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# ROBOT END EFFECTORS BY R. C.

SAINI
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## TYPES OF END EFFECTORS

1. Grippers

2. Tools
End effectors designed to perform work on the part rather that to merely grasp it. e.g. spot welding, spray painting, etc.

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MECHANICA GRIPPERS
A mechanical gripper is an end effector that uses mechanical fingers actuate by a mechanism to grasp an object. The function of the gripper mechanism is to translate some form of power input into the grasping action of the finger against the part.
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MECHANICA GRIPPERS
Two ways of constraining the part in the gripper
Physical Constriction of the part within the fingers. Friction b/w the fingers and the workpart.

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## TYPES OF GRIPPER MECHANISM

As per actuating mechanisms :1. Pivoting Movement. 2. Linear or Translational Movement.

As per types of kinematic device:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Linkage actuation Gear and rack actuation Cam actuation Screw actuation Rope and pulley actuation Miscellaneous
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## Some Linkages for Robot Grippers

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## Gear & Rack Method of Actuating the Gripper.

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Cam-Actuated Gripper

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## Screw-Type Gripper Actuation

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## GRIPPER FORCE ANALYSIS

E.g.1) Suppose the gripper is a simple pivot-type device used for holding the cardboard carton, as fig. The gripper force Fg= 60lb. The gripper is to be actuated by a piston device to apply an actuating force Fa. The corresponding lever arms for the two forces are shown in fig. Ans) Moments about the pivot arms be summed and made equal to zero. FgLg - FaLa = 0 (60lb)(12in) (Fa)(3in) = 0 Fa = 720/3 = 240 lb
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## GRIPPER FORCE ANALYSIS

E.g.2) The fig. shows the linkage mechanism and dimensions of a gripper used to handle a workpart for a machining operation. Suppose it has been determine that the gripper force is to be 25 lb. What is required is to compute the actuating force to deliver this force of 25 lb.

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## GRIPPER FORCE ANALYSIS

Ans2) Due to symmetry of the gripper consider only one half of the mechanism. Moments :25(4cos 15) = F sin 45(1.5cos15) + Fcos45(1.5sin15) 96.6 = F(1.0246+0.2745) =1.2991F F = 74.4 lb The actuation force applied to the plunger to deliver this force of 74.4 lb to each finger. So, Fa = 2 X 74.4 X cos45 Fa = 105.2 lb
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## OTHER TYPES OF GRIPPERS

1. 2. 3. 4. Vacuum Cups Magnetic Grippers Adhesive Grippers Hooks, Scoops and other miscellaneous devices

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## OTHER TYPES OF GRIPPERS

Vacuum cups, also called suction cups Requirements on the objects to be handled are that they be flat, smooth and clean, to form satisfactory vacuum. Gripper made of some elastic material i.e. rubber, plastic , etc.

## Venturi Device used to Operate a Suction Cup

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## OTHER TYPES OF GRIPPERS

MAGNETIC GRIPPERS
Pickup very fast Variation in the part size can be tolerated They can handle metal part with holes Require only one surface for gripping

Include the residual magnetism remaining in the work-piece Picking up only one sheet from stack

Stripper Device operated by sir cylinder used with a permanent Magnet Gripper
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## OTHER TYPES OF GRIPPERS

Adhesive substance performs the grasping action e.g. Handle fabric and other lightweight materials.

## Expansion Bladder used to grasp inside of a Cup-Shaped Container

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## TOOLS AS END EFFECTORS

In most of the robot application in which a tool is manipulated, the tool is attached directly to the robot wrist. In these cases the tool is the end effector. E.g. : Spot-welding tools Arc-welding tools Spray painting tools Rotating spindles for operation such as:
Drilling Routing Wire brushing Grinding

Liquid cement application for assembly Heating torches Water jet cutting tool
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## ROBOT/END EFFECTOR INTERFACE

Important aspect
Physical support during the work cycle Power to actuate must be supplied through the interface Control signal to actuate Feedback signal High reliability of the interface Protection against the environment Overload protection in case of disturbance during the work cycle
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## ROBOT/END EFFECTOR INTERFACE

Physical support during the work cycle Achieved by the mechanical connection between the end effector and robot wrist. Ideally, three characteristics :1. Strength 2. Compliance 3. Overload Protection

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## ROBOT/END EFFECTOR INTERFACE

Physical support during the work cycle
1. Strength
Its ability to withstand the forces associated with the operation of the end effector.

2. Compliance
Its refers to the wrist sockets ability to yield elastically when subjected to a force. In effect, it is opposite of rigidity. Remote Center Compliance (RCC) devices have been designed to provide high lateral compliance for centering the object relative to the hole.
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## ROBOT/END EFFECTOR INTERFACE

Physical support during the work cycle 3. Overload Protection
When some unexpected event happens to the end effector such as a part becoming stuck in a die or a tool caught in a moving conveyor. Whatever the cause, the consequences involve possible damage to the end effector or maybe even the robot itself.

To eliminate this potential damage Use Breakaway Feature in the wrist socket. Sensor to indicate, so somehow take preventive action to reduce further overloading.

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## ROBOT/END EFFECTOR INTERFACE

Power and Signal Transmission Pneumatic Electric Hydraulic Mechanical
Pneumatic Power Using Shop Air Pressure

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## GRIPPER SELECTION AND DESIGN

Factor that should be consider in assessing gripping requirements :1. 2. 3. The part surface to be grasped must be reachable. The size variation of the part must be accounted. The gripper design must accommodate the change in size the occurs between part loading and unloading. Consideration must be given to the potential problem of scratching and distorting the part during gripping, if the part is fragile or delicate surface. If there is a choice b/w two different dimensions on a part, the larger dimension should be selected for gripping. Gripper fingers can be deigned to conform to the part shape by using resilient pads or self-aligning fingers.

4.
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THANK YOU

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