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Faculty of Engineering & Information Technologies

People & Leadership PMGT5872 (BLOCK)

Learning Topic 2 Activity 2 (Group Activity) Personal & Interpersonal Competence: Case Study 3 Lawair Vehicle

Group 1 International Project and Strategic Management Group (IPSMG) June, 2011

Group participants: Ajay Meeraiya Amir F.Shandiz Barry Tan Jaehun Kim Juan Pyco Martin Rodriguez Walter Paredes E

Word count (Tables, Figures and Appendixes excluded): 2841 words excluding tables, diagrams and personal statements.. In compliance with the exceeding 10% allowed.

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 3 Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 4 Team development Framework ...................................................................................................... 4 3.1 3.2 The Team Alignment Pyramid................................................................................................. 4 Team Development plan ......................................................................................................... 5 Chartering ........................................................................................................................ 6 Developing ...................................................................................................................... 7 Sustaining High Performance ......................................................................................... 9

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 4. 4.1

Leadership; Personal and Interpersonal Competencies ............................................................... 10 Motivation .............................................................................................................................. 10 Motivating others ........................................................................................................... 10 Effective motivation program ......................................................................................... 12 Insight to a Social Networks Analysis ........................................................................... 13 Power ............................................................................................................................ 13 Social Network and Knowledge Sharing ....................................................................... 14 Total power of the team leader ..................................................................................... 16 Manage the transition from team member to team leader ............................................ 16 Gain Credibility among Team Members ....................................................................... 17 Establish a Climate for Influence ................................................................................... 17 Actively Influence .......................................................................................................... 17 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.4

Social Competence ............................................................................................................... 13

Influence ................................................................................................................................ 15

Accountability and High Performance ................................................................................... 17

5.0 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 19 References ............................................................................................................................................ 20 Individual Statements ............................................................................................................................ 21 Ajay Meeraiya ................................................................................................................................... 21 Amir F.Shandiz .................................................................................................................................. 21 Barry Tan........................................................................................................................................... 21 Jaehun Kim ....................................................................................................................................... 22 Juan Pyco.......................................................................................................................................... 22 Martin Rodriguez ............................................................................................................................... 22 Walter Paredes E .............................................................................................................................. 23

1. Introduction
Starry Eye Company (SEC), is in the process of transforming from a rigid, risk averse and conservative organisation to one which is innovative, competitive an project based. Following senior management approval for the development of the Lawair Vehicle, SEC has contractually engaged with International Project and Strategic Management Group (IPSMG) for the development of the SEC Leadership & Team Development Framework (LTDF) in order to support the organisations transition process and the successful achievement of the Lawair and future projects. Based on preliminary assessments on SECs organisational structure and culture, IPSMG and SEC have agreed in the following vision for SECs future organisational and project team structures.

Figure 1- SECs Organisational Structure


Board of Directors

General Manager

CEO

Admin Manager

PMO

Lawair Dirtector

Other Project Directors

PM 1

PM 2

Technical Department Legal Department HR Department Other Department

Figure 2- : SECs Detailed Project Team Structure

The above are the result of reasonable assumptions based on prior consultation and explanation by SECs senior management on the future development of the organisation.

2. Executive Summary
This Leadership & Team Development Framework (LTDF) is the result of reasonable assumptions based on consultation by SECs senior management on the future development of the organisation in terms of organisational structure, processes, procedures and culture, and is considered best practice documentation and should be read, understood and implemented accordingly prior to any projects initiation within the organisation. The following objectives have been established for SECs LTDF: Objectives: Facilitate advanced leadership and self-motivation behaviour throughout the organisation. Define leadership competencies at project and team levels. Increase of organisations competency in communication and knowledge management. Development of rapport and networks within team members. Support the development of team members. Enhance team members ability to positively influence and manage key stakeholders (project and/or team members).

The methodology used by IPSMG begun with a consultation process at all levels of SEC, to assess and identify the organisations status quo and desired end. IPSMG then researched various documentation on leadership and team development, aligned it with its own professional experience and the organisations needs. IPSMG has developed a tailored model for the implementation of social competence and social skills, as a way to encourage the development of rapport and highly communicative networks throughout projects and teams. Further insights and recommendations for influencing team members where there is no positional power and where teams are not responding effectively to requests; in addition to possible solutions for managing key stakeholders who resist change. IPSMG presents this document as a clearly defined framework to assist SECs employees, to develop and implement competencies for leadership, influence and motivation in all future projects.

3. Team development Framework


Team building sessions often focus on the interpersonal aspects of team development. The team alignment process may include interpersonal development activities, but its primary focus is to ensure a team that is prepared to execute its work properly, achieving the potential synergies of an aligned and empowered group of talented individuals.

3.1 The Team Alignment Pyramid


The first stage of team alignment usually is often the most important. The investment in aligning a team is essential in establishing a high performance team. Most team problems can refer to unresolved initial issues such as unclear goals, lack of commitment, role confusion, inadequate communications, misunderstanding about the decision-making process and other factors that can be discussed and resolved in the initial chartering process(Harold, 2011). The following figure shows the elements of team alignment (seen below the water line) which are directly related to and affect interpersonal behaviour (seen above the water line on figure 3).

Figure 3- Team Alignment Pyramid

3.2 Team Development plan


Based on the nature of the objectives, there are three major steps in building and maintaining a high performance team: Chartering Developing; and Sustaining high performance

Cameron and Whetten, model (1984) developed a model based on Tuckmans team development model (1965) for team building and development. Table 1 and figure 4 compare the current model with the Cameron and Whetten model (Hackman, 1993), (Katzenbach, 1993).

Table 1- Team development plan

SEC Model

Cameron and Whetten Model Forming (Uncertainty)

Cameron and Whetten Model Description The forming is the first stage and it is expected that team member are getting to know each other through the first few meeting. As a result, members will understand their own roles, others` role and their goal in the group. The storming is the most difficult stage for a team, but this is essential for healthy team development. In this stage, team members discuss and define the team vision and goals In this stage, the team is starting to work well together and they may start to brag up the team concept to others who are not in the team and will be very positive about their role in the group. Defining team strategies and relationships The teams at the this level are generally self-regulating In this stage, teams are effective and can often find solutions quickly Perform successfully to achieve team objectives Helps an organisation build its credibility and reliability among their clients. Helps build long-term client relationships and therefore retain client and sales revenues over an extended period of time. Build and sustaining high team performance

Chartering Storming (Conflict)

Norming (Collaborating) Developing

Performing (Achieving)

Excelling Sustaining Chartering

Figure 4- Team Development Models

3.2.1

Chartering

Chartering is the process by which a team defines itself, goals, responsibilities and its operating guidelines. The chartering model is shown below:

Figure 5- Chartering structure

The scope of the chartering process depends on the size and nature of the team and the complexity of the work packages. It may vary from a day to multiple sessions over a period of time. Table 2 contains a suggested list of items that must be either developed or reviewed and confirmed by the team for chartering and alignment process (Harold, 2011):
Table 2- Chartering steps

Step/process Defining team goals Review/Confirm team strategy Review/Confirm team integrated plan Developing team organization model Defining roles and responsibilities Establishing operating guidelines Develop stakeholder relationship model Alignment endorsement and action planning

Team leader key focus Defining deliverables and team vision to avoid any misunderstanding Defining the implementation strategy and related challenges and opportunities Defining constraints and allocate resources Defining team organization chart , governance model and decision making process Defining individual and collective team responsibilities and team members roles Defining rules of engagement including communication model, conflict management, interpersonal behaviour, reports template and etc. Defining a fundamental relationship model with internal or external stakeholders Alignment process and structure need to be reviewed and endorsed by team members

3.2.2

Developing

There are four key stages in the team development cycle, requiring a focused progression for the establishment of a winning team (Winning teams, 2011). Stage 1: Orientation Stage 2: Fragmentation Stage 3: Integration Stage 4: High Performance

Figure 6- Development cycle chart

The following table shows the team leaders key focus of each stage and related challenge(s) and solution(s) provided by team leaders:
Table 3- Development Steps

Stages Orientation

Team leader Key focus ensure that the team foundations are well established Continue providing clear direction and balance with increasing team support

Fragmentation

The team needs to operate as a cohesive unit with achievement of team targets supported by appropriate reward mechanisms Integration

Challenge(s) Unclear and/or ambiguous goals definition waste team resources Team members lose focus on the clarity of the team's direction The individual responsibilities and contributions to team success have not been accurately defined The support being offered is inappropriate and too often judgmental and blame oriented Lack of commitment Team and team members low efficiency Poor communication

Solution(s) Review the goals and create the most comprehensive vision to achieve high performance team Focusing on team members specific measures of success Reinforce the team's key values Support the team in developing a desired behaviours model

Provide an accountability framework Leader supports team members to improve their individual efficiency Revise or improve communication plan Reinforced the team culture of appreciation and recognition Develop a united, proactive and multi disciplined system to problem solving

High performance

Clear understanding and prioritisation of the key performance indicators that will contribute to optimum performance

Low team performance

Coaching individual to help them improve their contribution to the teams deliberations. Empower the team members Detailed analysis of the issues that currently impair performance

A change in market conditions, strategy or key personnel will herald the need to return to the first Orientation stage of the team development cycle so that solid team foundations can quickly be reestablished and the team can return to high performance in the shortest period of time possible.

3.2.3

Sustaining High Performance

Maintaining high performance team needs to conduct following activities or steps by team leaders as table 4 (Giser, 2003), (Harold, 2011).
Table 4- Sustaining steps

Activities/Steps Build, sustain, and repair relationships Transparent and distributed decision making

Key focus Build trust and fundamental rapport among team members and leader Promotion transparency in decision making Engaging team members in decision making Be passionate and unguarded in members discussions Set clear Expectations Evidence for success Evidence for progress Built an open communication structure Using 360 degree feedback processes to highlight issues for individual team members Consider feedbacks Regular feedback meeting Formal feedback reviews Consider team members expectation in leading team Tie the outcomes to members criteria and values Build a rewarding plan Appropriate incentives Send positive feedback toward team members Challenging true assumptions Rewarding appropriate risk taking

Keep members accountable

Feedback and Change

Improve commitment level

Acknowledgment and Reward Encourage change and creative thinking

Continues measuring and control

Identify the key measures to assess performance and progress Assign responsibilities for providing data regarding measure the KPIs Analyzing and integrating the data to create the performance reports Reviewing the reports and take proper action

4.

Leadership; Personal and Interpersonal Competencies

4.1 Motivation 4.1.1 Motivating others

There are four major objectives for motivation others (Carlopio, 2008): Foster a high-performance workplace Access and develop work performance and motivation Enhance individuals` performance Improve poor performance

Foster a high-performance workplace


Related to motivation are the assumptions tied to Theory X/Y. Theory X is a management style characterized by coercion, intimidation, and close supervision where the basic assumption is that employees really do not want to work hard or assume responsibility. Theory Y is a management style characterized by assisting workers to reach their potential where workers want to do a good job and assume more responsibility. Managers should use motivation techniques that integrate concerns for both employee satisfaction and performance. As table 5 indicates, there are four ways to address satisfaction and performance
Table 5- Components to address satisfaction and performance

Components Indulging Imposing Ignoring Integrating

Description High emphasis on satisfaction and a low emphasis on performance. The culture is one of entitlement over accountability. Strong emphasis on performance to the exclusion of satisfaction. Employees feel exploited. Very little trust between management and employees. Neither satisfaction nor performance is emphasized. No real leadership, no direction and ultimately failure. Integrating; emphasizes both satisfaction and performance. In the long run both satisfaction and performance are given equal consideration. Employees are still held accountable.

Table 6- Relationship between satisfaction and performance

Emphasis on Satisfaction

High Low

Emphasis on Performance Low High Indulging Integrating Ignoring Imposing

Access and develop work performance and motivation


Generally, supervisors attribute the cause of poor performance to low motivation or lack of effort. This attribution bias of making assumptions about why things happen without the benefit of scrutiny lends to simplistic, ill-informed diagnoses of work performance problems by supervisors. But according to Carlopio`s ability Equation (2008) shown in table 7.
Table 7- Ability Equation

Performance Ability Motivation

Ability Equation Ability X Motivation Aptitude X Training and resources Desire effort X Commitment

The multiplication sign in this model signifies that all components are essential. Aptitude refers to the native skills including personality characteristics a person brings to a job. Most inherent abilities can be enhanced by education and training. Resources in the ability equation above focuses on providing adequate resources to perform the job. Desire and commitment is manifested in job-related effort.

Managers must be aware that different strategies exist to improve performance based upon the causes for poor performance; ability or motivation.

Enhance individuals abilities


Ability problems result from poor employment screening, changes in responsibilities, advances in technology or the Peter Principle, where people are promoted to one level above their level of competence. Managers should be alert for individuals that show signs of ability deterioration. The five remedies for overcoming poor performance due to a lack of ability are shown in table 9 and figure 7.
Table 8- Treatment steps

Treatment Resupply

Description Focuses on the support needs of the job, including personnel, budget, and political clout. This is the least threatening action and signals to the employee a willingness by the manager to help. Providing additional education or job related training. Training can take a variety of forms: - Interactive - Simulation - Subsidized university courses - In-house seminars - Distance learning, material offered over the Internet The subordinate remains on the job but the components of the job are changed to better fit the individual. The result usually is a changed job description. Reassign is more drastic because it involves a transfer, but it indicates to the employee that the company is committed to helping him or her succeed in that organization Should be considered only after all other options have been explored.

Retrain

Refit

Reassign Release, or termination

Figure 7-Motivation model enhancement

Increase motivation and performance


Employee motivation and performance are increasingly viewed as key resources in helping organizations improve the productivity, quality, customer relations, etc. Few subjects receive more ongoing attention in organizations. Regardless of the organizational setting, managers face a common challenge of fostering a motivating work environment.

4.1.2

Effective motivation program

The focus of this part is on creating work environments where employees are highly productive and highly motivated. The core of this section outlines a six-step process for creating a motivating work environment (Ainslie, 1992), (Greenberg, 1984), (Steel, 2005). Understanding of the relationship between satisfaction, motivation and performance has changed a great deal during the past two decades. The current four-factor model is:

Figure 8-Effective motivation model

There are six components for integrating motivation program, as described in table 9.
Table 9- Motivation program components

Component Establish Clear Performance Expectations Remove Obstacles to Performance

Description Establish moderately difficult goals that are understood and accepted.

Reinforce Performance; Enhancing Behaviour

Provide Salient Rewards

Be Fair and Equitable

Provide Timely Rewards and Accurate Feedback

Facilitate employee performance by removing obstacles to goal accomplishment to ensure a supportive work environment. Encourage goal accomplishment by contingently linking performance to extrinsic outcomes (rewards and discipline) and fostering intrinsic outcomes, as following steps: - Use Rewards as Reinforcers - The Role of Managers Action as Rein forcers - Use Rewards and Discipline Appropriately - Strategies for Shaping Behaviours - Foster Intrinsic Outcomes - Motivating Workers by Redesigning Work Providing salient internal and external incentives. Team leader should seek information about subordinates needs and values and not assume they know what employees want. SEC team leaders must consider how to distribute rewards. The issue the manager faces here is equity. Any positive benefits of the reward will be negated if the individual feel they are not receiving their fair share. When the reward will be given plays an important role. Two aspects should be considered: (1) the length of time between the occurrence of the desirable behaviour and receipt of the reward and (2) the specificity of the explanation for the reward.

4.2 Social Competence 4.2.1 Insight to a Social Networks Analysis

Social network analysis views from an analytical approach social relationships consisting of nodes (actors) and connections (types of relationships). In order to understand social networks, a common practice is to map the social network. This section explains some, but not all, of the main concepts and metrics in order to give a general understanding of the concepts involved (Wikimedia, 2011): Betweenness: the extent to which a node lies between other nodes in the network Centrality: the measure gives a rough indication of the social power of a node based on how well it is connected to the network. Closeness: The degree an individual is near all other individuals in a network (directly or indirectly). It reflects the ability to access information through network members. Reach: The degree any member of a network can reach other members of the network.

The utilisation of these concepts enables the possibility of identifying relevant actors (nodes) or connections which are explicitly exposed in a social network diagram; which by the utilisation of colours and size of nodes and connectors stresses out the relevance they have within a network under a define metric.

4.2.2

Power

Inferable from the above it can be stated that depending on the position within a network under a defined metric the importance of an actor or connector is directly proportional to its location within the network and the way it is connected. This gives a rough assessment of its relevance or power or its ability to influence other actors or in many cases the whole network.

Under the previous analysis it is then sustainable to state that power within a network is no longer a matter of hierarchy but a matter of the reach a specific node has when looked-at under a specific metric. Under a given scenario someone who is highly connected within a network, in a comfortable centrality position doesnt necessarily have power or the ability to influence others if looked-at under the scope of differing cultures or cultural values. Therefore the ability or relevance of an actor to drive influence within a network is directly interdependent to the needs, stereotypes, idols etc. of the target.

4.2.3

Social Network and Knowledge Sharing

The SEC is undertaking a significant change in its organisational framework with many changes in the makeup of its divisions, teams and reporting structures. However, the boxes and lines of an organisational chart do not reflect the way that work actually gets done in the organisation. The SEC is knowledge based engineering company with a rich history of technological development and its coordinated efforts have occurred at least as much as a product of informal relations rather than through traditional hierarchical channels or established policies and procedures The IBM Institute for Knowledge Management conducted a study in 2000, led by Rob Cross, Andrew Parker & Laurance Prusa where a large number of managers where asked to reflect on a project completed within the past six months and to identify all of the people who provided them with knowledge critical to its successful completion. The result reveals four important dimensions with respect to social relationships or networks and their importance in Knowledge Sharing may be beneficial with the SEC in the following table:
Table 10- Dimensions of Team Relationships

Dimensions of Team Relationships

Importance to Knowledge Sharing and team rapport

Knowledge

Access

Relationships where valued for knowledge in two qualitatively different ways. Firstly, engagement occurred when individuals with technical knowledge where sought to contribute to a problem. And secondly, when people where sought out not for their technical knowledge, but for their ability to help thing through a tough issue and or for business decisions to help cut through complex situations. Of course, someone elses knowledge is only useful if they are willing and helpful in making themselves accessible in a timely fashion. Learning how to gain access to other people requires the development of understanding in a persons response styles and mediums but also, as a result of reciprocal behaviours grounded in shared goals and reward structures. Many relationships in the new structure may start out difficult, but as team leaders become more accustomed to their workers response styles, they will be able to more effectively tap their team members as a result of learning to accept peoples different mediums and styles of response rather than becoming frustrated by them Access alone is not enough, and the process of engagement raises another dimension. Active engagement gos beyond the simple knowledge dump that can occur as a result of questioning an expert who may seek to overwhelm with excessive information rather than thoughtful insights specific to the problem at hand. Active engagement involves both an accurate summary of the situation or problem as well as the shaping of knowledge to suit the problem and relevant discourse in a timely and agreeable fashion. Empathy and trust lie at the heart of engagement which brings us to our fourth dimension Seeking to actively engage with someone in order to access knowledge to help solve business problems can require the requestor to have a degree of trust in the other person. Such trust often shapes the extent to which individuals will be forthcoming about their lack of knowledge and concerns, as defensive behaviours can knowingly and unknowingly block learning in critical Interactions (Argyris & Schon, 1996). Managers who feel safe in admitting their own ignorance may draw certain advantages from interactions. Firstly, there is an

Engagement

Safety

opportunity for more learning value as the engagement lays bare foundational aspects of a problem and offers the opportunity to discuss creative solutions to a problem Hence, SEC requires a new knowledge management strategy to ensure that people successfully access the right information. SEC is recommended to implement a Knowledge Management Plan (KMP) that includes five stages (see table 11 and figure 9):
Table 11- Knowledge Management Plan (Dyer, 2000)

Stage Discover Knowledge

Description Look for the current knowledge sources within the organization and collect it in a single repository. Using the current knowledge base plus the continuous input from employees. Evaluate knowledge and identify any missing knowledge Establish social spaces to enable collaboration among employees. Assure that all the organization is align to the new strategy and all the stakeholders have the information they require, in the way they require it and in the required time. Provide the tools and techniques to enable face-to-face and virtual collaboration. Leverage Knowledge

Generate Knowledge Evaluate Knowledge

Share Knowledge

Leverage Knowledge

Discover Knowledge

Leverage Knowledge

Generate Knowledge

Share Knowledge

Evaluate Knowledge

Figure 9- Knowledge Management Plan Stages

Implementing a KMP is a very difficult long-term process in which all the organization must be committed. SEC needs the KMP to support its new innovative corporate approach and most importantly to create value, new product and services and increase its competitive advantage.

4.3 Influence
Influence is defined as the ability to persuade, convince, or impact others in a way that will cause or motivate people to support your vision, goals or objectives. (Saladis, 2006).

The team for the Lawair Vehicle Project complies with this premise, being a team assembled after major organizational restructure and responsible for undertaking the most important project at SEC. Both project and product success, are considered important to the future prosperity and even survival of SEC. The team leader will need to influence others to agree on goals and milestones, provide information, resolve conflicts, offer or share resources. In the context of the Lawair Vehicle Project, due to its formation and composition; various members from different parts from the old organization, former bosses are now team members and former employees are now team leaders, several issues on influence may arise, such as: The team leader has no positional power over the team members The team Leader came from another position: transition from team member to team leader Lack of previous knowledge of the team members: The team members and the team leader are appointed by a third party and never worked together in the past - Different professional skills The approaches presented below are identified to cope with this issues and to succeed in influencing team members in the Lawair Project: -

4.3.1

Total power of the team leader

According to Verma (1996), power and influence are correlated, the more power a team leader is perceived to has, the more influence he can exert over other managers and project personnel. A team leader can obtain power in two ways: from the position held, and/or from personality, knowledge and experience. In other words, Total Power = Position Power + Persona/ Expert Power. Position power is also called legitimate power and is derived from the organizational position a team leader holds. Personal power is derived from the personality, knowledge and expertise of the project manager. In a project environment, team leaders can increase their total power by increasing one or both components of it. In the case of the Lawair Project the focus of power increase will be on the second component because generally a team leader will have substantial control over the amount of personal power they hold in the project in contrast to position power. Project managers can develop their personal power by using the following guidelines: Establish a belief in other organizational members that the team leader possesses a high level of expertise within the organization Develop a sense of obligation in other members of the organization that is directed toward the team leader Create a sense of identification by behaving a way that other organization members respect and by adopting goals, values and ideals commonly held by organization members Develop the perception among other organizational members that they are dependent upon the team leader

4.3.2

Manage the transition from team member to team leader

Only when the new leader has successfully changed his perception from team member to leader, he can establish influence over the team. The importance of a successful transition not only lies with the leader, but also with the future performance of the entire team. The impacts of the transitional period may include role conflicts and the animosity and personal doubt of other "passed over" teammates. A key aspect of a successful transition is an effective strategy. From the strategies presented by Watkins (2003) four of them were selected as those closely related to new leaders in project management positions (see table 12).
Table 12-Strategies for managing transitions

Strategy Promote Yourself

Description Newly promoted leaders must change their perception of themselves and reframe their roles within the team

Matching Strategy to Situation

Secure Early Wins

Negotiate Success

Without fully understanding at what stage the project team is in, a new leader will be unable to tailor the correct managerial approach to the teams current situation. A transitioning leader must identify the challenges and opportunities facing the team in order to recognize the structural implications underpinning their teams ability to perform. Is essential for establishing credibility as the new leader of the team. Early wins should be team wins as opposed to wins for the new leader. Will help build the perception that the new leader is effective not just in managing his own work, but more importantly getting the team to work together toward common goals. Establishing criteria and tangible objectives with upper management is essential They will be evaluating your team and PM individual performance, which are directly tied.

4.3.3

Gain Credibility among Team Members

Personal credibility and integrity are the most powerful leverage factors in influencing others or situations (Englund, 2003). The formula for success in influencing is the way the other person perceives the level of expertise and whether or not they should trust members. The PM should constantly monitor, prove, maintain and enhance these perceptions if he wants to be able to influence others.

4.3.4

Establish a Climate for Influence

These steps can create a climate that encourages active influencing (see table 13)
Table 13- Establish influence climate steps

Step Create a team vision of success Establish values Establish goals and milestones

Description A vision can be the basis for keeping the group aligned and a powerful source of influence Provides the basis upon which they will base decisions Provides the basis for demonstrating the benefits of a future proposal How the team will operate and processes for sharing information and ideas: They should encourage open discussions, listening to others ideas, questioning the status quo, influencing exchange in all directions

Agree norms or ground rules

4.3.5

Actively Influence

Increased influence comes from forming clear, convincing, and compelling arguments and communicating them through all appropriate means. When making a decision or bringing a proposal to the project team, the PM should be clear in; what is being asked from the Project Team (agreement, take action, active support), how he plan to proceed and what decision process will follow.

4.4 Accountability and High Performance


The most common team development approach (and the one selected by SEC) is the one that provides a single accountable person not only for the team results but also for the team performance. In order to build leaders accountability in SEC, the teams need to be accountable as well. Team members must strongly support each other and they must be committed to individual and group high

performance. Blanchard (2000) presents a model for the development of high-performance teams (See Figure 10 and table 14).

Figure 10- High-Performance Teams Model Table 14- High-Performance Teams model description

Component Purpose

Empowerment

Relationship and Communication

Flexibility

Optimal Productivity

Recognition and Appreciation Strong Morale

Description A purpose is a must in a high performance team. All team members of SEC must have a clear vision of what is the teams work, what the team wants to achieve and a common understanding of each other role SEC must encourage its teams to take the initiative by providing an environment of confidence where every individual can take part of the decision-making process. Team members that respect each other tend to share responsibilities to meet their team challenges. SEC teams must have instances in which its members can express their feelings, thoughts and opinions. This is a valuable tool for increasing group cohesion, for developing a sense of community and for an effective conflict management strategy. SEC Team members must adapt to different project conditions according with their strengths and capabilities. Team responsibility, development and leadership must be shared values In a high-performance team all team members work with high quality standards. They perform the job to be done in the scheduled time, providing successful outcomes and encouraging participation and creativity to achieve the teams goals. SEC team leaders and team members must recognize individual and group achievements. Team members must feel that the SEC appreciates their contribution. All SEC team members must feel honoured of being part of the team. They should truly believe in the teams achievement of exciting challenges in the future of the organization.

5.0 Conclusion
This paper has reviewed and discussed a range of theories and competencies in context of team development and leadership. In conclusion, the mythologies and strategies focused on interpersonal and group competencies to build develop and sustain team performance due to new SECs organizational structure. The paper also provides high level process and framework for managers and team leaders to manage teams in difference aspect such as : motivation, Influence, social networking and accountability to reach a high performance environment to achieve the business and project objectives.

References
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Individual Statements Ajay Meeraiya


My research for this assignment and my own personal work experience during this time has aligned somewhat in that elements of team dynamics become more and more visible. It is clear that an understanding of social networks, influence and trust are core to improving leadership competencies and achieving the related benefits. Trust, in terms of respect gained through contributions, experience and valued insight is a core principal in cutting through a hierarchical structure and is important reveals itself to be important of both team development, knowledge sharing and the sustainability of a team. For further personal development, I would like to develop my understanding of social networks and its relevance within a systems thinking approach and also its impact on knowledge creation and sharing. References Cross, R., Parker, A., & Prusak, L. (2000). Knowing What We Know: Supporting Knowledge Creation and Sharing in Social Networks. Cambridge: Institute for Knowledge Management.

Amir F.Shandiz
This assignment helped me to understand the differences between leading a group of people rather than managing the triple constraint (time/scope/cost) as a project manager. I found that team effectiveness is affected by team members relationship and leader can enhance effectiveness and overall productivity by creating common vision, inspiring and motivating the team, utilizing emotional and interpersonal competencies as well as understanding the team cultural dimensions and their personal behaviors. Improving soft skill among the team could create a more proactive environment during the project life cycle (Rigio, 2007). References: Rigio E R and Lee J, 2007, Emotional and interpersonal competencies and leader development, Human Resource Management Review Volume 17, Issue 4, December 2007

Barry Tan
After completing this assignment, I have concluded that leadership can be learnt through courses. Basically team learning and development is the core to managing project teams as interaction between members increases; conflicts are more than likely to arise sooner or later and therefore by identifying possible issues. A leader will be able to successfully resolve an issue with ease. My personal points of interest will be in the leadership concept; persuasion and motivation are exemplary traits however my thoughts to this is that there could be Dark-sides in leadership; for instance a leader who utilizes manipulation methodologies as opposed to persuasion through Neurolinguistics programming for instance: 1. Creating/ forming of symbols 2. Symbolic association (to bond a certain action/expression/reflex) to a particular object/gesture

3. Anchoring the symbol; creating symbiosis, thus invoking the feeling whenever the gesture is manipulated 4. Execution and control This aspect has always been my interest and from the text and lecture notes, it is stated that project management is a profession that involves heavy communication and leadership control, which is why I feel that NLP and manipulation is an area to research into.

Jaehun Kim
I have learned a lot of knowledge through studying this case, particularly; team development framework and main objectives for motivating others. In addition, I realized importance of knowledge sharing and networking in team through discussion in our team meeting or informal conversation such as luncheon meeting. Nowadays, as global project has increased, roles of virtual team in the project has become significant. Therefore, I would like to research about how to develop and motivate between mother organization and virtual team (Kirman, 2004 and Jury et al, 2008). References: Jury, A., 2008, Leadership Effectiveness within Virtual Teams: Investigating Mediating and Moderating Mechanisms. PhD Thesis, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland Kirkman, Benson R., Paul E. Tesluk, and Cristina B., 2004, The Impact of Team Empowerment on Virtual Team Performance: The Moderating Role of Face-to-Face Interaction, The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 2004), p. 175-192

Juan Pyco
Further to my interest (in Activity1) to develop my personal soft skills, this assignment gave me the opportunity to gain insight in various areas of knowledge and models relevant to the social skills and more importantly human behavior. Because of this I have gained personal interest to: 1. Begin to implement the theories and models I have gain insight in, for the development of my own personal and social skills. 2. Develop further understanding of the implications of a social networks approach for effective communication, knowledge sharing and management, change management and concepts like influence and collaboration. References: Binder, J 2007, Global Project Management, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Farnham Friedkin, N. 1998, A Structural Theory of Social Influence, Cambridge University Press, Cmabridge Jones, G. R 2010, Organizational Theory, Design, and Change, Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey. McShane S., Olekalns M., Travaglione T., 2010, Organisational behaviour on the Pacific Rim, 3rd edition, McGraw Hill, Australia, chapter9 Shore, B. Dec 2008, Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures, Project Management Journal, vol. 39, issue no. 4, pp. 5-16 Simpson B., Markovsky B., Steketee 2011, Power and The Perception of Social Networks, Social Networks An International Journal of Structural Analysis, vol. 33, Volume 1.

Martin Rodriguez
This activity gave the opportunity to research and learned more on influence strategies enhancing my levels of personal competence. Also developing a team formation framework was useful and I was

able to apply some of the concepts in our team development. For further personal development I would like to explore deeper in negotiation and conflict resolution and as a way of improve team performance communication skills specifically for project managers. (Campbell, 2009) Reference: Campbell, G 2009, Communication Skills for Project Managers, AMACON, New York, USA

Walter Paredes E
Due to an outstanding level of synergy, our team has managed to perform excellently. The level of integration and collaboration was as good as in the first assignment even considering the extra effort expected because of the end of the semester. I felt particularly interested in how to develop high performance teams by also raising team accountability within organizations (Blanchard, 2000). Reference: Blanchard, K., Parisi-Carew, E., and Carew, D., 2000. The One-Minute Manager Builds High Performance Teams (William Morrow and Co., New York, USA).