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Riemann Sums

Sigma notation enables us to express a

large sum in compact form

1 2

1

.....

n

k n

k

a a a a

=

= + +

Riemann Sums

LRAM, MRAM,and RRAM are examples of

Riemann sums

S

n

=

This sum, which depends on the partition P

and the choice of the numbers c

k

,is a

Riemann sum for f on the interval [a,b]

1

( )

n

k k

k

f c x

=

A

Riemann Sums

Let f be a function defined on a closed interval [a,b]. For

any partition P of [a,b], let the numbers c

k

be chosen

arbitrarily in the subintervals [x

k-1

,x

k

].

If there exists a number I such that

no matter how P and the c

k

s are chosen, then f is

integrable on [a,b] and I is the definite integral of f over

[a,b].

0

1

lim ( )

n

k k

P

k

f c x I

=

A =

function on [a,b]

Let f be continuous on [a,b], and let [a,b] be

partitioned into n subintervals of equal length x

= (b-a)/n. Then the definite integral of f over

[a,b] is given by

where each c

k

is chosen arbitrarily in the kth

subinterval.

1

lim ( )

n

k

n

k

f c x

=

A

Definite integral

This is read as the integral from a to b of f

of x dee x or sometimes as the integral

from a to b of f of x with respect to x.

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

Using Definite integral notation

2

1

3

2

1

lim (3( ) 2 5)

(3 2 5)

n

k k

n

k

m m x

x x dx

+ A =

+

}

The function being integrated is f(x) = 3x

2

2x + 5

over the interval [-1,3]

Definition: Area under a curve

If y = f(x) is nonnegative and integrable over

a closed interval [a,b], then the area

under the curve of y = f(x) from a to b is

the integral of f from a to b,

( )

b

a

A f x dx =

}

Nonpositive regions

If the graph is nonpositive from a to b then

( )

b

a

A f x dx =

}

Area of any integrable function

= (area above the x-axis)

(area below x-axis)

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

Integral of a Constant

If f(x) = c, where c is a constant, on the

interval [a,b], then

( ) ( )

b b

a a

f x dx cdx c b a = =

} }

Evaluating Integrals using areas

We can use integrals to calculate areas and we

can use areas to calculate integrals.

Using areas, evaluate the integrals:

1)

2)

3

2

( 1) x dx

+

}

2

2

2

4 x dx

}

Evaluating Integrals using areas

Evaluate using areas:

3)

4) (a<b)

8

2

4dx

}

(2 1)

b

a

x dx +

}

Evaluating integrals using areas

Evaluate the discontinuous function:

Since the function is discontinuous at x = 0, we

must divide the areas into two pieces and find the

sum of the areas

= -1 + 2 = 1

2

1

x

dx

x

}

Integrals on a Calculator

You can evaluate integrals numerically using

the calculator. The book denotes this by

using NINT. The calculator function fnInt

is what you will use.

= fnInt(xsinx,x,-1,2) is approx.

2.04

2

1

sin x xdx

}

Evaluate Integrals on calculator

Evaluate the following integrals

numerically:

1) = approx. 3.14

2) = approx. .89

1

2

0

4

1

dx

x +

}

2

5

0

x

e dx

}

Rules for Definite Integrals

1) Order of Integration:

( ) ( )

a b

b a

f x dx f x dx =

} }

Rules for Definite Integrals

2) Zero:

( ) 0

a

a

f x dx =

}

Rules for Definite Integrals

3) Constant Multiple:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

b b

a a

b b

a a

kf x dx k f x dx

f x dx f x dx

=

=

} }

} }

Rules for Definite Integrals

4) Sum and Difference:

( ( ) ( )) ( ) ( )

b b b

a a a

f x g x dx f x dx g x dx =

} } }

Rules for Definite Integrals

5) Additivity:

( ) ( ) ( )

b c c

a b a

f x dx f x dx f x dx + =

} } }

Rules for Definite Integrals

6) Max-Min Inequality: If max f and min f

are the maximum and minimum values of

f on [a,b] then:

min f (b a) max f (b a)

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

Rules for Definite Integrals

7) Domination: f(x) g(x) on [a,b]

f(x) 0 on [a,b] 0

( ) ( )

b b

a a

f x dx g x dx >

} }

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

Using the rules for integration

Suppose:

Find each of the following integrals, if possible:

a) b) c)

d) e) f)

1

1

( ) 5 f x dx

=

}

4

1

( ) 2 f x dx =

}

1

1

( ) 7 h x dx

=

}

1

4

( ) f x dx

}

4

1

( ) f x dx

}

| |

1

1

2 ( ) 3 ( ) f x h x dx

+

}

1

0

( ) f x dx

}

2

2

( ) h x dx

}

| |

4

1

( ) ( ) f x h x dx

+

}

Using the rules for definite integrals

Show that the value of

is less than 3/2

The Max-Min Inequality rule says the

max f

.

(b a) is an upper bound.

The maximum value of (1+cosx) on [0,1] is 2 so

the upper bound is:

2(1 0) = 2 , which is less than 3/2

1

0

1 cos xdx +

}

Average (Mean) Value

If f is integrable on [a,b], its average (mean)

value on [a,b] is:

av(f) =

Find the average value of f(x) = 4 x

2

on

[0,3] . Does f actually take on this value at

some point in the given interval?

1

( )

b

a

f x dx

b a

}

Applying the Mean Value

Av(f) =

= 1/3(3) = 1

4 x

2

= 1 when x = 3 but only 3 falls in

the interval from [0,3], so x = 3 is the

place where the function assumes the

average.

3

2

0

1

(4 )

3 0

x dx

}

Mean Value Theorem for Definite

Integrals

If f is continuous on [a,b], then at some point

c in [a,b],

1

( ) ( )

b

a

f c f x dx

b a

=

}

The Fundamental Theorem of

Calculus, Part I

If f is continuous on [a,b], then the function

F(x) =

has a derivative at every point x in [a,b],

and

( )

x

a

f t dt

}

( ) ( )

x

a

df

dx f t dt f x

dx

= =

}

Applications of The Fundamental

Theorem of Calculus, Part I

1.

2.

3.

cos cos

x

d

tdt x

dx

t

=

}

2 2

0

1 1

1 1

x

d

dt

dx t x

=

+ +

}

2

2 2

1

cos cos (2 ) 2 cos

x

d

tdt x x x x

dx

= =

}

Applications of The Fundamental

Theorem of Calculus, Part I

Find dy/dx.

y =

Since this has an x on both ends of the

integral, it must be separated.

2

2

1

2

x

t

x

dt

e +

}

Applications of The Fundamental

Theorem of Calculus, Part I

=

2 2

0

2 2 0

1 1 1

2 2 2

x x

t t t

x x

dt dt dt

e e e

= +

+ + +

} } }

2

2

0 0

1 1

2 2

x x

t t

dt dt

e e

+

+ +

} }

Applications of The Fundamental

Theorem of Calculus, Part I

=

=

2

2

1 1

(2) (2 )

2

2

x

x

x

e

e

+

+

+

2

2

2 2

2

2

x

x

x

e

e

+

+

The Fundamental Theorem of

Calculus, Part 2

If f is continuous at every point of [a,b], and if F is

any antiderivative of f on [a,b], then

This part of the Fundamental Theorem is also

called the Integral Evaluation Theorem.

( ) ( ) ( )

b

a

f x dx F b F a =

}

Trapezoidal Rule

To approximate , use

T = (y

0

+ 2y

1

+ 2y

2

+ . 2y

n-1

+ y

n

)

where [a,b] is partitioned into n

subintervals of equal length h = (b-a)/n.

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

2

h

Using the trapezoidal rule

Use the trapezoidal rule with n = 4 to

estimate

h = (2-1)/4 or , so

T = 1/8( 1+2(25/16)+2(36/16)+2(49/16)+4)

= 75/32 or about 2.344

2

2

1

x dx

}

Simpson Rule

To approximate , use

S = (y

0

+ 4y

1

+ 2y

2

+ 4y

3

. 2y

n-2

+4y

n-1

+ y

n

)

where [a,b] is partitioned into an even

number n subintervals of equal length h =(b a)/n.

( )

b

a

f x dx

}

3

h

Using Simpsons Rule

Use Simpsons rule with n = 4 to estimate

h = (2 1)/4 = , so

S = 1/12 (1 + 4(25/16) + 2(36/16) + 4(49/16) + 4)

= 7/3

2

2

1

x dx

}

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