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Risk-Screening Environmental

Indicators (RSEI)

March 31, 2008

RSEI
Introduction

 What is the Risk-Screening Environmental


Indicators (RSEI) Model and How Does It
Work?

 What Kinds of Questions Can RSEI Answer?

 Who is using RSEI?

 Points to Remember

RSEI
What Is the Risk-Screening
Environmental Indicators Model?
RSEI is a screening-level model for assessing potential
chronic human health impacts of industrial releases of
toxic chemicals:

RSEI provides the following types of screening analyses:

 Pounds

 Hazard

 Risk-related

RSEI
Why Risk-Screening Environmental
Indicators?
The Need for Risk Context:

“The determination of potential


risk depends upon many
factors, including the toxicity of
the chemical, the fate of the
chemical, and the amount and
duration of human or other
exposure to the chemical after
it is released.”
Source: Toxics Release Inventory: Factors to Consider When
Using TRI Data, November 2002, emphasis added.

RSEI
RSEI and Risk Assessment
RSEI incorporates components of risk assessment:

 Amount of chemical released

 Fate and transport of the chemical

 Route and extent of human exposure

 Number of people affected

 Toxicity of the chemical

RSEI is not a formal risk assessment—RSEI uses


simplifying assumptions. It is useful for performance
measurement, prioritization, and trend analysis because it
incorporates toxicity and exposure considerations in
addition to amount released.
RSEI
How Does RSEI Work?
RSEI uses:
 Toxics Release Inventory data
 Existing exposure models and databases
 Reviewed toxicity data

RSEI
What Kinds of Questions Can RSEI
Answer?
 What are the trends in hazard and risk scores
associated with toxic chemical releases and other
waste management activities at industrial facilities?

 When comparing industries, how can I rank which


industry sectors are associated with relatively more
potential risk?

 What is the relative contribution of specific


chemicals to the risk score in a community (state,
county, city), and how do I prioritize these for
follow-up activities?

 For any given scenario, what release pathway for a


particular chemical poses the greatest risk-related
concerns?

RSEI
What’s new in RSEI 2.2.0?

• Reporting Years 1996-2006


• Updated Toxicity Weights
• cobalt, nickel, barium, n-hexane, toluene, and 1,4-
dichlorobenzene
• More facility stack information from NEI
• Facility location from LRT
• Chromium speciation based on OAQPS
2002 NEI based on SIC code

RSEI
What’s new in RSEI 2.2.0?
• TRI Reporting Years 1996-2006
• AERMOD replaces ISC-LT
• Updated Toxicity Weights for a number of
chemicals and include EPA's Provisional
Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values as a source.
• Include NAICs codes for 2006 data in
addition to SIC codes
• Location and characteristics of drinking
water intakes is now taken from USGS’s
Public Supply Database, instead of EPA’s
Safe Drinking Water Information System
(SDWIS).

RSEI
Who is Using RSEI?
 OPPT: Annual Performance Goals; CARE prioritization;
Tribal activities
 OW: Modeling of Exposure from Fish Ingestion

 OECA: Targeting; Prioritization; Environmental Justice

 OCHP: Assessment of School Populations

 Regional Offices: Enforcement Prioritization;


Permitting; Environmental Justice
 States: P2 technical assistance; Prioritization

 Academia: Cross-media Risk Transfers;


Environmental Justice; MapEcos
 Private Sector: Performance Tracking

RSEI
Points to Remember
RSEI PROVIDES QUICK PERSPECTIVES ON HAZARD &
RISK, BUT IS ONLY THE FIRST STEP!
 RSEI uses facility-reported TRI data which can contain
reporting errors. If it’s not reported to TRI, it’s not
modeled in RSEI.
 RSEI toxicity weights are based on chronic human
toxicity associated with long-term exposure and do not
address acute human toxicity or environmental toxicity.
 Dermal and food ingestion pathways (other than fish
consumption), and other indirect exposure pathways are
not evaluated.

RSEI
Points to Remember cont.
 Except for chromium, metals and metal
compounds are assumed to be present in the
most toxic form.
 Simplifying assumptions for stack heights,
diameters, and exit gas velocities are used
where facility-specific data are not available.
 RSEI results do not indicate whether hazard or
risk from a chemical or facility is “acceptable” to
a population or individual.
 RSEI is useful in many applications where TRI
pounds have been used as a risk surrogate.

RSEI
Results from V. 2.2.0

Trend in RSEI Score and Pounds

2500 120

2000 100

(2001 Natl=100)
lbs (million)

Risk Index
80
1500
60
1000
40
500 20
0 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
National lbs
Year
National RSEI score

*This excludes a significant, one time release


of diisocyanates from a facility in 2003.

RSEI
Results from RSEI 2.2.0
Top Chemicals in U.S. (2006)
Lead and lead
compounds
% Total RSEI Score

Mercury and mercury


Diisocyanates
compounds

Sulfuric acid

Nickel and nickel compounds

Phosphorus (yellow or white)

Polycyclic aromatic compounds

Manganese and Copper and copper compounds


manganese
Diaminotoluene (mixed isomers)
compounds
All others

RSEI
Contacts

 Lynne Blake-Hedges: (202) 564-8807


blake-hedges.lynne@epa.gov

 Richard Engler: (202) 564-8587


engler.richard@epa.gov

 Kristen Loughery: (202) 564-8296


loughery.kristen@epa.gov

 Cody Rice: (202) 564-8769

URL: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/rsei
RSEI