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RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH?

Air Pollution, Impacting Health and The Environment in East Germany Ashley Nicole Drollinger University of Idaho

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH?

Abstract

Currently in East Germany there is an issue with air pollution that is affecting the health of society living in this area, and the environment that is surrounding Germany. There have been many attempts to help reduce the amount of emissions that are being released into the air from things such as coal and exhaust coming from cars. The goal of this paper is to inform readers that there is still a problem in East Germany with air pollution and there has to be something done or it will get worse over time. The recommendations for this issue include: doing absolutely nothing, solar and wind energy, electric cars, and a program called cash for clunkers. The two preferred mitigation strategies are for Germany to switch over to using solar and wind energy for the majority, and also for them to revamp the Cash for clunkers program. These recommendations are also attempts that may or may not prove to help reduce the amount of health and environmental risks in East Germany. Air pollution is just one of the many problems that Germany, and the world, are facing today, but the air pollution in this region is worth resolving due to the risks that comes along with it.

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH?

Air Pollution, Impacting Health and The Environment in East Germany

There have been many things that have impacted ones health and the environment due to new technologies and old ones that havent been improved. Germany in particular, has been known for having some of the most green technologies and ideas, but for many reasons East Germany is still having issues with air pollution, which are causing health problems in children and adults. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, air pollution levels in eastern Germany exceeded western levels by an order of magnitude, especially with regard to sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. This observation further adds to the controversy about the impact of environmental factors on atopic diseases (Heinrich, 1999, p.53). Many factors are contributing to different types of pollution in East Germany, which is having a major impact on the health of society and the stability of the environment. Germanys Background Germany is located in the Northern Hemisphere on the continent of Europe, which is then bordered by the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Denmark, and the

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? Baltic Sea (Germany, 2011, p.1). Germanys population today is around 82,400,996 people, which is increasing every year by a number of people, who for the most part speak German. The main religions that have dominated Germany throughout history are Protestant, Roman Catholics, or undeclared. The economy in Germany has faced many challenges over the past few decades due to the fact that it transformed from a command economy to a market economy, and from the World War II disaster. The sixteen states of Germany have their own constitution, legislation, and government, which can pass laws except those on the federal level, and everything else is controlled by the states such as education and environmental protection. There are a few different major sectors that are contributing to environmental problems in Germany. Two of the major ones are automobile manufactures, and coal power plants. These two different

industries are some of the many causes that are putting pressure on the well being of the environment and society. According to the CIA World Factbook, Germany has several environmental problems including: acid rain from sulfur dioxide emissions, declining forests, and water pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage. Air pollution in particular is a major problem in East Germany. In fact, 92.6% of the population of Leipzig suffers from some sort or health problem caused by sulfur dioxide; 85.7% suffer a problem caused by dust. In Berlin, where there is less industry, the figures are lower, although still substantialupwards of 40% (Cherfas, 1990, p.295). Air Pollution, an environmental problem in East Germany

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? Similar to every country in the world, East Germany has many environmental problems such as air pollution. Currently, in East Germany there are regulations to help control the amount of emissions being introduced into the air, but the regulations arent completely resolving the problem for emissions. These emissions, which cause air pollution, are resulting from things such as car exhaust and smog from industries. Berlin

From the top of the TV Tower in East Berlin, 365 meters above the city, you can see the past and it is dirty. A shroud of haze veils the suburbs, and on the streets below the two-stroke Trabant cars puff dark exhaust smoke (Cherfas, 1990, p.295). Pollution is a common issue in East Germany, and its resulting in health and environmental problems in and around East Germany. There are many different factors and stakeholders that are contributing to the problem, but with todays new technology and knowledge, something has to change. This change wont be over night but one way or another, change must happen to protect the health or citizens and then surrounding environment. Influencing Factors and Stakeholders When large issues are brought to attention over a widespread region, they usually always have major influencing factors and stakeholders that are contributing to the problem, or being affected by it. Air pollution in this region of the world is a result to many different factors and is affecting a large amount of the population, even if they do not know that it is. One of

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH?

the first main factors contributing to air pollution in East Germany is the coal power plants that provide Germany with electricity. Although coal power plants have provided Germany with cheap electricity and other forms of energy for years, it is adding to the bad air quality in this region. The German electricity sector has recently seen extensive planning and construction of new coal-fired power plants. Within a period of only a few years, new investments amounting to around 15% of the total sector capacity were brought on the way, and plans for a multitude of additional projects are pending. This dash for coal in Germany has raised considerable public concern, especially as it risks to undermine recent political attempts to combat global warming (Pahle, 2010, p.38). Another factor that is contributing to bad air quality in this region are car manufactures and car consumers. As we all know, cars have been around for a descent amount of time and have been a main source of transportation. In Germany, car manufacturing industries are required to have a minimum of how many miles to the gallon a car must have, which can either help decrease the amount of emissions being released into the air, or increase them, depending on the standard. Earlier this month Germany's carmakers were hit by new emission limits proposed by the European Commission. There were howls of protest, not least from Angela Merkel, the German chancellor. So the proposed ceiling was raised a little, to 130 grams of CO{-2} per kilometer to be met by 2012. This still left the makers of many of the world's most prestigious cars with the most work: in the European Union only six German-made models

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? meet the target, but 34 of those made by competitors do. Moreover, of all the cars on sale in Germany which pump out more than 200g of CO{-2} per kilometer, most are German (The big-car problem, 2007, p.81).

When the government and car manufacturing industries set standards for cars that are reasonable for the industry and the public, it improves the air quality and the health of the public. Setting such standards for cars would make a big difference, hence the amount of emissions being released currently. Its up to the government to set these standards, and it is also up to the industries to follow them to improve their technology to make their standards even higher. If the car industries only offer certain models of cars with specific standards that is all the public can buy, which therefore makes the public responsible for contributing to the problem as well. According to Joachim Heinrich (1999), there have been several studies being done on young adults and children living in East Germany that are being affected by the air pollution in such ways that are causing respiratory diseases and allergies. The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms or allergies--exist and, if such differences are found, whether they persist when we adjust for the effects of known risk factors such as medical and sociodemographic factors or factors related to the indoor environment. Controlling for medical, sociodemographic, and indoor factors, according to parental reports, children residing in Hettstedt have about a 50% increased lifetime prevalence for physician-diagnosed allergies,

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? eczema, and bronchitis compared to children from Zerbst and about twice the number of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough without cold (Heinrich, 1999, p.53). These health impacts are

very serious and should not be taken lightly; therefore, drastic changes must be made to improve the sustainability of the environment and the health of the society. Possible Alternatives This specific issue, air pollution, causing health problems and increasing environmental pressure can only be dealt with under certain circumstances. These circumstances require the government, industries, and the public, to agree on at least one, or several alternatives. The first alternative would be to do absolutely nothing about the problem. This alternative would be the easiest, but the least intelligent for various reasons. By doing nothing to reduce the amount of air pollution that is being released in the air for various reasons, the health of society in this region of Germany would become an even bigger problem with people developing respiratory and skin illnesses, or the issue might become worse to the point where there would be absolutely nothing to do to turn the problem back around. By not doing anything, this problem would also affect the environment in such a way that would become detrimental to even society and to biodiversity. The second alternative that should be brought to attention would be any other way of obtaining energy other than fossil fuels. Solar and wind

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? energy are two trends that keep getting bigger, but still result in some conflicts with society. Solar and wind energy are sometimes thought to be expensive and or not as effective. In the long run solar and wind generated energy will provide Germany with clean energy, and industries will make their money back in the end. The government of the Federal Republic of Germany has decided to reduce CO2-emissions into the atmosphere by 25% by the end of 2005, as compared to the level of 1990. Private households have an energy demand of 30% of the total German end-use energy sector and therefore offer one of the most important saving potentials. In recent years, new concepts for the energy supply of housing districts have been developed which reduce the need of fossil fuels for the heating of a district by up to 50% (Schmidt, 2004, p.165). If East Germany were to adopt more

solar energy plants, the use or need of fossil fuels would potentially decrease and it would lower the amount of emissions that are being released into the air. After using solar energy, industries and society would realize that it is a highly efficient way to obtain energy because it generates itself, and it will never run out. Wind energy, another alternative energy, has been used around the world, and has been supported in regions of Germany. Germany has encouraged the use of wind energy since the 1970s. The major government instruments that led to the rapid diffusion of wind power capacity at the end of the 1980s consisted of: the 100/250 MW program, the feed-in law (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz), and tax breaks, as well as the provision of low-interest loans (Klaassen, 2005, p.227-240). If businesses

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 10 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? and residencys in and around East Germany used Solar, and or windgenerated energy, more people would start using it. To get business and residences to use these alternative energy options, there could be incentives such as tax breaks or other possible thing such as that. The third alternative that could be used to eliminate or lessen air pollution, similar to the first proposed alternative, would be electric powered cars. Whenever electric cars are discussed people are sometimes hesitant due to the fact that they can be slightly more expensive than others. These electric powered cars are cheaper in the long run because individuals do not have to spend money on fuel because they can obtain energy from either solar energy or by plugging the car in to charge the battery. According to Theo Leiven, a researcher in Germany, a study was done in Germany to see if people would purchase electric powered cars, and in the end the results proven that people would invest in an electric powered car for the family. Not only would the electric car help reduce emission by a large amount, the cars would help boost the economy for whoever is manufacturing and selling them. The forth alternative would be slightly hard to enforce due to funding, but has been discussed in East Germany, would be a program like cash for clunkers. Recently Japanese researchers have studied the idea that people turning in their old, non- fuel-efficient, cars for new fuel-efficient cars reduces the amount of CO-2 emissions. Based on a case study of Japanese vehicle

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 11 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? use during the 19902000 period, we found that extending, not shortening, the lifetime of a vehicle helps to reduce life-cycle CO2 emissions throughout the supply chain. Empirical results also revealed that even if the fuel economy of less fuel-efficient ordinary passenger vehicles were improved to levels comparable with those of the best available technology, i.e. hybrid passenger cars currently being produced in Japan, total CO2 emissions would decrease by only 0.2%. On the other hand, we also find that extending the lifetime of a vehicle contributed to a moderate increase in emissions of health-relevant air pollutants (NOx, HC, and CO) during the use phase (Kagawa, 2011, p.1184-1191). This cash for clunkers idea, if adopted, could become a really popular trend to reduce emissions. Another reason this should become a program would be because the cars that the program collects, could be recycled to make new cars and other things. The government could also make it so if someone has an older car, it would have higher insurance rates, and if they traded their car in for a new fuel- efficient one, the insurance would be cheaper. Recommendations Based on all of the different mitigation strategies to help reduce the impact of air pollution in East Germany, there is obviously a way to reverse this issue; it is just a matter of time. The first recommended mitigation strategy would be for businesses, homeowners, and any other energy obtaining structure to enforce policies and regulations stating to use solar,

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 12 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? and or wind energy. Solar and wind energy are on an upward trend in many places around the world, even Germany. There has been hesitation for businesses switching over to solar, and or wind energy because of the price of investment and all of the renovations that come to follow. Although solar and wind energy require investments, they are both some of the worlds cleanest energy alternatives that benefit everyone and everything in the long run. According to Panwar (2011) solar energy can be used for things such as cooking, water heating, crop drying, and to power cars. Solar energy works in the way that the sun emits energy and solar panels collect this energy emitted from the sun and then turns it into usable energy that humans can use. The electricity that solar panels and such provide are highly effective and dont pollute the surrounding air, which then helps with human health and the environment. A study was conducted in Costa Rica and in the world as a whole, and then compared the advantages and limitations of solar ovens with conventional firewood and electric stoves. The payback period of a common hot box type solar oven, even if used 68 months a year, is around 1214 months, roughly 16.8 million tons of firewood can be saved and the emission of 38.4 million tons of carbon dioxide per year can also be prevented (Panwar, 2011, p. 1513-1524). These kind of results provide society and businesses with proof and reassures them that switching to solar energy is beneficial to them in everyway, hence the fact that it eliminates pollutants and reduces health

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 13 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? risks while saving other resources such as trees. For example, think of all of the restaurants that would greatly benefit from using solar cooking because they would save money in the long run. Wind energy is also a beneficial alternative for various reasons, and it is becoming increasingly popular in all parts of the world. Of the renewable energy technologies applied to electricity generation, wind energy ranks second only to hydroelectric in terms of installed capacity and is experiencing rapid growth. India is one of the most promising countries for wind power development in the world (Panwar, 2011, p.1513-1524). Wind energy is obtained by the turbines that use airfoils to convert wind energy into mechanical power, which then stores it for human use (Panwar, 2011, p.1513-1524). Economically solar and wind energy meet most of the needs that are required for this solution to be successful in all economic aspects. According to energy researchers in Germany, in 2002 wind power industries created 40,000 new jobs in Germany, and Germanys wind turbine manufacture production increased, which also led to exports of wind turbines to increase up to twenty percent (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, & International Energy Agency, 2004, p.304). By creating jobs that helps boost the economy in everyway because when there is an increase in people working there is an increase in production, which then also leads to and increase of money that is circulating through the market in Germany. Solar energy production also increased up to twenty-five percent in Germany, which also helped boost the economy and decrease

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 14 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? unemployment (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, & International Energy Agency, 2004, p. 306). Solar and wind energy are also politically feasible for a couple different reasons, which also justifies why this is a recommended mitigation strategy. Germanys renewable energy trend has been on an incline for several years meaning the German government is supportive of solar and wind energy. The federal states have also provided considerable financial support for solar thermal collectors amounting to a total of 234 million between 1991 and 2001 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, & International Energy Agency, 2004, p. 306). If the government in Germany is supporting solar and wind energy as a production investment and as a new way to obtain energy, that also reveals that society is supportive to the renewable energy idea. The next recommended mitigation strategy is a program called cash for clunkers. This type of a program would involve the citizens, car manufacturers, and the government to make it into a successful plan to reduce the amount of emission into the air. As said before, when individuals trade in their old cars for newer fuel efficient cars, it immediately reduces the emissions being released into the air from non fuel efficient cars, which also have bad gas mileage. Cash for clunkers is ecnonomically feasible in a few different aspects that all relate. For example, if an individual looking for a more fuel- efficient car had an incentive to by one because they could trade in their old car for a rebate to get a new one, and then soon more people would then follow. Cash for clunkers is also economically feasible

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 15 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? because it would boost the economy entirely by circulating money to places rather than spending money on gas, and it would also boost car production and jobs. This idea also benefits junk- yards and manufactures because they can use the scrappage from the old cars being turned in, to use on new cars and other things that require metal. This is a great way to recycle metal because if the program worked, there would be plenty of metal that could be recycled. This mitigation strategy is also politically feasible due to the fact that Germany has been supportive of green technology, and protecting society and the environment. If the government in Germany introduces incentives for trading in old cars for new ones, its obvious the government thinks that this mitigation strategy is a good idea for the time being (Kimes, 2009). In conclusion, air pollution in East Germany is a major source of respiratory health problems and environmental issues that they have been battling for years. Air pollution is an issue that people all over the world are dealing with due to the fact that humans developed technology that they did not realize would be detrimental to health and the environment in the long run. There are many different ideas and solutions that humankind might think of to use to defeat such a problem. No matter what society, industries, and the government decide to agree on will take a decent amount of time because it is a huge problem that humans created themselves. Both of these mitigation strategies and many more will show improvement in air quality, but it will not happen over night.

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 16 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH?

References

Cherfas, J. J. (1990). East Germany struggles to clean its air and water. Science, 248(4953), 295. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article was about East Berlin and how they are struggling with keeping their air and water clean and safe enough for society. This article was perfect for my paper because it argues the fact that Germany has pollution issues that they need to work on. This article also talked about the coal factories and how much pollution they are bringing to the surrounding and what kinds of health problems are being brought to attention. This article also talks about alternative energy and how Germany is not as up to date with clean energy as West Germany due to Soviet built reactors.

Ebelt, S., & Brauer, M. (2001). Air Quality in Postunification Erfurt, East Germany: Associating Changes in Pollutant Concentrations with Changes in Emissions. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(4), 49. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article discusses the decrease of emissions of air pollutants in Erfurt, Germany. The two major causes of air pollution in Erfurt are the burning of coal for power production, residential heating, and motor vehicles. There

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 17 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? were studies done on the amount of sulfur dioxide be and carbon monoxide being emitted into the air, which then changed the quality of the air. This change in emissions brought unification between East and West Germany making it easier to discuss social and political policies. This source is relative to my research paper because it highlights that East Germany is having problems with air pollutants and showing that they are trying to do something about it. This article is also relative to my paper because it describes the impacts that emissions have on health. Germany. (2011, Feb 7). Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. Columbia University Press.

This database gave a large amount of background information on Germany including: population statistics, economy ratings, geographical information, and history of the country itself. This is very helpful for my research paper because I need reliable background information on Germany to describe the country that I am doing research on. This background information will provide a better understanding of the area I am examining. Heinrich, J., Hoelscher, B., Wjst, M., Cyrys, J., Ritz, B., & Wichmann, H. (1999). Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(1), 53. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This particular article describes pervious studies being made on respiratory diseases and allergies due to air pollution. These studies are mostly done on young children that are having health problems from bad air quality in this location. Children in East Germany have been diagnosed with asthma, eczema, wheezing and coughing without having a cold from bad air quality in two specific areas, Zerbst and Hettstedt. This article is beneficial to my paper because it supports my argument that there are health problems in East Germany from environmental factors, specifically air pollution.

Henneberger, A., Zareba, W., Ibald-Mulli, A., Rckerl, R., Cyrys, J., Couderc, J., & ... Peters, A. (2005). Repolarization Changes Induced by Air Pollution in Ischemic Heart Disease Patients. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(4), 440-446. doi:10.1289?chp. 7579.

This article discusses studies that are being done in Erfurt, Germany that are highlighting the idea that people living in this region are developing health

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 18 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? problems from air pollution related issues. The patients that they are examining have Ischemic Heart disease and are being affected more from air pollutants. The researches point out that their speculations are still unclear and arent a proven fact so this specific article might not be a good one to base some of my research off of.

Kagawa, S., Nansai, K., Kondo, Y., Hubacek, K., Sangwon, S., Jan, M., & ... Nakamura, S. (2011). Role of Motor Vehicle Lifetime Extension in Climate Change Policy. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(4), 1184-1191. doi:10.1021/es1034552

This article was about a study done in Japan similar to cash for clunkers in the US. The program idea was for the public to exchange their old cars in for new ones, so they could moderate the emissions being released into the air. This is a very useful article for this paper because it was a great alternative idea.

Kimes, M. (2009). Getting Cash for Clunkers. Fortune, 159(6), 18. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article explains that a few different European countries are testing out the cash for clunkers by giving society and businesses incentives to try it. This justifies that Germany, one of the countries testing it out, is supportive of programs to try and help with air pollution issues, while boosting their market.

Klaassen, G., Miketa, A., Larsen, K., & Sundqvist, T. (2005). The impact of R&D on innovation for wind energy in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. Ecological Economics, 54(2/3), 227-240. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.01

This article was discussing that Germany has previously used wind turbine energy for an alternative. This article provides good information on wind energy in Germany, and how it can be a positive thing if more businesses used it.

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 19 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? Lieven, T., Mhlmeier, S., Henkel, S., & Waller, J. F. (2011). Who will buy electric cars? An empirical study in Germany. Transportation Research: Part D, 16(3), 236-243. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2010.12.001

This article described a study that went on in Germany to see how many people would buy an electric car to use for the family.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development., & International Energy Agency. (2004). Renewable energy: Market & policy trends in IEA countries. Paris: OECD/IEA. This specific book helped me find market and policy trend that supported the solar and wind energy recommendation. I found this book to be useful because it had simple enough data for me to comprehend and I was able to make sense of it in my own words for the paper. It was also a good source because it had a section specifically on Germany and how they are using renewable energy.

Pahle, M. (2010). Germanys dash for coal: Exploring drivers and factors. Energy Policy, 38(7), 3431-3442. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.017

This article informs readers that Germany is still using coal as a main source of energy today. This article is a good source for this paper because it helps argue the fact that Germany needs to move forward with cleaner energy.

Panwar, N. L., Kaushik, S. C., & Kothari, S. (2011). Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(3), 1513-1524. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2

This article was very beneficial for my use because it proves that solar and wind energy are two of the cleanest and most efficient for obtaining energy, rather than using fossil fuels. This article explained how each source provides energy and also shows that its currently working in different parts of the world.

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 20 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? Schmidt, T. T., Mangold, D. D., & Mller-Steinhagen, H. H. (2004). Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage in Germany. Solar Energy, 76(1-3), 165. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2003.07.025

This article supported the use of solar energy in Germany, and related to my paper in many ways. It helped me support the idea that solar energy would be highly efficient in homes and businesses in and around Germany to promote clean air.

Sugiri, D., Ranft, U., Schikowski, T., & Krmer, U. (2006).The Influence of Large-Scale Airborne Particle Decline and TrafficRelated Exposure on Children's Lung Function.Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(2),282.doi:101289/ehp.818.

This article argues that East Germanys air quality is becoming more like the air quality in West Germany due to the increase of traffic. Lung tests are being done on children who live in these heavy traffic areas. There speculations werent very reliable because they did not have any constant information that proved that children in these areas where having serious lung problems.

The big-car problem. (2007). Economist, 382(8517), 81. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article states that car industries in Germany are required to have certain standards when being made before they are purchase by the public. This is a reliable source for this paper because it shows what Germany is doing to help control emissions being released, and how the standards and improve even more.

Wichmann, H., & Heinrich, J. (1995). Health effects of high level exposure to traditional pollutants in East Germany--Review.. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 10329. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article examines the effects that air pollution has on the health of

RUNNING HEAD: HOW IS AIR POLLUTION IN EAST GERMANY IMPACTING THE 21 ENVIRONMENT AND ONES HEALTH? people living in East Germany. The article discusses the different kinds of effects air pollution is having on people such as weakening the immune system and poor lung function. Some of these effects can be short term and some may be long term, but the Germans in this area are doing there best to find out how to decrease these problems. The article also mentions the different kinds of pollutants being released into the air and the mortality rates. I find this article very supportive and helpful because it reviews previous studies and shows reliable evidence. It also has a comparison of East and West Germany, which also makes my argument seem stronger. The tables this specific article has, also makes it more reliable.