPLOYEES TRAVELLING 0.4 NIL 0.4 FAV


EXPENSES
24)TRAINING CHARGES 0.3 0.28 0.02 ADV

25)AUDITORS TRAVELLING
EXPENSES
26)STORES INSURANCE NIL 0.69 0.69 ADV

27)STOCK INSURANCE NIL NIL NIL


28)TRANSPORT COMMITTEE 2.5 2.5 0.25 ADV
CHARGES
29)GENERAL LILCENSE IXPENSES 0.25 1.96 FAV

30)STAFF UNIFORM NIL 1.96 15.82 ADV

31)MAY DAY EXPENSES 1.4 16.58 16.58 ADV

32)TYPING CHARGES NIL 16.58 15.9 ADV

TOTAL 65
5 MARKETING EXPENESES
A)ADVERTISENEBT EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
B)AGMARK CHARGES 1 0.15 0.85 FAV

C)A.P.D.D.C.F COMMISSION NIL NIL NIL


D)FEED TRANSPORT CHARGES 0.4 NIL 0.4 FAV

E)MILK TRANSPORT CHARGES NIL NIL NIL


F)GHEE TRANSPORT CHARGES NIL NIL NIL
G)SALES EXECUTIVE SALARIES NIL NIL NIL
H)VENDING UNION CHARGES NIL NIL NIL
I)AGENT INCENTIVES NIL 1.65 1.65 ADV

TOTAL 1.4 1.8 0.4 ADV

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Table.26

DETAILS OF CIVIL CAPITAL EXPENSES 2009-2010 RS. IN LAKHS

1 MILK COOLING SECTION BUDGETED ACTUALS VARIANCE


MALLEPALLY
A)3 RD PHASE ENTERT AINMENT 1 NIL 1 FAV
B)COMPOUND WALL CONSTRCTION NIL NIL NIL
C)COMPRESSOR BED NIL NIL NIL
2 MILK COLLING SECTION KODADA
A)REFRIGERATION 1.5 8.8 7.3 ADV
B)OFFICE RECEVATION 2 NIL 2 FAV
3 MILK COLLING SECTION
MOTHKUR
A)OFFICE CONSTRUCTION 6 NIL 6 FAV
4 MILK COOLING SECTION
RAJAPAT
A)GUEST HOUSE CONSTRUCTION 1 0.76 0.22 FAV
5 MILK COOLING SECTION
SURYAPAT
A)COMPRESSOR BED 5.64 46.14 39.52 ADV
6 MILK COLLING SECTION ALERU
A)FARMERS GUEST HOUSE 13.6 0.13 13.47 FAV
B)BATHROOMS NIL NIL NIL
C)COMPOUN WALL NIL NIL NIL
7 MILK COOLING SECTION TANDUR
A)COMPOUNWALL CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
8 MILK COOLING SECTION MAAL
A0CONSTRUCTION FOR FEED NIL NIL NIL
9 MILK COOLING SECTION
MIRYALAGUDA
A)REFRIGERATION EXPENSES NIL NIL NIL
10 MILK COLLING SECTION
SURYAPET
GATE CONS TRUCTION NIL NIL NIL
11 MOTHER DAIRY HAYATHNAGAR
A)COLD STORAFGE CONSTRUCTION 15.96 23.2 7.24 ADV
B)E.T.PLANT 10 NIL 10 FAV
C)FLAVOURED MILK PLANT 3 NIL 3 FAV
D)COMPOUND WALL 1.5 NIL 1.5 FAV
CONSTRACTION
E)BOREWALLS NIL NIL NIL
F)C.C ROAD CONSTRUCTION NIL NIL NIL

TOTAL 62.2 79.07 16.84 ADV

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Table.27

DETAILS OF PURCHASING 2009-2010 RS, IN LASHS


OFFICE EQUIPMENT BUDGETED ACTUALS VERIANCE
A)OFFICE 5 NIL 5 FAV
EQUIPEMENT,CALCULATORS
B)PURCHASING OF 0.2 NIL 0.2 FAV
COMPUTERS
C)FURNITURE ALMARAHS NIL NIL NIL
D)ELECTRONIC PUNCH NIL NIL NIL
MACHINE
E)CELLPHONES,TELEPHONES NIL NIL NIL
F)CASH COUNTING MACHINE NIL NIL NIL
G)TOYOTA,QALIS VEHICLES NIL NIL NIL
DAIRY ITEMS
MILK CANS 2 4 2 ADV
MILK CRAYTES 12 8 4 FAV
TOTAL 19.2 12 7.2 FAV

PURCHASE OF PLANT AND


MACHINERY
PURCHASE OF NEW
MACHINERY
1)MOTHER DAIRY 58.6 28.01 30.59 FAV
2)MILK COOLING SECTION NIL 10.23 10.23 ADV
TOTAL 58.6 38.24 20.36 FAV

91
INTERPRETATION OF 2009-2010

INCOME: In this year the income is less when compare to the budgeted because the

income generated in all items under the heading is less Nothing haired every year

income from selling of milk items especially cheese will gain more but in this year it

is opposite Totally at the end it is not satisfactory.

EXPENSES:- In the expenses the profit generated at the end is more when compare

to budgeted. Because mainly less milk purchased from the other unions. And the other

expenses incurred also less. The final result is less.

CIVIAL CAPITAL EXPENSES:- In this year more importance is given to civil

expansion organization gave more importance and in crested in compression bed cold

storage construction. It is good to improve the works.

DETAILS OF PURCHASE:- The details of purchase showed less because less

expenses made on office material purchase, and also in mother dairy.

92
GRAPH OF INCOMES

YEARS BUDGETED ACTUALS


2005-06 8778 8361
2006-07 4810 7378
2007-07 7608 7378
2008-09 7608 8213
2009-10 9161 8361

Figure.1

Interpretation:

In the year 2005-06 the actual amount is less compared to budgeted amount as the

budget is accurate. In the 2007-08 it shows a slight change between budgeted amount

and actually. In the year 2009-10 budgeted amount is more compared to actually it

shows that the quantity is more compared to market. Selling of milk products, share of

milk suppliers and cattle feed products are less than the estimates.

93
GRAPH OF EXPENSES

YEARS BUDGETED ACTUALS


2005-06 8778 8361
2006-07 4810 7378
2007-07 7608 7378
2008-09 7608 8213
2009-10 9161 8361

Figure.2

Interpretation:

In the year 2005-06 actual are less compared to budgeted it shows that they gained in

this year. In the year 2009-10 budget amount is more because as the milk powder,

packing material, central tax are gaining expenses compared to budget amount. In the

last year budgeted amount is more compared to actual the above products did not sold

well. It shows that their budget is aggregate.

GRAPH OF CIVIL EXPENSES


94
YEARS BUDGETD ACTUALS

2005-06 70 79
2006-07 30.4 35
2007-07 45 35
2008-09 65 25
2009-10 62 79
Figure.3

Interpretation:

In the year 2005-06 civil expenses are at a very high range. Actuals are high

compared to budgeted because of construction of cold storage sector. Flavored milk

plant and bore weeks. In the year 2007-08 actuals are less compared to budgeted

because as the expenses are less. In the year 2009-10 it incurred high volume of

expenses than the budgeted because it incurred heavy expenses.

SUGGESTIONS

95
As the internal resources are not sufficient to take up major modifications
revamping of the equipment covering to the requirement of strategic sector,

Government must take steps to provide.

It should put in more efforts to capture a sizable market share.

By taking strategic decision at appropriate time it could be able to transfer some of

its future expansion and modernization schemes, temporary to another sister

organizations in cooperatives, there by avoiding payment for unused charges duly safe

guarding its requirements to avail the same at times I becomes necessary.

For the past five years it is evident that the incomes including the scrap generated

internally is the excess of estimates. The organization must take steps to utilize the

scrap to bring down costs.

Some welfare steps to be provided to the employees of the mother dairy so that

they can work efficiently and effectively for increase of sales in this regard.

Government should take steps to provide some relief in this regard.

 More emphasis should be given to advance technology.

Financial feasibility should be improve a little.

96
BIBLOGRAPHY

Financial Management S.N MAHESHWARI

Management accounting R.K SHRMA


SHASHIK.GUPTA.

Cost Accounting S.P Jain & K.L Narang

WEBSITES

www.nddb.org

www.motherdairy.com

www.milkmagic.com

www.fao.org

97