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ETHICS practical science of the morality of human acts BIOETHICS branch of applied ethics that investigates practices and

nd developments in the life sciences and/or biomedical fields. HEALTH ETHICS division of Ethics that related to human health; Ethics for the health professions. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS division of Ethics that relates to professional behavior; deals with rules by which persons behave and act in the exercise of their calling or profession. Ethical Schools of Thoughts A. Teleological Ethics - consequential ethics - stresses the end-result, goal or consequence of an act as the determining factor of its rightness or wrongness - action is right if it maximizes the net sum of good outcomes over bad ones; if it achieves the greatest good for the greatest number. Limitations: 1. Promotes the principle of the and justify the means 2. Do not accept existence of intrinsically immoral actions 3. Conflicts with individuals rights 4. Outcomes are difficult to evaluate B. Deontological Ethics - duty ethics - judgment is based on whether an act is in keeping with some moral standard: principles, rule, maxim or duty derived from underlying moral philosophy - underscores the feature of the act or kind of the act itself rather than the balance of harm and good - stresses the intrinsic value of all individuals: dignity, respect, autonomy Duty-based approaches include: 1. Laws rules of conduct, ordinances of impositions for the common good of the community. 2. Codes systematic collection of laws 3. Principles generalizations accepted as true and serving as tools for an analysis 4. Rights entitlements or claims of one with correlative obligations of others

Moral theory Moral principle Moral Rules Moral judgment/decision

Natural Law Ethics - Thomistic ethics, Scholastic ethics, Christian ethics and/or Catholic Ethics - claims there exists a natural moral law demanding the preservation of the natural order and forbidding its obligation - Natural Law constitutes the totality of duties imposed by God upon man, which man can know through human reason. - Natural Law is the dictate of the voice of reason; and this dictate is expressed in the moral principle Do good and avoid evil. What is good? The good is built into human nature, and it is that to which we are directed by our natural inclinations: 1. Self-preservation 2. Just dealings with others 3. Propagation of species Thus, any act that violates this basic inclination is wrong; it contradicts human nature as the Creator intended it to be. Voice of Conscience - voice of reason - practical judgment of reason applying the general principle of morality individual concrete actions or decisions Well Formed Conscience 1. 2. 3. 4. Gather information (facts vs. values, stakeholders, moral approaches, options? Form a morally certain judgment (moral discernment) Act accordingly Accept responsibility for action

Prepared by: Milagros F. Neri, MD