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ICS3U Grade 11 Computer Science Exam

Grade 11 University Computer Science Exam Study Notes Object Oriented Programming: programming technique that uses classes and modules that can be used over and over again within a program Classes: Instruction that creates an object Object: an instance of a class Statements: sets of instructions ending with a ; or sometimes in curly brackets Controlling Class: the programs starting point which could link to other classes Method: a set of statements that perform a single, well defined task Comments: descriptive lines that are excluded during compilation to better inform other programmers about the details of the code -/* */ used to enclose multiline comments in the beginning to describe a program -// used to enclose single line comments used to debug a comment or comment a block of code -/** */ used for documentation describing a class or method. Output Stream: a class that sends data to the output device to be displayed Argument: data passed to a method to process String: set of characters enclosed in quotation marks Escape Sequences: backslash followed by a symbol to represent a character or command Format(): system.out method that can format the output with spacing and decimal places System.out.format(%-10s %8s $8s, Teams, Wins, Lossesn); Bytecode: compile Java source code

Algorithm: a set of steps that outline how to solve a problem Encapsulation: hiding objects and data in one object from another object Inheritance: the way where super class methods can be used by lower level classes Java VM: Java bytecode interpreter Machine Code: the most basic computer language consisting of 1s and 0s. Identifier: the name of a variable when its declared Concatenation: to combine strings together Data Type: declares what kind of data a variable will store Instantiation: creation of an abstract variable to create an object <class> <variable name> = new class(<arguements>); Scanner Input Stream: use to receive input from the computer. Java.util.Scanner; must be imported Scanner input = new Scanner(); < used to declare that abstract variable Truncate: (type casting): to convert one datatype to another datatype Numberformat(): allows correct formatting for specific types of numbers. Java.text.NumberFormat; must be imported. NumberFormat money = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); System.out.println(Total: + money.format(<variable>)); Constants: a variable in a program that never changes throughout the program, distinguished by all caps -Java keywords are all lower case and have meanings, which cannot be use as variable names Flow Charts Rectangle: process

Oval: Start/End Parallelogram: output/Input Diamond: Decision structure, Yes will go to the side, no will keep going down If Statements: tests a condition to see if its true then does statements accordingly If (<condition>) { <statements> } Switch Statement: uses the result of an expression to determine which statements to execute switch(<integer expression>) { case x: <statements>; break; default: <statements>; break; } Random Numbers: the Java.lang.Math; must be imported (high num low num + 1)*Math.Random()+ lowNum Infinite Loops: Caused by: Syntax error (semi-colon), logic error

Do-While Loop: does some statements first then runs through the iterations Do { <statements> } while (<conditions>); Overflow: when there isnt enough bits in a data type to store a particular number Counters: each time a statement executes, one is added to this variable Accumulator: each time a statement is execute, a value is added to the current value of the variable Sentinel Flags: constant in the loop where once activated, will break the loop and end the cycles For loops: does iterations knowing how many times the loop will run For (int i = 1; 1<=10; i++) { <statements> } Scope: the place within the code where the variable will be actively usable Debugger: to select points in the program where execution will be halted Breakpoints: points at which the program will be suspended for error checking Variable Trace: using paper and pencil, the value of the variable will be written out after every operation Additional println(): print out the value of the variables to pin-point what the variable is holding Commenting Out Code: disabling lines of code to see if the error still occurs String class: methods that allow manipulation of strings can be found in java.lang.String Manipulating Strings

<string>.length(): returns the length of the string <string>.isEmpty(): returns true if length is 0 <string>.substring(int start, int end): returns the string at start position and one character before the end <string>.substring(int start): returns from start to the end of the string <string>.toLowerCase() / toUpperCase(): returns the string to all lower or upper case <string>.trim(): returns a copy of the string without the leading and ending spaces <string>.replaceFirst(String str, String str2): replaces first instance of str with str2 <string>.replaceAll(String str, String str2): replaces all instances of str with str2 Immutable: a string that cannot be changed Null: a string variable before its assigned a string Comparing Strings <string>.equals(String str): returns true if string is equal to str <string>.equalsIgnoreCase(String str): returns true if string is equal to str ignore cases <string>.compareTo(String str): returns 0 if str is the same as string, a negative number if str comes alphabetically before string, and a positive number if str comes alphabetically after a string. Case sensitive method <string>.indexOf(String str): returns integer of strs location in the string. Returns -1 if it does not exist <string>.lastIndexOf(String str): returns the location of the last occurrence of str <string>.startsWith(String str): returns true when the string begins with str <string>.endsWith(String str): returns true when string ends with str Top-Down Development: breaking down tasks into smaller sub tasks until its complete

Procedural Abstraction: separating steps into methods to accomplish a greater task Access Level: determines if other classes can call this method Access Modifier: keywords that define the access level (public, private) Visibility: the method as seen through the access level Class Method: can be called in that class, if not, it must be called from other classes and be instantiated (static) Void: return type that doesnt return anything after the method is complete Naming Conventions: Variables: alexLee Methods: AlexLee Class: AlexLee Local Scope: variables, constants, and objects that are limited to being accessed only through that method Arguments: variables passed into a method Pass by value: passing the raw information Pass by reference: stores that value in a variable and passing reference to that variable, allows for modification later Parameter: specific pieces of data that a method must require for it to function Method Overloading: when 1 or more methods have the same name. They can work, but cannot have the same parameters Documenting Methods: Pre-post to declare what is required to go in, and whats expected to come out Event-Driven Application: executes code in response to actions by the user Event Handler: GUI event triggers the event handler method to carry out the code

Javax.swing: package thats imported to create the frames and labels Frames: window with borders, titles, and buttons for minimizing, maximizing, and closing the window Content Frame: holds and displays all other components Labels: text lines that can be tied onto the GUI JPanel: object that is used to hold GUI elements such as buttons, combo boxes etc. JButton: adds an event listener that listens for when this button is triggered This: Tells the GUI to use the command that was created w whatever was triggered Borders: adds invisible elements with padding to space things out FlowLayout: places them next to each other in rows BoxLayout: places them one after another in a column GridLayout: places them in columns and rows in cells contentPane.setLayout(new GridLayout(<rows>,<columns>,<# pix between columns>,<# pix between rows>) Alignment: the placement of components within a layout. 0 can be used to automatically fill make as many rows/col Java.lang.Double/Java.lang.Integer: ability to convert datatypes of user input from one type to another parseDouble/parseInteger: converts to Doubles or Integers Integer.toString(int num): converts num to string JTextField: opens a box for users to input text, then passes data to trigger an event JComboBox: prompts user to a list of selectable items in a drop down menu. Each item triggers a different event