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The Definite Integral

Riemann Sums
Sigma notation enables us to express a
large sum in compact form

1 2
1
.....
n
k n
k
a a a a
=
= + +

Riemann Sums
LRAM, MRAM,and RRAM are examples of
Riemann sums

S
n
=

This sum, which depends on the partition P
and the choice of the numbers c
k
,is a
Riemann sum for f on the interval [a,b]
1
( )
n
k k
k
f c x
=
A

Definite Integral as a Limit of


Riemann Sums
Let f be a function defined on a closed interval [a,b]. For
any partition P of [a,b], let the numbers c
k
be chosen
arbitrarily in the subintervals [x
k-1
,x
k
].

If there exists a number I such that



no matter how P and the c
k
s are chosen, then f is
integrable on [a,b] and I is the definite integral of f over
[a,b].

0
1
lim ( )
n
k k
P
k
f c x I

=
A =

Definite Integral of a continuous


function on [a,b]
Let f be continuous on [a,b], and let [a,b] be
partitioned into n subintervals of equal length x
= (b-a)/n. Then the definite integral of f over
[a,b] is given by



where each c
k
is chosen arbitrarily in the kth
subinterval.

1
lim ( )
n
k
n
k
f c x

=
A

Definite integral



This is read as the integral from a to b of f
of x dee x or sometimes as the integral
from a to b of f of x with respect to x.
( )
b
a
f x dx
}
Using Definite integral notation




2
1
3
2
1
lim (3( ) 2 5)
(3 2 5)
n
k k
n
k
m m x
x x dx

+ A =
+

}
The function being integrated is f(x) = 3x
2
2x + 5
over the interval [-1,3]
Definition: Area under a curve
If y = f(x) is nonnegative and integrable over
a closed interval [a,b], then the area
under the curve of y = f(x) from a to b is
the integral of f from a to b,


( )
b
a
A f x dx =
}
Nonpositive regions
If the graph is nonpositive from a to b then


( )
b
a
A f x dx =
}
Area of any integrable function



= (area above the x-axis)
(area below x-axis)
( )
b
a
f x dx
}
Integral of a Constant
If f(x) = c, where c is a constant, on the
interval [a,b], then


( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx cdx c b a = =
} }
Evaluating Integrals using areas
We can use integrals to calculate areas and we
can use areas to calculate integrals.

Using areas, evaluate the integrals:

1)


2)
3
2
( 1) x dx

+
}
2
2
2
4 x dx


}
Evaluating Integrals using areas
Evaluate using areas:

3)

4) (a<b)

8
2
4dx
}
(2 1)
b
a
x dx +
}
Evaluating integrals using areas
Evaluate the discontinuous function:



Since the function is discontinuous at x = 0, we
must divide the areas into two pieces and find the
sum of the areas

= -1 + 2 = 1

2
1
x
dx
x

}

Integrals on a Calculator
You can evaluate integrals numerically using
the calculator. The book denotes this by
using NINT. The calculator function fnInt
is what you will use.

= fnInt(xsinx,x,-1,2) is approx.
2.04
2
1
sin x xdx

}
Evaluate Integrals on calculator
Evaluate the following integrals
numerically:

1) = approx. 3.14

2) = approx. .89

1
2
0
4
1
dx
x +
}
2
5
0
x
e dx

}
Rules for Definite Integrals
1) Order of Integration:

( ) ( )
a b
b a
f x dx f x dx =
} }
Rules for Definite Integrals
2) Zero:


( ) 0
a
a
f x dx =
}
Rules for Definite Integrals
3) Constant Multiple:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
b b
a a
b b
a a
kf x dx k f x dx
f x dx f x dx
=
=
} }
} }
Rules for Definite Integrals
4) Sum and Difference:
( ( ) ( )) ( ) ( )
b b b
a a a
f x g x dx f x dx g x dx =
} } }
Rules for Definite Integrals
5) Additivity:

( ) ( ) ( )
b c c
a b a
f x dx f x dx f x dx + =
} } }
Rules for Definite Integrals
6) Max-Min Inequality: If max f and min f
are the maximum and minimum values of
f on [a,b] then:

min f (b a) max f (b a)
( )
b
a
f x dx
}
Rules for Definite Integrals
7) Domination: f(x) g(x) on [a,b]



f(x) 0 on [a,b] 0

( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx g x dx >
} }

( )
b
a
f x dx
}
Using the rules for integration
Suppose:


Find each of the following integrals, if possible:
a) b) c)

d) e) f)

1
1
( ) 5 f x dx

=
}
4
1
( ) 2 f x dx =
}
1
1
( ) 7 h x dx

=
}
1
4
( ) f x dx
}
4
1
( ) f x dx

}
| |
1
1
2 ( ) 3 ( ) f x h x dx

+
}
1
0
( ) f x dx
}
2
2
( ) h x dx

}
| |
4
1
( ) ( ) f x h x dx

+
}
Using the rules for definite integrals
Show that the value of
is less than 3/2


The Max-Min Inequality rule says the
max f
.
(b a) is an upper bound.
The maximum value of (1+cosx) on [0,1] is 2 so
the upper bound is:
2(1 0) = 2 , which is less than 3/2
1
0
1 cos xdx +
}
Average (Mean) Value
If f is integrable on [a,b], its average (mean)
value on [a,b] is:

av(f) =


Find the average value of f(x) = 4 x
2
on
[0,3] . Does f actually take on this value at
some point in the given interval?
1
( )
b
a
f x dx
b a
}
Applying the Mean Value
Av(f) =


= 1/3(3) = 1

4 x
2
= 1 when x = 3 but only 3 falls in
the interval from [0,3], so x = 3 is the
place where the function assumes the
average.
3
2
0
1
(4 )
3 0
x dx

}
Mean Value Theorem for Definite
Integrals
If f is continuous on [a,b], then at some point
c in [a,b],


1
( ) ( )
b
a
f c f x dx
b a
=

}
The Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus, Part I
If f is continuous on [a,b], then the function

F(x) =

has a derivative at every point x in [a,b],
and

( )
x
a
f t dt
}
( ) ( )
x
a
df
dx f t dt f x
dx
= =
}
Applications of The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus, Part I
1.


2.


3.
cos cos
x
d
tdt x
dx
t
=
}
2 2
0
1 1
1 1
x
d
dt
dx t x
=
+ +
}
2
2 2
1
cos cos (2 ) 2 cos
x
d
tdt x x x x
dx
= =
}
Applications of The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus, Part I
Find dy/dx.

y =


Since this has an x on both ends of the
integral, it must be separated.
2
2
1
2
x
t
x
dt
e +
}
Applications of The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus, Part I





=
2 2
0
2 2 0
1 1 1
2 2 2
x x
t t t
x x
dt dt dt
e e e
= +
+ + +
} } }
2
2
0 0
1 1
2 2
x x
t t
dt dt
e e
+
+ +
} }
Applications of The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus, Part I

=


=
2
2
1 1
(2) (2 )
2
2
x
x
x
e
e
+
+
+
2
2
2 2
2
2
x
x
x
e
e

+
+
The Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus, Part 2
If f is continuous at every point of [a,b], and if F is
any antiderivative of f on [a,b], then




This part of the Fundamental Theorem is also
called the Integral Evaluation Theorem.

( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx F b F a =
}
Trapezoidal Rule
To approximate , use

T = (y
0
+ 2y
1
+ 2y
2
+ . 2y
n-1
+ y
n
)

where [a,b] is partitioned into n
subintervals of equal length h = (b-a)/n.
( )
b
a
f x dx
}
2
h
Using the trapezoidal rule
Use the trapezoidal rule with n = 4 to
estimate


h = (2-1)/4 or , so

T = 1/8( 1+2(25/16)+2(36/16)+2(49/16)+4)
= 75/32 or about 2.344
2
2
1
x dx
}
Simpson Rule
To approximate , use

S = (y
0
+ 4y
1
+ 2y
2
+ 4y
3
. 2y
n-2
+4y
n-1
+ y
n
)


where [a,b] is partitioned into an even
number n subintervals of equal length h =(b a)/n.

( )
b
a
f x dx
}
3
h
Using Simpsons Rule
Use Simpsons rule with n = 4 to estimate



h = (2 1)/4 = , so

S = 1/12 (1 + 4(25/16) + 2(36/16) + 4(49/16) + 4)
= 7/3

2
2
1
x dx
}