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10

Chapter

Valuation and Rates of Return

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Outline
Valuation of assets, based on the present value of future cash flows The required rate of return in valuing an asset is based on the risk involved Bond valuation and its determination Stock valuation and its determination Price-earnings ratio

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Valuation of Financial Assets


Helps in evaluating financial commitment a firm needs to make to:
Stockholders and bondholders Attract investment

Cost of corporate financing (capital) is used in analyzing the feasibility of an investment on an ensuing project

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Valuation of Financial Assets

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Valuation Concepts
Valuation of a financial asset is based on determining the present value of future cash flows
Required rate of return (the discount rate)
Depends on the markets perceived level of risk associated with the individual security It is also competitively determined among companies seeking financial capital Implying that investors are willing to accept low return for low risk and vice versa Efficient use of capital in the past results in a lower required rate of return for investors
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Valuation of Bonds
A bond provides an annuity stream of interest payments and a principal payment at maturity
Cash flows are discounted at Y (yield to maturity). Value of Y is determined in the bond market. The price of the bond is:
Equal to the present value of regular interest payments Discounted by the yield to maturity added to the present value of the principal
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Valuation of Bonds (contd)

Assuming interest payments ( ) = $100; principal payments at maturity ( ) = $1,000; yield to maturity (Y) = 10% and total number of periods (n) = 20. Thus, the price of binds ( ); Where: = Price of the bond; = Interest payments; = Principal payment at maturity; t = Number corresponding to a period (running from 1 to n); n = Number of periods; Y = Yield to maturity (or required rate of return)

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Present Value of Interest Payments


To determine the present value of a $100 annuity for 20 years, with a discount rate of 10%
We have:

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Present Value of Principal Payment (Par Value) at Maturity


Principal payment at maturity is used interchangeably with par value or face value of the bond Discounting $1,000 back to the present at 10%, we have:

The current price of the bond, based on the present value of interest payments and the present value of the principal payment at maturity:

Here, the price of the bond is essentially the same as its par, or stated value to be received at maturity of $1,000
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Concept of Yield to Maturity


The yield to maturity or the discount rate is the required rate of return required by bondholders Three factors influence the required rate of return:
Required real rate of return Inflation premium Risk premium

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Concept of Yield to Maturity


Real rate of return:
Demanded by the investor against current use of the funds on a non-adjusted basis

Inflation premium:
Compensation towards the negative effect of inflation on the value of a dollar Risk free rate of return compensates for the use of funds and loss due to inflation

Risk Premium:
Towards special risks of an investment
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Risk Premium (contd)


Business Risk: inability of the firm to retain its competitive position and stability and growth Financial risk: inability of the firm to meet its debt obligations as and when due Assuming the risk premium is 3%, an overall required rate of return of 10% can be computed;

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Increase in Inflation Premium


Assume this goes up from 4 to 6%, with everything else being constant

Present value of interest payments:


$100 annuity for 20 years at a discount rate of 12%;

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Increase in Inflation Premium (contd)


Present value of principal payment at maturity:
Present value of $1,000 after 20 years at a discount rate of 12%;

Total present value:


Assuming that increase inflation increases required rate of return and decreases the bond price by $150 approximately

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Decrease in Inflation Premium


Assuming that the inflation premium declines:
The required rate of return decrease to 8%, where the 20 year bond with a 10% interest rate would now sell for; Present value of interest payments

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Decrease in Inflation Premium (contd)


Present value of principal payment at maturity

Total present value

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Bond Price Table

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Time to Maturity
Influences the impact of a change in yield to maturity on valuation Longer the maturity, the greater the impact of changes in yield

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Impact of Time to Maturity on Bond Prices

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Determining Yield to Maturity from the Bond Price


The yield to maturity (Y), that will equate the interest payments ( ) and the principal payments ( ) to the price of the bond ( )
Assuming that a 15 year bond pays $110 per year (11%) in interest and $1,000 after 15 years in principal repayment Choosing an initial percentage to try as a discount rate, we have:

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Relationship Between Time to Maturity and Bond Price

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Example - 13% Discount Rate


Present value of interest payments:

Present value of principal payment at maturity

Total present value

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Example 12% Discount Rate


Present value of interest payments

Present value of principal payment at maturity

Total present value

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Formula for Bond Yield


Weighted average is used to get the average investment over 15 year holding period

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Semiannual Interest and Bond Prices


A 10% interest rate may be paid as $50 twice a year in the case of semiannual payments To make the conversion:
Divide the annual interest rate by two Multiply the number of years by two Divide the annual yield to maturity by two

Assuming a 10%, $1,000 par value bond has a maturity of 20 years, the annual yield at 12%:
10%/2 = 5% semiannual interest rate; hence 5% X $1,000 = %50 semiannual interest 20 X 2 = 40 periods to maturity 12%/2 = 6% yield to maturity, expressed on a semiannual basis
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Semiannual Interest and Bond Prices (contd)


At a present value of a $50 annuity for the 40 periods, at discount rate of 6%:
Present value of interest payments

Present value of principal payment at maturity

Total present value

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Exercises
11th Edition

13th Edition Numbers: 2, 17, 20

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Valuation and Preferred Stock


Preferred stock represents a perpetuity, having no maturity date
It has a fixed dividend payment It has no binding contractual obligation of interest on debt Being a hybrid security, it does not have:
The ownership privilege of a common stock The legal provisions that could be enforced on debt

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Perpetuity of a Preferred Stock

Where, = the price of the preferred stock; = the annual dividend for the preferred stock (constant); = required rate of return (discount rate) applied to preferred stock dividends A more usable formula is:

Assuming, the annual dividend is $10, and the stockholder requires a 10% rate of return, the price of the preferred stock would be:

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Perpetuity of a Preferred Stock (contd)


If the rate of return required by security holders change, the value of the preferred stock also changes The longer the period of an investment, the greater the impact of a change in the require rate of return With perpetual security, the impact is at a maximum Assuming that the required rate of return has increased to 12%. The value of the preferred stock would be:

If it were reduced to 8%, the value of the preferred stock would be:

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Determining the Rate of Return (Yield) from the Market Price

Assuming the annual preferred dividend ( ) is $10 and the price of the preferred stock ( ) is $100, the required rate of return (yield):

A higher market price provides quite a decline in the yield:

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Valuation of Common Stock


Interpreted by the shareholder as the present value of an expected stream of future dividends The ultimate value of any holding lies with:
The distribution of earnings in the form of dividend payments
The earnings must be translated into cash flow for the stockholder

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Dividend Valuation Model

Where, = Price of stock today; D = Dividend for each year; = the required rate of return for common stock (discount rate)

This formula, with modifications is generally applied to three different situations:


No growth in dividends Constant growth in dividends Variable growth in dividends
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No Growth in Dividends
The common stock pays a constant dividend as in the case of a preferred stock This is not a very popular option

Where, = Price of the common stock; = Current annual common stock dividend (constant); = Required rate of return for common stock

Assuming

= $1,86 and

= 12%, the price of the stock would be:

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Constant Growth in Dividends


The general valuation process is shown:

Where, = Price of common stock today = Dividend in year 1, = Dividend in year 2, , and so on g = Constant growth rate in dividends = Required rate of return for common stock (discount rate)

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Constant Growth in Dividends (contd)


Assuming:
= Last 12 months dividend (assume $1.87) = First year, $2.00 (growth rate, 7%) = Second year, $2.14 (growth rate, 7%) = Third year, $2.29 (growth rate, 7%) etc = Required rate of return (discount rate), 12%

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Constant Growth Dividend Valuation Model


Where:

= Price of the stock today = Dividend at the end of the first year = Required rate of return (discount rate) = Constant growth rate in dividends

Based on the current example; computed as:

= $2.00;

= .12; g = .07.

is

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Stock Valuation Based on Future Stock Value


Assumption: To know the present value of an investment
Stock is held on for three years and then sold Adding the present value of three years of dividends, and the present value of the stock price after three years gives the present value of the benefits The appropriate formula to be used is:

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Determining the Required Rate of Return from the Market Price


Determining the required rate of return, knowing the first years dividend, the stock price, and the growth rate (g):

Assuming; = Required rate of return (to be solved) = Dividend at the end of the first year, $2.00 = Price of the stock today, $40 g = Constant growth rate 7%, we have: = $2.00 + 7% = 5% + 7% = 12% $40
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Determining the Required Rate of Return from Market Price (contd)


The stockholder is receiving a current dividend plus anticipated growth in the future
If the dividend yield is low, the growth rate must be high to provide the necessary return If the dividend rate is low, a high dividend yield will be expected

The first term represent the dividend yield the stockholder will receive The second represents the anticipated growth in dividends, earnings, and stock price
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Price-Earnings Ratio Concept and Valuation


A multiplier applied to current earnings to determine the value of a share of stock in the market Influenced by:
Earnings and sales growth of a firm Risk (or volatility in performance) The debt-equity structure of the firm The dividend policy The quality of management
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Exercises
11the Edition: 13th Edition: Problems 22, 25, 29

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Variable Growth in Dividends Supernormal Growth


Present value of dividends during the exceptional growth is observed
Present value of the normal, constant dividends that follow the supernatural growth period:
Is used to determine the price of the stock at the end of the supernatural growth period

Discounting this price to the present and adding it to the present supernormal value:
Gives us the current price of the stock

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Variable Growth in Dividends No Dividends


Approach 1: though no dividend is paid currently
The stockholders will be paid a cash dividend at a later date
The present value of their deferred payments may be used

Approach 2:
Take the present value of earnings per share for a number of periods Add that to the present value of the future anticipated stock price
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