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(These formulas can easily be calculated using calculus, using the dierential as the associated error of a quantity. From that point of view, the above formulas are simply equivalent to the chain rule. We will see this in more detail later.) Rule 1: (the sum rule) If you are adding or subtracting two numbers x and y, each with associated errors x and y respectively, add the errors of the two numbers to get the error associated with the sum or dierence. That is, x+y =x + y , xy =x + y . Rule 2: (the product rule) If you are multiplying or dividing two numbers x and y, each with associated errors x and y respectively, add the fractional (or percent) errors of the two numbers, and that will be the fractional (or percent) error of the product or quotient. xy x y = + , xy x y x/y x y = + . x/y x y Note - These formulas can easily be calculated using calculus, using the dierential as the associated error of a quantity. For example, suppose we consider the derivative of a product of variables x and y as a function of t. Then dene f (t) = x(t)y(t) and df dx dy = y+x . dt dt dt Now multiply by dt to get the form of the equation in terms of dierentials: df = y dx + x dy. Finally divide by f = xy to obtain df y dx + x dy dx dy = = + , f xy x y which is the same formula as the rule for products above, but with the error replaced by the dierential. Note that if f = log x then using the same argument, df = dx/x. So this also explains why the error associated with the log of a quantity is the same as the fractional error of the quantity, as we met in lab 1. As an explicit example of error propagation, suppose we are measuring the time it takes for a cart to roll down an inclined plane as in lab 2, and we know the length and the angle of the inclined plane. We then calculate the acceleration using x = 1 at2 where x is the distance 2 traveled and t is the average values of times for that distance. Using the formula above for propagation of errors for a product, we get x t t a =a + + x t t 2x x t = 2 +2 x t t 2 4x = 2 x + 3 t . t t

1

Another example, relevant to lab 3, is the case of trajectory motion. Suppose we have measured the distance x that a projectile travels, using several trials and we calculated the average x and the error x for these trials. Suppose we know the time of ight, by knowing the height (assume we know it fairly precisely, so the associated error for the time will be very small) from which the projectile drops. Then using the product relation above, we could nd the standard deviation associated with the velocity derived from v = x/t, by using the propagation of products; x t x v = v( + ) = v , x t x where the last step follows because we are assuming that t is so small as to be negligible. Then using x = vt we get 1 v = x . t AVERAGE (MEAN) VALUE In a typical scientic experiment, measurements will be repeated a number of times, and the result for the measurement is taken to be the average of all measurements taken. Typically a bar over the letter that stands for the quantity in question indicates the average of that quantity. For a set of measurements for a variable called x for example, if the measurements have values x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . xN , then the average value (x) is given by

N x1 + x2 + x3 + + xN 1 x= = xi , N N i=1

where the summation sign is a shorthand notation indicating the sum of N measurements from x1 to xN . (x) is commonly referred to as the average value or mean value of x.) The error associated with the average can be calculated from the errors of the individual data points using the above rules. More specically, to get the error associated with the sum of N values, simply add the errors associated with each individual value together. Now to get the average, you must divide the sum by N . Because N is exact (there is no error associated with it), the product rule above tells you that the error associated with the average is simply the error associated with the sum divided by N . That is (x1 ++xN ) = x = x Therefore

N (x1 ++xN ) 1 1 x = (x1 + + xN ) = xi . N (x1 + + xN ) N i=1 N i=1

xi (rule 1)

+ N (x1 + + xN ) N

(x1 ++xN )

. (rule 2 and N = 0)

PERCENT ERROR If there is a correct or accepted value A for a quantity you are trying to determine in an experiment, you may wish to compute how closely you came to this accepted value. Let us assume that you have obtained an experimental value E of the quantity in question (E being the average of your individual data points), and you wish to compare with the accepted value A. One way of quoting the accuracy of your experiment would by calculating the absolute dierence between the experimental value E and the accepted value A, written |E A|, which is the positive dierence in the values. (Simply subtract the smaller value from the larger.) Another way to quote your accuracy is with the fractional error, which is the ratio of the absolute dierence to the accepted value: absolute dierence accepted value |E A| = . A The fractional error is commonly expressed as a percentage to give the percent error of an experimental value. Fractional error = absolute dierence 100% accepted value |E A| = 100%. A For example, if you were measuring the value of the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the earth, and you got a value of 9.3 m/s2 and of course the accepted value is 9.8 m/s2 , then the percent error is % error = %error = |9.3 9.8| 0.5 100% = 100% = 5%. 9.8 9.8

PERCENT DIFFERENCE When you dont know the accepted value, another quantity sometimes used to compare two experimental quantities is the percent dierence. This is just the absolute dierence between the two quantities divided by their average value times 100%.

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