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RELATION ON MATHEMATICS AND MAKING CAKES

NAME : JAZLI BIN JUMAHAT CLASS: 5 AGRO DATE : 1 JULY 2011 I.C NUMBER: 941015-14-6171

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PART I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings.

Answer : Geometry : To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced. Calculus (differentiation) : To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating, and also to estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced.

Progressions : To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. PART II Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers Day celebration.(diagram 1)

DIAGRAM 1 If a kilogram of cake has has a volume of 3800 cm, and the height of the is to be 7.0 cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake cake ordered by your school ( used : 3.142)

Answer: Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x height of cake 3800 5 (3.142)( )2 ( )2 7

3.142 863.872 ( )2

29.392 d 2 29.392

58.784 cm

2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cm in width and 45.0 cm in height a)If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,h cm,and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used, d cm. Tabulate your answers Answer: Form the formulator d in terms of h using above formula for volume cake V : 19 000, that is

19000

 (3.142)( )h



d  d Table below based on calculation : d Height, h, (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Diameter, d,(cm) 155.53 109.98 89.80 77.77 69.56 63.49 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18

b) Based on the values in your table, (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answer h< 7cm is NOT suitable because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive.

(ii)suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer Answer: h = 8 cm, d = 54.99 cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable to handling it c. i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between hand d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software] Answers : 19000 (3.142)( )h

19000(3.142) 

  155.513 -1/2

  

 

-1/2   

0 2.19

1 1.69

2 1.19

3 0.69

4 0.19

(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required

Answers : h = 10.5cm , log h = 1.021 , log d = 1.680, d = 47.86 cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained. Answers : d 42cm , log d 1.623 , log h 1.140 , h 13.80 cm 3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1 cm. a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answers : h 8cm, d 54.99 cm VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area height) VOLUME of cream at the top surface volume of cream at the side surface

Amount of fresh cream

Amount of fresh cream

VOLUME of cream at the top surface Area of top surface (3.142)( )2 1 Height of cream

2375.27 cm3 VOLUME of cream at the side surface area of side surface height of cream (circumference of cake 2(3.142)( )(8) 1 height of cake) height of cream

1382.23 cm @ amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23cm

b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those sugggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes.

1) Triangle-shaped base 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750

By trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50) Slant length of triangle =  = 98.23  

Therefore, amount of cream area of rectangular front side surface (Height of cream) of slant rectangular 2 (Area

side surface)(Height of cream)

volume of top surface = (50 8)(1) 2(98.23 8)(1) 2375

= 4346.68 cm 2 ) Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid) 19000 base area height

base area length width 2375

By trial and improvement , 2375 ( length 50 , width

50 47.5 8)

47.5 , height

Therefore , volume of cream

2(Area of

side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of

side surface)(Height of

cream) + Volume of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm3 2) Pentagon - shaped

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon

@ Therefore,
2375 = 5 (length x width) 475 = length x width

@ By trial and improvement,

475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19)

@ Therefore,
amount of cream = 5 (area of one rectangular side surface) (height of cream) + volume of top surface = 5 (8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm

(a)

Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fres cream to be used? Answers: Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 3135 cm of cream to be used.

PART III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. Method 1 : Differentiation 19000 V (3.142)r2h (1) (2) (3)

(3.142)r2

2(3.142)rh 

From (1) : h

Substitute (3) into (2) V V V ( ) 0 (3.142)r2 (3.142)r2 (3.142)r2 38000r  minimum value, therefore 2(3.142)r[ ]

2 (3.142)r 2 (3.142)r

2 (3.142)r r3 r3  r r

6047.10

18.22 cm

substitute r h h 18.22 cm 18.22 cm into 

@h
d 2r 2 (18.22)

18.22 cm

36.44 cm Method 2 : Quadratic Function Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) r volume of cream, r

radius of round cake (3.142)r2h (1) (2)

19000

f(r) (3.142)r2 from (2) : f(r) (3.142)(r2 (3.142)[(r (3.142)[(r (3.142)(r

2(3.142)hr

2hr) )2 h)2 h)2

factorize (3.142) ( )2 ] h2 ] (3.142) h2 completing square with a 3.142 , b , c

( a = (3.142) (positive indicates minimum value) , minimum value = f(r) = (3.142)h, correspondingvalue of x = r = h)

Substitute r = h into (1) : 19000 h h

(3.142)( h)h 6047.104

h = 18.22

Substitute h 18.22 into (1) 19000 (3.142)r(18.22)

r r r therefore,

331.894

18.22

h = 18. 22 cm , d = 2r = 2 (18.22) = 36.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because it dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

FURTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2 .

DIAGRAM 2

The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answers : height, h of each cake = 6 cm radius of largest cake = 31 cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599 a 31 r

V = (3.142)rh  Radius of 1st cake = 31 volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31)(6) =18116.772  Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9 volume of 2nd cake = (3.142)(27.9)(6) = 14674.585  Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11

volume of 3rd cake = (3.142)(25.11)(6) = 11886.414  Radius of 4th cake = 22.599 volume of 4th cake = (3.142)(22.599)(6) = 9627.995

18116.772 , 14674.585 , 11886.414 , 9627.995 , a 18116.772 r 0.81

b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg , calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods. Answers : Sn
 

Sn

57 000 , a

18116.772 and r
 

0.81

57 000 0.81n = 0.59779

0.40221 = 0.81n log 0.81 0.40221 = n

n n 4.322 4

therefore , n

REFLECTION When making this project, I spent a lot of time doing this project. Even addmath was a one of the difficult subject, it is our foundation of life. I realized this subject was very important in our daily life. . Without it, I can t fulfill my big dreams and wishes.  I guess that I began to love this subject not because of the number calculation, but because this subject requires more understanding.  It also always be an absolute obstacle for me.  Not everyone like this subject.Most important is mathematics was involved in every second of our life