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Air Pollution-Types and Sources

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Air Pollution-Types and Sources by Dr. Badar Ghauri Director Space & Atmospheric Research Dte. 1

Dr. Badar Ghauri Director

Air Pollution-Types and Sources by Dr. Badar Ghauri Director Space & Atmospheric Research Dte. 1
Space & Atmospheric Research Dte.
Space & Atmospheric Research Dte.

Air Pollution

The presence of contaminants in air to such a degree that adversely affects our health,

property, agriculture, biodiversity, climate and

other uses of air as resource

WHY CARE ABOUT AIR POLLUTION?

  • Human health impacts.

    • Highest risk: lead, fine particles.

    • Other pollutants of concern: ozone, airborne toxics.

  • Other environmental externalities and concerns.

    • Damage to natural and physical capital, amenity losses,

  • contribution to climate change.

    • Policy development, prioritization of management action and project siting

    Natural
    Natural
    Natural 4
    Natural 4
    Natural 4
    Natural 4
    Man-Made 5

    Man-Made

    Man-Made 5

    Volume source of pollution is a three-dimensional source of pollutant emissions. Essentially, it is an area source with a third dimension.

    Examples of a volume source of pollution are:

    Dust emissions from the wind erosion of uncovered gravel piles, sand piles, limestone piles, coal piles, etc.

    Fugitive gaseous emissions from pipe flanges, packed valve seals, gas compressor seals, control valve seals, piping and vessel seals within industrial facilities such as oil refineries and petrochemical plants.

    Buildings, containing air pollutant emission sources, with no singular emission vent (i.e., buildings with multiple roof vents or multiple open windows).

    Tanks Modeling
    Tanks Modeling

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    Area sources are sources of pollution which emit a substance or radiation from a specified area.

    For example, area sources of air pollution are air pollutant emission sources which operate within a certain locality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has categorized 70

    different categories of air pollution area source. Locomotives

    operating on certain linear tracks are examples of a line source,

    whereas locomotives operating within a railyard are an example of an area source of pollution.

    Other area sources of air pollution are:

    Multiple flue gas stacks within a single industrial plant Open burning and forest fires Evaporation losses from large spills of volatile liquids

    Area sources are sources of pollution which emit a substance or radiation from a specified area.
    Area sources are sources of pollution which emit a substance or radiation from a specified area.
    Area sources are sources of pollution which emit a substance or radiation from a specified area.

    Oil Spill

    Forest Fire

    Industrial Plant

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    Point source of pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution. A point source has negligible

    extent, distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries. The sources are called point sources because in mathematical modeling, they can be approximated as a mathematical point to simplify analysis. Pollution point sources are identical to other physics, engineering,

    optics and chemistry point sources except that their emissions have

    been labeled

    Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet Noise pollution from a jet engine Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study Light pollution from an intrusive street light Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device

    Point source of pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air, water, thermal, noise or

    Line source is a source of air, noise, water contamination or electromagnetic radiation that emanates from a linear (one-

    dimensional) geometry. The most prominent linear sources are roadway air pollution, aircraft air emissions, roadway noise, certain types of water pollution sources that emanate over a range of river extent rather than from a discrete point, elongated light tubes, and electromagnetic antennas. While point sources of pollution were

    studied since the late nineteenth century, linear sources did not receive much attention from scientists until the late 1960s, when environmental regulations for highways and airports began to emerge. At the same time, computers with the processing power to accommodate the data processing needs of the computer models

    required to tackle these one-dimensional sources became more

    available.

    Line source i s a source of air, noise, water contamination or electromagnetic radiation that emanates

    Parameters Monitored

    • Traditional

      • Criteria Pollutants

        • SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 , PM (10 and 2.5) and lead

        • Lead receives little attention now

        • Recent focus is on O 3 and PM 2.5

  • Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)/Air Toxics

    • Benzene, Formaldehyde, etc.

  • Non-traditional

    • Acid Rain

    • Secondary Pollutants SO4, NO3, O3

    • Meteorological Parameters

      • Wind speed, wind direction, horizontal turbulence, vertical turbulence, temperature, temperature profile, solar radiation and precipitation

  • Knowing is first step?
    Knowing is first step?
    Knowing is first step? Without monitoring it is not possible to implement policy 11

    Without monitoring it is not possible to implement policy

    Air Monitoring Network Obj:

    • Determine trends - is the air pollution control program working?

    • Assess environmental risk - how bad is the problem?

    • Corroborate the emission inventories

    • Validate the models - how good are the model predictions?

    • Establishment of Ambient Air Quality Standards

    • Determine whether or not a National Standards/International has been exceeded

    Air Pollutants Monitoring 
    Air Pollutants Monitoring

    Monitoring Air Pathway Analysis

    Collect and review information Conduct monitoring Develop Monitoring plan •Routine operation •Quality control •Field documentation
    Collect and review
    information
    Conduct
    monitoring
    Develop
    Monitoring plan
    •Routine operation
    •Quality control
    •Field documentation
    Summarize/ Evaluate results
    Summarize/
    Evaluate results

    Select monitoring constituents Specify meteorological monitoring Design network Select monitoring methods/ equipment and monitoring site Develop sampling and analysis

    Data review and Validation Data summaries Consider monitoring uncertainties Dispersion modeling applications

    Cost of Air Monitoring

    • Capital purchase of analyzers, samplers, site selection

    • laboratory infrastructure.

    • Equipment service, maintenance

    Main National Policies to Improve Air Quality

    • Ambient air quality standards

      • Protect people’s health

    • Fuel quality standards

      • Sulfur reduction lowers SOx emissions

      • Lead removal stops lead emissions, enables emission control

    technology.

    • Unleaded gasoline and ultra-low sulfur fuels allow for advanced

    PM and NOx control.

    • Vehicle emission standards

      • New vehicle emissions standards can lead to the use of emission

    control technologies (e.g. for 2-stoke motorcycles).

    • Better to have standards that can be achieved than stringent

    standards that are not enforced.

    Role of Urban Transport

    • Important contributor to air pollution.

      • Lead from gasoline- a problem of the past as leaded gasoline has been

    phased out.

    • Fine and ultra fine particles in vehicle exhaust present concern.

    • Ozone precursors (HC and NOx) in vehicle exhaust emerging problem for

    the future.

    • Current reality

      • Old polluting fleets and low replacement rates.

      • Fuel adulteration, poor quality and vehicle maintenance culture.

      • Weak administrative capacity to regulate and monitor.

        • Future challenge

          • Rising income and motorization will increase pollution.

    Air Pollution Components

    Particulate Matter

    Particulate Matter  Very small particles of soot, dust, or other matter, including tiny droplets of
    • Very small particles of soot, dust, or other

    matter, including tiny droplets of liquids

    PM10 -

    particles with diameters less than or

    equal to 10 micrometers

    PM2.5 -

    particles with diameters less than or

    equal to 2.5 micrometers

    Particulate Matter

    Where Does It Come From?

    • Diesel engines

    • Power plants

    • Industries

    • Windblown dust

    • Wood stoves

    • Pollen

    • Other sources

    Particulate Matter

    What are the health effects?

    Breathing problems due to damage and irritation to the lungs

    • Aggravation of asthma, lung, or heart disease in

    people who already have these problems

    • Chronic bronchitis

    • Irritation of eyes, throat, skin, & nose

    • Especially children, elderly, people with chronic

    respiratory problem

    Particulate Matter

    Particulate Matter What are the environmental effects?  Damage to crops  Decreased visibility (regional haze)

    What are the environmental effects?

    • Damage to crops

    • Decreased visibility (regional haze)

    • Damage to buildings and statues

    Aerosols and Hydrological Cycle

    Increased aerosols

    Aerosols and Hydrological Cycle Increased aerosols Weak Hydrological Cycle 26

    Weak Hydrological Cycle

    Indirect Effect

    More Aerosols More Cloud Droplets More Sunlight Will Be Reflected.
    More Aerosols
    More Cloud Droplets
    More Sunlight Will Be Reflected.

    Net Result:

    • Reduction In Solar Radiation at the Surface • Last Longer Clouds and Cooling
    • Reduction In Solar Radiation at the Surface
    • Last Longer Clouds and Cooling

    Carbon Monoxide

    What is it?

    • A colorless, odorless gas.

    • Produced when something is burned incompletely or in a closed-in area

    • Toxic to all humans and animals.

    • Most commonly inhaled poisonous

    substance

    Carbon Monoxide

    Where can it be formed?

    • Incorrectly vented furnaces

    • Gas water heaters

    • Gas stoves and clothes dryers

    • Fireplaces that are blocked by debris

    • Non-electric space heaters

    • Charcoal grills used inside as heaters

    • Automobiles idling in closed garages

    Carbon Oxides

    Effects

    CO binds to hemoglobin in place of oxygen

     

    Affinity for CO ~ 200x higher than for O 2

    Continued exposure can lead to

     

    Impairment of vision

    Reduced manual dexterity

    Poor learning ability

    Difficulty performing complex tasks

    Greater risk of heart attacks in people with certain forms of heart disease (e.g. angina)

    Nitrogen Oxides (NO x )

    Sources Principally NO 2 Highly reactive reddish-brown gas

    Play a major role in the formation of ozone, PM, haze

    and acid rain Important component of photochemical smog

    Forms from FF combustion at high temperatures

     

    Mobile Automobiles

    Stationary Power plants, home heaters, gas stoves

    Formation could be controlled by using pure oxygen for combustion (impractical and dangerous)

    Formation reduced by low-temperature

    combustion

    Nitrogen Oxides (NO x )

    Effects Strong oxidizing agent Reacts readily in air to form nitric acid and nitrates

    Health Irritate lungs and lower resistance to respiratory

    infections Lung damage

    Environment

     

    Impair plant growth

    Damage plant foliage

    Contribute to acid rain

    - Leaching of minerals from soil - Acidification of lakes and waterways Contribute to eutrophication of lakes and waterways

    Sulfur Dioxide

    • A gaseous compound made up of sulfur and oxygen

    • It is a major component of acid rain

    • It is very smelly

    Where does it come from?

    • It comes from the burning of coal and oil.

    • Power plants and industries

    • Coal-burning stoves

    • Refineries

    SO2 -What are the health effects?

    • SO2 causes lung disease

    • SO2 can cause eye irritation and burning of the skin

    • Other Environmental effects;

    Impair plant growth Damage plant foliage Contribute to acid rain - Leaching of minerals from soil - Acidification of lakes and waterways

    Typical SO 2 Sources

    Source Category

    % of Total

    Transportation

    2.89

    Fuel combustion in stationary sources

    76.52

    Pulp and Paper

    0.22

    Calcium carbide

    0.01

    Sulfuric acid plants

    1.37

    Claus sulfur plants

    2.53

    Coking

    1.37

    Typical SO 2 Sources

    Table Cont’d…

    Source Category

    % of Total

    Petroleum refining

     

    Fluid catalytic cracking

    1.02

    Thermal catalytic cracking

    0.01

    Nonferrous metals

     

    Copper

    10.31

    Zinc and Lead

    2.60

    Solid wastes disposal

    0.29

    Agricultural burning

    0.29

    Total

    100.00

     

    40

    Typical H-C Sources

    Source Category

    % of Total

    Transportation (total)

    37.92

    Highway

    32.89

    Non-highway

    5.034

    Stationary fuel combustion (total)

    5.369

    Electric utilities

    0.336

    Other

    5.034

    Industrial processes (total)

    11.07

    Chemicals

    5.369

    Petroleum refining

    2.685

    Metals

    0.671

    Others

    2.349

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    Typical H-C Sources

    Table Cont’d…

    Source Category

    % of Total

    Solid waste (total)

    3.02

    Miscellaneous (total)

    42.62

    Forest wildfires

    1.678

    Forest managed burning

    0.671

    Agricultural burning

    0.336

    Organic solvents

    27.18

    Oil and gas production and marketing

    12.42

    Total

    100.00

    Ozone

    Where can it be found?

    • Stratosphere - protects us from UV rays of the sun “good” ozone

    • Troposphere - ground-level ozone - the air we breathe - “bad” ozone

    Ground-level Ozone

    Where do the pollutants that form ground-level

    ozone come from?

    • Air emissions from industry

    • Motor vehicle exhaust

    • Gasoline vapors

    • Chemical solvents

    Ozone (O 3 )

    Effects (Primary constituent of photochemical smog) Health Respiratory inflammation Reduction of lung function Chest pain, coughing, nausea, pulmonary congestion Permanent lung damage from repeated exposure Environment Impair plant growth Damage plant foliage

    Ozone causes several billion dollars in agricultural

    crop loss each year Damage to forest ecosystems

    VOCs

    Sources

    Gasoline vapors (gas tanks, gas cans)

    Chemical solvents (chemical plants, factories,

    refineries, commercial products)

    Fossil fuel combustion (motor vehicles)

    Secondary pollutant (ground-level ozone) formed

    from NO x and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in

    the presence of heat and sunlight

    Sinks for Selected Pollutants

    CO

    CO

    (0.09-2.7 YEARS)

    (0.09-2.7 YEARS)

    CO2

    CO2

    (2-10 YEARS)

    (2-10 YEARS)

    SO2

    SO2

    (20 MIN-7 DAYS)

    (20 MIN-7 DAYS)

    NOX

    NOX

    (3-5 DAYS)

    (3-5 DAYS)

    H-Cs

    H-Cs

    (1.5-2 YEARS

    (1.5-2 YEARS

    METHANE)

    METHANE)

    • Uptake by Soil and Conversion to CO2 by microbes

    • Dissolve in Ocean, Take-up by plants

    • Precipitation Scavenging then to Sulphate Particle

    • Precipitation Scavenging then to Nitrate

    • Oxidized to CO2, Absorption on Soil then Microbial Degradation, Photochemical

    OZONE

    OZONE

    (2HRS-3 DAYS)

    (2HRS-3 DAYS)

    Degradation

    • Photochemical Reaction in Atmosphere

    Factors Affecting Distribution of Pollutants

    Precipitation

    -

    Humidity

    +

    Fog

    +

    Sunshine

     

    +

    Wind Velocity

    +

    Wind Direction (From Source)

    +

    Barometric Pressure

    +

    Height Of Emitting Source

    -

    Mountains, Hills

    -

    Distance From Source

    -

    Cleans Air

    Dissolve Many Pollutants

    Remain Same

    Sunshine Initiate the Oxidation

    Less Pollution Near The Source But

    Faster & Wider Distribution

    Greater Contamination

    Lighter Wind; Less Dispersion

    Dilution Of Contamination

    Break Force Of Wind

    Remain Same

    Air Quality Monitoring Mobile Lab
    Feasibility Study for Development of Transport Pollution Control Plan for Karachi Metropolis (CDGK) 61
    Feasibility Study for Development of Transport Pollution Control Plan for Karachi Metropolis (CDGK)
    Feasibility Study for Development of Transport
    Pollution Control Plan for Karachi Metropolis (CDGK)

    The Main Objectives of the Project

    • To establish the Baseline Data on the Status of Ambient Air, Water, Noise and Soil Pollution in Karachi

    • To assess the Impact of Pollution Generated by Operation of Vehicular Traffic

    Environment

    on

    physical,

    living

    and social

    • To propose remedial measures and course of action to control ambient pollution

    • To prepare a feasibility study report on transport control plan dealing with issues related to fuel, vehicles & their operators for providing clean environment

    Methodology
    Methodology

    67

    Monitoring, Sampling & Analysis
    Monitoring, Sampling & Analysis
    • Comprehensive survey at 26 traffic congestion points to record the current level of air pollutants, noise and traffic density.

    • Analyze soil, ground & waste water, growth of trees & loss of vegetation, decoloration of buildings, cultural heritage and other structures

    • Analyze the blood samples, audiometry, vehicular operations

    of highly exposed individuals to

    • Analyze the type of vehicles, their tuning effects and fuel quality contributing to environmental pollution

    • Conduct interviews of drivers, vehicle operators & owners, policemen, hawkers and beggars etc

    • Build a transportation model based on the collected information

    • Propose remedial measures for reduction in environmental degradation

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    Corridors for Pollution Modeling 69

    Corridors for Pollution Modeling

    69

    Findings of the Study
    Findings of the Study
    Air Quality on Traffic Corridors
    Air Quality on Traffic Corridors

    Average Levels

    SO 2

    NOx

    CO

    PM 10

    CO 2

    O 3

    Noise dB(A)

    Observed Average levels on city intersections

    63mg/m 3

    22

    ppb

    235mg/m 3

    115 ppb

    ppm

    • 8 mg/m 3

    • 242 18 ppb

    334 ppm

     

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    World Bank

     

    150 mg/m 3

             
     

    --

    73

    ppb

    --

    • 230 mg/m 3

    --

    70

     

    24-hourly

    WHO

       

    ppm

    • 9 mg/m 3

    (SPM)

    • 120 (0.11 )

    --

       
     

    --

     

    --

       

    (10,000mg/m 3 )

    NEQS Pakistan

    <200 mg/m 3

    50mg/m 3

             

    70

    ppb

    24

    ppb

    --

    --

    --

    85

    (24-hrly)

    Yrly Avg

    Raised levels of pollutants on major transport corridors range between 10-40 ppb SO 2 (140

    ppb US EPA), 20-241 ppb NOx (50 ppb annual USEPA), 2-17 ppm CO (9 ppm 8-hourly avg

    USEPA), 160-616 ppm CO 2 , 40-490 mg/m 3 PM 10 (150 mg/m 3 USEPA ), 5-47 ppb O 3 (80 ppb 8-

    hourly avg USEPA), 7-79 mg/m 3 Toluene and 58-99 dB(A) Noise (85 dB(A) NEQS)

    24 Hourly Average Levels of Pollutants at Major Road Intersections in Karachi
    24 Hourly Average Levels of Pollutants at
    Major Road Intersections in Karachi

    SO 2

    NOx ppb

    CO

    CO 2 ppm

    PM 10

    O 3

    Noise

    ppb

    ppm

    mg/m 3

    ppb

    dB(A)

    22

    115

    8

    334

    242

    18

    78

     

    WHO or World Bank Standards

     

    53

    73

             

    (150 mg/m 3 )

    (150 mg/m 3 )

    9

    --

    120

    --

    85

    72

    Pollution Load

    Vehicular emissions from Gasoline operated vehicles during 2004-2005

    Air Pollutants from use of

    Daily Emissions

    Yearly Emissions (Tons)

    gasoline

    (Tons)

    CO 2

    2106.48

    768865.2

    HC

    11.397

    4159.905

    SO 2

    0.424

    154.76

    NOx

    8.096

    2955.04

    PM 10

    1.872

    683.28

    Total Emission

    2128.269

    776818.2

    73

    Pollution Load

    Vehicular emissions from Diesel operated

    vehicles during 2004-2005

    Air Pollutants from use

    Daily Emissions

    Yearly Emissions (Tons)

    of diesel

    (Tons)

    CO 2

    5585.12

    2038569

    HC

    5.418

    1977.57

    SO 2

    27.717

    10116.71

    NOx

    22.924

    8367.26

    CO

    90.654

    33088.71

    PM 10

    5.002

    1825.73

    Total Emission

    5736.835

    2093945

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    Share of On-Road Vehicles in Karachi during 2005

    Rickshaw , 2.76%

    Tractors, 0.30% Trucks, 1.45% Vans/Pickup, 5.10% Bus/Mini, 1.43% Taxies, 3% M/Cycle, 38% Car/Jeep, 47.62%
    Tractors, 0.30%
    Trucks, 1.45%
    Vans/Pickup, 5.10%
    Bus/Mini, 1.43%
    Taxies, 3%
    M/Cycle, 38%
    Car/Jeep, 47.62%

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    Share of Pollutant Emissions based on Petrol Consumption during 2005 CO2 7% CO 21% PM 6%
    Share of Pollutant Emissions based on Petrol Consumption during 2005
    CO2
    7%
    CO
    21%
    PM
    6%
    HCs
    38%
    NOx
    SO2
    27%
    1%
    CO2
    HCs
    SO2
    NOx
    PM
    CO

    79

    Share of Pollutant Emissions based on Diesel Consumption during 2005

    CO

    54%

    Share of Pollutant Emissions based on Diesel Consumption during 2005 CO 54% 14% 23% NOx 3%
    14% 23% NOx 3% SO2 3% HCs CO2
    14%
    23%
    NOx
    3%
    SO2
    3%
    HCs
    CO2

    PM

    3%

    CO2 SO2 NOx HCs CO PM
    CO2
    SO2
    NOx
    HCs
    CO
    PM

    80

    Project Benefits  Improvement of the road environment & performance of vehicles in operation  Enhancement
    Project Benefits
    Improvement of the road environment & performance
    of vehicles in operation
    Enhancement in the quality of manpower involved in
    operation and repair / maintenance of the vehicles
    Establish a monitoring system to keep a check on the
    performance of the management system
    Improve quality of life of the in-habitants, labors &
    workers
    Improvement in the growth of plants & trees
    Induction of new technology & cleaner fuels

    81

    PM 2.5 concentration at Lahore

    PM concentration at Lahore 91

    91

    International Participation Program

    Worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)

    92

    SCIAMACHY(ENVISAT) CO Column(10 Molecules/cm ) 93

    SCIAMACHY(ENVISAT) CO Column(10 18 Molecules/cm 2 )

    SCIAMACHY(ENVISAT) CO Column(10 Molecules/cm ) 93
    SCIAMACHY(ENVISAT) CO Column(10 Molecules/cm ) 93

    93

    MODIS CO (Molecules/cm ) 94

    MODIS CO (Molecules/cm 2 )

    MODIS CO (Molecules/cm ) 94

    94

    EUMETSAT (NO 2 )

    EUMETSAT (NO ) 95

    95

    103

    103