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A SEMINAR ON

IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON AIR ENVIRONMENT


PRESENTED BY: SHASHIKANT N. SAWANT
M.TECH (ENV. ENGG. SEM-I) {122020011} V.J.T.I., MUMBAI

GUIDED BY: Dr. ABHAY WAYAL

CONTENTS
1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3. INTRODUCTION CONCEPTUAL APPROACH Air quality impacts Existing air environment condition Environmental laws Impact prediction Impact significance Mitigation measures CONCLUSION REFERENCE

Analysis of any possible change in the environmental quality, adverse or beneficial , caused by a developmental project of government or private company is known as Environmental Impact Assessment. As matter of government policy , it is compulsory for any enterprise ( government/private) to include EIA in the planning stage of any developmental project and submit it to the central government for clearance. The primary goal of the EIA procedure is to predict any adverse or beneficial effects of a project on the natural and urban environment. This is done so that measures can be taken to minimize or eliminate the harmful impacts when the project is implemented. The prediction or assessment of impacts must be conducted by an interdisciplinary team including civil engineers and technicians, geologists, urban planners ,and biologists or ecologists. Certain substances may be any gas, liquid, or solid are considered significant pollutants because of very large emission rates or harmful and unwanted effects. Air quality impacts can be assessed using sophisticated mathematical models to calculate and predict ground level concentration of pollutants downwind from sources such as stack.

1. INTRODUCTION

Review: Definition of EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment is

A formal process for identifying:


likely effects of activities or projects on the ENVIRONMENT, and on human health and welfare. means and measures to mitigate & monitor these impacts
Environment is broadly interpreted: physical, biological, and social. In EIA, the term impacts is used instead of effects of activities.

What is an impact?

What is an impact?
The impact of an activity is a deviation (a change)The baseline from the baseline situation is the situation that is caused existing environmental by the activity.

situation or condition in the absence of the activity. The baseline situation is a key concept in EIA.

EIA PROCEDURE

2. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH
STEPS. 1.Identification of air quality impacts of proposed

projects
2. description of existing air environment conditions. 3.Procurement of relevant air quality standards and/or

guidelines
4.Impact prediction 5.Assessment of impact significance 6.Identification and incorporation of mitigation measures.

2.1 AIR QUALITY IMPACTS

Point sources (stacks) Line sources (roads) Area sources (treatment ponds) Volume sources (buildings) Biogenics

About 60% of the emissions are from point sources

Air Quality Monitoring


Parameters Monitored

Criteria Pollutants - SPM, SO2, RSPM/PM10, NOx, CO, Pb Specific Pollutants - Poly aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene / Xylene / Toluene Ground level ozone (24 hourly, 8 hourly, 1 hourly)

2.2 EXISTING AIR ENVIRONMENT CONDITION


I. MAJOR CITIES

(DELHI, KOLKATA, MUMBAI, CHENNAI, AHMEDABAD, BANGALORE, HYDERABAD, PUNE, KANPUR).-----VEHICLES, SMALL/MEDIUM SCALE INDUST II. PROBLEM AREA
AREA SINGRAULI KORBA TYPE OF POLLUTING INDUSTRIES POWER PLANTS, MINING, ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY. - POWER PLANTS, ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY, MINING.

VAPI / ANKALESHWAR
GREATER COCHIN VISAKHAPATNAM HOWRAH DURGAPUR

CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.
OIL REFINERIES, CHEMICAL, METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES OIL REFINERY, CHEMICAL, STEEL PLANTS. FOUNDRY, REROLLING MILLS, VEHICLES. CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, POWER PLANTS, STEEL PLANTS .

AREA INDUSTRIES
MANALI -

TYPES OF
OIL REFINERIES, CHEMICAL INDUSTRY , FERTILIZER INDUSTRY REFINERIES, POWER PLANT, FERTILIZER INDUSTRY.

CHEMBUR MANDI DHANBAD PALI

-SECONDARY STEEL GOBINDGARH INDUSTRY MINING, COKE OVEN. COTTON TEXTILE, DYEING.

NAGAFGARH DRAIN BASIN


ANGUL-TALCHER -

POWER PLANTS, VEHICLES.


MINING, ALUMINIUM PLANTS, THERMAL POWER PLANTS.

AREAS BHADRAVATI KARNATAKA DIGBOI JODHPUR KALA-AMB NAGDA-RATLAM NORTH ARCOT PARWANOO PATANCHERUBOLLARAM TARAPUR -

TYPE OF INDUSTRY IRON & STEEL, PAPER INDUSTRY -OIL REFINERY COTTON TEXTILE, DYE PAPER, ELECTROPLATING

VISCOSE RAYON, CAUSTIC, DYES DISTILLERY TANNERIES FOOD PROCESSING UNIT ELECTROPLATING ORGANIC CHEMICAL, PAINTS PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

REASONS FOR HIGH AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA


POOR QUALITY OF FUEL (COAL, DIESEL, PETROL , FUEL OIL) OLD PROCESS TECHNOLOGY (SPECIALLY IN S.S.I.) WRONG SITING OF INDUSTRIES NO POLLUTION PREVENTIVE STEP TAKEN (EARLY STAGE OF INDUSTRIALISATION )

POOR VEHICLE DESIGN (2-STROKE)

UNCONTROLLED GROWTH OF VEHICLE POPULATION I ALL MAJOR CITIES/TOWNS.


NO POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL SYSTEM IN SMALL/MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTR . POOR COMPLIANCE OF STANDARD

VEHICULAR POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN INDIA


High vehicle density in Indian urban centers

Older vehicles predominant in vehicle vintage


Inadequate inspection & maintenance facilities Predominance of two stroke two wheelers Adulteration of fuel & fuel products Improper traffic management system & road conditions High levels of pollution at traffic intersections Absence of effective mass rapid transport system & intra-city railway networks High population exodus to the urban centers

Emission Estimates
Cement 7% Sugar 10% Others 1% Thermal Power Plants 82%

Share of Suspended Particulate Matter Load (tonnes/day) by Different Categories of Industries (With Control Device), Total Load = 5365 tonnes/day

Share of Sulphur Dioxide Load ( tonnes/day) by Different Categories of Industries (Total Load = 3715 tonnes/day)
Oil Refineries 3% Steel 5% Sulphuric Acid Plants 2%

Others 1%

Thermal Power Plants 89%

ESTIMATED AIR POLLUTION LOAD IN MAJOR CITIES


CITY POLLUTION LOAD (TONNES/DAY) NUMBER OF ONROAD VEHICLES (LAKHS) 34.25 8.4 12.4 6.6 11.5 7.8 10.99

Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Kolkata Chennai Ahmedabad Hyderabad Secunderabad

2686 885 971 449 786 638 1123

CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS SECTORS TO AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN MAJOR CITIES


Domestic Industrial Vehicular

8% 72%

20%

FUEL SHARE IN INDIA


GASOLINE DIESEL CNG LPG/ELEC

2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS


Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act,1977

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981


Atomic Energy Act of 1982 Motor Vehicles Act ,1988

The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972


The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA) The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 Public Liability Insurance Act (PLIA), 1991 National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995

Sensitive areas sensitive area may include the following:


1) 10 kms all around the periphery of health resorts so notified by State Pollution Control Boards in consultation with department of public health of the concerned state. 2) 10 kms all around the periphery of biosphere reserves, sanctities and national parks, so notified by Ministry of Environment and Forest or concerned states. 3) 5 kms all around the periphery of an archeological monument declared to be of national importance or otherwise so notified A.S.I. in consultation with State Pollution Control Boards. 4) Areas where some delicate or sensitive to air pollution crops/important to the agriculture/horticulture of that area are grown so notified by State Pollution Control Boards in consultation with department of agriculture/horticulture of concerned state.

5) 5 kms around the periphery of centers of tourism and/or pilgrim due to their religious, historical, scenic or other attractions, so notified by department of tourism of the concerned state with State Pollution Control Boards.

2.4 IMPACT PREDICTION


Emissions

from industrial stacks are regulated to protect human and environmental health Industrial facilities are required to obtain permits to emit into the atmosphere and to demonstrate their compliance with regulations In the process of applying for permits, dispersion models are generally used to assess the impact of point source emission

Typical Velocity, and Plume Shapes

The

air quality modeling procedures can be categorized into four generic classes: Gaussian, numerical, statistical or empirical and physical The emphasis is on Gaussian-plume type models for continuous releases, which are at the core of most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory models Gaussian models are the most widely used techniques for estimating the impact of nonreactive pollutants

2.5 Air Quality Models

A dispersion

model is essentially a computational procedure for predicting concentrations downwind of a pollutant source

Routinely used in: Environmental impact assessments Risk analysis Emergency planning

Dispersion Model

Plume Dispersion by Gaussian Distribution and Coordinate System

The

model is based on our knowledge of the following parameters:


The emissions characteristics (stack exit velocity, plume rise, temperature, stack diameter) Terrain (surface roughness, local topography, nearby buildings) State of the atmosphere (wind speed, stability, mixing height, wind direction)

Model Parameters

Horizontal Dispersion Coefficient as a Function of Downwind Distance from Source

Vertical Dispersion Coefficient as a Function of Downwind Distance from Source

VEHICLE EMISSION NORM SCHEDULE IN INDIA


Euro-III (Country) Euro-IV (metros) Euro-II (Country) 2010 Euro-III (7 megacities) Euro-I equivalent (Country) 2005 Euro-II eqv. For cars (4 metros) 2nd set norms notified Emission norms for catalytic vehicles 1st set norms notified 1990 1995 1996

2000 /01

1.limitations on practice of open burning of agricultural crop residues. 2. control of wind erosion from open land by watering, use of chemical stabilizer and wind breaks. Also vegetative cover. 3.air pollution control equipment can be used for point sources of emission. Such as i) cyclones ii) fabric filters iii) electrostatic precipitators iv) scrubbers v) incineration or carbon adsorption vi) flue gas desulfurization

2.6 mitigation measures

Principle

The particles are removed by the application of a centrifugal force. The polluted gas stream is forced into a vortex. the motion of the gas exerts a centrifugal force on the particles, and they get deposited on the inner surface of the cyclones

1.Cyclones

2. Fabric Filters

Principle

The filters retain particles larger than the mesh size Air and most of the smaller particles flow through. Some of the smaller particles are retained due to interception and diffusion. The retained particles cause a reduction in the mesh size. The primary collection is on the layer of previously deposited particles.

3. Electrostatic Precipitator

Principle
The particles in a polluted gas stream are charged by passing them through an electric field. The charged particles are led through collector plates The collector plates carry charges opposite to that on the particles The particles are attracted to these collector plates and are thus removed from the gas steam

Adsorption Towers Thermal Incernation

Catalytic Combustion
Air Correction Equipment for Gases and Vapors

Air Pollution Control For Gases

Air impact can be presented in a six step methodology for addressing the impacts of proposed projects or plans ,program or policies .
These steps provide a general framework which can be used1.as a guide to study planning and construction 2.as an indication of areas for which more detailed information will be necessary 3. to discuss a study with a contractor or sponsor and develop appropriate term of reference. 4. to review impact study work done by others.

Conclusion

1.John Glasson, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction of Environmental Impact Assessment Routledge Tayler & Francis group,3rd edition,2006. 2.Cooper, C.D.,and Alley,f.c.,air pollution control: a design approach. 2nd edition, waveland press,inc., prospects heights,IL,1994. 3.jerry A. Nathanson,p.e,Basic Environmental Technology prentice hall, new jersy,2nd edition,1997. 4.Barker J.R and Tingey, D.T,Air pollution effects on biodiversity, van Nostrand Reinhold, new york,1991

Reference